Q.1 Comment on the following a.

Importance of DMAIS in project management cycle Answer: The Project management Life Cycle The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. Irrespective of the complexities of the project, a life cycle of a project consists of – a) Understanding the scope and objectives of the project b) Formulating and planning various activities d) Executing the project d) Monitoring the project and controlling the project resources b. Knowledge areas of project management. Project Management Information System (PMIS) An information system is mainly aimed at providing the management at different levels with information related to the system of the organization. It helps in maintaining discipline in the system. An information system dealing with project management tasks is the project management information system. It helps in decision making in arriving at optimum allocation of resources. The information system is based on a database of the organization. A project management information system also holds schedule, scope changes, risk assessment and actual results. The information is communicated to managers at different levels of the organization depending upon the need. Let us find how a project management information system is used by different stakeholders. The four major aspects of a PMIS are – a. Providing information to the major stakeholders b. Assisting the team members, stakeholders, managers with necessary information and summary of the information shared to the higher level managers c. Assisting the managers in doing what if analyses about project staffing, proposed staffing changes and total allocation of resources d. Helping organizational learning by helping the members of the organization learn about project management

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e) Design changes: The project during the course of its progress may be subjected to changes because of some external factors.2 for a chart. It further increases at a rapid rate and becomes constant while the project is at its 80 to 95% progress stage. Refer to the figure 2. Project Characteristics Any project may be considered to have the following characteristics: a) Resource requirement: During the course of executing the project.2 Write few words on: a. The influence of such external factors on the project may result in changes in the design of the project though not very often. Refer to the figure 2.2 for a chart.Usually. Q. d) Risk: The risks involved in the project affecting its completion time are high at the initial stages and low at the later stages of the project. In the initial stage of the project the probability of completing the project is low though not zero. It is observed that such changes.2 for a chart. b. Organizations tend to allocate such responsibility by rotation among members with a well designed and structured data entry and analytical format. Both the requirements are more or less proportional. are normally high during the initial stages of the project and decreases as the project approaches finish. 2 . develop a good PMIS. WBS Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub process placed in different stage called the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).2 for a chart. and not the systems administrators of the company. Refer to the figure 2. the team members. It gradually increases and as the project approaches finish the probability of completing the project tends to become 100%. c) Probability of completion: The probability of completing the project can be estimated based upon the normal distribution curve. if any. Thereafter the resources requirement decreases to zero bringing the project to a finish. Refer to the figure 2. it is seen that the resource requirement increases from start to an intermediate stage of the project. b) Funds: The requirement of funds for the complete execution of the project also follows the same trend as that of the resources.

The information system is based on a database of the organization. its content. as noted earlier. events external to the project sometimes come as a surprise to the project manager and his team and are therefore seen as obstacles to progress. scope changes. The system allows users to navigate through graphical structures to relevant documentation and processes which were created with the ARIS-Toolset. even the technical failures can often be traced back to a failure on the part of the project's executive management to recognize and deal with these inherent managerial risks. Project Management strategies-Internal & external Internal Project Management Strategies Projects fail for many internal reasons. It helps in maintaining discipline in the system. The information is communicated to managers at different levels of the organization depending upon the need. 3 . It helps in decision making in arriving at optimum allocation of resources. The Documentation System is intranet based to provide immediate access to current. The various SCMo softwares available in project management a) Standard / Best Practices: Documentation system stores and presents standards and best processes to be adhered to across the industry. External Project Management Strategies On some projects. Q. Supply Chain Monitoring (SCMo) The intent of this document is to define the structure of the Documentation System. An information system dealing with project management tasks is the project management information system. This also helps the organization to secure their correct applications.c. However. d. PMIS Project Management Information System (PMIS) An information system is mainly aimed at providing the management at different levels with information related to the system of the organization. up-to-date process documentation. However. the method of content generation and to attain common documentation of all standard processes of ODETTE. risk assessment and actual results. The documentation is valid for the SCM group of ODETTE.3 What are the various SCMo softwares available in project management? Explain each in brief. some of them managerial. projects generally exist only because of that external environment and so it is essential for the project team to recognise that they must also be responsive to it. some of them technical.There are various advantages of using such a documentation system. A project management information system also holds schedule.

4 List the various steps for Risk management. where users can look up the current processes whenever necessary. Although often overlooked. e) Availability: Process documentation system is available at every working location. probability of each risk. They present the standard processes in the intranet. quality problem and rework  Lack of resources commitment  Stakeholders input is not sought or their needs are not properly understood  Stakeholders changing requirements after the project has started  Stakeholders adding new requirements after the project has started GDM? 4 . Answer:Risk Management Plan Risk management is an important part of project management. it is important to identify as many risks to your project as possible and to be prepared if something bad happens. Here are some examples of common project risks:  Time and cost estimates too optimistic  Customer review and feedback cycle too slow  Unexpected budget cuts  Unclear role and responsibilities  Poor communication resulting in misunderstandings. d) Reference: It also provides easy and quick reference to the documents.b) Central Repository: It also offers a central location of all processes and system related information. Q. This includes customising documentation to working guidelines. Also explain GDM and its key features. impact of the risk on the project. A project manager prepares a table of risk management plans to indicate the risk type. risk exposure and a risk mitigation plan for each risk. They allow flexible and quick adaptation in case of process changes or enhancement and provide the updated information immediately. c) Adaptation: Adaptation is another unique objective achieved through documentation system.

GDM enables its customer to leverage varied locations across the globe that provides optimised value for every component of delivery. These entities will have limited individual functioning capability but they can become powerful and robust in combination with other modules. Application of these Microbial Entities rest within multiple Projects or Products or even as addons to suit customer needs later. b.The Global Delivery Model (GDM) enables an industry or business to plan. The key features of GDM are shown in figure a. accuracy. Standardisation – It includes ingenious design and development of components and features which are like to be accepted by 90% of world-wide customers. Modularisation – GDM requires product or solution to be split up into smallest possible individual identifiable entities. d.5 Answer the two parts: 5 . GDM heavily depends on Global Standards of Design focusing on highly standardised methods and processes of manufacture or development. c. Minimum Customisation – GDM mandates only minimum changes or modifications to suit individual customers. design and deliver products and services to any customer worldwide with speed. It adopts plug-and-socket concepts with minimum adaptable joints or connections. These Microbial Entities are standardised even across Multiple Modules. Maximum Micro Structuring – GDM encourages splitting of the Product Modules further into much smaller entity identifiable more through characteristics rather than application features. economy and reliability. Q.

Many times he will have to inform and seek sanction from top management. economic activities.a. market conditions. Importance of data management in project management-Comment. Acquisition of data is the primary function. suppliers. Management of acquisition lies in ensuring that these are satisfied before they are stored for processing and decisions taken on the analysis. When a project is underway dataflow from all members of the team will be flowing with the progress of activities. A project manager will have to analyse them. 6 . opportunities. The management will have to study the impact on the overall organisational goals and strategies and convey their decisions to the manager for implementation. discover further data from other sources and see how he can use them and take decisions. Bill of Materials is a very important document in Project Management. government regulations. Most of the data go on changing because the aforesaid sources have uncertainty inherent in them. sufficiency and relevancy (as shown in figure ). new technology. data should have three important characteristics – timeliness. There should be data about customers. processing it and distributing it. The data may be about some shortfalls for which the member is seeking instructions. Answer:Data management consists of conducting activities which facilitate acquiring data. To be useful. For example. political upheavals. It contains details about all materials that go into the project at various stages and has to be continuously updated as all members of the project depend upon it for providing materials for their apportioned areas of execution. human resources. So updating data is a very important aspect of their management. all of which affect the way you function.Storing what is relevant in a form that is available to concerned persons is also important.

lead times are important for all the members. time and resources in a project. increased quality. information about orders placed. the BEP may move out in time. the likelihood of cost overruns. If the project is behind schedule or over budget. To ascertain availability at some future point of time. Any project that has developed a business case is expected to refresh the ROI at each key project decision point (that is. ROI should be re-calculated at every major checkpoint of a project to see if the BEP is still on schedule. They decide that they would make some additions to the business and decided to go ahead with development of some high technology for better profits. ROI should be quantified in terms of money and should include a calculation of the break-even point (BEP). the agency’s management capacity. b.6 ABC organization has been in software business since last 20 years. which is the time (point in time) when the investment begins to generate a positive return. In either case. the information is important for decision-making based on the value of the investment throughout the project life-cycle. or flexibility. the investment would be in an information system development or enhancement project. The senior management feels that although they are making profits. backlogs. ROI may include the benefits associated with improved mission performance. ROI should reflect such risk factors as the project’s technical complexity. Every business aims to commence its activities in the foreign market.Since information is shared by all members. ROI information is used to assess the status of the business viability of the project at key checkpoints throughout the project’s life-cycle. and increased customer and employee satisfaction. What is the significance of reviewing ROI? ROI Return on Investment (ROI) is the calculated benefit that an organisation is projected to receive in return for investing money. based on project spending and accomplishments to date. and the consequences of under or non-performance. Within the context of the review process. reduced cost. When all these are done efficiently the project will have no hold ups an assure success. The foreign market provides with both opportunities and risks. ROI should reflect actual returns observed through pilot projects and prototypes. speed. A proper MIS will take care of all these aspects. but the profit on an average is the same each year. if the project is ahead of schedule or under budget the BEP may occur earlier. which the management should follow in this venture? Ans. Can you suggest some guidelines. 7 . Where appropriate. Q. ERP packages too help in integrating data from all sources and present them to individual members in the way they require. Therefore some prefer to enter in to strategic relationships and one such is the Joint Ventures. stage exit) or at least yearly. there is an opportunity for utilising some of them when others do not need them.

Economies of scale and advantages of size. Improving access to financial resources. Competitive Goals. Therefore the basic characteristics of joint venture can be summed up as: 1) Based on a Contractual Agreement. management and control. Access to new technologies and customers. They then share in the revenues. 2) Specific limited purpose and duration.A Joint Venture is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. 1. Spreading on costs and risks. a new entity and new assets by contributing equity. expenses. 3) Joint Property Interest 4) Common Financial and Intangible goals and objectives. Reasons for setting Joint Ventures abroad The reasons for setting up joint ventures can be contributed to three main factors and they are: 1. The JV parties agree to create. 8 . 3. The Internal reasons are as follows: • • • • • • Building on company’s strength. Internal Reasons. 2. losses. 5) Shared profits. and assets and the control of the enterprise. for a finite time. Strategic Goals. Access to innovative managerial practices.

whose economy has moved from the level of necessity to comforts and luxuries levels. The Strategic Goals are as follows: • • • Diversification Synergies. with the labour becoming increasingly costly. making globalization of Indian business an integral part of economic reforms. Transfer of technology/skill Indian Joint Ventures Abroad India started opening its economy a decade ago to integrate with global economy. In countries. it has assumed specific significance after the Indian government started economic reforms in the year 1991. However.2. Improved Agility. Defensive response to blurring industry boundaries. Further. Economic borders of various countries have been opened on this premise under the aegis of world trade organization. there are increasing pressures for newer. The initiatives were taken way back in the 1960s with the first ventures of Birlas in Ethopia in the year 1964. 9 . Speed to market. The business ventures abroad are not a new phenomenon in the independent India. Creation of stronger competitive units. better and superior products with consistent quality. the firms have to go for development of capital intensive technologies. Significance of Indian Joint Ventures Abroad International trade is considered to be imperative for economic development. high reliability and attractive finish etc. The huge investments in new product and technology development demands higher levels of production to ensure operations of the firms above the breakeven point. 3. The Competitive Goals are as follows: • • • • • Influencing structural evolution of the industry.

Their growth and development. Advantages • • • • • • • • Financial resources can be shared. Disadvantages • • • JV profits are shared. Direct management of business activities. Reduces local Friction.The scale of operations required over a period of time reaches a level that is well above the entire domestic demand in most of the developed countries. namely the Automatic Route and the Normal Route/Approval Route. Shared technologies can be used beyond JV. Competitive strengths of two parties can be combined. Allows for Investor diversification. labour and other resources. which generally have small population. Local Management of a JV can be unknown Broadly there are two schemes under which an Indian Party can set up a JV abroad. thus. The firms thus face the problem of searching new markets and cheaper sources of raw material. Advantages and Disadvantages A business while deciding upon whether to go for a joint venture should make a thorough analysis on its business goals. Reduce Fixed costs per product. 10 . A local JV partner knows the market. depends upon internationalization of the business. Economic incentives add value to JVs.

(CIBIL)/RBI or under investigation by the Enforcement Directorate or any investigative agency or regulatory authority. Requests under the normal route are considered by taking into account inter alias the prima facie viability of the proposal. etc 11 . prior approval is required from the concerned regulatory authority both in India and abroad). benefits to the country. The criteria for direct investment under the Automatic Route are as under: • • The total µfinancial commitment of the Indian Party in JVs in any country other than Nepal. • The Indian Party routes all the transactions relating to the investment in a JV through only one branch of an authorized dealer to be designated by it. experience and expertise of the promoters. Normal Route Proposals not covered by the conditions under the automatic route require the prior clearance of the Reserve Bank for which a specific application in form ODI with the documents prescribed therein is required to be made to RBI. an Indian Party does not require any prior approval from the Reserve Bank for setting up a JV abroad (in case of investment in the financial sector. business track record of the promoters. Bhutan and The Indian Party is not on the Reserve Banks exporters caution list / list of defaulters to the banking system Pakistan is up to 100% of its net worth and the investment is in a lawful activity permitted by the host country published/ circulated by the Credit Information Bureau of India Ltd. however.Automatic Route Under the Automatic Route.