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Computer Systems have three major components: y Hardware ± provides the basic computing resources. Ex: CPU, memory, input/output devices, electronic, mechanical, optical device


Computer users ± individuals who are trying to solve different problems.


Software ± refers to programs

Without software support, a computer is of little use. With its software, however, a computer can store, manipulate, and retrieve information, and can engage in many other activities.

Software can be grouped into the following categories: y System software (OS and Utilities)- set of utility programs that provides basic
services for users. Ex: Window manager for GUI, command interpreter, programs to rename, copy, or delete files. y

Application software (user programs)- defines the ways in which these resources are used to solve the computing problems of the user. It provides the computer with the functionality the users require.

What is an Operating System? a program implemented in either firmware or software which provides a basis for application programs and acts as an intermediary between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. (Silberschatz et. al.) is a collection of system programs (procedures) that together control the operation of a computer system.


and creates higher-level abstractions such as files. directories. Harris) Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the computer hardware among the various application programs for the users. provides services for accessing those resources. User1 User2 User3 text editor «.software that manages the hardware resources. and processes. the drivers and the peripheral devices. User n database systems Business programs video grames compiler assembler Application Programs OPERATING SYSTEMS Computer Hardware Abstract view of the components of a computer system The illustration shows the interaction between the operating system. (J. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) .

 Mainframe OS offers three kinds of service batch. The purpose/objective is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner. transaction processing and timesharing.  Windows CE and EPOC are two of the most widely used operating systems in handheld computers. . Do operating systems differ in their sizes? As a program.) 2 Primary goals of an Operating System 1. and the like. it does not manages lots of I/O for one user. al. Make the computer system convenient to use. its size and complexity depend on a number of factors. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner. Characteristics of the computer system (whether the system has one or more processors) 2. Facilities it has to provide (will it allow interactive use of the system or not?) 3. business applications. Handheld OS ± designed to provide an environment in a user can easily interface with the computer to execute programs.  Mainframe OS designed to huge processes from many users.  A handheld computer is a computer that can conveniently be stored in a pocket (of sufficient size).Mainframe OS ± designed primarily to optimize utilization of hardware. 2. PC OS ± supports complex games. y PC OS there is just one user to log in it means. Nature of the applications it has to support (will it allow several users to use the same applications program simultaneously or not?) Note: The course emphasizes on the design principles not the detailed characteristics of any OS. (Silberschatz et. it manages lots of I/O for many users. most notably: 1.

the OS includes programs that y y y y initialize the hardware of the computer system provide basic routines for device control provide for the management. 4. In order to do this.e. the operating system provides no useful function by itself and it simply provides an environment within which other programs can do useful work. main memory.It runs in a kernel/supervisor/monitor mode (protection from user by the hardware) .. An Extended Machine ± one major function of OS is to ³hide´ the complexity of the underlying hardware and give the user a better view (an abstraction) of the computer. the complexity of which varies depending upon what type of functions are provided. scheduling and interaction of tasks maintain system integrity and handle errors Where are operating systems found? There are many types of operating systems. airplanes. Resource Allocator / Manager ± manages the resources of the computer including processor(s). sharing) of the resources by the users (jobs) that compete for them. 3. Other operating systems do not manage user programs at all. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer² from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. video recorders. Control program ± manages the execution of users programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer. OS provides orderly and controlled allocation and use (i. 2. . It is similar to a government ± provides the means for the proper use of computer resources in the operation of the computer system. Viewpoints of what an Operating System is: 1. Concerns with the operation and control of I/O devices. These are typically found in hardware devices like petrol pumps. and I/O devices by allocating to specific programs and users as necessary. washing machines and car engines.What does an operating system do? An operating system controls the way in which the computer system functions. Some systems are responsible for managing many users on a network. and what the system is being used for.

It is actually an interpreter. fetching the machine language instructions and carrying them out as a series of little steps. Machine language ± set of instructions that the microprogram interprets which is not really part of a hardware at all. it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. a kernel can provide the lowestlevel abstraction layer for the resources (especially processors and I/O devices) that application software must control to perform its function. so many people think of it as being the real machine.Kernel is the central component of most computer operating systems. usually located in read-only memory. but computer manufacturers always describe it in their manual as such. The kernel's responsibilities include managing the system's resources (the communication between hardware and software components). Banking System Compiler Airline Reservation Editors Operating System Machine Language Microprogramming Physical Devices Games Command Interpreter Microprogram ± primitive software that directly controls physical devices and provides a cleaner interface to machine language. . Usually as a basic component of an operating system. The kernel has full access to the system's memory and must allow processes to safely access this memory as they require it. A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.