and the

on

The Pen i n SilJla Man i ~3i, IPhili ppiinEls February 17 -29,,2008

Organized by ~~e Southeast Asi~1'II Press AUiarnce

and dle

CerJit:er fOlr Hledia Iffleedomand Responsi biility

ronded ,by tilJi!!

Opel'll Society Institute

lll'ld tbe

Comm ittee to Protect Journalists

Center' for Meelia Freedomand Responsi,biliity and SOUt~ea:st .Asian Press Ani,lInce:

Copyright © 200B IISBN9'lB-9!~ -93n4-i~2

All rights reserved. No pan of rh is publicarlon may be 'reproduced ln any form or by ,e~ectroflic or medliOlnic<!1 means, iilltdudil1g il1~o rmauen s;tora_ge' and If'le,tr;iellal s,ystems" wJWQut IP~rrn lssien in Wiriti ng wDrn the publish ers,

Acknowledgements

The Center for Medial Freedom and Rcespolnsibility Rn,d me Southeast Asian Press AUiiar!'llOE published !hisconferen,c;e report. Fu n dluP"lg for Ilh ~ conference was provided by the 0 pen Society Ins,tiwti~, and the Committee to Pirorea Jot! rnalists.

~ditors:

M elilt1lda Quintos de Jesus LI!J i, V. Teodoro

Writers;

Heeter Bryant IL Mac-ale Don Gil K. Carrecn

JB Santos

Mel~\lni~ Y. Pi 1'1 lac

Kathryn Roja G .. Raymundo Kristine Joyc-e G.. Magadia A:PiP'le Jean C. Mar-tin

EdJ'w.ri171 AssiSt(illlCe" by. IKru:hryn Raja, G" IRaymundo

Pho'tos: by; Lito Ocampo

Cover and layout desi_gn by; Design PIllS

Print-eel by; Desii~1'I1 P,I us

~ntimdUlct~on "n"" ,' n,,,n " " •• ", •• " " •• , •• " •••• " •• " •• " •••• " •• " •••• " •• " •••• " ••••••••••• n ' ••• "'.. •••• '']

Progr,am Sell edule . " " .. ,,' .. " " .. n " •• " ' ••••• ' •••••••• ' •• ' ••• ' ' ••• ,., •••••• , .. , •••••• ,.. I I

Keynote Add teSS I " .. , ' ' .....•..... ' _ •.. ' ..•..•....•..... , , ""n I '9

~ Hen. Ch i,ef Justice Iil;ey~]ato S. Pu no

SUlpreme Cou rt of th e IPlh~11i PIP'i nes

Panell Disc,ussi on I " .. " , ' .....•.. ' ' _.' ,..... 25

Recommelfldratiions and updates from the con\i\ernors of the Man i la and Ste. Do:miflgQoonfereruJels on extrajudici>lll kililli ngs (lPih~II'i Pipi nes) and imp~lil,rity <lind press freedom (Ibll!tilfl, ,AJi1rnerig)

• Clha111iengesllo thei mpfl~menU't~o'n of reforms

Panel Discu$s~on 2. ""' .. H.' •••••••• , , ",n' " n" " " •• "." •• , •••• " ', " :3,5

• The CO'lwt as a hl.lman ri,ghts mechanism

p'OO€l'I DiiscliJs$~on 3 •... _ _., , .,', ,n"" •• " .. " " .. "." •• " •••• " •• "." •• " •••• " •• " •••• " •• "' ••• " 43

National, re:Fjional, and uUllterna,ijonal medhalf1l~sms~in~t imlfl~nity

Keynote, ,Address 1 , .....•..... , , ..•.. , ,.- ...•.. , , , .. , , " " , " ,', .. " " " .. "." .. , 5,3

Ric3Jrdo lironl

Press Freedom Ptrogram and! Ptr;E::5<s Il1stliWl!e ID~rec;oo:r Inrer~Am.e:rican Press ,A;ssoc:iOlitiio'ti'l ,{lArA)

Pane~ Discussion 4 .. "' .. ' _.' ' ,', ,', " " .. " " .. " 63

The writ of amparc - me I11eW Philippine ex:perimef1lt and lessens from lilllltenill1ltjolfltil.1 experience

Ke'ynote Addlress, ;3, .... " •• " •• " •• " .. n ••• " •• " ••••••• " •• " ••••••• " ••••••••••••••• ' •••••• ' •• ' ••••• ' ...... ' •• ' •••• _ •• _._ •• _ .... _ •• 69

~ AtmakusurnahAstraatnnadj ..

IRamon Mlagsaysar Awardee for joumallsm (20(0) Dr. SQ~tomo Pr.e~$ In~1IitlJrte

I,rldon,esila

Pan,el Discussiion ,5, , .. " " ", " " "" .. 7S

Case stud les; sl[i,ccessful and p rcblemacle pro-secuti,o:rn of cases invdlvilrlg the murder of jOUFlllcaUS.ts,

• $lUIccessfullmodel untie rvenelens irwdvilil,!!l !I egaJ s,ecrors and civil Slod,~ty

S,takeho,l!diers il!nd Funders,' Caucus " , " , _ 85

Philippine go,vemment institutions {the Philippine National PtJ.lice. the

Deparbmenl; 'of justice, and state pro.secuto:rs)"llawyers, fa'CI.!ilty in law schools. human rIghts ,groups, and media held a dosed-door disc1ussion on idQ'U and ~trat.egies to add ress nmp'llIll'n ity and further IP u rsue the advocacy of press freedom.

Panel lil'i!SJ(.iJrSSIOI'1l 6, " " .. " - -_--_._--_ _ " - .. -............ ·81

How jOQ.!mal~S'ts can protect rhemsell\oles an d press freedlo'F1I'I Ethics, as proeeeuen

journahsm as protection

A united frol1'tlg~ttirlilr8 media's act rogether

IP,ane I Dh;cuslSio:n 7 " " " " __ _ "... 9'7

• Models of il'lterna.tio-rna11/Ii'egi'olfl!all GIIF1I'Ipwgil'ilS 00 'End iimp'Ull'iliit'y

• Fightil'lg nen-stateagerus oOf impunity

Press Conference .. " " .. " _ "................... 105

• tauneh of the ~Ioball campaign to comhat impunity

Organi~er$ and FUinder;s " " _ .•. - "......... 109

Participants " " " .. " - .....•.. "."... I I 3,

'Ifil, recent yea!rs. ililte~atiOlil!ai med~a watch ol"~niza~ons, have iltlldillded the PMilPiP i n as , illiil%On,g these ~O'L!1 rntrlles: wlhere the culture of Impunity ,,"as had the, wont ,effum on the st<li~e of press freedom. The number of ~ouni'ldists ki II~ed ~Inthe course of weir work has sweilletl the a~ready a1lannin,g numbers of :slain 1u:::.th!list-~ and human 1ri,glucS workers. Few cases Iha'lle been 'taken to COI!.Wt.

A s;tJudr br me Phi~~rlPine-based Cenrer fur ,Media IFreedom 3Jnd ResiPOliisubiliry (eM FR), a foundi~g memoe,r of the regiona.l, Southeast Asian Press Alliance ,(S EAPA). focus'llld on tile siPi k,eJ in the number of vialia1liOl1s aglliinst the press andatrnc:i<s agaiirns[iouriil<tllists duri filrg the admifl~str3it~o:n of President Gloriia Ma,carpagaIIAlrFQ)'O, who lro~e liD offkiEl in 2.00. 1_

Tilesle cases highli,gln me need for reform lin the p'o~lice and J lJj,nice 5ystJems:, the weaknesSJes of thecour't$, a!1lldlhe laek of ~'UI'b:1 i e awar~m~$S of the o¥@rlll1 ~lI1flpac1t of imptllnity on IPni~illPiPdlne soc~ety. lin 2;007. SEAIPA hosesd <I wider d iscusslcn of the ussue:s. iinvolvirllg ~he NetwoFk Media Program of the Open Sodety 1.l1stiillU1Le (OS.~), the O)!Jord University,The University of Hong Kon,g~arld d\e Intelina~ilOnal Bar Associa,tion.l1hlll talks fQcu~>ed on the l1eedl ttl esrno!i5lrn a Sout!l'u::ast As~ia~"\lide program to respond to ~he issu;es of imptlJrJiity as ~xperienlced in We Ir~gjiol'l. This 11,~d to the ~irst Southeasa ASlia. Media. D1e.fen:se IbitigaitUCH1' COfil~erefil,c;e. which was orgafilluze;([ by SEAlPA in Ipa.rtnershiip wid!! Th e Unive,si'ty of Hong K;ong,o:11I IMay 111 to 23..2007..

Ths M3Jn i la ccmrerence of' Feb. 17m, 19. 2008 focused more speciricaUyo n, conditiorils in the I?lhillippines_ Th e experi enee iilll! latin .A.menica and the eMol"t-s lJllilderrtllJken there rry the Ilegp:1 <lind media commUlnlil1ies seemed irhstr>l.!!c~ve <IS I!essons that needl!!dI shllrin~_ M'ost of me int:ernarti:o:rn;J)1 resource persons invited we:r,e thus from CO'lJ ntrles ~ n Latliln Ameri;ca. 01'1 July 18 to 20. 2007 .~he Illiliter-,Amfllerican Press A~sod<liti:o'l'I initieated the ~ emisphere Comerel'lceo:n The Judici,ary,The Pressal'ld ! mlPulnity ~n .s~o. Domingo, IDIOm i n i can Repub!1 ic, Onl July 16 to 11.,2007, the Chiefj usti ce oft,he Supreme Co'u rt of the Ph i l.iippines c,ollilveiflioo the Natiional Consl.!!l'ta,ti'IIe Summfrt en Ex~rajudidall Killings, and Eil1lforced Dlsappearan ces, The IManila. (;Dnf.eren(~ presented the rec:om mendaJtioUlis from the .tw'Q mee~ngs.

The IUpda.red Se~ ,of Pf'ifil.ciplesfor me Protection <lnd Plromotilon of Haman RiightsThrough Ac~ion ttl Combat Impunity. submitted 1lO the United INaJtions Commission on Hillman, Righlts on Feb.S. 2005, defines impunity as "the imposs~bi I ilty. de jr,m:. or de facto, of OFi ngi fig the perpetrators, of violations 00 accou nt-wu-ned"e.r Ii n cr~mi:rl!al. CiVii I, adrninistra:tiive, or ,d isdplin<wy prQce~dliln~s-si Iil C~ I:lh:ey:!lFi~ not subject to :<II"')" inquity that might lead w

"iTil!tt!o tbnill Con(~i:Hl!!

00 IHP,1lJtNITY'A!~D [PR!~ FFtEE{lQH

their Ibeiflg acc!lJsedl, arrestedl, tried, aad if round guilty, sentenced to 2IPiP l"olPrial;e penalties, an.d to maki Iilg repa~tion~ to dleir VVClii !i1Il'!s."

The same d'oou ment cDndfllJe~5; "Impunity arises from .ilJfuiluFe by State!; to meet tJhei.r db:ligations ttl invest~!;ievliio!a.tions. ~otake apprcpriaibe meaSUI'\E!S irl respect. of me pe.rpetr:aJto:rs. partiollJ l\arty incil'le area ofjustioe,. by ·eoillsun1 rng ~hil!t mose 5u:s.,p-ea:ed of cdm ~ncal re.sp0rllsibill ity are pr'O~~:Oi[!l~d,~ried. 3I!'l!d dll~Y [pu n i,shed;w provide vic~imswith effec:tive remed~es. andto ell'lSY f'\e,clhac d'1.ey receive reparation furi:ln.e: injuries suRe red; to ensillte the ~ilI3!1 i enm:I·!:: nght ill know thie truth about Yiolati:o:!'lIs. !lind to til!~ other W1!f;lC~SS<!ry steps to pFeV.ent·<l! FeCU!'lf'\e:li1loe of v~olia:tj.ons.:'

Becau~e impunity is dle oon~e:qU!e!1c.e .of state failure to mee.t iits obligatioll'liS 'm [ill'l,ves.qgate, ipfiiIOiSecUiee, 311i1d senlienoe m,e assassins and milJsrenmim]s in the killing of joufiI'll~1 lsts, the Pin il~ippine cam paiiglill agailil!~t impu Iil ill)'. led by We Fi~edom Fund for filip~no .Jourli1allis~ and the NalJio!l<!!1 Union of Joumaliists 'Qf the Philippines, h;ad n eoes:sarily en,ga.gedstaJlle entities. such as me D'epanme",iJ1j; of JU!Sl:ice,llhie Philip;p;ilfl.e: National PoiIiGe, 31il1d thei".u:!l~ciary in the effurt to bring the kililelr~ and! m<!~tenl'1l1i[Fllds 'w jl,lstiCt2.

These efforu have resulted in 'Ilhe aITe~t, trial, al'l d c.onvktiOIrn of !;!he !Il:illl.ers Lrll two C<!~I~. w<!!.t of IEdgar IDamal!e.rioOlnd Marlene Espera,t. :ai~ho~gh the masterminds in these ki ~Iin.g~ Inave yet to be cited, and tlhrereare 31 other cases ofjo!JJ maJisrs killed j[ilI the I i me 'Of d LlIty since 2.00 ~ ret to be resolved.

There8ire [mrnrny simi!a,ride~ between me pa1Jtem~ of im,p!JJlnity found! in the ,plhmppine~ <lind eeher ooW! !'l!trieswilijdhl 'emerged from dicu~Qnh~ps, wftefr\e the phenomenon re,f1eas WE!ilk .justice ~ynem!S. Butcol.lrl'lJries Hike Arg.en~in1lJ. P.I3:rll,and Chi~e liiave nrad betreF success in prose~utin.g those [respol'l,~ible 11101: only (0 r the killin,g ofjoul'1na,1 lses bil!! t aliso for other h u main rights viobtions.

These rel<ltiv~ gar!llls were made possible by coopelfall:iQI'll :am Qn,g press freedoml and heman ifigJtts group.s as wen as jllrEsrs, llawyers,and smile· ilJUorlS>. and OfffeF Iles;~ofl.s u~efl!Jll tothe P,imillippine effon:,even as me PhillipJIliilil.~· sUtiuatiori 'col!Jl!d be ~imil<l!rJ:y li!i'lSl;ru~ro coll~~es [i fill the press,.jurusts, lawyers, :arid nurrtalll IiightsOl«ivis.ts. i mil other countries.

SEAPA :<lInd eM FR or~ntrz~1 the cOlillfuren.ce in Manilla. wijmfu ndfn.g iromllhe OSII an d~e Comm~ttee to ProlleaJoun,'a~ists.

~fl me oo:rnoept paper p~recI by Roby AJampay Qfthe, SEAlPA sec:rer:ari3!t,r!J!iJe specific obiea~es read:

8

INT1f,lO:~IIJCTION

I. To contribute to ongon't1lg multi-sectoraleffQrts. as w~lIIa~ to national, ll"e.wiom'll, and internatio:rnall camlpl'llil?lri1s., 1tOfi,g'n impuliflirry ilifllthe Phillppiine:s by fi~din;g. discussing, and gener<liting ~1t1lsughts and models fol" enhanlCing the rule of law, free, expresslon, and buman rightS in g;en,e,rOlI:

:;L To link Philippine cam p3.i~l'lso:ri1 ~mpunit:;y with simUar efforts areu ndthe world; <lnd

3. To rais.e pU1ollk: aw,arelfl,es~ about impunity and it~ eRect mIl medialfreoedom of expression ~Il !;ihle .Pih II i pplnas,

This publi:cation is: a reoordlof~he proceedi!ilg~ and the reeommendatlons o{ smJreholder partid panlIS,We hope that ilt will helpether press and I'egalcom munitles i Ii"II the region and around the world to unite theilr efforts and str-eng1:h s to counter the forces ot i mpu n ity and mo!Ve towardgreal!er freedom,

IMEUINDAQUINT-OS DIE JESUS Executive l)irec1ior

Center for Med.kI Freedom and Responsib.ilif;y

9

The M3!ni~a COJIIJferenc,e

on IMIPUN~TYAND PRESS FREEDOM

Orga:niled lbych e Southeast A$~an Press AllliaJlu;e ~If"ldlthe Center folr Mle:dia Freedom and ResponsiibiUty Fu nded by me 'Open Society Illnstitute

and the Com mlittBe to Pl'lot:ec:t J!OUlrnali:sts

The f~ninsu Ita M:f1IiI1i'I:a,. Mli I ippin es

Februa1ry 2 7~ 19, 2.008

1900

. Welcome Dinllileli

Vet:'! ue: Upp~ r Lolblby.llF ef The P.M ilillsula M:anilila

Day One,. Febmary 2'1

Regi~tration

Venue: Fligodoli'll 1., ILobbyof "lIne P~:rn insula Mean u~a

0800-0900

Phi~i ppine N:atJio:nal .Anthem

Weloome10peliililiilg Rem:arlcs

~ niroduction of IKeynote Slperaker

Mennd>iJ Q u i nzos de [esus iE>:ie.cuijve D~ rector

CentreI' {Dr IMedia Freedom and ~espolnsibility (C M FR.)

Phi~ii[PlPi nes

Rau I C. Pangalangan Ptrofessor

Universiity of the Philippine~ Collle,ge of !Law

Keynote .AddlffiSS I

092J(;·0940

Han. Ch I·ef Justice ReynOlJto s. run 0'

SOUIP re me Cou rt of dh:e Philippines

0940-1000

III

T"~ H.riil" Con.f.,ren~e

OR IHI"UJ'NITY'.ANO PRI:S!l; 1~IR"!I;:DOH

Panel DisCUIssi Oliil II Re~Cimm8l'ldrn:ro.li5 alid ,updtlhlS fram till!! convenors of me Manihi and :!ita'. ,Domingo (lJn(ereoces all e;:drojudi'eiaJ kil1i.ngs (PM~p,piJ1es) a.nO' jmp~nity ami p.ress freedom (Latin .America)

(halierlge~ to me jmpkmetll~W:m of retomrJs

Lunch

Venue: Upper looOy, 2/1Fof The Pen insula Manila,

II oj!QO~ 11411.S

Viideo Present!'llti:oll1!

12

Hen, Justice llucas P.lBe~am i!ill Court ofAipiP'eals IPii'ni I ipp~rles

GO.nz.allo Manroquln Ilnlt'€!Ir-Americ-an Press Assoola11.ion (1IA!PA) USA

Raul C. Pan~alangPin U~~versity of the IFln i nplfI~ne5 I Colleg~ of Law

Modletat:ot;

Ha.ria Lou rdes C. M<lngOlhas btecutii~ lDurecto r

Pin UI~ppine Center klr Iinves~iga,tive JOli.!lFoail ism

HtlJitline; Documermlry Olli! the ikJill i nil: of jcu milllist!S <i.rolUl!ild

me world, produced by PiBS, presented by

Sheila S, Co~on~~

E!Cecutive Direc,wr

Tony Stabile c,em:er~o:r Il1Ives~igativejoul"lncallism of the Coll!J mhia Univ'el"Sir:i':s Gr:adua!lle Scheel 9fJournaJftsm

USA

Pililo-GAAHI SCH!:OULE

11415·1545

P,anel Discussion :z:

Tfre O;IIJrt as: jj ,~umtJ_n' ng,htt mecha'(lrsm

Jose M<lnu~1 D lekne Chair

Free l~gal As.sislanc.e Gt10Up (Fil.,}\G)

Phii I i ppines

[an Mkhllel Si men

Head, Latin American Section'll for the Max Plianck Institut'e kw Foll"eij~f1 andllnternaJtional1 Oriminal Law

(Gerrn<a.ny) and I'nt,ema:ti onal legal OOoer:; II Uirterlilatiional Commission a,g~inst Innp'lJIlrniity i!"ll Guaremal a

Hen, J:uiStice Eduan;j!o R<o'CI o~fo, F;f1ei'le,r

Court of Appeals Al"gentlirna

Judge f.i;!mando Andreu M1erelles

Audienci~ Nacioml de Espan-a Spain

Mcderator:

Eduardo Bertoni Executiive IDirec(o; Due Process of law Foundation

USA

1545-1600

Coffee: BreaJk

LI;If'Ij

P3!Il ell DiscUi!iiS!ion3:

N~ona", re~a~Cilndl

'1iIterm:ltiOrJilii rne~hani!lm$ again$!: Due Process of law

Impu!ljly FOltJliilidatiiotfil

OJ] ns,tiltilE:: Chung

Senior Fellow; Schell Cent!e;, {Qr ~lIli~nHat;iion .. 1 HL!ll'iIrnaJl'n Ri.gJrtll, ,(aile law Schod~ am:!

Former IPlr,o~ecUitor, Inl:emllltllo.Iil:a11 Criminal Court

Ruben Carrama

:Senior A.ssoc;iaroo' Inwm3tioli1ta.~ Center for 1i~ns~tioni3Jl.JustiCJe

USA

Hanry l. Roque JI':,

Roque &. IButuyOlin law Offi.ces:

Philippines

H'O<J'e:r:a:tor:

P;elt:er Noo,rlandeF :Senior Media L.a~r 'Open Sode~ 1!ls:tI11!;Yte~s N e6Wo,rk M ed ia Program USA

Dinner

Venue: Illus!tr:lJ.do Re-Sl:a'L!I rll!llt, ManUa

14

0930-0935

Introduction at K~yn(Jli~ Speaker

RobyAbmpay Ex'ECuD\(e Dl rector

South east Asian Press Alliance (SEAM)

Thaiianldi

0935-1000

Ricalrdo Trotti

Press Flneedlom Progrnl1l1l and Press Ins:tJiwte Direct,or ~APA

WOD-IIIJlS

P'anel II!) l:sc,u:s.sion4

11ie writ fJf amparo -die new Philipp./lie experiment (jjnd reS:5nliS (rom intematio.rwJ (txp~Jiem:~

~ on. jW!stLce Adolf S. A.zcunO!! Supreme CO'L~ rt of the

Ph i Ilippines

Ed uardo Berroni 'Due PFocess 'of Law IFio.LJ n dl<itio,l\i

~lJd\ge Santilago Pedr-az (i o.l'Tf1Iez Au die,u::i8i N8icicnal de Espana SiPavrl

Moderator:

Th sedere T e Coordililator-M8inila HAG

The M~nlla C:OI1~r€!oo~

""' IIIHIPUNITY.AND IPRieSS FREEDo\M

1200,,11400

Lunch

Veli'1lu,ec Rtlgodoli"l II

I ntrod!!llcti>on of IKeynolte Speake ...

KeYliilorte Add ress 1

M,e~li,nda Quintos de J!eslllis CMFR

AiI;maku~u rnah A~tr=1lfna!!l~:il. Ramoli'l, Magsaysay Awardee fQr JOllltrnaUsm {20M)

Dll'; Soetomo IF're.ss IlnStituroo lndonesia

Panel DisCIUISsilQn .5 C~se ¥wdie'S;

sucres.s:fuj <lttdprobffimaifjc

I PUlsecutJ'Wl of C051e5 inv;oMngdie' murder of joumajJsts

SuccentulfmooeJ jmerl{enilWil~ involving !ega~ ScectOrS lind cWjj society

Nana SailliOOS

Pri'l'ate Prosecutor ferthe M:arolene E~pemt Case Philippines

Leo IDace'ra

Senior Smite Prosecutor an d Prograll1!'! DlrecWF;WiJtJl'I'@~ Prnl!ec.tion Securlit'f and Benefits Plrogrnm Departmenrof Justice PhiUppill1lES

Maria Soco rro I. Diokn,o. Sec r,eur)" General

IFLAG

PhiIIIPtp:in,es

,Moderator, Howie Sever~li'1,o I-Witness

GMA Chtannel 7 I~hi I i ppin es

1900-:211 00

Dinner

Venue; Cab:il.I,ell1, Glor,ierta I

16

PtFtOG!RAM SCHEDULE

IOOo..IIO~5

090Q..1000

Panel Discussion 6,

How joumiCilhrs can protea tlu:~m~e.~e~(llld Pless; freedrnm

- Edtia GIS pro~on

-jou{fw1ism as ,proreruon

- A united fromJgeHing medja~

(ill;t ;rogether

17

M€!'linda Q;L1Iinw~. de jesus CMF,R

Mania Teresa Ronde ros Fund'a(;ioiil para la ILiberm.d de Prensa (Fli P) Co!lomb~a

Jose L lPavia

Chair, FI"eedorn F'lJllild for

Fu'li pi riO Jou mallists (FHj) and ExeclUtive Oti rector, Philippine Press IIiiSlliwte (IPPI)

Ftowenll Pama1f1l

Treasurer (IFormer' SeClretal"y GenernJl)

Nati enal Un lo;n of Jou malis,ts, of the Ph i Itppin~s

M oclerator:

L~llus "'1- Teodbro

Deputy D i recto r, CMFR and Editor, f'jR Reports

IMPIIJ,~ITY A!~D IIT'R!ElSS FREEDOM

10 15· ~ II ~ 5

Pani@1 Disi(:IU:Si$,i(l!n 7 Modet5 of irli~m!(]tion.(iit (egiQ1iIol (;U'wPOIic:l'ls wend imp!.l.l'ilitr

fig,~rtitlig l'Iows:tate agents of impunity

.Joel Simon

E)(eCiutive Din1lctot Commitlleeoo IP,r,orect .Joumall ises CCPJ)

USA

Carilos Cortes CastmQ FUP

Col'ombia

D:allnial1l MIguel LOrel!i Assoc:iMle IMember'

Centro die Estudio5 legales y Socia~es

AJrgentir1l"

Caro~yn 0, Argu i II!as Editolr, Mf{loone.ws Phmpp~ll'iIes

Mlodernrt:o.r:

DoreenWeise:r1Ilh3lW!s

D i reeter, M'edlliil law Pir'Oject and Assistant Professlo.r Journal ism <i,!lJd Mledill Studies Ceiilil:re of The UiiI'l'!Ierslty of Hong Kong

1115-~200

launch of intelnnationa!l carnlpaii.in to fligiht im,punJilt'y 311i1d p roted press freedom in the Phmppili)e!i

E n.d of Program

SEAPJO,., CMFR.. O!SI, CPjJ, and IrFFJ

~200-11300

bunch

Ven'ue: Gallery, 3fF of The Pe:t1l~ nsula Manila!

118

I .... t ..... '. ""'II .. 1

Hoi'll. Chief JllI.lstice, IRey-nato S. PI.lI!1!O' Sup,rM'Ie Cow't ,or the PhIlippines

f~eedom of the pressr a, t.ouchstone of democracy

W,e," are here now 00 s.t;n~ll1igthen democr:acy.esPGJCi~ll~y O!IV~ of its toulchsttme:.5----'tn.e freedom of the Ipress-

It is a noble thill1!g d-lc;l.t we set out to, do, but ilt is also OIl1lE diffj cult to aceern pi ish.Thus, iit is ~mporta!tilt th,lit berON we begun W11th OUI" endeavor, we mUlst fii rstensu re that we, :al1~ understand fuUy win,o "we" are, where "here" is. why W~ <Ire here "InlOW", and Winrilt "democracy" ~s ba~k1l!lIy 1111 about

19

,.,,~ Mollil" C:ooi~"f~ on

1Jr1"'~ NIT'!' AiN!) IPIl,!:S5 f!;t;eel!i:lOMI

It is a dangerous tiime for those wh 0 repon th e truth" Fro.l1flj 1992 to 200B, 679 j,CiU mlllis.1t1l ~l'lWe been killed wo:rldw~de .The Philippi~es haseh e Sill highest n,u rnber of incidents where ]ou malis,iS have been liil1u..Ilrdere<CI. Sin(,e 11986, 70jOllrii1l3l1 lsts Irnave been kililed in the lil1le of duty on Philipp~lf'lle soi L Of th e eases filled as ..,esult o,f these kullingl,l, only two hallfe been lieso~ecI\six are under,going triall, 118 <lire under investig:atlion, four have been dismissed\and {'QUilt are undergoing proseeurlen.

"We; 'are persons who cain do 50meilililrilg tl'llia,t Willill have a profound i,mpaoex i iill defense of the fa'\€!edomof th~ press, "We" .w@ the advocates, €!..xp@rts, jOlU'm<!llists •• u"ld j urists com i ng from <III ,o,verthe wo rid w~o shareth e'same concern over d'1.e rampent hu m31t11 rii~hts vi.oila.tions :a.ffiUIIfI,d 'us" I em pmiilsize that it ~s''we'" who Calli do someth i ni&, beeause we can better ,effect duange not in o~r ind ividu<lil stan:voncS. but as a group worikil'lg!iogether.

"Here" L~ <I co:nf~,e!'1ce organ~~d by~he :Soui~he<!ist Asian Press Alliance with the C~nWf' for Media Freedom and Restponsiibiility aumed areh ree objectiives: lFirst,to oot1ltriollJlteto ongo:i ng multil·M~,(.t.orall efl'i::lITI, as well as natlona], r~ional. 1I1f11d intemati:onal caJmpaiiwns,I!O fight impUl1i~ in the Phi~ip.P'illl~s by fi!1lding,. dlscussing andgeneFating i!1isi!ghi~ and models fer enhancil'lg tJhe rule of law, free express:lon,. and human rIghts inl ,general; second.~o bridge Philippinle clIInnplliig!l'Is on impunity with sl m i lair ef£oli'U ,arol!JilfiJd the worM;andi !thirdi, ee raiise IP ub lie a.w<lreness abeue impu nit)' <lind its effect ~ n dIe PhillilPipi nes on bomth@ freedoms of~he p ress and ,of expressi:o.n ,"Here" is a. fcrumfor 1iJi5 to work t'O,g,e~helras 3 group,

''We'' are "here" oeea!llse of me urgeillicy of "'Mw". [It lis the, c!JJ,tiIlLJre of impunity that ~rlcou:r\~~s a:tuclks IOn jo~mal lsts, Unless <!ind u ntill we diosome'mill'1lg to s~bm€!,,g~ tilJi~ pernici eus cull:Ulre.these attacks wi Ilconrn nueto I iitter ourc:oll!eaJive consoio~!mess with corpses of people who 1I1F'e bearers of truth"

"Democracy" is alii about the voice ofr:he [people. it i~5,a5 John SW!':lr~ Hi III defl n,es lit, "govern rnent lby discussien". Imper-atlillfe to disC!ussicm are the cogna"e freedoms of inro:rma:tiion, of eD<pressiion,. and of the press. Hence. no less than, tne, LJ n iversal Ded<lra:~on of Human R~m-~ assures dlae'E\t.erycme has tlhe night M) freedom of opinion and express:l:o:n: thus right i ndude~ wl@edom 1:.0 hold 'OiP:i n ions wiithout interference, ::lInd impart infolrmatlion and ideasth rough any mecli<l re,g;ard less of ~romiers:" The diissemination of information from d iverse and lIntagol'lisdc sources ls esserttial to the werfull"e of me public, malta f,'I'ee press is <I conditiorl ,of a 1il"\ee soc,iety.

Democracy ~ 1'1 th i s cou l'I~ry ls under s!iege because bullets fill"eG at the direction of jmJlmail ists pierce not only human flesh. but slse our ,epu bl i carl ideals. lin t:heir Jo~nt Dedara,tion re,gfl!rd i ng I I'Irelma[j,o:ii1a11 Mechanisms for Promotilfilg Fre~dom of IExp:t'ession, ehe Uiililt,ed

20

KEYNOTE,AClD:IitESS I

Natiiorl:s :Specu;d R..a:PiPor~eulr on Freedom of 0 p,i n lon arid bqpre:ss~on, the Organi:zation for Securiity and Co-operetlon in ELJ I'ope lRepresenmd'O!le on IFreedom ofll'he. M ed la, an d the Organiizaltion of Ame rican States Special Rapporwur on freedern of IExPI~~~;!lionl lid@lmtify two dh rea.soo freedom of express.ion andth e free flO'W of informat!ion and ideas, w1h lch nmre Imow reached cris~s proporrlons in many pam of the worlld: fI rs.1t, dubbed censorship by killing. ara attacks on [curnal imand ethers e:xercisin,gthei r right to freedom of expression; and second, is the abus€ of restrlctive defamation and libe~ laws. Iii'll ~he same d(llc!aration, each stMie' was reminded of its obli~bion to ta~ adequa"e rne:;JJSI,m~:~ to end thecllma.te of impunity, Such m,ea~;lJ res shouilid i nd~de devoti:ng s'ufficient reso u rces and atrentlon to preventi ngartacks aim i ou rnalists and O'tn,elfsexerris:i ng th e;i r righ[f/o ~reedom of sxpresslcn, i nvesti,gati ng such aetaeks w1ilentiley do occur, bril1g!lFl!g tn.O's@ respcnsl bile 00 jU5ti:ce, and compen:s;ati ng vlctims.

Let 1'10< our knees wo!b!b:le., These cliia!llen,ge5. censorship by murders andth e restraint of I~bel bws, l1i:;!\l\e been wlith us sl nee tim.e immemorial. ILeg-a~ hiswliiallits "race me roots of flreedom of expre:ssh:m in Athens, G:reeceas ~ar back <IS 800·6000 RoC _lEv-en then, expressive froodom was giv-en onlyto select "ci~izem." which ditd n,Q,t indt~de women, resldent aliens" and i'Ulven i r~$, The Ai1;he nian majority was not accorded the expressive freed-om by meir artlsrocr3t~c: rulers,

Du dng Roman ti rnes, freedom of expre~~!iDn was liilf!ewise se'o'e.re!ly restricted by the Illll~,i ng cilas:!), The, Ca.es3.rs oColtlitroliedth.edWstnilb'Ultion, of news to the peo;ph~ ,Wlithol,lt @'XIO~ption, the-)" smothered di,s:5€nt ag-ailmLst tlrne.ir gav-ernmem .. They hounded~he,i r critics ~o' their graves"

So it was in En(gland, Here the ~tr~ggle to' el i minate censershipteok more man SOO years". The Crown of! EtlIgla,tlId was ~lUJst as intollerantof enelelsms.The 1275 Scan da!um IMlIgml!tu rn IPresa,ge,a the begiirlllli1lig5 ot sedidous Ilibell Iww. This edict prose ribed po litica.l dissent. from the: ealrl~ 15GOs,. th ro'~g!h th.i!l f\llriitaJl'l! Revol utlen, untf the lai!El ~ 7ih cemrllid ~" pri nung: was regulated by me Crown and me restrictions were imIP,I,ement-ed through dl~' Chu rch, Scribes "ei~ us that it was during ~ eJ.ilI ry VlJIl's reign thst royal measures w'ere enacted 00 censer heretical materials, Thus, there was <'I spedal law to restrict the d istribudan of Wj~m3Jm TYIi"I.da~e's En,gllnshclI<Iins la,tion ofche New Testament. The law states:

Th~re mafl be no amJ!lJt(l{imlS or p~mbles in' (he Bibles ar NewTeswments in &iglhh. The Bible shall .not be read .in English if) any dWflrll" No women or Clmf.r.cell's, apprentioos,. jmimo1lYm~n, ~erving'-'tl'Je'11 of die degree of yeomen' or tJrHrer, I:i~d]l(lndm'en., nor l(j~urers, shall read tlil,e N.ew T~stClmen~ ill ,English .. , Gnjflfj'ing oonuary to (i'Je King's insm.raro.l'I!s ... s-half be ther~(CQnv~ct, .. ,ntis snarl for the firsl offense reC>Ci1[(It, (or :his second bear (] fagot, lind for the third be ,burned. (Neal 1855)

:21

IIMPUNITY AND p~. FREEDOM

The English Court of Star Chambe.r, <I secret 'tribunal, was an instrument of oens-orsihup.lt IT! eted out such pu ll,iishme!1,ts as levying unlimlrred 'tines. imprison rnene, the pin~ry, flogging, mu,j!ation" and blran,din,g~ In 1630 for in~tance, a certain Alexander leighton IP ubi lshed ".An Appeall to Parllial1l1lent" in wih,ich he ur,g,ed the superiority of the $cdptures over me mona.renfy. On orders of the Star Cham her, leighton was taken to Westminster and was ··whipped, had one of hils ears CUt off, his nOISe slit an dl one slj,d e of hlis face bran ded," A wee k late,r" t!he mutilatio'n was repeated on th e other side of his face. I n 1641. tih,e SUir Chamber was dissolved due, to its surfeit 0" excesses. lin fine, history tells us that noamcunt of mutilation, no amolJlnt of murders of trurhtellers will kill freedom of the press,

The second rh r,ellt to freedom of eh e press is abuse of defamation and libel laws. The or,igins of def.lma:tion date back to Greece_.As afotes:m.!ed, frt was in Athens.,. Greece that certain types of"'dtiZiens'" were given freedom of ex:p:roi!ss;ion_ But even then, these "dti:tens'" were madeanswerable full" sl .. mder 3Jl1Id :sooilti:on. This restriction was carried on ill, Rornan times and got embedded in En~ish common Ilaw. Early IEngllish debm3tio,1l laws were of a diff-er@nt !kind. Under early Engllish common law, the iJ'1l.!1tlnrfullness of a statement 15 not a defense. Hence, a truthful criticism of me Crown eeuld result in a severe penalty. English common law r,ecogn iz.edl four types of I ilbel: ( I) blasphemous Iliibel, which lis any speech that denied dhe exJistence of God or rldlculed any Oi'nriStlian doctrine: (2) seditious li~el or crlrkism orrJhe ,go¥emment, its 'leaders or pollcles; (3) obscene libel, which is the forerunner of obscenity laws: and (4) priiv,ue libel. which is spe~cl1 thalt injured the reputation of' another person, AgoIin, hilstOry teaches us mat the mlsuse andabuse ·of libel laws agailFllst media prac.titilol'lers tih,r,ou,gh the ages did not stamp out the flame of freedom ,of the press, and it U1eveT willI.

At ~his pOUI!'lIt, let me share with YOUI our hum bile eftio,rts tostf'\engtl'len democracy in our' coumry b-y enlhancing human nighu and giVli[][g moreflesh tothe freedom of dhe press. 01'1 the area of human !rights, our High Court has piromu~gated the writ of amparo andthe writ of habeas data. It is interesting to M1)e thart the provenance o'f both the Rulle on the 'Writ of A.mpam andthe Rule on dheWrit of Habeas Dat21 j,s a furum much .liilretJhiis one. The Na,tiol'l<l1 GonsulUlti'¥'e SUlmmit on ExtraJudiC-ia.1 Killilings and Enforced DisappearaJFlIces held 0:111 Juty ~ 6 to 111, 2007 also addressed the, CI,I~re of impunity tih!at stalks our coumry.

1ihe IRQJlle 01'1 the Writ of Ampl1Jro mal! protects the Viic:tims cf extrajudicial kililings and en,wrced disappearances took effect on Oct, 24. 2007_ln me Supreme COlUJrt alone, a total of 14 writs. of amparo have already beelfl issued out. ef 18 petil!ions that prayed for me writ, OUt of these 14 cases, five have allre.ady been decided by the Court of Appeals from Oct .. 2:007 t.o present,

On the eeher handl, the Ru Il~ on 'the Writ of Habea;s Dua took effea on Feb, 2, 20018., This rule is an rndepeiildent, rem.e<iy to enfo",c:e the right ttl inrforrn,li1;ilonal privacy and the

22

KI:YNOTE ADD:IlIESS I

oompl,emenrnry"right to. truth". It lsalse an adldl~~ional remedy to protect an in dlividual's civil lights. This writ is available "00 ail1Y person whose Iright I!O prliwcy ilill ~ife, or security is Viiola.te.do r threatened by an un lawful II act Or' omi~sk'llill of a publko,f;fk;ial or emp~oyeEh or of a privlIt·e i ndr,v~du<!1 ore:ntity enpged ilnthe ga.ilienilt'lg, ool[lectin.g. or 500 ring of dam. or inrflOrma,tion regard~~g~he person 'f3mily~ home, amid cerrespondence ofthe a;ggrie¥E!G parry." Reliefs lilillciudie the"d~letiolf!., de~t!"uction. or reeufieanen ef '~he erroneous ,d1ata or i rrfO:rrm:tion."

jusr a month o.ld. no writ Qflhalbe<lsdla;ta has bee:n iss,ued yet. It is an excel[!em: human r.gJu-s tool used mos~ly in cOUintries recoveri flig from miUtaty dictal!orsl1iilPfll. lit enfo:rGes the rii~11It t!OfJrutih,. whitlh ls the bed rock. of the rule o.f Ilaw; Obser~rs nytila,t with the promu 19a:tion oftl1,L\lsetw'o writs,th e, It'Iumber of vidJi ms cf exfira.iudicia] and enforced dis<llPipearafl ees had ded~rned. Permp..s it ~s toe early to rejoice O¥€I" thei r detenre'l1!teffec:t. Th~~ fright for human might!! ii~ olflle fi\g~lit fUlllllofcommas and no period; a fI~h·t where Y'o'u never write "30",

.I nthe second area {~"e. lflrotectillil~ the freedom of the pres~}. the H i,gh Court, thn:;u,l,gh the Adrnini:s;trati\'\~ Ci,cular" No. 08~2:008. iss~edl Guidellnes ilti'lthe Observaflr::e of a Rule of Pref'erenoe in ~he, Imposil:ioii'l of Penalties in libe~ Casias. IIIl thii5drclUlla:~, tJrne Hfl\!:ml COUrt !lirenee ~ udges to determ i ne wlhethe1r the limpOSlitiQn of a fine alone in libel c:<!~~S would best serve the inllelt1est of justice. The HigJ'! Court ci~ool cases where it r,efu!sed to incarcera.t.e those accused of libel but instead pe,rn311lized them Wiith the pilyme,illlt of flne, Somemow, this drCI!JI~a r has caused] CQ!ili!:'~SS to ]as·thck debal)@ on bills decrUmilil<l.lil1;ing libel. II respectl1~~llysu.ggest th:at Co[lg)ress should also look iOriO tJhe Idea of pUlIting a. cap on ci.1ji1i1 Illability t'Olr libell eases agaiinst media people, lit is not only the threacof urn prisonment ,!hat h,mdcurfifs med ia.The punches of poverty com i ng from ilir,eats of un I 1m ited civii I tlialb i I i1.y can also convert some of tJlileir bsckbcnes il1ito mere \MIsli'lbones.Justll. few days ago oro:n Feb, I 5., 2008, we decided th e easeof Chavez v.the Sec~ernry of Justice and the Natiio:I1Ia11 Teleeemmanlcauens Commission (GJt No, I 88338).We struck as lunoo:ti'lstiwtion!a~ prior restrai nts the warlillilil~cS tssued by me respondenlt p'LJlJil lc officials that media peoiPile wm be prosecuted iii they ai, tneoo:!'lI1;rQv@nial wi re~ta:PiP~d cenversancn between th~ sil;tilll'llg President and a. commissioner of me Comm iss Ion on [Elec~~ons all~egedJy reveal! ng fmud in me 20M natlonal elections.

Let me subm it thatattempt;s to cu rtail f'r,eedom of che press aU over the worl d wil[1 n ev'er end, We should never weary in ill;:S, pro~ctio.n. I end by empihasizingiu~t one p'!F!)i~u lar val ue premoeed by free.ci,om of the press,_me sEla,rch for truth. II can do no oe'tter than quoting the e'XJPllru13tiofl of First Amendment st.noblF Thom-as IEme~o:n:

AcerllM va1u~ of ~ <iild op~n debate istth'l' d'is:covery or truth IJnd kno'l'oiledge ffirough roe fi':oo tmde- ,,,,(ideas_ ll'lkinguage· mat ~$ remjl'li~t;:eld of john Mrrwll~ AreopClgitk:cr QndJQhn Stwn

23

The H'i'lili!J Comerenee 0111

IMIPUNITY AND PRESS F'IiIEIEllOM

Milt's Or! Uberty, Ernersen stm,ed, all jnd,,,Mual w/w se:e.ks Know1edge and tmm milS! hear all sides ,ortbe question, QOl1iSider all alternative-s:, ten hi's judgemel:1't by exposing it eo opposition, ,olld ma1o:ie Fillll:i\1e of ~fferel'lt m.rnds. ,Di'si:ussion .ml.lS,t ,be kept &pell no matter hew ,certainly tfl:ie an aCJ::e'pted opin.ion may be; marly o;(the most wide~' acknowledged truths hav:e tlIrned!cut W be ermJJe.(lUs" (Emerson' ,1970,6-1)

The idea that free expression is central 1)0, discovering trurh is not. lust disc:ussed UIi1I philosophirnl tomes of the serventeem:1l and eighteenth ceneurtes, It a:P'P~aJrs in Supreme Court Justice OliverW€lndel1 Holmes Jr:'$ 119'19 dissent in Abrams" in which he Ipass;ionat€lly stated. "[1i]he ultimate good desired is bett'~r reached by free trade in ideaS'----'llhat: the best test of troth is the power of th e thought eo get itself a!Oc:epted in 'd1lil! competition of the m:ame,tplace" (Abrams v: United! States I[ ~ 9 i9] 630}.lt alsoappears ~Irn JUoStuce Leuts D. Brandeis II '927 concurring epinlen il n Wih i,mey. hrl which Ihe referred to tine tou lIl,dil1,g: hth e rs and how "they bel1ievedl thac freedom to. mink as, you wi II and to speak as you mink are means ind ispeln,sable to the discovery and spread of political truth' (Wh imey v. Callfornla [19127] 374). Brandeis added."lf tin ere be time to expose through discesslon the falsehood and fallacijes., to <lVelrt I;he!!villbr the processes of' educanon, the remedy to be applied is more speech, not enforced silence." (Colit'lwell, Fn~edom of the Plress, pp, 4~S)

Tod!ay,QursoC:i,ety is bedevil!ed by tlhe enforced diS;ajppearnnces of some 'VOtaries of democracy, es,p-edaillfy medi>!. practltioners, Am enfo:rc:edsilef1lc.e enehese enforced cinsappe:<!.'r7alJl,ces cmnot but giive impetiUls to its growirng culture of iFiFnpunity.l[ is t:lhioS ,enforced sn~em:e 'mat we ought to break for if there iiSanymingthat democracy can, i ll-afford it ils the sov€reiignq of' the de:aI and the dumb. It is speech and speech--plu,s that willi dissipa,te the darkness thattoday hovers over the heads of the Filipino people. Speech is the fumctiolfll of .he press. Speech -plus is the a,mon of the sovereign people. Let them converge fOFmer will lead us to the doo:rswp ,or tf1lJJ1;i1.

A pleasant day to all.

jn 2QQ6, iReYfl'llt.o S, Puno ~me tliJe 22<4 ChfefJ~s~1!! Df tOil PliilipPinc,s, FIe begoll ~m r(llreer m go·"emrnent when he joffledfhe Offiore of!t1e Sol'ldl'O,'Gene'lllJ'C~ Q folimm"in j97U .. le was appoinred ossoci~.~ a[rhe Court o[Ap~ ("CA)' in '9BfJ and Wlls dgilfri cJpp.tilm:ed I" f 986 to the CA. FO'Mer president fidel I..: Ramos oppomted l1im GssoCidle justice o(the ~upreme COtlrt in 1993'.

/\InC) ~ editClr rn direr ofr1te PfIi1ipp.ine C()rte~all (j"."" ) .. ~ student neMpaper of!he Ultl .. -effi!y ,of the Phrlippine!J (U.p), He ~ ~ dlaJr of tile e~f ooafd orrIN! law ~~kter aoo roa!nt doc,um~ tdilOr afThe PfIl1Jpplne !..aw .Journal whit~ he ~ G s:~udt1i~ al UP.

T1r~ .s:"Ip.rcm~ (ourl of !he Phl~ei ~_e4l1te m~~ectora' Nat.ionaf CoruLlrtmive Summit 00 ,ExtrnjudjddJ KiJ.Itri,~s amI Enfbrc:si:l DimPP~,ilrmID!!~ Ob1:r ~ 6 to 1 7. l'OOlJ WIder ~m ~d'er$ll(p. flJe ~mmi.t ~ to the prnm~tgaOOn ,[;If '!wo va1~l1re w~ ·wfJf(;fu aim to ilId'd'1IeS5 the WlJrsening p~ G[ ~~m;m fJt,h!~ (I~~tes' UI tile WoImll!']o",: !I'1,e WTtl qf (l'mp"Ta lind die wnt grh6~el1:t all!"'_

24

'T'he convelil,on of me Philippine Supreme Court's Nati:onall COIlSU litative Summut on

&'U,!judlk,ia)1 K~mngs OIIllId tl'l]OlfCed Diis'll.ppearil.llIces {represe:nIlEH::I by Philippine CO~rt of Appeals j'!Js~ioe lucas P. BersOlimin) and the ultin America's lFIemisiPh!illr~ ConferenCE! on lhe Judiciary,The Press anid Impunity in Sm., ICh'Jmil'lgo.. Dominic3Jn Rep~blic {represeUllted bydle ~ nte .... Americ:;m Press .As~odatiol1l':s Gonzalo Marroquin) sliilared di5(~us:skms and racomm encia,tionls from d'lle two oOlmfere~FIIces on hewte put an end 1)0 Ii 1'1IlI~'l,!IlllIlity_ These reeommendatlons were fotmllbred by rep resentaelves from me civill sodety. ~e mad ia, ~ejudici3iry. and the go'Ve'rflfll ene,

CQIlICI~~~ actlons and! proJec.ts gellleTil.tedi by the recomm,end3tions. such as special co u res and new rules agains,t hurncan rigJlts abuses, wetre slse 5har~d wiivh the partkHj)~llIts.

25

IMPUNIIIT"I' AND PRESS IFiREE,IDOMI

Lawy,er and University of the Phm~ipim1lS Ilaw profes:SOIr Raul C. Pangal!alfl,glan explained the fajllu re of constiuJlliionally-mandated mechanisms il"l addressing human rights abuses i nd u din,g p,res:s freedom 'rj']lolatioI'l'5_ He aliso dfcScussed the role of popular mechanisms li~e peop~e power in~he fJ,ght 'ror riignlts an dcivil liberties"

Recomm'endations and updates from, the, convenors of the Manila and Sto. Domlingo conferences on extraJjudkiail kUlings (Philippines) and ilmpunity and pres's freedom (Latin A!merica)

Hon, Justice Lucas, P.. Bersami n Court or App~als

Philippines

lin July 2007. the Phili~ine Supreme Court gathered representau-ves from different sectors to d~5CUSS sollJltions to the uncl1easing number of extrajudiidial killings 3111d enforced disappearanoes in the country.The Natiiona!1 Consultative Summit en Ex:tr:ajw:!icial Krllings and Enfo:rced DiS::Ippear;mces 'Nl'IS initiated by Chief jusdce Reynaro S. Pltino, who 'N3fIted&ie eourtste plfay 11. mare proactive role in society.

The pa,rticipants discussed the problem and came up wiith reeornmendatlens whkh focused oil fOHI' areas.

The first area ii'f1lvolve:s the strengthen i ng of the Witness Protection Program (WPP) ° The Wpp uader me Deparunent of Justice is unable to surffidendy provide the needs of witnesses because it receiees insufficient fund i ng firom the national bLJ dge1L Also, not.a]] potentlal wlJtil1les:ses can be placed under the program because of oolrtain Ilegall r~t;ictiorlis- The recornmendaelcns i ncluded i ncreasin,g WPP's buidget as well as roelaxi ng ~he restrictions,

Another area pertains to the creation of additional rules to further help victims of e.x1lrajudicial killliilt'lgs and enforced disappearances. Victims of past human rights vielariens mainly used the. writ of habeas corpus in their PEl'titiOIlS_ However, the writ of habeas corpus has many llmltatlons. The families of victims of e:xtra~udicir.i.l1 killilings whose bodies C3JI1Irhot be fo'ullild cannot use the writ of habeas corpus in their lP'etiti,ofbS. lin cases of enfor(;ed disappeamnces w~,en government authorlties are ilrlivolved, pe1tidoliitS for me

26

PANEL O'ISCU$$IQN I

granting of 'the writ of Ihalb~as corpus become useless as SOO,f1I as the I"espolldel'llts de'!'IIY d;at rh ey ha""e physicall ousi!ody of tJl'lIe victim.

The coo nfererlce pa rticipants s,ugg,t:!s:wd thill, ~o rmLJllflltio:rn of add i;l)lol1all rules [,0' fun/her h elp victims of extraludlclal killii'ilg'S and emi'Orced disappea.ranoes <lind their farnilies.In response to the reeemmendatiens, the .supl";@me Court IP wmulgated me wriit of ampare. which took effect on Oct. 24, 2007, and the writ, of habe-as data! which took effect on, Feb. 2. 2008,. Both new writs~1the concepts of which we,r,e borrowed from South American cour~'O·e:xist with elder rules but can be invoked illdependentlly.

The parti,cipa.n'ts, also proposed faster and immedirllre acnon 'On caS'E!S of human righu viob.dons.Actil1l,g on a resol uuon made du ril'lg the sum m it t!h~ Su prem e Court Ii mlITul:dia,tely ordered the lewer COUFt$ to act, 001'1 h urnan rig,ht~ cases JI (I days 'alter case submissien,

The parrlcipants also recoifli mended prom pot inves1llgauono,f kill I i nrgs and ab dlu:cti ens reported to police and in'i!'estiga1tion authorities. Some cases", however, reportedly ilPlivolve members 0,' these same instiitutions.And because of their collei3Jg,ues' iin¥o!lvemelnft, these agencies also often do not act 0[11 cases, ,espec:ilally these linvolving high ranking offie,ers.

Tile Ph i I ipiP31rne courts are' 'prepared eo respond to ~he need to protect j a LU rnlllistS because we Ibeliev,e 'thartiudge~ share 11 kinship with joulmallists." like media pr3ctitiOrt€':rs" many judges, halVe been kUlied due to the case's they had been Iliran"ldling.

Hoo,JIl'Sike luros Po Benaml", !Jealmea5~o~le jus(jce of the Phjtrpp~ Court DfAppecls on Mold'! U), 200Jalie.r fleA'irIg IllS' a Repal Trim Court ju.d~ in Qtt~miI CIi¥ $lila:' Nov. 5, 1986.

&mmrill, w:Ila obcrriaOO a 8dGfjetOj' ofAriS degree,major.in ,P:oli!it<1lkience tmm the Unive~ity GfIM PIliJJpplrtef. filifs.fJed law ,at die i.htive.rsity arme :East in 197'1, and placM 9lh m the j ,}7J Bar ~, j),fIWining Ii rGtinf of 100 potrrmr in Ci'ImImJI Law. Hetl1en praa!"~d iow ~ 1974 to I' 986,

jJl jili~ 2QQ7.lleJ'.llCimfl'l' WllS one' of'ti1e' ~~kef5 dcJril'lg die SUPf\l!'ffl~ Court·irn!lared Nat.ionaj Com~1t(;!CiIo'le' 5!1ffir:tlit an ~i:ilr ~ ,end ,~ .r;llroppearni't~es, He d.i!i!:umd o:iVJ:Ioobte judidal mni!di!l!s fOr 'tf1ese OOSM,

21

The IM3I1~ C,oflft._oe en

II'M.PUNI'IInI' AND PRESS F~':;DO!M

GOtilza~o Mla!nvqlllliin

Presidefit" Committee OJi the ffeed'affl oflhe Press and lnfomiatiol'J ~l'lter'4\merico!'l Press Associatio.n

LISA

IMembers. of the judiiciaryand the press of Latin Ainnerica carne togedl;~r to d~scus~~ press flpeedom and impUl~ityo:n Jlull~ ~ aw 20, 2:00iat Sto. Domiingo,. the capfrtall of the Dominican Republic. The coifllference was attended by 2·4 .iw~ges and 200 cj¥~1 servants, jlulnistS1, [ou rnali~ts, and lawy,e rs from 118 dirrerenu C50'lJI ntries,

The S'OO.. Do:rnill1go corllterencE! was tihe t1esu~~ of anoth'Elr co:t1Irerence held 10 years lIgo (1997) in Guatetnala,_the Hemisphere Col'Iference on ~npurni5hed Crisnes ~i!il·~t Jb~.wm~ists, During .hitS cOiiilference\ press mgaJrniz:aJtiolll!~ necQgn~2!~d that im:punirtywas the "bigges,t db~raQle to press freedom;' "n:dth~ organizationcs made it a peine tit) take ehe camp;ll,glill ~nst impu~i.ty wor~diwide,

The participants in th e 1997 lHIelrnisphi~reconrfurel'lt::e prepared a plan of <I.c.ion iii! :addressintg i lTIlIp'lJIlrn~ty in '~hdr cou n'twies. They recommended sendi~ jroi lilt in""estigamive m i~Siion~, to IP'laoes ,of kiillirng of Joumal~stS and launching medl~aedu~~t1iO!l camp<li,g~s,Tn,er also p'l.!Is~ed fo I' the amendment 'Of the law~,; asked ill'1lwrg;o¥ernmentala,gern cies to follow up cases of the mlUlFder of journalists; and asked irnlOOriilialllonal group,.s ro aJiJlopt"prillllciplies that th~se erimesshculd nor be slJJo]ecr ro :a1l11)' klnd of ITrnitatioflor prescription,"

Several intem;iIlJtiornca~ organiza!ti:om. iim rfriIedb.reiy re~pcmded w~~h ~~commend!ations, Pas.5in,g: il:c5 Reso I ution no, 29 tirthild "Con dem'l'1lation of Yiolen,ce agai nse jO'u malis;ts" 0111 lNo.v_ Ill, 1199'7, the Unitedl Nat/ions Educ<litiorn;all, Scientifi G,l'Ind Culturall OF~,mizalJion called upon al ~ mem ber StUes 1.0 adopt the recemenendatlens by the partici p<l.nlts of~he Hemi~sphere CQ!rnferren.ce_ li't ur-g~d its members to "adopt the principle that mere should be no StaU.lrte of limitaliions: for crimes against persons wihen these 1I1n@ pfllrpellrated to prell'lem~he e.xelrciLse of freedom of inmorm<a:tion and express~o'n or w~en dleir pu rpese is the obsu-uctlenef i'UlSliioe.; that go¥emrn e:t1Iu, re'fi~1ilIe ~egicSlflldclili to m:alkie iit lfIQ\.ssnlb'le to preseeuee and seneen ce those who. instng:;J.1!e me assasslnarlen 'Of p@rm~'~exeFCis~n[g the ri~hit to freedom ofexpr'e8sion, and ili<!t legis~ation provide that~e perscns If'\esponsible for off~rlises <lgains't jounnal i:Sts disd1!arglillilg che~r professialfliil.~ elmi es a:r til@ med la Il'lnu'!st be ]udg,ed by .civil and/or o:rdinary courts"

The Inter-America~ Commuss,io,n on Human Ri~ht also created i fl Oct, ~ 99'7 the Office of Special Rappon;eur fo:r Freedom of Expre~skm. II!"! its w~b~frw,llhe om c:e of Sp~cli3.1 Rapporteur stated its alms; It "sought ~ostum u late awaren,es:s of the importallilc.e of 1ilJlllll

PAN!::!.. DISCUSSIOiN ~

ob~ervam:e of freedom of expression and information in!;tlie nemisphere', ~iven the fundamental role it j:lilay~ in the c;;orlJ~QlidaJtUon and <ldvalFilo~merlit of thedlemoc~tiic system OIr!!d in @nsurullig that ot!her human, riig~lts are protecte<i srrd \l'io~arli,oll1ls reponed: to ma!ke ~peoific recommendia.riolll,5 Ollli {reecbl1rll of expressi on and lilnformado:n ttl member States to promote aorlopliion of pl"Qgre~s i~ measureste stre:t1Ig'then this rjght; to prepare speoiaHzed reports and studies om the su,bj ea:;: an d Rl respondl (lJ'(jlicldy to petiiti,olils 3Jt'Jo(:i1 other reports of vio!a1I.km~ of thiis dghit Ii n an Or-gal!'~ii~ltion of Amllllruc<!n SuJte;s member." (h~tp:lIwww; ddh,orglRela.toriafsh.ol\i!i3lrtude.asp~artIID=52&11 D= II }

Ten yearsaf;J;,~r, anether conference was 0 rllaniliet:! to add ress impunity ~illi1lSt jo I.!I rnalists, The Hem isph.ere, Coniferen,ce on The jud idar)(,.T~le IPrESS and ~ m:pu n it)' liliil Sto, IDomin,gp, DDm,i nican Repuhl lc aoimed to raise aware!il@~~ of i'l.!!dg~s, <Ina ]udidall a.,geJil,de~ to iliIN<lts; to press fireedoman.d its ~mplic:atlions, on society,

ParlJicip:antll fiFom itlo,th the jilldid<lry and jhe press have ph~dged slWlpport tot'h~ 'fight OI.g<l1ins:t umpunity;

Other p,lI'tici pants aliso a.gre~dw push forme use of uli1ltern""tliona~ case I<IW Oi.utd ~ nterAnneriican Treaties as moll lnfi,gluimg impuniify. The: chiefjustfces of the Ilnl!er·Americaifl, H uman Ri~h1LS CO!!Jn oll Justice have reeemrnended that":s,p,ecilfl:c pWliIf1ll:i plil1s of me Ameri can Convention on H ~man Rights should be a,dioptedlas well <IS some existi n~ case ~aw on crimes agaiili'l!s[ Journalists."

The need for s!pecialiized courts w<ls,al!so emphasizedl in the conference. <IS wen as the needto provide Oppolft!JJllIl,illlies (.olf d lscusslon of legal refonms to enable allli i ncrease in tlrle Ji11,J mber of C<lS~S tried,

Bero,re the year ended, ilieAmerklls :flaw concrete results l1rorn the conference, ~n Haliti, II1Jo less ~h<lnthe chief justice pushed for referms iin, the Penall Code U pen see~rlig li miit<!Jti:ons in the capacities of me tools and the jl!JJistUce systemto provide justlce t:osodety. Me-..alflwn il~e. 01111 L1Ipsurg~ in' the number o,f eases ·o,f j011.!! rnalist kJl111 i ng:f>/at~cks heard in the cOliJlFU of Dom i nican Republ~c was !Seelf1l by July 2007.

G@1l1'orull Mcrrroqum ~ P~! of fh~ Im~r-Amciiam ~ss A!;.~i~ (lIV'A) U!mmi!tt~ 00 r:~~d\jm of dl~ Prtrt and InjDInlatilJl'l.He ~.mso a' ~er «tfue YlPA Boord (lIrDfI<~o~ ,and fhe &ecw.ive C(II'»mi~~'.

H'e is the pOOJisfuer as 'W<?Jj ~ mW{l'Ilai!i.!m ~.!lII;f genera! ed~ {i{~ Gu~ran doily Pr~ni£~ libre. He ~ a 'C!l~re~j!l;!md'en¢ fiJr ~oe fr~n<:e-Pr~e, La Na;Qi6n of ama Rim, litium!» Cemr«IlYlerio:aoo ma~rne'. NBC Ne-.I,<s. and CBS NI~

He (tllmd'tld' UI Ji;:epffbIieo m r 993ilnd ~eFrtlJ as its ~oor~ ~!OF, 1* afro. foundtd ~ wee.kJY flNlP~r 7 Df~$, wIlidl Jilter bocame a TIl ~ progrom, He' was president otrhe Gwate.r,orora jmrmcr}.im; Ass:o.:im.io.rn (rom r 984 "'!'lUi 1'98.5.

l'

on

IHPUN lTV AND PRJ;SS, I'IUiI:DO:M

Raru I C. Pangalomgan University of die Philippines College of Law

The pn;lv:isioli1s on the pr,otection of ll:lUlrnan rights and clivilliberties were lnduded in the 1987 Phill'! p,pi Ill!!! ConStiitution, to !help IPreventa repeat of tlhe maJrti!'!1 ~aw period. The Constitultiional Commission: crafted the lBiII of lRitglttts andcreaeed an indepelf1dem:judid3.ry to ,enSI!JII"e that due p'l"oceScs and justice are p:rovid ed !for vlcttms of human rights vi olatlens and their families" 8<Ult human Irig,hts viclanons oo~tinue and implulliity remai ns despitie these constkunonal mandates.

The i IIllsdtutfionarl meclt'i'anis'ms ,0T protection are vu I n erable to pressuJre, te m.mi,pulart~on, and to the same abuses they are protecrlng us from,

AV<lilable laws and rules fo reh e, preteeelen of h u m3J11I Irights <lire limit~:dI. IFa r e!Cltmple. victims of human rights violati:ons and their bmililes ha¥e traditionally applied fO'i a writ of habea.s corpus iln th eir pi ea for justioe ,. But the Wllii: of habeas corpus would be satisfiled by respendents lYy .simply derIYung ClUfstodly or knowledge abeut such indiviid ual:Sor acts. So' to address their limitations, htstitutions like the courts have pushed forllhe c,r,ea.tion of new rules and laws. The IPhilippine Supreme C;oQ,lfrt has thl.]s created Or adopted from other COUII'1lUi:es means I i Ike tile writs of amparo <lind habeas d.na wlhid"l could hasten the attainment of justice for Viictiims and families of human rights vielarlcns.

PrctectiOI'l ofW1i1iJnesSles also remal r1S a preblem, For eX3Ji11lpl]e, vartou s groups have pointed out that the witness protection program of the go,¥ernment cannot provide wimessesche pro'tiection they l'I.ee.dI.Tl1ey are now propo.sing that instltutlons aside from the DepOlirunent. of jU5tJi ce be gjven powe r 'to admln i ster the program, he sari d_.A, bill I] p\.!shilrlg for private entities to 3dmilf]is:~er 'the witness, protectiohl: program is ClUlii"ently pending in Congress.

When the go,vernm,ent did look unlto eX!trajud'i:cial killings by formung: a eemmisslon headed by a retired Supreme Court Associate justice. the current administ:r-atimll deemed it: t1ii1ntooessary to publ ish ttJ.e report (known as 't!he Mlelo report], The gcvemmehllt only made the report available after a reaeuen by the Un1ited IN3Jtion;,s (LJ N) 0111 the issue.

l1he UN Rapport~ur Philip Alston said that "it i~s not fer m'E 1:0 evaluaJte the Me~o Report. That is fol" the people of llhe Philippill1'les. ce do so." IlPiut, he said matfor Filipinos to be able

38

PANEL DISC~!OINI I~

te ~ud~e th@ Mle 10 rejXlrt,they sholW,lld be free to ODt3~11iI copies of the report; 1l{;l discuss the lteport; and to act.on the 1TI!ll'1!d i ngs o,f the Mello Commi.ss ion,

legislatirve Ilnrvesti,g8!ti ens alr,eaJso hi ndiel'e,{j by certain ,execl!JJtiv€: and ~dm i fl i,strative orders, m;l!t work only to the: advant<l_g'es of th else liln power, Exeol.:l'tive privi I'ege hils ~a,te~ been popular laite,r Commilssiol1l om r'Hgher E(I ucatJ10nchair {rFIOW Soda II SeclJJrh.y Syst~m president) iRornUlio Ned invoked ilt. Plt'evious~y, severalgreups head questionedl the Ilegality OT :Presiident Gloria MaQpagal1 Arroyos Executive, Order 464 whic~h broadened the sc-ope of e:<.ecutilve p'rivi~e,ge. But despite the Supreme Cou rt's deelslon stating the II i nrnliWti'o'nsof eJ;)ecutive privill€!gtl. it remains <lJ. hindran C~ to the adv<!!ncem~n't of ~egisll!atiive inquiri'es.

Since:llrne very i nstlurdcns created to prowct hilW!m.ul fii~hts, h<w~ fai led, Fi I iipinostihen ha;Ye rescrted 'to "popular" mechanisms in oircler to protecc ~heir Rights" "Peop~e power" is Olf'le rnechan ism Fi I i pilif1,01S USe lntheir fight fortheir rights and cam paign against impunliry:

Peopile lPower Is a "resorr tothe SG""@r@li~1'1! power of the peop~e:"

I3!JIt these "popular checks on i:n:mtu1Iianai Fai I ures" do have their ow~ weaknesses :oIS well_ IFor example, ~Qme rnlscenserue the real purpose of people power as 'the inciden't in, 'the:

Phi liwine Navy;, An inve5tiga,tion on alleged (;omup~ion inside~he Navy ini!;iarool by the Ma!rilne chief was halted because rome gmole!rlil nrneflll:: ,o,ffida!s misinrerlPlr-et,ed the protest of I~r Qff~oers beung i~stiga~ed as "people power;'

~'C.Pongottll'1gtrn il: a' prg~or Gt Cf1~, CoJJ'ege o-n,aw m e1'1~ Ui~versi'Y o-fUle i!'t!Uippjne~, .. He W@$ de~", cf(l'1e ~eg~' (JI(M1 1999 to 2QOS. He Is oJso q l'iruUfl1M[ for the Philippine [)~il)i In,quirer, (l1iatl!:mQI drury,

He l~ceived the degf~ (J{ Doo~r' c[Jurldk.l:ll :S~e fITtm (he tf(IJ"WlN Law SctlO()l, ~l'I~d1I was (I \'J~rM"t pm{esscr ~'ffaw m J'fdfl'crfd '!mi\o\!~rr in [99'8 and 200,_ H~ ~,s a Philtppmt' ck~)Jk to ~ RDm.f UJ.nf~ronO!' ~iC~ o:lstrrbJ.id'md' the· 'mtroonlmot Ufmi.oor (0011 in 2Qrn ..

Open forum

[luring the open forum, the palrth:::ipants' questnOii1:S mra~nJy focused on tlne llIeW wtirtS, me lmprovements iln th e wU!;l1e~;s: prQteiClikm p.rQgt"O\rf1I, <IIl'1!d CQrlll;imllli ng educarjon em human rign'ts lfaw.

The SUipreme COillltt of m'liie PhilipIP31il1eS has Set up seve,ral special ilZ.iedcou rts milt wo,u ld handle cases of~xJl'aj u dludall<Jllings and '~nforo~d disappearances; These eoerts <lim to speed lipIDe processing of such cases.

311

lOll

1M PUNIIiIY AND PRESS FR!EEDOM

The Suprem~ COUFt aims too hasten the process iln achieving [ustlce fOI" vlctlms o'f ffxt!r.J.judiciail killlin.~ and 'enforced d isappearnm:es by cr,ea:tin,g n e-w rules Bu t just II i ke other I"U I.e'S, the writ <of ampere .and such Inew writs de;p'li!lI1d oml the evi dence, naeu re of application, and the ta:~t of :applliicm:io:n,

.'

The lneer-American Press Assecladen has promoted me esubUshmem. ,of special prosecutors grDUpS that Willi handle cases of killings of journallsts and media practitioners. S'l.Ich groups. have been created in Mexico" Colombia. and Guatemab_ These are impon:3Ji1It events with Colombia and Mexico considered as among dne most d<logerolJls places in latin America to practice ,joumaliism.

In Latin America, Gonulo Marr-oquin explained, the lruer-American Court of Human Rights dleal:s wiith cases mat were never open eel or heard in thetr countrfes of origi n, This, is a positiv'li! d~el ojpment i,OlI me Am e'ric8Js because of the h i,gh number of cri rnes agalnsr jo'urnalislS.This, Pf10alSS is not p<!lf't of me appeals process. burt is, based en the den lal of justice in every country.

M'edii~ playa eruclal role ln .attaining Justice. Media orgal'lization~ have also created rapid response units or quick response teams ttl conduct preliminary investi:gatiol1s on the kJilliOlg of journalists. They !Jsuallyshare their findings with me prosecution reams han dlling th e !tillilngs.

~ lilvestigative reports have aliso helped 'lawyers and prosecutors build cases agai II1CSt ~aw offe:n ders.The hard-h Ittin,g: reports of the Philippine Genter folf' Inve~tl.g-atiive Journal ism on former presi,deli1Jt [eseph Estrada in 2000 was used as eviden,c:e by th e prosecution in the plllll'ldeit case against, Estra,da.

Utmost ceopererion kom the witnesses is Ineeded fOI" a case ttl succeed. But before gaining their support; witne~s,es need I!O be assured tJhat they wW be taken care of by me WiItlrnes..s Prot,ea.ion Pro,gram (WiPIfI). A representative from th e D'ejpartment of Justice (lD-oJ) said somewitnesSies e\i',etiI ask rJh3.t~heir exten d!ed ~!l.m i Ilies also be indQ..Uded in (he program. But bec3!Jse of ~ts, m~a.~r fund, me program c;ou,M 'Only a,coo:mmod1lite limi~e,d number of persens.Thls poses 3, problem because some witnesses refuse to leave d1eir fumilies, behlnd,

Another problem is ~ha:t: scme witnesses, do not trust the program. They believe that it. i~ we.a.kfrom political pressure, bein,g under the adminis:trati:on of the Justice secretaJry who is an a'iter-ego of the president.

Anomer Sygges,tion was region<lli~~~oTil off whtness, prolleaion, but no program like 'tl1is has ever been established"

PAN.ElID:liSCUSSION ~

According toJustice Lucas Po. Bersarnin. tepreseiflrn.tives from DoJ dudn.g the Supreme Coun 5ummllt said tnci!l.t pn~per I egiis:l<!ti:on s:hQlUllld instiw~e df.'il.nges in ~he wi'liness pmt€!~·tion prog)~a.m. T~e High Court forwnn:lecl the recommeilildlalilollils of me Sll.!mmiteers roth e, IDo.J and to the Philippilrlle CClnt!'!:rt!:ss.

IParf:i(;ip;'lJfl1t5 i ITli the summit recommended t1hcat private instJiwtk:ms and individualssholUl~d be ~ven power to p r·otec:t VViitnesse5 an d vi·ctii ms, The SlJJIpreme Court lnco rporated dlis in thecreati 0:111 of the Rulle on the Writ mAirnpaJr<l_

Some iPardcipllnw scar mOlt it WQIUI~d be difficult to form a pr~¥a:ti!Zied witness protectien prognm. Qu est/ions. of fUfldingarid motives wete posted by mOSie, wnoare wary ·of sU;I;;;i1.1i1rneysay thata priivatlized program could end up "rallifyif\g plrivOln;.e power"',

lcwas stressed mat ~l:!:furms in eh eWPPalone would not exp<l.nd and speed IUlp the criminal ~ ustices)i'stem. Oilier instimtlo:ns Ulke law eli'lmrc.ememageifldes should alse bei mpreved ill the: precess.

A recommendation dudntg the $1)Q. Domingo. con~~renice was mai Iilitai!'1 ~111~ and ~nn!tJum!iin~ t~e carom u t'I icaticn betw<!e:njud.ges, me rned ia, 'and [~"l!St:i[l[Jftjions prorectli fig human l'i~nltS and press freedom.

..

Law scheols in ~h:ePIh imippine~ h<!\!\e il!'l!d IUded hil!.lman ri~hu llaw iin ·theircurriclu!ila. They also offer sem~l1!ars en it. Oilier groups I~uke the Ilntel1t'1!3.tiiona!1 Comm'iuee ·o.f me Red Cross fur iHtJmanimriaml law ofiFetr tJmining on the su:b]ett"

Conti Iill.l!lill1!g educatf:on for j'W!dg,e£. b~rs, and preseeuecrsshould be premeted, The IPhul~ppi ne Judiiciall .Ac:adennry; the Supreme Ccurt~ u3ililii ng arm, offers coerses em inremaltiional and beall human rightll~o:r judges uIllidielrtn.!!!ii F Delpartmenlt 0111 H u mall"! Rigl1iU and f11 ~ !"f1l3lI1iitada.n Law.lIhe Supreme Court has required lawyersrotalke intemall:uo:naillawcoursesaspa.n.ofitscontili.luin.g I~ega'i educatlen prlo~rnm.

Police: and m i IliitaJrr s.1!:alff and personnel need to be eleared by dl~ Commis~icm OIl'll H~rr1l1<1n Rli~hts from lli.ghts viiela,tien before mey retire. Be;rsami~ noted,

Ach i.eving i'ustiioe i's a sllow process,. [For exam pile. maJliIY cases of human rights vlollafions d:u rin~ the IM31fOO8 Ire~ime rei'Tril;)li III unsolved, lawyer RarL1l1 C. Ptm.gahlllgaJl"! suggested! tha:t if the victims' fumilies want dosure a trU1~h commission cOlJl'd be created sether may kno.w whtilt happened to their relath/eS.

11

".

Pan e I Dlscussio n 2

The. IP~ne~ underscored me rO'!e~f .me court ill1~dd~ssing tlll.lrni3.. UI r~~ts c:a.ses._ and nl'l brmgl ng them to closure. While It. 1<5 expected of (he GO LJJ rB. to administer I usn ce, ·the ~peal'<erss8Jid thae d'h·e ~ Lld~dlll ~y~tem is bound by challenges and problems mat hinder it from exec~run.g its prfm a res p'0lrhsibility.

Free lL~g;l:1 Assistance Group chalr josle Manuel Diekne stressed that the stll'llggie for human rights goes. beyond the le,gaJl battle, Another spell.kier; Jain Miohae~ Simon of the· Inoort1lOlIliional Com mlssion agail!'llst Impunity ln GU:ilitema~a, d lseussed die root of i mpu!"! ity and the lj:iF,evalenc:e of plueccractes in 11. scc.i·ety:

line undertakings of the Argentinean government 1:0 implement laws <lind treaties on human IrighiU we.El discussed by JU<StGce E.duardo Rodolfo hePler. while tine rele of tJlle illlWrlii3ti:ol'ial courts Ii n the s1iruggle agailFilst impunity was discussed by Ju:d,ge F@:mafldo Andr~u Mereilies ·of SiP\li11i1.

TIlI~ fi1ilmlla. G,)nfer,"M:"

on I~HI1'UNITYAINJr), PlRESS FRlEiEDOM

The eoureas it human rights mechanism

Jose Manuel lD'iolmo Chair

flee ,legal ks~wn,e G/"(IUP Phmpprnes

The stfi"UJggI!e for human nght-S is l'Ioton Iy 11; battle inside tlhe courts but alse outside of it. The Free le.gPiI Assistance Gmu p (FLA.G) implemenu both me leg<lll and m eta-I,egal a.pprood1~s I n dealing with homsn Ili~hts cases. FLAG combines 'me two approaches under its "Df.welopm~nt ILega~ A~sistan~if!" p:rog)t<),m.Tih~ m~t:a..leg<!1 Ibattlj~ is defi n~d by publk awareil1less, 11 mobilized sod ety, and m@ demand fur-justice beyond th e le.gal fr:amework

While It is important to emphaslze~he legaJ approach lir! hand ling human rights cases, it is a lse essentiall to. lloolk i~to d'lle outsi de factorstha:t in one way or another. aff~ct how cases would be daei die'" er ac~d upon.

lin h:andUilliE: h u man righltS cases, it is important to de:fl ne th e smndardc5o,f proof an d me entiity llhat must establis.h it .. The burden of proof may pose some diffiau lties for me petntioner r.o prove that the accused is the one responsible.

Seoo:ti1d is the exeenttc which the government may deny j~ invQlv~m~nt in a criime" By allowing the govemment to sli nnp~y d~ny allegatkl!1sof il;!i1 il1vo,lvement, th e bu rden of proof lis reclirec"€!,tJ to me pe1titiolille~t who illill WIrnJ would! shoulder the weight of prov~din.g evidence to pursue the case.

These factors" along wit~~he judge's tendency to be swayed by public opinionl, may affect me n.l~ing efeh e cow r-t. I t is in this sense than; fLA.G wei cemed the writ of aroparc that has Chcalil~lild the standoards and bu rdenof proof iin favor efthe com plai nant,

The w!tiit of am pare is a "remedy available to any person whosie ni:€pht 00 II{e, liben:y,.al"ld seculnity is vi:o lared or threate:ned with violati:on by 3Jt1I unlawful act or emission of a pu blluc official or ,employee, or of a private ii nd ividual or ,entity."The writ has curbed government's tenden cy to hastily deny alleg:a,¢jjons of it! invollveme'ti1t inhuman rights eases.The writ do~~ I!'1!Ot ackl!'llowledge govemme!l1't's pni)slIm ptiO!1 of regularity.

FILAG erlCDu rnges tts dliems to be independent of Ilawye rs because these cases also ~llVdve the Ib3.otlie,for d"iJe minds of the community,the govemmenl;, and d\ejudge. Fer FLAG. wim,niin,g is coterminous wnth raising the peoph;;':; awa1reness". ti'lUiS empoweringthet1l1l"

36

---

'J USt as the laY!!' can be used! woiPiP ress people andtake away their [rights,cllie bw call alse be used as ani nserumenree ~Iilberatet!hem fromth ese, ohai ns,"

~r j&s~.M~ilNlleJ fliokrro !'s ~l~ff ~ the Free ~QJ A·~~~nO':· Croup,ctJe or~~i Q,tld rarg.e:s1 gro.I!Ip or 'wm.an rlgflts ~~s iii! [he P1JillpplnM, He Is .Q~i) exeru~'1'e ditWilJr· of tile ~o law Ce.nfelr, (I!roi,!jjf1~ in:!titulll fOr !cWJ!.t~ and p.ar\j~(jl's,. GfJd' 00 1JCCFt!d'ited p~e.r !i1{' GDJ'l!ioojngrega~ edu.r.1JOOn.

r(jll1e ~9W)S; Dfa~JOO ~l'I'M cs a mM1l~er oftbe Pf~BfI(fa,I Hll'man Rig.h<ts Ca~e and the Com1mitlee on Humon RigIlll; ~ Ou~ Pf(l'<;es:l ~f(fJe Integrated ~r oftf1e P't!lIippm~,

Jan M1khael S~moll1

Head, Latin Aml1'rican' Sediol:! for the Max Planck Institute felt roreigJ'i c.nti ~!lwm(itiOJ10I Criminal L~w (GermafiY)

and ftlitElnationai legal OffiCer, inremaitiollal Co.mmjssim:1' against jmpunj~r in GUll'ternal.a

~n order to understand the roms of' impunity and me fu.a:orsthat define 1!neir persistence, [it wou I d be rH~ces~-ary to F~cogJ1ize me PQW~ir ope r"ti[n~ in a societytJ'haitshapes the socijall order;

111'1 01 ~Qdety, it is a norm that anyone who vlclaces me law win be pu n us h C2d and tjh~s pUli"llis h me,lilt must be served by acenltrn.iau~horlit:y. Th ~s cenlcrn.i

.lulnority is ~eel1"o estabhsh andg_JLllaralT1l1Lee pl!i bilk secu rity and! mainl:ai[flI political order.

How~ver" th i s no ,m becomes imp essi ble because of ee rtai n S~tlu[<lti ens that create pol ~ti cal insta bil illl:)I:, These mel u de sntuations wh en the pea pie them s,ellvesare th e, ones who create social tu rmo i I;. as i 11 cases of !b-anditry, ilrll S U rgencies, 1I,n d teerorl s rn, <llfla: when the sta.t,ie itself defies its very m<llt'ldat!e. such as when a countJry turns into dlictaw rs.n ip.

The p1lutocrn:tic nature of tihegovern ment-lifi13.t is. the weaJdhy being the ru I e rs~akes ilt difficullt to prosecute crimes that are pelltlcal in li'lraru re .The rillUn,g dass hG:S the capacitylio ~zist or counteract punishmelillts and leg~1 a.ctiolills thrown atth ~m, Thus, the preva~ence o.f impu n~tiy.

The state's fa'!ll u reee pu ni s h offend ers and prose, u te crim i nal s creates soc i a~ fear and i[f'lsecuril:yamo[rlIg 1l!rne P LJ M iie. W-ith th e people feel!ii"llg lack of sec u ricy fro·m tih estate, they may resort to selt-preeectlen and self-ddense through me h[irilng elf private secu rlity[ha1L, in the ~.on,g: ru n, may lead 00 Ii)! neh ingand oth er acts of viole n ee.

:n

The t;1~niliL CooI~oc~

O~ II,M~UNITY.AND IPA!~ FR;~~oOiM

Ilt1I soc~eties troubled bya culture of im pu n ity, it ~:s. important to reiterate the mile off the state lIS anelilltity in enJsudng and rospec.ting humanl r'ii~ts, And that earllOit'! I)' 00. 3.ch i eved with the strong slJlppon Oil' a unified uMEma~onal com iiTlunlq' in f'ignilliltlig impunit'"y.

Jon N!i.;;h~ Simwi [;> head of {jie j.Q~ Ameli'(tiJl £ecMn 0{ !!t~ M(t;l; Planck ~rlsuru!e for foiC(&Jj and' ,fmer1kUioncri Crimina) ,law, He it obI) cooromatW of tlOO .tnrl!fl'N]!ionaJ Max ,Nanc~ IResearCh S.:I1.oo.1 on Compamti~ Crimi.l1lai 1.=

man is: culY·encl'y mr~f'IINj!ionaJ i~gal 'D~.r OF die ~nte(naoo.oo/ Com~on agaMosit fmpooi!y in G'[f~~aitJ, (Ina ~ a consultant ~;r (,iminot Law Refilm] m e.oo~. A (O~ rmem@on~i iIlvesti_g(ltor in U1e Guatemartli'l Comm~ fOr ~riGar G.arjJl~on~ 4e is a mem~jI" of·t!~ ,editorial bOQrd orIRe~g!(lJm.rJ!l(J: • .).Qo ~[mlo,.,EM[l.z~, and ~on the I'<ltM'c/i ("wn<llr of!'/t.e "furow;Qrrori~ Projed:" in Thf FklglJlt, N~tfl~nlan&_

The ~tJrl(l,gg~~ <lg3il'l!st human rights viollations does not stop wid1the sign i ng of U'e9ill:iesand in~erMti:o 1'1311 Ilaws on human rightos" M 0 lee limportant is ensu ring that laws become operativ~ and fu neuenal in a country. These are the functions Oil' th e Supreme Cou rtas awol for ad m~lliIllsood~ j lJI5~ice.

Hon. Justice Eduardo Rodolf'o Fl"eHer CQlJrtofAppeafs

Argentina

Th e iim pi ementatien of slUI,h h~ma.n nigLhits ~aws and international treaties may be difficu lit because constituctiions orum do nee make them s;e:lf.oexe;c;utlililg.

There is a p~riQdl in Argerliti na when the gO¥enllmem 'rai~ed IiO implemem: humanl rightS laM.!'. IliI I 985, t'WO years a~er fl'liie mil itali)' dlctatorship ended. mi I ltaryjunca mem bers were cenvicted for severeviolaelons of human riighits. Som.~ mil iitaJryofficers. howe¥er, lolb!b~,ed for laws which became 'the bases for tJhe pardo~liS ami amnesties awarded tJhiese ·convi:cood officials.

lit was in II 992. that rue In~er.Amelr~can Comm lssion {Olt Hiumtalfl Rights declared the palrd!o:rns a. vi 0 latlon of human. lfights under the Int.er-Am@rkan CQ~ntiolil for Hernan Ri\ghK Th~s declaration marked a n~ :stage in Al"genti ni's ,co!ntinued q uesefor i~s1Jice and has re'lllived efforts tc uphold human. nights.

D@spfl~ its earlWer miilure. th e' Argentinean government stiiU implement-S laws on human trig~ltS. The Argentiim,ellilil Congress in 2003 declared the law~ of milliury dlisdpline and impunity :fIS"ill'irilmediably" i nvall.idl, which prompted tile re-opening of cases ilt1lv-oliving human rights vuo lations" 1ihes,e casesare stili being trtsd un~iil lIilOW~ .A!I~o, the courts of Arg~mtill'ila. am now holdng into the validity of the decrees that~rant~dI pardensand

lEI

amnesti:e:s after the p~riod of dictan:onh i po

On rop of tlrnese,llhe .gpvenlljrn~l1It ~~ slse con!lempia,tin,g 011"1 whetJher to regard crimes committed d u rin,gme mii Iita1ry dictaloonlhl'ip and me democ mtilc period as: ~rimesagajnst h~manity"

.H,or:L p.,1ke ,E.,;I~a.r4o miler Is a fM11er p~urot. ,cn- im~,sHliatme judg!2" and 'was ~ento/ ,eJ'eY!lte~!o ~ COtIrt ~[ ~o~ af Argen!l\!m Heoo~ dtit-[ p_u~;r Jn !h~ rose agOOts¢ top mWilory ClfflQ;!'~ in (i! cefe1mlrea IIUm{lll rJgh!f C'G~c If! A~1l, and ~ thus firmilirr. wfth ~e do1'Jg:.m .;mel fr~~~ tjja~ proset"U!or$ ~tllnrJY'ClIfj[(\jn<l

ffeI.Ier O~~lId' ~~ bllm~IDr's ck:r- altfJe Na~r 'a~ o(ArgentmQ; Qnd tIitIM 'r;MUnutd his ~p~.dOOn in on'm.iril!.i taw and criminal £dence ,a¢ the Un~ity ,of SaJl'Ild'& aoo !lje ,tJIru'w:n~ of Saromaoca in Sp.am_

f~rhds: mught at the k~ CI(LQW aM SoOOf S~es ofUle Uffl~rs.i!y Qflll:l~IWSAm!S"GJ'Jd the koo~ of[a~ d1!~ Un~icy OJI{ iI~m~d'e Zamo~. (1M hils aJso ~~ G! th~ Uruversid'trd ~ntemaaan-ol 4e J'i!'lda1u4a en ~~,~ roPI~ at l-f!;lmtiln Ri'gh!1;T~ prjnaip~ oflmiYff;ai jusOCe p_Ll~ ,and <1'Jme~ ~gQJ~S1; ~Wifl{IRi!y,~

J!llIdge FemandoAndlrelll Mer~lII,e$ AudiMo.a Naciana' de EspQfl~

Spcin

The ,oommu~!'1Ilent ee 'Qomlbat iimp~lillity is a. ccmmitmene tlhat should he made by the I nrerml.tiofl<'ll comm unity:

Human "gilts ¥iiolations, especially' theatzacks an d >l.5:5:alJJllts on the media, are eh rears 1iI0t cmliy to me press but also to the pl.!!bl ieas a who~e for iit i5 the 11Itterr~ha1[; is depriived ofth e ri~hrtllo irnfo:rmaci,olliL Atm.cb on th e media may be r~g:alf'\c:led as acts ofgenodde.

There ~~ a period in IRwan,dOl wh,ell'e a. number of iourna[ftu-s were ki I I:ed. These attacks 1I11"e not iso!aood cases but Imtin.eran ei1fOl"t to syS:l!emllltic:OIUy sule!il:cetlhe media:.

The assaul~cs and a.tmckso,j'lJ the media are workilrngwithin the context of the terrerism tllnat, lin some cases, ls created by time govern m~l!1t itself.

Fifteel1l years ago in SlPCai i'I, some parnrmillimrYgfDups o:rg13iniz.ed by polke and slecu rity officer!"s and meir me~ce!iltarries disguised ~hel1l1lselves:as anrtii-terror~stgiroIJPiS m cQ\l\eli'~ the crimes andaces ofoorror th;3![~hey ccmmltted. It was on I)' after &alltasar Gatrzo'n's im,lestigations dlrat the conneetlen bet'We'~iFII these terrerlst groups and h igh ,rnnking ,oficj,ds MS 'E!](po~ed_ :Soon ake" these officiall:; were tr~ool. ool1v~cted, sentencedand jaillec. It is impomntto, ulrlders)core the rol!e of the justice syst€m ;!)Io:rng with the media i rIi cembati IIlg oormnlsl1l1l and threats to freedom.

39

The MlI!"~3 Ganferl!'OO8 011

II"IPUNIITY AND' PRESS; FREEDOM

Also important 110' note is the functiolfllof nmlelmati,onal courts in C0l5leS where me local courts are too w'eak to proSleou'te crim~s within their ternir.ories. Certain conditiolls must exist in order to n-a'VE: a sound and impartial [udieial system .. These il1ldude:a jus:tiice s')I'SIlem in,dep~ndent. from the iil"lflu,encles of tlhe ,~cutive and Ile,gis;lla:t11w brandies of the govem rnent, and a detached police who will not be swayed by the mislleadlil"ll,~ i nserueuens and deceptions 0',1 prosecutors.

I n the absence of these conditions, it would be necessary to subjle>ct hl..lmalil, rrg~1t:S cases to 'universal prosecution t!11I t'O'ugh i illite mati 0 mil courts. Spain is ~ n the forefront of this efron.

lIMit H:1'Il!lMo Ai'ldre[l Mererie-s is (1:11 r~Gting ju,d'gI! at th~ Audienoill Ni1~aJ de &~~(l, ,a court af first insrooc~ ·that hears h~ JG~' and ~igh profiJ'e ~es, Since 20D2, "Ii wwrt has inVl:!s~ Mel p_ut.ed ·crImes ~r~rro.rism, 'd',~gtrutl'loking; C(IJ'1I'uptiool, ood ~jJl'1iU'drrfme. RereffiiIY MereJJeJ in4icted .w Rwoodans fa.r ~noo~ ill 199'1· (llld JW ,C'Jrlmet mat iI!CII.Id·ed the aua~~i.tNiJ!fun of pOOtioom croo jDlImaN!:!S,

Merel.\e$ ~~ ~o the group afexperts 00 Im,~rnotiol'1a1l.e,~j Coopera.tioFi (It the University ofCilS!illa ,ld Mlll'tCfla. wei has be~n ~ profe$~or (It tJte Un~-4y ofCmn!:ilbri<:i aM 'dle Btmf{MC rfiSti!r.M 0[ ull'nlooiogy.

40

PANE:l DIS.(;;USSION 2

Open forum

The open forum discussed, arncngcthers, the part!ici pationof ciivi! society and hu man rigI1t~ group~ in addNssing cases of humarnl r_ghts violadom. and me diffit;ullty of prosecuti rng eases i tlIvoilviirn,g ,command responsl bii I ity"

• Ci\il~ society and I1!llJim,m l'ii~htsgroups play a crucial role in~he trials of 11 u m3J11i rights eases in su:c:~ a W<£f ma~ chey may alter the views of the public and correct ~e mlsconcepdens they heave widll rh ~ j u~tiicesyswm. Justice Cid uardo freiiler oited a period in AFg~l1tirlJa when wi'Ulesses and com plai nants prefenred 1i.0 go ro th e, Spall1llsh courts, becauise they did mloi: tlruist the Argelllltineani court ~yste:m. Wim~he h eillp' of human Irights grrou ps, the peeple slowl~ rega.i n,ed confidence in llhe Argeil'i1rlneancou rt system.

• Ifhe IP ros,eoution of !;ne main perpetrators of Ikillilrn~ ~s diiffkll.!!llt despite the legal provicsioll1"s on command Ire~pollsilbulity, Prosecutors muse ~ave a. witn ass wh ocan dli Nctly iimplicate perpetrators.

Cl'liticaiaiso in pro5ecuti mig cases in",ohrjlll1~commllndl Iresponsibility ls We s.electuon of me j udgesand the eourt, F~iler said lihat in Argentin<l. they make SlJre thaJ[ the cr~m es ciOmmitted by IDe m ililitalry alre judged by civiU3JiiI jlJldges". not by mill italty i~dges.

Spain does nor liia:ve, a, partllcu lar law on command Inespo:rnsibilky. Ib I,!It SIPllIn ishcou rts ,oompel miliitflry superiors to t<!~ full respens ibil'iity ft:wthe acts of their slJlbordinaJ~es.

It·was e'mphasi'ze<il Wait 'me proseeutton of ~'mm3!n r_gj1ts cases becomes extra cr,iticai when the very people expected to implement the laws agai nst human rigllt!iO vi'dlatiQns are me perpetrators. Th~, i n d~p~ndem:e of 'me police force from the man date ofthe presecueers becomes exera diiffh:ult since ll'h~yare :aJ50 part of the gOiVetJtliment,.

• Aiong wim5uppon: from ("ivi I socnety and hum1<l.n ri:ghtsgJrDUps... iit i~ importaJnt to noW ene paJrtr,dpation of We ~l,!Id!g>i! in the fight against impunilty.

Ft'@iler Oiwd <I case ifl Argen:t!i na, where even with rJne eooisrenoe ,of a. prooocol denouncin€ wrrure, a number of police officials ha'Oie still been accused of human rights viiolatiiOirns. At this poi nt. Freiler f1Oited~he different strategies prosecutonarld ludges mw,t employ 11,0 ,e!I1ISUlre rna/it the po,1 i:ce wi III not, impede ~mrestigati,o:rns_

RutJIl Cerwntes, pUlo~ic infolll1f1lllJtionloffi:cer- of the hiUlman rightsgtrOup Karvpotl'in {Right~), ",vud with Fir~e LegaJ ASS1SI:a,nce GroUIP' s ,dlevelopment legal assistance program. Cervam,es said that ~hi,5 type ofass:lst<mce w.o,rns well with human ri~m,ts gmups and with the v~cti 11111:5, malt ~-J,!~r gFQlUji) assists.

The! thi~ ~~,nell fOC:i.!Jo~~d on, tJrne. dClm:~stJic and lneernauenal rneehan i<S~S .ehae m,ary be ap,p!lledi 11m the fi;ghlt agaJllnst I rnpu n Ity. Two of the four speakers S.i.I d that wh!l ~ intemaOQnal1 mechanisms can hel p obta.i n justice. h: is p:l":efe:rnblli! ttl s;trengd"nen domestic institutions first,. II: was also explained that inl)~rnatio,f1Ial mecha.nisms can ont)" be re50~d to wrnell all local institutions have been ,eiXIhaust.ed wlmouit jlustice being achieved,

.AlIso emphasized by die panel was the need nOl:only to prosecute those responsible but also to eli1s~re thalt Ir,epilrntlo:ns are made. The need to Wiid!en antHmp~rlity efforts to include non-state actors wa~ also raised-

43

'F"~ Honib Lonf:..OiWio on

I~MPUN~nr:'( AN'!!;! f',~~. F~~~DOM

Nadonall, regional~ and intelrllatiional mech,al1islms ,against i~mlpuni:ty

Eduardo Belrioni Executive Director

Due pf<)C~,;S Gflaw Fo.undariorJ' USA

The experience iJiII lati,iiI, America shows tJha.t wh Hie in!le.rnati:onal inslliwdorls can help iT'!~h~ fight agai !ili~t impunity, it is prefernlb~le t.o strengthen domestic i iili5dt!JiIiloI'llS in the search fur a.coo'ultlIt3ibility. lif international m ~dhalil isms are ~h~~, d"l@ry~hould be used, An example is tlne ~ m.:er-.AnneriCan Com missicn for Human Rlighu r,a.pporwlU'rsJI up j;l ro.g)ram, which has a speclal rnalfl.d8!l!e from m.e UnitEd Natlions" Hie sai d these r:appo rteurs can pU~hCOlWlnlt,ies

to rnakesn dlfort to add ress t!neilf impunity IP roblems if their sirte vis~u,~o these countries show ma.t the, problems are ifildeed there.

A study" wh uch 'the IDue Process of Law Foundatiolill has just fi nismled on the justice, systenns of Celi"lfJral Am e rica and Panama, shows th<lt imp u li1,ity is the p reduet of a w~1k jU~~c!f! ~ystem_The study showed the j,udlitial systems un tIi'lose countries have problems such as 010 JiT~pt~Orl. llackof professionall ism, and la,ek of reseurceswh i ehare si,milarm th e problems of the jjuslCi,ce ~y;s;tems of otl'1 eli' Latin Ameni can countries strl.lggling with impulnity.

The urn PI;!II"l ity Ipro!b!I,em is not onlly lim ited to llhe lkillililig ofioi[jlm~ists as mere are aliso cases OLga.! nst ltn.!lman rvghts defenders and unkmworiken wlhllit:h W€IF€ not properly inv'e5I:iga[OO inllnOS€ countries. Thenen-resclunon of ~01j rnalis,t,s,' cases has a dee;p-er implication that afl\~cu th ~ peop~e"s !'ii~ht to i !ilmrmaltiolil an d weedom of speech,

In erder to Wilrll the battle api nst imlflUinity,. ilt ls Inecessary to 'Work for d\e ~mpro¥ement of me juStiCefiystem.

fer instance. the siiw<!tion in Mexjeo ~'hGw~ am'!: the hclk of resourcescan render useless nile creaelen of speoi3.~ groups meali"lit to add'ress impunity. In 2004,. the Mexk:3Jn f~!elral goV@'flilliiflllfmt created a special prosecmor's offnce ttl he~p ~ocal prosecutors investiga~e 'the hu nd reds of unresolved mUlrders of wom~n inene stare. The results were not very good due ttl lack of reseurces.The clreati,Q:t1I ef a s:pecuaJ mechanism slse shows that. the justice system is weak lIS it cannct on ~11l OWl'll reso!lve me cases,

44

~dr.!orrd'~ !Ie~LMl 11& tlI_ ~u&r.t dmlGtN ,of me ,~ue ,~ af Law fa!!lild~"n ~if!~ j~ne ZdlO6. Bertoni Is a,I;sti, [J p,rffli1te ~ III ~~n[jl'rlJ] ,~tJt ~~ asa Iegm O!Jfim~ (Or ~r oon-g~i'Il'>Imr Oi'~Jliz'oMn~ ili n~ couJ]Bry..

~~wIt,,~ amamn: ~1!@.in.intemat.iQ.rnaipoiq a"""pr~ (tM1 Geo'~1Mlsillng;!M tJrl~i\}'".ro~ a r:oroft~ lor ~f O'im.i.OOI taw ,and uiRJf~ ~dlIre Qt ~e Sawo' (tf Law a[.tlJe Uffl.-er'3!.id'crd.d'~ Brnl'roS Aires'_

He ~ ~p~oo roppmeur (or fi;«~ or e_~o,n of me ,rlUe~nnMoon CDmIJl~ of Human ~ ,a¢ d1~ ~I'limti'an '''fA~n Sta~ (l,002-2005)_H~ is <Jf~o ,a' fOrmer rerrnw ofdi'e Numan ~g,'nl: rtjSCiMe ~rrl1e "'Ntm~/(P Uni!'e.tlhy S~lloo~ of Law_

Chri:sti file Chung

Senior FeJ1mv. Schef~ Cfiu~r tfur Jnt,emm;onal Htlml(lfl Right:>, Y(;ire lmv School and

formef prQlSeWwr, lJ1wmatio.n(j~ Criminal Court

The I ntemational Cdmi]nra~ Court (IICC) ns fu~,!rIded on me i dlea of domestJic ini@atives."The IICCwm not conduct iits own ifl'li\eS1llgaiion [f a, stare iswi~lling lind able 'm pu rsue a case ali'll irtSoWlll"

h il1l Oiflly oilier h u main rights ,effon:, me II CC has its share of setJbacks <lOG d'isap'poinIlLliIg days. AltJliJoll,gIi o¥elrcaU, the ICC i~ ,~ffuc~Vve Ib wit: !.mderuti I iiZiOOL

The ICC, which W"3S the first of its kind (Feared by a treaty ratified by lOS nations. repre:sem.s a consensus that certaln cri m>!s <IN SO offensive to humanity arn,d morallity dflrat theee can not be impunity for them,

ne ide0J, of an ICC probably first came llJiP w!hen che gelfilodd'e convention was tieing In~oti!l,tedi'Fll 119'';,7, IBack then, one of the provislion:s. of the genodde COli1\O\elltion W<ls~he crea,icm of 3J1iI intenlil!tio:rnalljudkial OFpfll which would hesr orimeschal'girn~ perpetraters wfuthgenodd~. This was to address those ~ime;s\Nhen the smites mat would o~dlinal"i Iy h0JVof;l jl.!riiSdiction were u nabl!e or u n.wilUin,g to try the perpetrators.

'WhH~ lit W'aS nations that ratiifi'ool me u,eaty, iit would not have been po~~i:bl~ wi~hol1.llt ,!I, strong push from no:rn-government ,or,ganiuti,o:ns and chi~ Sloci'e:'ty.

The liCe has ~ u risld!i,cl!i 0:ri1 o'ollercrlimes of genocide, crimes '1gaiW1lst ~IU malfllity. '10,' cri rnes comm itred as pawt of <I wudespre<lG, systernailic aJttaok Oiill (Jivitlians andiwar crimes, ~si:on is riot yet actio:nalb Ie IJlldeltl!n e ~Cc. Thecou IT only has iUlri~d i cbO:nl from the date ,of ~hetreaty's :a;ppr'O'Va!l on jlU~y ~,2002-

4.5

The Mi!i.niil~. Ca[)IIe~e.n.ce ,~

It-I'IPl,lN!TV AND' Fl'1IlEr'Si!;, FREEDOM

Alii !JO'L1ITl1tri:es that rndfied the n§ty8Jreo!b~ligedl!o enac~ ii I'iI d'uei r domestic jlUl risdvctb!1!~ 3.11 the st<lnda rds that ex~st in the Roman s·ta!Wte,. Thls creates :anemlrtir,e sys,,em ,of reJintorremell1t So even iif mere are, liIiO cases, brought before the ICC. iits ~eEts are al:ready palpable.

For e)(amlfl~e. the GW'eat Brimi'ti1 has pro5ecu~edl irtS soldiers for aJ leged atrocities OIpin~t deuinees rn ~raq under their demesne ICC leaw amo:l1g others, This shows diie ICC ilS woltlki ng throtlgh dome5l:iciur~sdiaiions ma,t lJse ICC provisio ns,

'The problem W~dl ~ t1I1IFl'UI n i'ty ~s not that jus~~ is: rretavai leaolle but that j ustlce isselect~l,!Ie,~y a'V:ali l:ilI.bl e, . , .. Anld ilril 1term~ of lookin,g: fur a p~ac:e where you can find equality I~ n der the law, I think that eh e, Romain stanuws~ts a ¥€!'ry,v@TY powed!JJ11 precedent"

C11Jis~e Glmng w.a!l the fl.m Seffl8.r!Jrjaj att<omq to W1Jrk ill th~ Offjct(jfrh~ Pm~erlr~.r of ihe m~mt6[j'onQ.l' CrWl'!lin<li Coutt (iCC) (rom MaKh 2004 to julY 2007, She po~ed Wi! ~~ JGc:-mrnroted 1!iI!i'ft"an!sD{ a~.s:~ ifjre~tigaWM,. ~nd pro~~~ jn' UpnM. Dd'rfll(.llndrh~ Ctm~,

aro1lJl~ !XtilliI:iMd iiif~f: ~eclitt.M D.~ a[tjle oOrce orftle r>rw~Wlar,MeraJ prosecutor at the U.S.At!lJm~rs OffIce fill Manoo~ chi~f of CriminaJ'AppMfs.llnd co~md if;) mf: iPrjV(l'.f,e law' flffIl a( Sheail'nlM &, $lerl.ing;

5iIre ~ OIlm!J'lUy a Senior FeJlbw at dJ~ Sd:J~~ ~!~r lOr fnkrnd'lIiMcri H~rln ~IilI1G at Ya.le I.aw S~oo', O!~ng is 0' grOOLI~ qtyole Cotlege ol'J4dJe Ha1¥lllm law· Sclwol.

Ruben Calrranza Senior AsS'odc:iIte

~"'temational Cenwr for Ironsjtio,n(dlustic.e USA.

The llrmen'la!r;ional Ge:tlter for'1lraJnsiitional jW!sti,o€! (11Cl]), 1In ~lrn1Leril1i1l.tional humanl nights m.gEInizfilitioli\l1ias offices Ii n 18 cou ntJries. Mlostofd\ese ·c:ol!Mlttries ~ave ,e:imer ,gone through oO:fll1Tilict or ncav@ emerged from :il!1Jiilioriltanal1l rule, Tmnsilllio:rn3l1 lusllloe deals with post-conniet cases of rn:asshr~ hum'!'!.lIlJ right5 viollltuo.l'LslInd seeks to ensu re malt imp!JJ'nllty ·c:i!oes:not prevail.

Adid'rellsi n~ imptil'liry il'l\!io~lves two aspects: le~ai <Jiccountability and reparations fo reh e vidi t1I1Is.

~ CTJ is not just cencerrted with dealing witml the past but also with pre¥entin,g:tih.e lrecytrren.ce of alb~se:s. ~t seeks to b:alam::e 'tiheapp,roach ~1J'l illitemacriollfai justlce by to(;usiiltlig not o.nl,y olffl the perpetraeors and meir cri minal trials b~lit also by ensu ring thOit ~he victims'

46

Il'A!NEL DISCUSSION 3

rig.tilts are proteceed as well, wlhiich means reparati'ons must be made. Legal accountabilit.y does not necessarily mean on Iy eri minall jlUlstice <lccountabmty but can also include the eivi I aspect,

11'1 the IPlnli Ilippilrnes, there are all ready meoha,n isl'I"IIS few .lccoluuability· agaJi nst government officials. B'Ult ccncern should be expressed for the a~~Quntability process for l"Ion-scatle actors, although the National Democratic Fr,o'f1It (N OF) does dai m that it has such a process in plla:'ce.The purges in the NDIF also lied ttl human rights violations as discussed in the, report by United Na!tions (UN) Special RapportelUJF en IExtrajudicial, Summary or" Arbitrary Executi ons Phill i Pc Alston.

'The criminal,admh'ilistrntive, and ather pt'oc~edings do net have to happen wlitJlilin me domestic legal sysrem when? 'theviolati en took place .... hi! som e cases, the perpetrators are able 1;'0 evade accountabi I irty try sl mlplly go:ilrng abroad where they feel exerad i'tion mOl)' not be possible or they can seek asylum.That would be an examplle of attemptil'b.g to avoid aocoumability by going somewhere elise:"

Fo r ins,tanc-e. an lndoneslan g~;meFaiI was charged last year ln an Austral ian COurt fur the kUling of five AU<stFaliall, Bntis h, and New Zealand [ournalists, who were (;'Overi~g Iml:OIl(!sia/s occupatuon of Eas~ Timor in 1 97's. The effort shows that aeceu nulb i I it)" c,m cut: across Mtiomlil boundaries and across domestic Ile.gal syuems andthas mere is a central oblig-iltio!l to, talee 'effecti .... e measures.

Tile Pilillippine 'exfJeri,ence wii'th 'the killing: of [ournallsts leads co a risk in the pel'Ceptkm of jQl!Jrnal ism as, a hazardous profession,

"Joufn:lJlnsts may be vi:ewed as people who assu me the risk of harm an d ar@i th@F@fuFe not entitled to rep:a.raci:o:rns ..••• 111' 90% of the killillings of iourna~nsts are related to exposes on oorr!Jpt.ion, the right to the truth should extend toche allle,g;tJtioncS of ecrruptlon and! the account of [eu malists of those allegations .. "

Sj)ocmc measures <IIPiPHca.bleto Journalists. the principles of privileged information, the rright against prior restraint, and wrnlist!.eblowelr protecdon must be based ol'leXlp~ri,enCie.

The Ia.ck of human rights courts or mOli'ilirtoring: bodies in Seutheast.Asla adds tome challenge in the fight, ag<iJlns.t implIJlfl ity: The alternaw~ tethls is ehe use of 'the former 3coouncahlll,Ity mecharnisms that W'tilln2 previiously' used such as those used in World War III trials or bylJne Intema!ilof1lal C rim i nal COtU re in Cambodia. These rnechan isms have to work t9gedher.

47

:f,t>t;> f:.bmii. Cgn~"~QI;' 00

IH"'~NITY AlND PRESS FIl:!i:iI:DO:M

Goi ng backw ~he disousskm of the Philippines, <! pf;l~p~l;.tiv@ 0'1'1 the attitude of me Armed Forces of me PhililiPiPI nes (AFP).,. which has been dile s~b~ect of most h II man rights complaints, regarding aocou nrnbi~h.y rneehenlsmshoeld be IP rovided.The PifliH i ppi n es refLhseci to rat:iity the ICC trea,ty when II was defense ~.!lIt11dersecretary. The DemrlSf;l d~patrtrn ent used to receuve ~ett.ers from the CililiilLOml administration 3skillilg tlhie Defern,se SJecre-taJryto conv,i ncelihe President not t-o send We i!'ls~n.lme!lt of ratil'k:aJtior) ~o the Selliat,~.Wlha1I: was illiG .. expected W'aSche AFP's decision to byp:ass the defense SJecretary by sending its own ietJter~ to til€! Presudel'lt and to WE!; Set:ltaW a~killl,g them nat to Fatiify the treaty;

Also, til e executi';lle depanmerllt's ;FJrabblimg (Jred~.. for the Supreme Cou rt's efforts to combat implUlnl~ty shou lid be critid>l:ed.

"In a forum I attended, ~cutive S~cretary Eduardo Ermita. 1I1fter mee:tiUlig with P~ilip Alston at the UN General Assembly cla,i med that becal.lse Qf~he efior'tsof the Su preme Co u rt, dl.e gorverli"'liil1U,1:nt can now say .hat effonsare being mk'En to exact 3.CGO'l~lt1Italbility"., . TheFe's a dilfuFelllce between dJ,!~ Sup~me CO'un dOUIIlIg ilt and Office of the Pres.idoot taking action,"

There are some questions on~h~ in<ilepen dle'no~ <lnd impart!la1lity of the ilnve~tiga'tiof1ls bei ['lEt C..QI'I!JI'l.~cred Iry instimtllons, mat are also the sublect of complaints.

"Do we th i nk that the work ef Task IFotroe Usig rn.e.ets~his criterion? In1 pa,ti,i!lity willi always be an issue when pe:reeiPtion iis iili1lvoh.ledw begi ifl with. There is,~lh,e percepliion lihat the peliee and mi~ita,ry have no eenerel Q~r th~ir perseenel e~:jX!cliailly 1!hQ~e i I1volvecl in extJra]lldicial killings l,m:dividlJa!~y as g~rnls for hlire. Or worse, they have no ,control because k ii~ a poHcy to CQnductex1WajlUldidlll kiillin.g~ as lin {the case ot) Jo¥irro PllJlpa.ran ,"

lt is impotmm ifllOtiUStW go after sta!oo sceors in impunir;y cases. The Civilian Auxiliary IFon:.~~ Geogp,phk.!I Units (CAFGU). Oil paramilitan')' grnlLJlp, in the Philliipp~nes is. panly govern mene funded but a Ilargepart ·of its resources is s~pp~iedl by me private seeeer.The CAFG tJs have ~:S:O' been accused of h~matrn night$ muses but llhere ~s linl,e mlk of n:avll'l,g them <lnd~hJe:i r backers' being maldie to aeeeune for them,

:RIrDeI~ 'qmr~ rs {} ~Qr ~W~ ~tr}Je !nWI"l~~r ~iI1W (Or Trons$!Njaf Ju~~~

~m!m:a ~ litis Wld'ergrodll6te @a low 4egrees at the UMfver,;i~ or ~ li'I1iJippj~es, ."$ ~' Qo~cj P!lbfit; 5~e Low f'mgrnm SMo..rr.JI';. ~ obri1~ hit J'l'td.li!e.r &{ Irlw~ degree {rorrl' N'ewYOil um~e.r:!fZY' I':n 2005. HI!> expe.r:t!se [n"'!'!de~ juMe, Illimall rights, OOlTUPIioo. ,s,zrnroty,. and G!l.rtIf/id il;s~~_

48

:Harry L. Roque Jr.

Roque & B~uJyw"]' Low Offices PfliJippirres

The practice of h~lma n rights ~a:w should not be eonsldered as an 1Iltermlltuve form of legal prnctice." Even as a Ifaw stud em, I Ina:ve alWays beli:eved that ~t ls th,~iob of the mainstream lawy~r~ to do human fii~htli work and it ls the oor,ing ones w'ho do securities and all those oilier I uc:rative fvel cis of law whQ sheuld b~ eensldered as dioing alternadve ~egal practice,"

A crue was filed qluestioml~1lig Piresi dei'!t Gloria. MaC<ljp;1ga!1 Anroyo's d,ecllarati,o n of a s1:aW cf emerg~ncy iin 1006 aft'~'r alll!~8iif'1lg thac lefti~t and rightist forces

have n8!oched 3. conSj)3 raCYIiO briin~ heir aclm in i:strationl dOWIti'L The sta't,e of em erg~ncy r'Bsulit.ed i III O! med la dlamp-dlown, lncluding the closure of a. c!riti cal mc!f,o progrnm,ltle raid en an <lnlti-Arroyo It'Iewspaper.~he su spenslon of a televlslen p rogram, ~ rears agai Iflest television s.rartlons,andtlM,ec;rea~lon of media gUidelines"The inciden't aliso ledte the arrest of pil!r~onaliti~s and milital)! officbl!S alilegedly linked to coup arrempts agalilils[ .Anoyo,.

UnexlPec"edily. the case wo:n., It wa;s iN ledjust tD ssdsfj II n11!lmarionalllaw provisicns rega rding th~ ~xJhausliion of demesele !"em~d les befo·r~ going to me United Nado:ns Comm~ssion 00 Human Rights (~NC'H R)., Siin,c;e tJhe IFlhi I i ppi,ri!e4> has ratified thea.ddition.d pretccol to the Int~:mnllJ;i Oll1lal Covemmtoll1l CiVliII 1I1111G IPolitic-a1 Rights {ICCPR), i~ tJhl~s recogn!i~esthe j:uriSidic:tio:n of the UNICHlR, where under the ICCPR a n<Jdonal emergeirncy declaration '!Va~ uncalled fult as there W'M; iii 0 e'ol'iden,ce ~ uS[i,fyillg it.

A di'iil case: was 'filled against presideril~iJ.I spouse Jose IMiguel "IMi~" Arwyo for charging I ~ Ii bel cases api nst 4Mi joum;jJ1 lsts,

Ttie suit agaii i'!~5t Mr. Arroyo came about after N i n,e:%: Cacho O~ iVOll'\es. ed i !io, in c;;hi~f of Tile D(lj~ Tribune, asked if there ls a remedy against me presld ential spo use's: 'C;OriIStal1lt iii ing of I ilbel cases, wh iich was, I~ n n scassari Ily incol'lveniendng her. Aft~'r doing some re:>eariC'h, we found an obseure p ro,'vu5 len un the Pind ~ippi rile Civii I Code wh uch woul d .gij~ ~h~rn 'C3:U!se for action," Arti de 211 give~ usa I;;'C)'U rse of action fur winart is known as abuse of right,. whil(;~1 meanls that even hf tJh,e rig[ht is perfectly Ilega.1 such as the fill ing elf ~ib@1 J;:a~~s, if it is, done in the manner inju rleusto anoth er, iit still I gives YOLl a (au 5e of action ford<limagE:s:"

On til (;! :a.rgume'l'lItt!hat the libel c;;a~@~ weFe i ntended to infringe olfll press freed!o:m. AnJlci,e n O'frhe New' Ov~1 Cod,e was used to file a case again.st Mr.Arroyo.I't was the Thirst time

49'

The MiLl1ib Cor;,fcncnoc on

INlIPUNIIITY AND PRI:SS f'RJ:15DOM

<l civi I SIUl~t fo r damOliges was filed agai nstl!h~ Ipr@siiden~iall :SpOlUi~El_ UndeF Article 32 of tine 'New Ovi I Codle,one UlnI ~I:.l e fo r damages whenever his or her rights are viol:aood.

We flledarloilier C<ls,e ~~rlst the IPallaoe, On Nov. 29, 20{)l,th@ police arrested over" .50 n~poneFS and tech n leal personeel of med la organizatilol1S fo r coverililga news c;oln,rerence ofSel1l.Arlltonio 'Irlltanes IVamd some soldiers who were under trial for m~tiny.lhe mii~itary and me police clai rnedthe [cu rnalist£. we.f"\eo!bS1iruct~ngjustice and in fact had crossed 01 poUce line.

The case is a dam8ige suit following Artiicle 32 for the violation of rigjhts COl:.lplied with provisional remedies,

I n cDrdus~on!. g.ovetifl,mems wm try to be reiP'r,essive b Ut with 3, lit-de crea,tivity. the peopl€) can <I,ctualty fight back,

Har:,·yL.Rc.tjueJr. 1st! pi'\),essor qt !f1~ U:n~~orthe PJ~I'f~m-~s'Ca~ge afww aoowmdr.redor offIje Uni~r,sjt,rt Ins!iru!~ 0[ lnt&nd'tl!onll"l !_e~ sru\'lk>s.Roqu-e is ·Qfro, a rer:w_rer at tJie PJi.iI!MliM jLJ@;.i~r A,u4emy for 'n~rooooMi Lawanq Muman RigI1Itl; and ~ ManootD.ry Continuff1.g !_~gd ,EdumMn for ~,~ -speooIi:ift,g on [nWnmM! ~aw. ~nter~QtJioI!,o! l.egLllr P!r~e=. ~M Cenerui Ww PJ'(l~.

Al: ~or p.arcllenlf~e ~ue .:In(ji IlI:lWyrJn wwO(fk.e"R-DqDe bas ~ondled s~verm casm; imDll'i'l'rgjo~rmcr,lj,m ond frledkl gl'OO,!l~ if! defoM.!;eof:P-ress (reedem. He 11® also QPpeQ\liellf f!1' the fMer,wJtianai Crfrllrnal Court irJ 1005.

Open forum

JlIlI1I M iicha.e~ Sim:o,n ralsed questlions on how the ~nilernatj,ona! Crimina! COl..! rt (II CC) ii~ addressh"ltB; the impunilc:y gap"W~at oilier laws could be invoikedaside fr-Dm the Roman sUtu't,e in pFQ.secutii~ ,crlimes ~gain~1t hum-anlity cases, Simon asked, 3i111d why <Ire the e'llfolrts ohlfle IICCcoi'l c:emrared in Africa.~

Christi n e' Clh~lng said the ICC is complimem:ary to the available rnechan isms in <!dd~ssing d'Vi! iS~IL1I€! of i m pu n ilL'),," She sal d that 1111 the ~mrsu iit oftruth and reconc:iliatioli'!, unlversaljurlsdkxien, ad hoc tr'i bu nals, hy,b,ri<il 'U'i b~.Wials wiill,l n €!ver' reach everyon e except the most rosponsjb~e. and @\'len the Uni~ed Nations has manda[oolche uibunals it croat,~d to 1Tocus on the most respenslble, Th is wo'Ulld prevent hundreds of eh eusands of pe'rpetJr:atoIFs from beullig punished whuch may dismay people O!bOUit ~nt-errliatkllf1lall crimulfI!ai Ju5t~c;e but emphasize:s~ha,t peeple must fO~J,lsolf1l the fact that IliII the past 115 years" the liCe has dev~IQped strategi.e~ that can, be most de~tiv'e in the prosecuti Q,n of such cases,

h for~he Seeulrity Go'Ull'1Ici I andthe !if;lnitoriaiiity que:sti:on, Chung saidtheseefforts are subJec.t to politi~"1 w'UIIL She said toot althou.gh some co!JJlrltries and stares are, not slgn31tories in the lReo man statues she would net Ulrlderestimate the effect a com men or cons1equerlitiiall rule of l!aw can halVe.

ShealSio said dl'a't Si men i~ right about cu~toma~ i nrernatJion:l1 law as another tool agalns[ impu n ilt)', She said flhere wasalil, agreemene that comman d respoli1sibi~iity was cl,I~tornary law begi n fil i ng lil(1l 1992 if not beforethau And mis c,m be applied ,o'Ucs.id e the Roman sta,tute mo del in systems 'that seknewl ~dlg~customary ~aw regardless of whether ll1iJere is a. stll!tutory or legishuive enactment.

CWiung also explained mat me lice hand les a ~ot of cases in Aidc:a dUle to the fact that it. has som'2:of dll@ ~Ir@e wor1St COlrnHk1I1l an tJhie planet al! the lli me they were occunrhrlg. She, cited me Congo w11lere t~ree ml II icn people have died directl~ or in clirectl:y as a res:uk af the civil ...at there, more than hi! anyconfl ictsince WorildWar II. She said this foclJsesme II CC inithniv@s in p~ace~ where the syst,ern has broken down, and where, ther,e ~s no domeu~caccouwllt3bnllity.

• Joel Simon commented that the fai I urs ·of I:hespecial pr,osecurors oftk:e ii;! Mexico, w~:s' not onll~ due to lsek of resources, HI ~ said its failure {]O'U ld 111;5;0 be a,ttribUl!oo wllne structural imped!i rnenes of~he M exiicaniustice system, He s.ud the M e:xJic;an experience could be rei evant to the PIMlippines and so special preseeuecrs oO'Ullld be an option here.

Eduardo Berl!Oitlli a~reed with Simon's comment mat~he IMexkan problem was more comp~kat@d than just 11 llack: of resources. He saiid amoifl,g the p roblems in prosecuti ng cases in H,exico waseh e j usei ce .sys:tem see-up, The presence of a ~OCii~ pFQSeC!Uwr an 01 federal prosecutor sometl mescauses clashes if ~h:ere ils nc I'ega~ dlarliflca:~ion .. bout th<lit Another probl!em 'W<I~. Il'lIaJroo.ot'OIIffici!;Jilrng wihkh people do m:ot want to pIl"OS,eCi~te. He 5a~d that ilnl Mexico, there are a lot of j:OiU rnalis,u IkiUe<il by drug traffiekers, He al so darm~d that i(Ph i IUppunle authoride-Si wamlt to crea .. e tlnlls Ik!I nd of mechen ism, you have 1)0 provide me correct resou rc:es, I,egal rosouro~~, and econom ie Jre:m~ITes.

Dario Ramiirez, Mexioo. Direclior ofArtide 19, shared some tho!U!gjhtlS on the diisclU:5:sion abcmt M,exico. He :s.aid 311110tn ell" problem wii1ih tlhie special prosecuto r's office, aside from the I'e,gal structure and financial resources, lsthe g'o¥t!ml!1ru~nes leark of politiea~ wi II to inll'eslligate. He said hti:de ~ 9 thinks me M,exicali"lJ govemmerit has 'taken a positi¥e s:tep ~rlthe setting up of that office, However, there have been no results yet,

Ramirez. adele;:! tlhat the.re are other m~cIhaJnisrns ~rl Mex_ico m@\lI~t to address me p~oblem that are also IIlIO~ showliilig good results" He said ma,t while '~heir Omb~dsman's

SI

TM M1I~ila Cgnf,;:r'~Q~ ,00

IMPiliJrt\llTY AlN'D, PRB5, FRtil:DO:rl1

'Qffk:e. whidn is the iarges,'t ~nl the world, has a ~p@c:bl office inveslligating(;riimesaga~n51! jou rnalis1U;" it us useless,

"lt's a qU'a~Hudidail (body), so it only gives. recommendetlc nsto tlhe executive powers. But in me past. it hcas~he power to ,review easesof aggrO!s,sion," he said. Neverthele:scs. ilt is there" It has resources but once ag3li'n, the pd~tica~ will (to do something about the problem) muse cerne from til@; I,@gislawr~_

.,

Tedjabayu. execw::ive deputy director Qf tine Jakarta-bas~d IIlISIJ1Wte fOlf the Studies onthe Free Plow of Inforrmatio:n and an ex'lPolil:ical detaiinlee fQr 14 years, asked if there <Ire any Ilega.! h i ndran~s to bringing t!he pel"ipcetrators of h u man rightsab~ses in lndonesia to ICC.

Chu~ said the pri mary legall hindrance in the case' ,of I ndon Elsila wou ld be that it is not asUte party member ohhe iCC- and so ['0 exert political pressu re, the cemplalnants wou lei ha¥e to go ttl the UN and the ICC can ~\e.1 p ereaee momentum as ilnl Bu.rma's cO!!s'e .The s~:cc:e~~es of these endeavors are not g-:-uar:anreedL IBut that lsehe p<!ithway ~lhtat is l'a~d OUt by dire Roman statute.

Ru ben Carranza said he is supposed to go to [akarea in the 'ool'lllil1!g weekstodeal with~at 'qlu'esl.'ioll'll. He said W1lt he is there to observea rrurili com m issicn act dll!:llt was passed by me Iindonesian Pa,rliamerl't bUit~tr1l,lck down by the Indonesian Supreme Court because of a p rovrls~(],n req u i rin_g[h:at reparations be m:adJ~ fo r vktimr~-

He. saijdthatth @ PQ~~ti,ca~ 'right~ of I ndon esiia's {onner po:! itidl deta! nees are still Irum itli:d------,tn,eyare not allowed to nm for IPub lie Qfliioe,. vote, or transfer residencfl-----" a~~hough they ha'>'e been released from d eten'don.

He s.-a.i'd the truth ecrnmisslon an was MI"UC.k down because n: required that before viaims sholtJlM he give:n reparations, mey sho'l.!Illd lI~ree togiv'e amnes!:y to the perpetral)or~- He said the Ilnte:matiollai Cem:,er forTransit~Q.nall Jus:t!l~ f~~edl"l!1 "amicus briefi"iif q~estionin,g the serl kjWllg down of that iIDN_ It also affects eflbru to seek acceuotabi I Uty in Acelhr and other pares of lndcnesia ulndergoing tr'aInsitkm because tha,'t law 'co'I.lId hav@ been used for a 1tirum comrnlsslen ~Ih,ere'"

51

Keynote Addre'ss 2

o

Rkardo Trotti

Press Freedom Prqgfom and Press In.strMe D'.rector jnte;-Jimerjc .. oCul' Press Associui!ioo

,Fighting impunity and defending press freedom in the Philippine's

In, rhls country, mimes <!g<!inst ji~urn<llistS and tl1e impu.ni~ .that ~urroulll~s such acts, slhowthat freedom of tlh e press IS as vu I nerable here as It IS In Latm Am encfI.

We· oft~n asl~ ourselves; Is ~t important to combat. that. vlolence and imlPurnityr Or are we gramjin.g priNileges tojournal lsrs above other grow psi' Of coune i't us importand This

53

54

The H;mii;, C.,nr"'''''Iil~' on

IMI'UNIIITY AN'1bI f,iiieSs FREEDO,M

is no privi,lege'. Wk:t~ Because impartiln,g information isa necessary and core value of a democracy. Unfliluered communication is pure demQcracy~

Jou rnalistsare sod et;1s natu ral ombudsmen, It lis they who, f not deitllounce a ecu p d' eta!. orterrortsm of any stripe or organized crime, Or eovsr a war or expose c:orruptiio'l'l,We must therefore seek to p'f'\oViid'e protectionl so that there may be free and opelil channels of aem.!nci<ltiol1, wlithout fear of reprisals.

IEs p@oiallr), because where most frequenl1ly jOll,lmalis"ts aJr€ Ii'ifIlwdered andth osa I13spo:rnsible: go unpunished are iln those countrles with weak democratic instiwtions .. WheFlll gave rnmenes do not rnai nltaJi n a good balance:.Wh e're there is no nallu ral proce:s-s of cheeks an dl ba Ian ees,

It is :3i vicious circle. The press needs to denounce the most in 'those countrles where tJhe ,go¥emmefllt C<lin protect the least. If we consider that the strengtJh or weaklness of democracy is dOiSel~ lil1!lked to the degree ,of freedom of tJtne press and of expression that e)ciLsts _ .. _ Theil we (.3Jn conclude that to prot~c.-t j O'lJI rnallsts is 1)0, sa'ifeguaJrd that key' vahJ:e of' a demo-c;racy-cof'Tl'muniation, illilrormmcionl.

Tha't is why there can be l'i.O' doubt or question about our miscsion.

With that i n mind,a dozen years, OIgo ~ developed 3. project, al mea a.t stepping crimes being committed OI-8~inst [ournajlsts and me gU'hlty going unpunished,

We had some successes, ob~.aining ,good results li!'1 me intema.tio!'llal and local ~ u dkial arenas as well as some vi:cto ries on legal from:s; but we face far Wo, maJrny dtal~en,g-es and obstacles.

The harsh reality is that the Ilumber of crimes a,gainst [eumallsts has not decre-.ased. This is the challenge we fa,ee roday"

Since 119187, a toml of 334 journalists have been killiedl in me Amerk<!i!;~il1duding s,e.Iy-en who dlsappeared-s-most of them in Co'iombia, M,@';x:im, and Brazil.

Organizedl cidme is tJrne, maj 0 r ii nsti,gator of these crimes; co rru,ption ii nth e public sector is just as; responsible.

Aflloti1@1" chllUen,ge is that ludicial or ~e,gal chao.gos come very sl!owly.

~ ron of deeurnenes fl:l·r' the govern m~nt of fjiu<liliem.da W reopen " Cl5e--jl,l~t; to reopen it, not rosolive 11:.

Iliu re\\~cracy is not friendlYaJt all, When yO'U! !:nink you h<ave accom,plishi'\\ld semeth i Iilg. 3n100:lI1Ier election COme5aIOifi~, commitments Y3iI1Ilcshand )''Ou mve 00' start all ave" ,again.

Somemmes when you ha¥e, con<il'lilcted an invesl:igatiiOtl1l" prov~ded l'1,ew evidence or a pro~eeu •. or has agreed to woFik on a case, a judge, sometlmes bribed, willi 5usIfI6n d the case,

YOil also h<l!Ye W f1~ht agi!.in~'t me laek of ~olidarity am,o~g media. and [eu fnil!lists mll,t do not see vidl'ence ~instlllh,e: media as, a major aHensero, p "ess freedom and free speech.

Many fum iii es of mu rdered jl0lJ malisl:S are afraid of fili~g civi II ~aws,uuts becallJiSe of 'm'f1ea11ll· lInc out of rear. Thus, many cases fade away !<tifld en d I[JIP mm ng prey 1.'0 a StaiiCUtle, of lim itations.

Whenthefl\e is nosU'OIlg legal or soci<ll penalty the impunity brings with k major CO'MEllC!lrull!rlc,es.

lhe 'rear and U iii oe,li"italm:y generated by ill sta:te of imp!Jn~ty cilln ~ead to se:Tf~c~!i1~orship, mi,sinfonmia,don, and me manlpulatlon of news GO'rllu'!:nr" ~ndivlidllial jourliliaJist,S an,d ne¥r'srooms ~lNId to P ro!iec.t themiSe~e!.>. Th.@ result is <! iOml of jQI,IFIilca,llism malt lsless willing ltD expose meUllJrlil, more s.!j pe.rficial, and relllllct3flilt t.ofL!l'lfi III its rele asw,litchdog. And when th is .h.aJI[!lf!m. it iiS1~odety wat leses out.

ri'llflfinli1em Mexi:cQ many of QU,r fenow e:dil!orn haw wid lJJiS ma!t mey wi ll no 'I!o:rnge:r c,Over dnug; ~ffickliJ1lg\ JUSt 1)0 ward off a:tuck~_

MJrkl Vazquez Rana, president of me media company 0 r,ganiza,Qlo:rn Eidi[~ rial ,Mexic31f'i1'l, anneunead last yea1r in an open, letter t1ha:t h fis n o:r'lthem MI~i!Co new~p .. per, Cambia Sal'Jo~. wllu1d be ce1'l:5lirng public3ltiolill because aumonities rod failed to resi~:J'lIdro 't'W'O amcks on the papEIr. He fe~lt i:hatshutl!i I'lg daw~1 was hls only cheice in order ,,0 proaeee irs 250 emplOyees.

a ImP.'mj~l del mmt:), in Oa'J!;aca. ceased publk<!Jtiolil' 1<!i~l;1' last year- alfteU" three' of irs dimibuoors were m:u mered. Ncneof its 120 employees w,mted to go back to work.

A.ccordLlI'Ig ~o me In!ler~me;rican Press Assooita'lllon (IAP.AJ's Impurnlty 1~r;oJ ect experience, lmpunir:y Qi'iI gernel'<tily be alttribmed ~othe, fuUowili'1g causes: a llack of po~ iticall willw plllrlill!le inveMtgatiolil:s; aim inadequate le;g<ill framework and8i weak j ili:diciaJ sysllem: me

T1t~ IM3iiib COi'tr" re nee on

!M!'UN!IiIlf AND I'flJ:ssfiill:1EiooM

ineffective'n ess of peliee forces OIndjudidail bodies .mdth e~ r Ilack of expertise; d,e SCOI!'It resources ailocatsdto Ilaw e:morcement and the jiUsti:ce: ~){swm; a_rH:i1 me neglli,ge:nce: and cor1l"~ pt!ion of the 3Iunhol"'itias"

To lTii:§rnfi. <!.pi !I1st these elem:eno., eur ProjectAgainst Impunity empi'lOl!si:z.es feurappreaehes; Advot<llcy.lnvesr:ilgarJion, Promotion, 3J~dl"rninin.g

A.rNOCACY. Every year, after our l:Jialflfll~ oornerenu:es, IlAPA se:n(!ls i nl!ematianall de1legatliolfll> W me@twithgovenrrrnel'1!toffk:ialls,anddvil society I~eaders i!'l"counbries inl danger" to p~es~re for changes 1:1.0 !bolster lP;ress freedom,

~ In ~Re lase 12 )'''ear"S" our I mpu nit;( proJ e~t 3(,(;oun~e:d fur 77 efthese mlsslons, DIU of a total of 143 IAPA rnlssieas ccmceming PNSS fi~edom ,issues"

S.O far i nthe last QQ'I.II~lle of mo[nth~ we h<!i~ viis~t,~d Mexicol Par<!,gu~, Peru, <lind 'the 1[!"Iw .... Aimericlm Cornmissicn on Humanl Ri~hu (I!ACHR), in WashingtO:n, D.C. re.g.ardrn~ crimes 3IDJ!inst joumall lsts,

IMexico's Pre5idelf'lt felipe Calderonl ~r~edth<'!!t the :~!liff~nill,g of pe!ll".Jltie~ for tho~ whQ commit eri mes against j oumalists eeuld be part of ill Penal Code reform, 3!I1IG he com mined f!ofeder:al i~e sev'emll CJSie5, so:nnethin,g mat we have been pushing fu!i"~r the b!St decade.

IPr,esideli'l:t AJali'l1 G~rG~a of P,einJ alSio agreed to StrEil1!gmelli pelflr<l.rrtieSi and to bdng orimes: <lgainst jo~malists Iberof'\e, 3 spec:iilil 'tlribunal. 51i m ilarto o:t1Iedhey allready 'nave fo:r df"lUl,lr'" traffu::kin,g rerrared ([rimes.

Te:11I years age, we organi:z~ed <II hu,g~c;on{eretlioe illl Guaremalfa. We offiu:gnt people {rom d if(er'tlnt di~d plli[ne,s: liog~du:r-:iudsts, pollitidcalil s.academ les.cen stilllU!tionalists, journalli[sts. and. It1Ion~govemmeli'li[ organ lza:l:.ions"

We immediaooly be.g)3!n 00 cak'e Ii rmaeuen.

We allied on gove rnmel'lltli: to acknowl'edge tlh<at Ikilling a, ~ourli'lanst was 3. crime ag;a~I"ISt :s;ociie1!:y" We rrQ!bbied foradet;j~.aw ~~gi£l~tion; ~h'!lt there be ne s:tatul)eof l~mita!ti:oTllS ~or CiO:FiIVdction of~he crum i,n!a~ masterm i 'liclis. {'Or the, s,ijifl'i;mlingof pemlJlties, fur f.e<ileraH[larJion, thar is thac cases belJran~ferFed W [I1I<1!tio[flIalljudsG[ictiQ!1_ O!ill dle siWi,p,r"'inlatio!1O!I I'~~II we worked to pers!uad!e,f1nanciaJl orga.I'Q~:z:a.tio;ns to p~ac;e oonG~ijorls Oli'll ~113111101aJll aJi,dl to '~OlH!tries where press tiredom is Ifl.m. gullr:il:l'llreed,. aJrnd Wielr~ i[n¥tmml1'l'nt(!1 1[111 the opeiillung ,of <Ii ~pl!'dall r"alPIPOrll!!!IJII"] office <It m.e Orgall'l iiZ:3,ijOIi'lI of Amenicall'l S.ar~esj!Jnd one a,t me ~ nibed N8:lllons.

KEYNOTE ADDRE$Ii 1

We do not r~ly jUS:tOfl visiting delega.tioll1,s.Twice a year~ during our membership meetings. we g,enerate h und reds of resolutlons n;!questing govern rnenes to take actfon in specific cases and situations, baseden 'the informatjon we guhe,r thrnUJ\g1i"l our' Rapid Response lIn:it and members of our Ptress Freedom and Impunity comrniteee.

Tlinat way we an! all Ie to keep these cases 1Ir'l the public eye, maintain them on the public ag~f1Ida and carry 0011 an ongo,ilmg discussion widll r,epr,eset1ltatives of tile Judiciary and of tile e:xecUlt!ive branch.

We bod'l,er governmenB every mow and thsl'l.We bother them and we continue bothering them.That is a major and effective part of our work.To bother!

VVlien we if1 nd that alii il~g<l1 remad i es ina country have been exhausted, we tlhoroughly investigatetihe case and then SOU brn it it to the ~AC IH R_

We ha\ile submitted 1'9 such 'cases, and IACHR has accepted II of them, This has opened the door for us to reach amicable solutions with ceuntrtes such as Brazil. Colombia. Guatemala. and M1e.xioo_ln 2(100. GuatemaJla, accepted international resflonsibiility Jar the case of journal lst Irma Haquer; wh 0, went mlissillg lin 119S0. The agreement included financial I'~p:aratiion, and the naming of a street in her honor. among oeher tih i ngs.

Whil11i! un Mexico weare conti m.u~ll'ig to work with the government to revi tilW case files in two cases.A snmilru- process in under W'JJI'I with th e Co!lombian govemment, an d we win be sEaroing one soon with the Brazilian govern mene.

This isa very slow Iprocess; it takes years beFore you Siee some result-s. But they are profound changes in the system that wi III be useful for the future,

The efforts o,f th~ 11A_IPAcf~'er more than a decade have borne fruit. In 1995, YOLl COU,Jld COUf1It on one hand the fIil.Jlmher oil cases Oof persons convicted orf killing ~Q~rnalisu"Today. in ,8<1 eases of the m'lJi rder ofio~maliists. courts have handed dowll1l ~ 2$ sentences,

The most important Oilc.oome:There are now 78 people behind bars, paying for those crimes,

In addiiuol'l, 27 people have already served time, in many cases btimefiting from a reduction ofsenrtel'loe' provided fur underthe law-an issue we <Ire also flllJ'ltiUlg.

A ,crirnill1al in Co,1 ambia who had beensentenced to fleaJrly 30 years Ii n prison was freed :tfter serving only fi,\il~,

57

The Moriilo. Coofereoce 00

ILMIf'UNITY AND pRE'SS FREEDOM

lin Argelltin<i. in the Jose luis cabezas murder case, eigJ'!t persons were freed from prison alter having served [ust half of their sent'enQe, thanks to legal entirrl,emMti>.

Curremly tJhereare 5-1, peopl'~ held in jai I awaiti ng fo rmal charges, Afhothe'r 500 are under ill1l\l€'stigation, or Ih.ave been, bm remain free,

In ~e Hemisph~re Con,ferenc'€ on The Juidie:i'ary. The Press and Ilmpunity. jud~ pledged to.:

A total of 21 people-murderers or murder suspects-are at large or otherwise evading [useica,

Of the 132 people sentenced for t!he murder of joumalisB, ani)' I I of those were ~DI'1ISt the masterminds.

• Take the necessary steps for attacks to be iliiwestigpited and punished at the federal judiciary level. reopenin,g cases that h!O!.Ye lain dormant, and supportiing the enactment of r,eJ.~\I;Int I.laws and the imple:mentatiion of penal co-dies. fo r example.

• Urge that internationall case law; ii nrer-American treaties,and conceptual and regula~ory tools be iJtlllized to punish criminalls more eHec.ti\lel,y,

Provide opporumltles for discussiion of 'me possibility of encou m,gjn,g I agall reforms to enalbl,e <in increase in the number of cases bern,g IbrolUghtto 'trial and in the pq,mishmeUltS handed down,

Followi ng me conference. ~ noticed an unusual and useful eueecme among a number of judici:alf'ie~;

last December, we welcomed the conviction of criminals charged with the murders of jOl.lma~lists in Costa Rlica, Haiti. Mexico. and D'ominican R~PLJJbl[j.cand a legall mo¥e to ov.ertulm the aeq u ittal of two ethers in p,'eru.

A court in Costa Rk:':i!. handed down sentences lin the murder of radio reporter PanneUllo, Medina.A businessman was sentenced to 30 years as the maseermlnd.and the trigger llll1ili'l also received a 30.year se,nrence.

Also in December. the Sl!JIprerne C<:!urt efthe Dominican Republlic gave iits final ruling in ~he murder of lllJllis Orlando Martinez following 32 year'S of blJlrial in court flies and W ·years after th e proceedings had been opened. The court increased from 20 to 30 years the prison term fo:r the co-mastermlnd of IJhe Clrime.11t also ccnflrrned di1,e30-yea.r term for two ethers i nvelved,

58

KEYlr:.:IlO"'ll'E AnDRiESi'> 2

In MiID(Jico,. a COlirtsenltem:ed to 3:0 years ln prJso:n the kJi lie r of Aldlolfo sanchez Guzman, 11 reporter ~'rom V:erncruz:,. He was al~o ordered to p<!l)' r~parail;iol'Jis 1)0' the vicltim~s fa!t1llilly.

In Haiti. twO murderers of JO'l..m1Ja~ist B~gnQI li ndor Were given I ire sentences. Two others w~re ilocquined and s~x accused remain ail; lar.g:e-

lin CtJ Ille, 114 people-----iln,duding th e mlls.1Lenrnindi--weFe seneeneedl n Decem be r to prison terms '<mging from f~ve to 18 years for the 20'-year old murder of JOu malist Jose Callrasco Tapia.

PreVliQUIsly, in Brazi l the instigato,r of the murder of Jose We!llillrngton i=ern,anldez was sentenced to 2:0 years.

I n the weeks prior We our c_onrerence i nl Sto, lDo:nnilrngo two ,c;:orwi:ct[.o:rns wel-~ handed dk:wl'T1 fult the m!JJlrner oiT [ournal iist [uan Alilcdiljar. ~ n addition.lihecase of die Mlay 1994 d is-appearance of Na.r,e::iso Gon:~iljez was reopened andth ree publtc prosecuecrs alr,e now workung on iit,

The. g:O"I~rrlm~!'lts of Mexico, Colombiia and G~a,temala have opeln,ed special prosecutor's offices. There isa witn·es:s proteCtiOifll program in Brnzill andone in C:olombifaJrhe former pre.s/idem off MlexicOI Vicente fe_x, through an adminisua:tiw aecNe,tr<msferred sleven caseste f,ederal i~:risdiaiOfl. Siin,c;e 2004 •• he Bra:zu~ian COI1lStliulI:ion, has authorlzed caSeS of .!he murder of [ournal lsts ttl Ibe tldecl by the federalceusts. $ul!1!oe 200 I. the r~form ed Colombian Pen<!ll C~de ccnsiders the kuUing and kidn<lpping of a joumaHst to be an ~ggravalted orime .. There are legisllative bllls in varlcuscountries dealin,g with llneM,,: issues.

Empowermen1t is perh~ps~he most important goal ofeur project en i:lhe preventive side, We helped! PiJJlo~ishers,ed irors, :i1I.nd reporte.rn wDm Mex;ko cope with violence and, most impoF~ntly,with self~cel'lsorshiip, ~ n 100.5,; fo~llowif'lg the disappeara.noe eta reporter who \!!fa:S,i tl¥estig~tunlg dlmg ~mftkkl ng., Mexican ft'I,e:wspajper,s on tlrne n()'ftnem border wuth the IJniood States banded together to create the Phoenix Proj eet, Each paper sent reperte rs to the area and they came !lip w~~h 0'11111 irwestigaijve report tnfat the papers then ptlblisliled on the same day.

A sum i 10'1 r strategy was used in Peru. PiJJIDlli:shers, edliwFS, and reporters ;!ii,gnec:l me Dedaratlion of P!UcaiUpa. commlrting to worlk together, i !iliV~~1Ugalt.e, <!nd get~h~ III eoessary traini!'1\g eewerk mON efficiently,

IHPUNITY.AND PRESS FREEDOM

PROMOTION_ four years ago we decided we needed to inv.olve the generail p'ublic in our projec .. Nobel IPeaoe Plrize winner Rigoberta IMerll:.hul said at one cf cur meetings that "the fiight ag:ailnst the impunity shoulld be a r~sponsibill i ty of all m.em bern of th e society."

With that in mind, :iIInd kin OWli ng that governm.ems wUII respond to p ubi lc pressure, we launched a public awareness advertisilll.g cam~afignl. C u rremly, 384 newspapers publish each month an ad in which we po:rtray llhe case of 3 merdcred reporter;

~ n eaclh ad. we ask the publijc 'to sign a petltien letter on our website www.imp.unidad.com that is later sent to th e presl dent and relevant authoriti es of the 'CQ'I,!I ntry concerned, deman ding ~hat OIcticn, b<e taken-

We also conduct training Sieminar~-We have tralned more than II ,500 joumaJists,and accordi nrg to outside eval uations '92% cfehese journal i sts have chan.g;ed t!he wffY ~hey clOver the news.S@iCuritY<lnd protection were issues they had not taken il('no consideration before.

We have also partnered with the I'm:ernatironaI Asscclanon ,of Broadca,sting to air spots o'if'I thousa n ds of rad i 0 stati ens.Tv stati ons are aliso part of the campa ign a III d we have 112 TV commercials running at the same time in dlfferent Latin American ccuntrtes.

'Our website rtlceiws an average of I ,300 unique h its a day.

TRAI Nil N G. Prel"endoml ls also an imporunt aspect of our project

We have he lid fi U rnerous eenfe ranees 0 n how jou rn al i sts can mi n im j'Ie risks 1 n daPly news coverage. lEach of our conferencesen gang-relaeed crimes, drug trafficking or organiz,ed crime--illli Tegucigalpa in GU<ltemala and liml Tijuana, Hermesllleand Nuevo Laredo in Mexico-will'ids up with a discussilon and tips tor j,oulrnallisrs Om how to avoid high~risk situations as weill as a set of recomrnendarlens that we nntend to become part 10" pu blli c pol icy.

Several times a y,ealr we eonduct semsnars for journalisrt-s to minimize risks in their daily work.

M est jim 1"0 runtly.. our experience ind leates that tral n i ng is a 'Fu ndamental need: for th Ii! prorectiolTi, of jou malist'S.

60

KHNOn: ADDRESS 1

.li!n outside survey of 364 journalist participants in our seminars by IPhilliber Associates indica.lles the following:

89"% claim fewer dan,ge reus I ncldents,

61 % see journalism's problems difFerently. alild

I h;ty'e been ~p~aking up to now about the ch3l1ienges in confro:nting impunity. I would like to e'Fld by menti aim ilng the ch!alJlenge to doing Otllr work

The batrle agaillist ilmpunity is a frustrating one. When you thiink you are taking a step forward. the l1Iext day you go back a hund red.

It r~u I res a great deal of patlenceand perseveran ce, But more than anyth i ng .. following through.

YOI,I 'canflo,t ~ use inves,tlgat.eal'ld Ileave it at that. as n lee IfI¥es1liga,tion. You can,r'mt just dia.gnose a proh lem :El.r] d not take action. 'to u C31l1110~ lssue a demand to 11. govemment ~ use once. Yo UI have ee insitst, im;ist. ii nsist,

You have to empower a:t .!ill levels: government offidals. members of the, j'Uldlciary, news executiv,es, press o:rganfilations. individuall journalists.

Meehan isms for solidarity n.eed to be created,

To make a dlififer,ence in this area a strategy and a plan of sustained encouragement need to be devised.

There has to be a mission with dear objea.ives.

The most important thing: To a.J:ways keep in mind millt behind each case', behind our in"!,llestigations, there is <I [eurnaltse witl1a tirstand last name who died for defending <I truth. his tJrurtlh. That eh e;r,e are other vi,ct'ims,. Orphans" Widows.

61

Q~

IMPUNITY AND PiRESS FREEDOM

M'emQry ls important,

Ricani'o Trotti is Q!;Sis!do'1'.t ~J(ecutJ~:e. direaor ~the rmer-Amerit;aoll Press Ass:ociatioo (IAPA), MsMm' Mlom~ l#Ilefe J~e also w"Or~ cs Press Freedom Progrom aoo ~ 1m:r.i!uie &te((Of. He haoofes ltJe Unpunished' Gimes 0:11am&! Joorooll'sl$ Projec! rlrld me Rap.id' R.eSj)(IJ"}Se Unit.

HisJoumaMsm coreer includes W<l.rnmg as IJIl a~sis!rrm (0, 'tIiG dim:ror (Jfifle l'Iewspoper E!I NueVQ Kler:ald ill Miami,l!dilW in dlltf of EIl.iberal de Saf'ltlago del Estero in Argen!ffi.a, (TOO wri!,~r ancl pRl1!oElrdpher tarThe utholic Scallloof,d oocf lEI Pire,gonero in WtrniJing!,l1n, Me (lIsa WM['e a book 00 media rs~~s titled' "'Painj'irll'"rcoobm G{ ifle Press: In Seaf<i'I of Lo~t Edli<:l:u,

TrotIJ I!~ me im!e~ inl/Ol'I'irlg freedom a(tlJe pr= !TOO e~pr1i5~jon ~f tile main rnbjem .qf W!i Grasoc I;!If]rk. (ln~ .(!Xamp.li:· ~ his reOM! serlet of paJ.n!l"lgS. ,t.aDeMi~a5 de J'rnp~l'!lidad (Laq.rintlls af lmpunil'y~.

62

Panel Discussion 4

The writ of arnparo took !,;!ff~ct in the Philippill,es em Oct. 24. 2007, three months after p,rartidpants at~he National Consultative Summit on Extrajudicial Kililings ana .Enforoed Disappearances recommen d~1 its promu!ptno n.

Tile pal'leli~ts discussed how the writ cou I d be an eff~aive tooll 'C.O d efe:nd human right:> in thl! Philippines, and its. applk.ation in other countries.

6·]

64

n,,, Monib C<5merene.e on

IMPUNITY A_ .... ibI P1RESS FRlE:EDOM

The writ o,f' amparo - the new PhililP'pine experiment and lessons fir,olminternational experience

H on. Justice Ad'ollf S. Az.cuna Supreme Court of the P,hilippines

Amparo-frorn th~' Spanish wo,rd ampamr meaning to' protect-is a. special 'remedy to enf'm:e consueuaenel rig)hts and is patterned afte:rthe wnit of ampa1ro in Me)(i:co and other la,tin ,Americal'l countrjes, It is distinct in me sense that it is a ccns'tiituti:o,l1ail remedy and proceeds from the provisions of 'tJhil! Constirutiol"l and therefore ca Mot be abollilshed by le,gislation. The wlilt o.f arnparo is designed in general to protect and enf,o ree nights guaranteed In the Constitmion other dian physicaJllliberty which is already guaranteed by the wdt of habeas corpus,

From Q01lmtry 1;00 c.ountry howev,er, amparo takes di~fferent forms, Ind~3,'s ampa1ro, protects me ni~t to <i cOflstiturt!lomd remedy,

As eali'l'r as II '971. I proposed 3;.5 a member of tbe Constltuuonal ConventJi,on that the wdt of ampa.ro be provid ed fo·r ina bill of social andeconomi,c dgjhts. The p roposal however was: In ot consl dered an dam para was not ii ncl uded in the 1971 Consti turlen. When I was again a member of the Constitutional Co,rnmission formed by then Presidient Corazon A,qu~no in 11986. ~ prepcsed agailn that the writ of amearo be provi dedfor in the rtlew Con:s.ticutij,o n. Retired Chief Justic,e Ro,berro CCl'IM::ep cio n, wh,o was, al So a m em ber ofth e eensrkutlo nal commission, however said the arnparo wi II be put "11110':1: in the blill of rights but in the power of the Supreme Court to adopt rules." Thus. the previslen under Article VIII Section 5 'of the present Constituti'o,n. which gives rh e Sup reme Co u rt the power to adopt niles concerni ng the e!lforc'em en!: 3.n,d p roteeden of censdtutjenal rights.

Arnparo is limirool onl¥ eo the right to 1:1f~.li,be.rty, or security whenever there is a tnre-a.t cr violation of those rights, I"IOtall the rights speclf ed in the Consneueen, It jl$ in essence ,o:n~y a pmrectL\Ie remedy.-to pretecr someone whose life is bei ng dWe<ltenei:l, or in the case of di~lP~lI~i!111 ces, to com pi I,e i nfcrmaeion on the circu rnstances of t!he disappea1ra.rt.QIil_ Amparo does not: seek to punish aJlilybody or to recover damages, burt only to issue protectlon orders, or discovery procedul"@s"Amparo is given the same priority as h-abeas (OIiP UlS so it goes to the top of the a,genrda. No mO'!;DQn fur exrenslonls allowed and no flIillgfee ~s required.

.Also,ampa1ro can be f lad a;ga~i ns[ gove,rnmeiilt offi(,ialsas weUas agailrll:s.t Ipu hi he pe,rsons, OOt when fi led against pliivare ~~·~QrI~. it ~lhouldl be ,p'O\iV€!rfu II private persons <lind not just any private person.

Hm). Jl..lmce MoJ( $, .A.1ic"u~ is @.Il~5S000e j.IIstice o(LIle Supreme Cwrt of !he f\!tIJJppJnes .~Jfire lOOl'. Me chQlf~tIle Ad He>;; Cofllfltutee on ft~rJte WI W1leds Project and .SJls irl th~ ~: .S:N~~ring Camm.J~e 00 .AO[e~s to jusUce :for ·tfu~ i'w.

He ~raiMd iriS Boc~era,· af ~ de-~ from die· .AWle6 de Mlanr'kiLJ1Ji~;I'l;io/ ond h~ pa~~gr~uate 4egJlee in Jn~mdtili,'raJ LllW atI"<:jJumpWoo!len~' fiiom Sll~~rg U~kr'er;;it)'.Az>J:!.!no(i WOO ,~aJr o(t!r.e PIIi~'pplM N(J'.!Jonal &rilk Qnd me s;bG~P~OJ~ {if Pres~tl 'O~ C. Aqultto ([ 99il-19? ~) •

.IIz(IM~ ~ed fOr ~e Supreme Court's .PI'Omufg<100n o{:the Rure On me W,il: of Ampcrro. Il .~p~cliilr wrj! I..lsM' (or di!~ ~~j'M (if lift·. ,~l..lrJll\. aoo m:!<!!fty.

Eduardo Berton~

D,ye Proooss of !.CiW Fo~rt4olJti'(lJ'l

Th~ writ of ampare is providedl for in Amelle 250fllne I nter-Amertcan COIWt':nrtion of Human Rights, whkh s'aYS that e¥@l"yon e has the Iligjhtw a remedy when a pe~o:rn 's human rights are violated . The writ o.f am,pa.ro is also promulgatedi nseveral urii'll Amertcancou ntlriecs" 111 some countri es, the writ lis provided for ~nJ the c-onstiWti,o:rn while in others, iit ls a sp~dfk law.

The wri~ can be used as a 'l~tr'!'l!~dy for the proeecuen of all fl.md<lmental rights.fhe writ can also be desig)1ed as 8J protection ag3li nse legitslatioiil itself.. lronicall~y tll'ne writ of arnparo has been ilnterp:n=tedl not only as OlIn ~111l:s:trument a.gains1t human nights: viQllallions iWll some j u risdf:c~ions but 01.1£0 as a tool to block proser::utioll1l in humanl ri~r-s \,fiola:th:l11 cases,

Th;e:re should be caw:iolilla_gaitlf1lu ex:pectin,gw<l much from me WIrit. The fail u reo.f paSt remed les toaddress human r,i:!1'll'nts violatlons should be studied,

65

66

Th~ M;j,i.il~ Cof1~~eiWle 1)1!1

1!'1!'UNUTY ANlll, PIii£.'SS FREEDOM

Judge Santiago IPedra::r: Gomez Alild'ienda NadooaJ de Espana

Sp.ajn

The writ of ampere alSIO co¥ers the "edam to dlssemlnare infurmation "Ind opinions freelly through the: written and oral wo,rd or aUl)l' other means of ccrnmurucaeon, and the riglhrt to receive or comrnunkate inform.uion through any means of communlcaclon. Oilltihe other hand, there; is <I rlight to privacy <lind confidenl;iallity betwe-en the: [ournahst and his sources part~Cilllarly en dassilfi:ed info rma:tiion. The right to exe rcise the right to i~kilimation cannot be resericted by any kind of censorship, N'lilws~per;s

and magazil1,es can only be confiscatfld through a court order mou.gl'! the dght to lnformerlo n has ~'imh:aitUons as, mlr as the right to honor. p'rivacy, image, and protectiOri eteh e youth an d children are concern ed.

The eonstitutlortal court is only reserved for the violation of basile: rights, and Iif the case fails in the constiltiuuonal court, it could be fHed lit the European Court for Hum3in Rights in Strasburg,

~ n 'Guaflemala, where 250.,000 died, 45,(100 W~!"It: missing. and 11.5 m i llion i nrernalliy dis:p'la.e,ed because ofthe poliililcaJ! :am,d eccmomiic situat:uon", the wrilt ,of <lmpOlI"O has been fii~led ~ 4 tl mes by the perpetraters and not the victims, of h!Li main rights violations ,md for tine most fnivololUls and tri\llal reasons. The Censtleutl on a 11 COUIn: of Guatemala has, also; ru led that Spain has no competency at alii on genocide afld~hus despilie thti! C:;l~~ agains,1t hm1'l!iln rights vi:o laeors flOW pend i 1I1g ill Spain, there has been no inve-StiigatiOI1, nc prosecution; and no aC.tion taken. With Guatie:mala. dosi~ its doors riot just 1;0 Spai~ but also, ,e'Y'ery otJher C'O'I.! rt in the worl d, the mea ia iin G uatemala and Guatemalla:s neighboriflg 'CQU ntries shou I d rep-on; the case, and the victims, wltnesses, and :all interested! parties must submilt to CO'U1rt alii the information necessary for the resolutio:n of 'me case,

C!mlez hlls p~.s:ecIlted =es io!1!liOMJIlg ajmc=:!' Dr te.I"f'Wl\!m" drng IM(fj,*lt)g; mOJQr eWJii;)mrc ~ (froud, money lauooerIng. oml oorrency ~l:itelfeiting), and crul1es committed dbroad. and hds IKindlcd ,C'm:ef IIlYO/lrlIIg gerKldde ift GLilIte-mala ami rh(! Io;jUJn,i of (I joufIli1Mu In I'roq

He WIls DMn of the Wur!S iii San SeOOstiol'! (Cuipuz~j ami ta-mJerJy ~oo.d.s !h~ Trnfmn.c Are" Cour'ldl of tile Pfd.lcfary, H~ has mo~rn!ed and dirr=ro:d' valroll$ courses" rem1"narli. (Ina .;onfe~es on ,judidm/ !roi~rl'1f'

PANE;lI. DISCUSSION 4

Open forum

• JlUstJice Adolf S.Azcuna reiterued malt the writ of amparo's main use in time Philippines is for protection 3~gain:s.t a thll"@aJt 1;'0 one's li·re or sa:rety.Ampam us also nee limited to journalists as it is open to altllybody who feels that his life or secl,grity i!s dilre.arened 01'" violated, and that if somebody has beel'llkilled extra-Ieg:'illly. then his next of kin or evelil 3111 interested oFganization may file the case.Arnparo came about because of the ina(h~~ll.ila.cy of remedies. lnc I udl ng habe-as co rpus.: n which. when authcrtties say that they do not have a certain persen, nothing else C31i1 00 done, Yo u canoot go any f'-llrther in the case of habeas corpus, bill![ in eh e case of a III pare, you can. Ampa ro is mainly fur protection and gallhering lnforrnatlon, Ampare all lows. searches of military camps o. other such places like safe houses or places where persons co u Id be hidden. Searches hiOW@'\I~r are limited by the defense of narienal security, with the ~ udge deciding whed1ler such derelnc5e is valid Or' nee.

• Judges can reject amparo if it 15 not sufficient info rm an d substance, If tlhe petition does n o·t, SEek a remedy to protect danger to Ilife or ~lllb erty, men it will be dism issed, But if the case cannee proceed for :any reason, for in:Sl:al'll~ lif there are no wimeS-5e-s, then the judge is not supposed to dismiss ilt, burt rather to archilV·e it, until such a time when it can be tievived. But: normality. In tile few cases that have been filed. it has proceeded.The Su preme Cou rt, have referred most of the cases to the COIUin. of Appeals. who can eitner issue rh efinal wl'1it 'Or refer nt back to the Sup reme Court, fot liIirve:stigation and for reception of the facts because WIf! do not wan'[ tile Supreme COUiI!: to receive evidence ·01' factual presentation .

The Phill i ppine a rnpare is dliffe,renlt from So uth Amer;ican coulntri as wh ere you have amparo :agaill'ilst legjislation orampar-o agaillist COUrt decision because there are aln~ad~ suffici·ent remedies of jl.ldk:ial review under which Philippine courts have tile power to declare a. law unconsnturl 0 nal, btJi n .American <:.0'1.1 rts m,eanwhile do f10t have sue h remed les So they canner declare the ~aws of Cengress u ncon:s:tiltuidoillral except th rough arnpare. And wh e n uti nl Amertcan cou rts declare a law ~.mcollstJitliJItiloiiilal. lit is only as far as the individual is concerned becausethe law is still vaJiid though the indiViidlual iis exempted from the law because of amparo.The Philippines however has :II. diffel'e:fI!t ceneept as: it followed the United States concept through the power of ~ udicial re,vi ew. The: Ph i ~ipp i IIl@S doe's not need a. R·ecurso de AmpafO aga~nS't decision because it allready has forms of judic.ial reviews llilke certrorari, prchlbltlon, and mandamusthrouglhr which tine highest court can review the decisions of the lower courts. Eaclhr country crafts the ampa rc tiha.t it needs.

67

The, !"bAlia Coort!rlllKll Qn

IMPUNITY A!ND IPIIIESS fREE!DOM

Judge SlIntiiago, Gomez Pedraz said it is, importaot to learn from past experiences with the writ: ,of habeas cO'lP'lJIS- The jlud~ should be strict in '~he intelipretation of the wlrit of amparc and net permit dhe use of ampere for ob~e'tives for w'h i ch it was rJ ot intended-

Azc:una said tlneat we have to assess amparo for iI; is a new and developing: t'\emedy.1t will deve!op as time goes by and as we face the challel1ges thatare blilolrng raised on its enfoFOemen[,.

AziclI.Il'1!a said whether die drop in the !lumher of extr<ljudiciall killings in the PhiliilPlPi'l1e5 lis due to amparo, we still cannot tell. II't is possible thac the gelfiler:a.1 increase in awareness. and tile c:am;paigllli against the kililings, eS:p'eoiall~ Iby media groups, ceuld have 301<50 ccnerlbueed to the drop.

Azeuna added thaI; the enforoement mechanism OIfampar,o is th~· power to punish for ,colllrrempt.Am pare however can 311 so lesd to the fi ling of'a criminal case becall.Jlse it is :iI. ferm of gatheri:lIl,g ~nformation. Dependin,g on eh ~ evidence g-athen~d through amparo, you may have a criminal case filled_And if the criminal case is filed. then :;!mp1JJro wulill be joined to that criminal case.

Atmakiusumah Astlraatmadja.

Rillmon Mags(lIysay Aw;(lIroee fo.r Jo~malism (2000) D.r. Soe:w.mo PreiS il'tmru~e

lndones,~'

Nationallc,ampa;i&ns~o bqost publle i~terest if"! the free press to lmlnlmlze violence ag;alnst media

lharnk 'tOLl! fo:r ~nviitililg me to tin isconferewlce ~o sha.re wid, you my Inlot.esa.bourt what has beeliil d!o:rne in Indor'le.sia in our ,e.ffurtS[4.') millimize 'lr'ioleifl·oe aad pressures agal ifIc5t~h e'IP r,ess now 21l'l1d Ii I'll dle ]u[l!Jlre_

The M~mil~ CQn.f"',...,nf~ OB

IMPUNITY AND PRI:5S IfflJieOOH

I am allwaysamazed-and I am slJre you alii must have the same reeling-~I'Y time I read the report about me kililings of 60 journal lsts or so in the PhiliilPiP i nes in the Ira.5t I 0 years.

I't ~s 'e-ven moreascon i,shing that so far only f.~w thorough ilWestliga.rioi'l5 have been made i ntotheir deaths,

lin IndoJM~~ia. we do not have such an extraordinary e~iPerienc.e._lilhere have been only few killl i ngs ofjo<u malists in my COlUlllitry, although some of them ha:ve, not been I !l)gailly resolved; thus we aliso have tine experience of impunity,

But of course, in a country that fer abo ut t'NOgeneradons-or forabcut 40 years-had to struggle against very II i mlted freedom. we cannot easi I)' avoid vidence 3.:gains-r: free press arid 'Jil"ee e~lP're'ssicn as the ah'ermatlhi.

ferthe last 110 years, iln the era of RefOi'll'las; or R.eform following the full of Presi dent Soeih!an.o iill May 11998. people are still learning;'l'iery hard how to eiXIpr~ss themselves peacefully through di,allogues ineStea,d of expressing angel!" and violence ..

The H!rmimtimil of an amhoriitarian regime in Indonesia does not necessarily end the pressures, IOn the: m ed ia. DUiring the current era of Reformasi.the 'tlh rears agai nst the me<lia an dl freedom of the press could come from sode;1Ly besides, Ilaws and ~Iations.

In a nomberef cilties" including the lloa:tiQnal COl-pita! dty,Jakarta, demonstrators-and. even, leaders of mass olr~anizations or religious groups and pelldcal l)'arties~a\l.e coerced. if not terroriized; media organ iiZations to print or broadcast 'their statements in fu III.

The UUlIn.liy swarm would even demand the media org.ullli~ition~ to print o r broadcasa an apollogy OICt ofl~Y in d1i(! medlt""~5 own outlet but 3.1.50 in ot~er flews media,

• In one incident, lin Sele, C~ ntral Java, a youth grou p demanded one private rad io station to go off the air for one month. Thescatlen com pi i ed few on,e week. The demonstrators protested a one-sided milk show with ill. Christian priest tillar. (hey called "11. blasphemous interview" on lslam.The priest was later detalill'lea by police for allegedly vio~atin.g the article oil reiHgious ccnt,empt of the Criminal Code, The local police intervened to suspend the station from broadcasting for 17 hours as "a forced actlen in 11. bid to avoid the possibi lity of ;anarchic actions" by i;he mob.The for,coo d isconlt!if'l~aoc~oi1 d1ie rad lo broadcasts is. actually (I, Viol<ltilon of an article of the Press, law which could be penalized with a fine of up to RIP'SOO million (US$55,OOO) or an

iim p'risonmeil1lt. of up to mroye~H.

11111 al'lOdH~ r h:app~nil'lg. ill [akarea, a ,group ,of t<lixi driivers an d employees deman d!e<l <lind got eash oompen,satiio n from ill diall¥ ne'W'Sp<lpell' (01" >lin imaccllll1l.te news report aoo''''t a robbeif)' i f'lI a taxl, The d<!.Hty Iprinl:erl1the wrong Il1IalflUl of ."t<Pci company. awording,to die dillmOli1iS~lI"a~OrlL

Yet if! :another incidenl:,in P<adang,West Sumatrn,d!emonsttators that induded students and college instructors p retested an imbalanced arelele g:n sports. They damaged the office an d destt1o)t"ed 'me ,e.qp . .!lj~merl!t of a~ldy talb:loid w1hich has stoppeiCI lP'u!b I ishing since ..

The mancag.emellit of the 11If'g;~~t newspaper in Centl<lll Su l!awesi had 'to bow 'to pressure by not pu bl j,shir'lg ~he daily fo r three days following a Ipr,otest, ove,r an opinicn article. Title decis~cn W>liS taken following a dernonstration by some 2,000 people from a Muslim group who weir€! pn;H"estin,g <lg<!in~;t an <!!rti,d~ en lslam, The local poll ice latier ~n deci die;:;! to ,c:JllaJ'ge~he wri'tef of the artide as a S'i,jspecc "for lnsu [!l1Ii11g I slam. ~

These il1ioid1erlit.Soo.f:'Itinue 1;0 happe:rnwom timel!o' time Ii Iffl 1m dlOIiileSL'ilI notwillhstil.f'lIdi:n,g the advice of me press ~aw that people could make USI@ 'of the rights of ~ply a!1!d ,eorrect!i'o:rn ee express their opill'lto!'l'll or ~o rectify a, mist<lke ina lI'irifed~a, report.The law alS05t[puillaoos thaJt me media. could be fi ned up "0 RpS,oO milillioifl (US$S5,OOO) if they do not pay heed to me rigihUi of Ir~ply:

Tine cr"eO!lti:o:n of me;:j'ica laws<lll'ld ~gulatioli'liS whidh :guarantee freedom of me press is !lot sUiffiden[ if le is not :accoiilrlip;ln~ed wiitlh !ofllg-I!e:rm edutalrJoool (;;JJmplligns in :soGiety to cO:II'!;vli!'1!~~ 0lff.1i1f1I that <! fffie p~ss ns aime:d at dh,!i! iW1lw~stofdn~' p'Ub~lic inl g'en~raiL

Dialogue with generall puollie

A di!a~ogu.e ,c!O:Fild U cted by~he 'i nd!ependelilit presscOlmdl iii! Indonesiia. for eKample. could help eli'l.dI II. c,Onflict wlh~ch was caused by news re,po:ril:ing_

Aviisirt oftlhe ooundl membersro me leaders of me IN<lihdlatul U,larna (INU) seve;rn 'fears ~go resutted in it:> chainman, K.. ~. Hasyim MliJiZadii. promisllrlg dlti!l.t he WCluld dn::ub.te 11 !~t~J:)r to a~ll branches ~h ro~ghout the 'co UIFlitry callir'l!1: for n,o:FII-'violence in d ea~lilFlig wlid .. "unpleasant" or e'V6i11 "defaming" media reports, Til e lNU is the I:i!.rge!it M uslim movement Ln lndenesia Wihk!h has 40 II1I1m~O!1 ITIeimbers.

The pro:nniSle was made byllrne NU ~Jhi3i rll'll<lfCI' duri rng the informal mee,tin,g: to discuss ~Jt ~east seven ~l1Iddlellltli in ~ve d~fferent dti~ involiving memb~rs '0,' supporters of the

The M""io C.:>rrferenee on

IMPUNlfTY A_"4ii) PRESS FREEDOM

organiza'tlion in a violenlt demoaseradcn or pressure against diifferent press media to ub back. what the)" had reported or printled, The incident happen ad in SQ.lrabaya in Ean [ava, Bandung andl Cirel:H)'fiI ilfil West JI<l1Y'at Pekanbaru in East S!.lImatlra, and jakarta,

To this day, ther'e has been no dernonstraeen or violli!lIi1t act or p,ressure committed by~ NU rnernbers or su ppon:ers agaiU'llst media wod-wn since.

Educ::attlion of general pu 01 ilc

The visitrol:he religicHmdal organizaliion leader~ is pan of the press council campaign program to propag~te the meaning of freedom o~ the press an d freedom of expression.

Si n C~ the establlsh meneef 'tJh~ independent press council in Aprill 2000, IItS members ~ave travel,ed to 32 out of the 33 provill'lcial apital ckies of the country 1;0 conduce workshops and semlnars, Attended by both media, wOl"lkl!'rS and the pu bl vc. which indude, nongevernment organi:z;;uions and regionall go,y'elifilmel1rt leaders, they discuss how to settle n.ews,-relate-ci c.onAictll betw'een the pq_qbllic and the press.....lb,y us i ng the rrglhlt O'f reply or gO'ing throllliglhr courts of law; but avo,idlllh'lg the use of repressive measul!"'eS and violence.

The press COQJflcil has aim wjijductoo workshops on legal aspects of press. freedom with law enfor,cers-jud~e,s. prosecueers, lawy"eI"S" and police andarmed forces offic'ers----ln so far 21 IP revincial capital cities. The progmm is supported byt'he chief justiiC!eof tlhiil Suprem e Court,

The eenslon Ibetween the publlic: and the press ilTllndonesia iis not nl!ce~aliily a reflection of differenoes il1l th e'i r i nite~s·t i1i: is more of a reflectiion of confli,c[ of ideas and Iparlldigms. Hence. the importance cf oontiilf'luolJs efforts to, maintain mutual undersmnding betwe'~n media workers ami society; but wirthout sacrifk;iln~ the independence of the press.

lou final ism educa.tion in se ho-o~s

I n my view,l!f'ne 'efforcs could be done in both open campaigns S'luc:n as dnoSE con dlJct'ed by the press COQJlliJ,dl and formal educanon i 11 elassroorns.

Sevenr years <!,go my linsJ!ltut.e, the Soetom.o Press InSoillJlte. conducted. 11. mUnll'lg: i til practical j/Oumruism for 160 hjgl1 sCRoo'l teachers of dTie Muslim boarding school Ma'lhad .A1.Zayoon. The pes,mtren or madrasa!hi is a Ihu_g~ Islamic boarding seheel and IPCJ&.si'bly me largest in As;ia, locarted ina \llillageof West java. It now has about 1101000 s"lIdents of elemelfi,mry and high schools and unhf.ersity,

Time t~hii!n ha;ve since been passing on tih,e kn,QwJ.edge ,of practJica~ !ou:rnalismlio ~heir students SIS, it fa!llbw upl!O me trninin,g mm:!hllt;ted by my Ii IIlL~tit~IW,

D uni I'II,g my 'first e:ncoulloo:r with SJ!'>lYkh .Altx:l:u ~ Salam lPias)'iidi IPalflji 'Gumilang, the mlllfider mel chief of the "'Iilloderlill lPf'roi!l't!'e~. hes<lid ehse lhe 'wollI~d like his teachers to master ,~OIJil rnal is[h:: s,tY~es,of w,rit~ng. HieeJ(1pec"[S, them to be able to t~lIdh ]oulmall ism in c;~~~es 1JJnd ~t drne same!:!i me ee writie :alrtidesfor geneJ':3lI press publica,tions.

I ~FSt Ir'i~po!mdoo i!'ls~nctivelyl1hat 'Itihe I~II" pu fi'le ~:O'~ 1!'n3lismi" ,can only survive in 3. democratic en,vi roli'l meru:.1 posed tlhils view ~o him it:!ea!JJcse I believ;e' ehee ~,ou mal:iSlfIl:lmifling ~nold~ flot m~fI!!:'ly fQi!" the ~dh~ :aim of makiillltg the trajlll,ees more skillfu II i(lljoumalils~jc worlks. but aliso for <Ii. lllOnger-ramge, and more noble goal--dlal( is m appreciate tollernnce and egi!.~itali'iilfli~lllll1li.

The Sp_ylkh ~airj '!fllat A1~Za_ytun indeed follows We democratic me~hod ,of education. ~n dassrooms students are 'E!iIilCO!IJlraged 00 slP;e!akched r minds openly, he added.

He remin;ded me' of the AI~Zayitun mouOF=,;,p,pe;Jiring with lalrge ~etters 'Oli'll the OUIlE!:r M!~s Qf ~g:me of the pe5<mtr-ell1; ~'Choo!1 b'yHdinglO <lilt! dQfim iitol"i~O!!t ~!!!!ys: "Ma'h,uil A1~ Zaytun cen~e,r of educatioli'll to developclm,e CiLll'Iwre of wleranoE!' and PE!3,oet ~

A.nm~oo k!:Jr~ is a Imma-r G! !JIj@ ,~ttJma Pru~ Ins!itli!r~ (L!mbaga' P1!Wl Dr. SO!toma'- IJiOS, in Jakfrlto. 'l'I1e OOS,~ ~~j'1_g ~ier fo.r ~al:/llXti'lllG_liSi'!1I.He ~',af Its~, ~ tivm 1994 to' 2001.

~adJtl! clJolJ't ll'Ie,~o[fhe~ "'~l.iJ'Ij4ilIlllg1J~ Ne~ CM~mJGkaffiLHeM!sG!so dtGfrIorGn'~'ndejlendem rlatioodl fl'l!!3 (0000 jj'j j.IJ~a ood' the ~p.ai Do.i1y Om 004= 00 1~arn (2~r]r)..200'JJ .. He WIll; mood:;rlf Mil[lr of !h~ daily ~n~esio fi~ f 1969. j '974, Io!iIJd ~ i\>oni!1!e4 dr.rfflt,g ~e S~11O ~gjme.

~~ wa~ !he ~Ol') Ma.P'!r.ia'JIAwwclee (Olf joorMfisrn:. Liw"aW!e. IiIna ~~I<e ~~I'!~: in 2000.

'Leea •. __ fcc.m, ..... ~ _ <iI MI.~IAI-~, .~'!IM~, i!'i'" ~ "'" ~'IP" ~ - ....... ~,~,~,"

The panel dlseussed how arid why the campaiglll against the kililing of mass media practkloners in the Pihllili,pplnes has achieved mixed results, The speakers, who are invol'ved in s,p.eolfi1c cases imllolving ,extrn:jud'icial ki'lIil1gs and ,enfo,rceci dlsappearanees, talked abouttheh- experiiences in the fleld,

Pr~Va.te prcsecuror N ena Santo'S shared how me combined ,efforts of severnil indiv;id uals and gr;Q'ulpsi led to the success in me preseeuetcn of dne killers ,Of joumallist Mlarlene Esperat. Anothelr speaker, lawytlr Leo, Dacern, a senior state prosecutor ailld program director ofthe Departmem. of J1l5dce'sWitnl~s Pr,otec:tioltil Security and Beneftits Program. explained the limitations and failin,g!.> of the justice system iin the country which makes the pr,osecution ,of cases even harder. Free Legal Assistanoe Group secretary gen,elral M'a.ria Socorro II. Dioknlo'emphOlis ized the lm portance ofc:oopeliartnon sm o:rng concerned ioG! ivi duals and grou psee create awareness Onl the probl1em and evenUJal1y stop 'the killings.,

15

oli

The pane'l ~aled that there are sleveral dlings being done todlay to bring about justice. But the speakers <IIISlo, adrnowil'edg'ed that more problems exist. More importantly. they said that the Ipresent ellortS have to be Clorllulrnuouslly Irei1ltnfon:ed if posijtive ,changes are to take place.

Nena 'Santos

P~iva(l:! Prosecawr for the Marlene Esperot: oose PhilrppirJe~

C,ase studies: successful alndl problematic proseeurion 0" case's involving the murd,er of jloumaUsts

The Esperat case ,could have :suffered the same fate as d'H~ many other cases which Ii nvolve the murder of ~ournali~ts~u n:solived an d ultirna'tely fe r~ttern_ A tniall and the ,evelilitlu:JJ1 mnvicrion were difficult to get fur slevern! reasons; The cases are normally Opli!<!I'1' to manlpulaticrc tJhe evidence to support ill case and the testimonies of the wimesses are not ,a~ays availla!ble' or easJilly acc,essib~e to 'tihe I@gal team; and the peoiP I,e If'\esponsible for me killings are genemlly local power b~olc~ rs who, have more t:han enough resources and inf'JUienceto bri be, threaten, on- kiln w[llnessesand mali1lUpulaille the invesdgatlo,n and/or 'trial in their favor.

The Madetne Espera.t case is Ol1e of the ~ew cases where 'IDe killers were trled ",n,d eenvleted, Espern.1t was a chemiist turned ~oumalis1L The ki~J.eirs shot her dead ilm frolilt of her children in March 2.005 fur exposing and reporting corruption in the government..

The success of the Esp,ern.t case is due to the <Iuiv'e pardcipatiorn of the ~QIIIQwing: [he SUIP reme COli r't. tlh e IDepiartme nt of Justii ca, the co rn plalnants and w~me:sses. tlhe med ia, the Ph iHp pin e Natio'Ulal Po lice, the mil itan-y.civi I soc,iety" and state and p rilvare prosecutors,

One of the things mat made the Es:pE!t<9.t ease stand m.ut was the wide putdiclit:y it attracted, The media helped in enhancl Illig public 8Iwaren,esso.f the case thro~1n oonsi~sten,t new! co,verage .. The public outrage and the calls fur jus:tice frem advocates insulated the case from further polliticall pressures. This could have c,omp@lIed the government to finally !;lay a.ttenflion,

Anot:ller mcwr thalt hel ped me fS!p<f!:rat case WliS me S~ preme Cou'rfs app:r"Oval of the transfer of venue. The ersnsfer of~he' case to a, more neutral gf'\O!U nd whereth e assassins and the: mastermirn,ds have f,ess clout ,gav;e: it a better chance of being mid)!' tried.A mir md imparnaJ JUG i:dary is importam in winnill'llg itmp!I,Jl1~ty cues-

It 110, impomnt ®c). secsre the wib1e~'e-s as werll" The cOliilmllmed suppo:rt and YIi,gjiance of the Witness PlrQtection Prognm [WW) is ,eruoial in plaoing lpoerpetra.tor.;: beihjnd ban. In the Espernt ease, til-lie p:m500Jlilon, 'was able to get the acSsistance of meWPP as soon as, it had the wruneises .. But dille WPP needs additionalfuindill1g in ord;er 'to dQ its: work.

TIme: role of tlhe lP'ol~.ce :<L1il,d tfle millimll)' in tii I'iIdli:n,g and :arrestn.rng those respensjble for the kjllings 'wasaJlso significant. :a.II!hoLlgh 'the l'Ieiease 31l'1ldtli1e im,p!ement3itioli'll ,of mewalrrants of arlf,est lii'I,eed further improvelTIetflt. The e-<l.mesi effort:;, of the police and the milimF)" ln hel'pil'1\g dlos~, the case~ and step ~he IkjUi!'1lgsare welecme.

AJlsiO a lkey p~ayer un the GOrlIviicti 0:111 of Irhe assasshrs wa:sllhe dedication of the prosocUllli.o:J1l teaim indudirng 'di<!,~. privaw preseeuters.The prosecutionl ~C~ as the support :and o\l't:,~ighit team.The lawyers in me Es:per:at case provided meir services fer free. It came 1)0 a poili"lit when they evetfll miiid to US'e' meur own resources te pay fur me livii:l1Ig expenses and safety oft!he joumall i,sfsfail'1l'l~lly an dtlhewime:sstes. The legallteam was not free from harassment, mr,eat, and bribery eimer.

lihe gatl'terill,g ,of eVidence, the sec~rifilg ofdne witln.E'lSses, and the draftili'lig of pO!l!!nti:a1 tlfldirnments are: :all significant tel get me people behind the :kiH i tfI~5 aii'l.d dhsappearnncoiE:s. BUittihe. s'Ulocessful prosecutioli'll of me kllUe;rs is ]ust pan: of me overall ,campOliig.n ee end i.mp:lJInh:y. ~n ord!e,[ to 3.drni e'V'e jusrioe:, llhe :system should til ii'I.d wayst:o apprehend the mas,tefiFilill'illl,d[s :3JS well_

,~w-1>kM :lOO!lJS ,~: I) mE!f]']OO of th~ pm.!ltCu!loo '!~am im !l¥ MdMn~ *mI: 1'1ItlJ'.rdew- ,CDstt_ SIiN: h~ wo.rIIitd .in f!!"",emmoen'! <:!Ill'd' p.rMl~e en~ (Ii'1d ht:r~ ~ ,in ~w ~ (Or ,23 ~ rn the field ,a/dwl, Iabtl~, _atioo. ~m~ ,eIeaioi'l.l~"na.l;.,~i'I'd m~~.

WnW$ grod'uGW1 wf~, a kMe.!'or' of S<lI'=' frI ~eMe, major irt t!I~fi~ airlle ~ of'lMe:=:t Neg-rot In 1976 (rum faud~} :S~ ~'l1i~r ~ .~.,_ !1M Soim' Bed'tl Co1t~ of!:mv in i fJ84_

Tbe Hill'ill~ ~ool~eo~l!l 'go

IMPllINIT"I' AND ~R!ESS FREl;;iDOH

Suc,c,essfullmod,el ililterventions involiving legall sectoes and ciivill society

Leo Dacera

Senior Stale PliOSec~n)r (i'mil Progmm mreCiWr~ Wl'lfless ,ProMdJOo SeOl:ifrty lind Benefits Pqmm Deparorrem of1ustiCl!:

Phijjppjn~

One of the Ipl!J,rposes of me Il'iIfIIpul'lity and IPII'e:s;s IFFeedoliil1l Conf~ir~lf1c!e is to seNe' as II, ve:nuel!o' n i:glh~ight how me panicipllints Go'Ukl conttibu.eI!ome ,Iil<ramction of eMI riights and liberty, It co!tJM aliso he~,p' in revis1t.ingtl!ie lessens leamed while ha.ndling e)(trajudici!a~ lkiillfng an,d m,edia mUl'\dle,r cases,

To begilfl llne, dlseussion on wha!t llne sjtnatlon is like fur me pmiSiet::lIJ!tots iii'll me ,c:ountl~ enUlmerntleci are :some ,g!liide~jiiles, 0:111 howee handla cases ,gatheredFrcm ill ooill e<I,!Ue in dTie proSJecu ticn s!er'Yiioec

N!e:Ver'li@!um)~er to li!"!ve:l1li.g<!t~ high profile cases I!sp~i;:dlytlhos!e iffiilolving lP~o!i1lmili'lent persons lik'e media murderers. WhElllll 'Y'(l'U see malt you r boss is desperate for someone to handle~ne case" let him beg you to mJke on the ease so you can demarld tJtna.t heguannllee 'me l!ogi:S~ics 3m:il have someone to b!lamne IIa:ter on if scmellh i ng goes wrong,

'i

Dc 1110'1: accept ·ilI. case IQI!delf from the Ilaw 'e;rnfQli'ce~ QF presecutlen on .!ih~. PFQmi~e ~at thEfY will :submi~ further evidem:e. IMore 'Omenllrn;!filIl not, YOLli 'Win find you rne~f alon,e after receiivin,glln.e reeerd,

'.

Do nO't an.empt ~ de tlhe polk)!! workyours~f by digging d(\!ep tnt'C what is not inl the record. YOI!JWoOuld rim.:! .mollie alkllls.es and 5U~pec!;l; ~!'IVOlveclaM wolW'ld lbe ill de~p wouble because youwou~ oot: know lhiow re ciolOe your ~e,

'. Be S'Wi ~e dlaityou are not mot:i~ted by 'the monetary pi Ii1S allo:rne" You Ii!IiI ilhit be ~onlfu~eJiJlI becOlJu~e rewalfd~<lre offered <!)(lId givenl to die info:rmam:s of die <!~oU!sed while you who Inave to sit ii n the cOUlr~rno:rlrllwi~~ We Wialr'dened criminal <'!ill day and a~e endlessty with hisiher baltt~[ry of lawyers and willi have no snare in tne: ~.ar]dsiOme reward in the end,

-lau rl1!U!st not be 'Cilli!\going and soc~a.ble. rer eveli")' hall"cleil'lled criiminai you prosecuu! <lit leac5'i1 II 0 of his gang; lli!illernbe~, suppoFtt;!r,~. 11Y1l'1laJrldel"li. aJrnd relatives ",,~e id~ntified Ol.!f1d 3Jrt! jUS't wai[~rug for YOUIJO' have agoodl time.

78

lihis iis a rather cynical Iperspectirve: '0.1'1 the pmsecuilo:rs,' work. The' list of laments would go O~ esped.dly if the l",wy~rsii!!re!'!lIo~d wta~k "bout ~ow dl~y won cases-

A ease u~ualll:r 1!IiIm:eans iegworl!J:: aJnd paperwolfk, I:ou, '0£ it. The$:i11' C!o:nsi5t of 'e<l'l~UFi 1Il~~hiat 'OOlpies of amen.ded complaints, eharge slllIeecs. atffidlav~ts, certifications, plh.otogra;phs. and oth~;hr mawFial~<!1"@ ,ava;i le;!,b~e.B'Ytth!i: p~per chase i~ only p<!!rt oflihe ~wry-

An@tllil~r gr~~ i!f1g ta:s!k [or !!! PFQ~ecuw.. lste ,g<!it;hel" ~ Iml;l!d'l eVtiide'Iiil'Oe ~ po~~ibleto support '~e ~ssuance of warranits. transfer of venue, re""'lili''''~ of the case, ami :a.mel'lldment of charge5. Gerlernlly, me proseeutlen team muMI only submit tesdmc.mnal evidiene!l'l LD ~he ClO'UIrU. The lack of p(htys icaJ evi:den,ce arid/or me use of Oliliases could Ilead !io,dle problem of identi{yillf11g suspects d:u lfin~ ~J'i,a~!i"A pOli~i bl!e so!utr,OI'lI iLs me pa~$-a,ge of :iI. 11i1.tional idencitica:tiion law.

Allso.tihe success in convicting me peorpetirnt>Ors i;s partly dependentoli'l 'd1.e: capabilit~e:s of tne law enforcerS :<illl:d ~ecurillJ officers to seize ,or siUbrtr1l~t dille IneoessalFY !il'vidence. "The impor-unce therefore of Il'\eooveri~g, identil'ji nrg. 3.lilid preserv;i ng any ev~d€lnceseiz(td rromthe: :.J.QGUsed or ·1lIiii;e· cnme scene cannol: be overemphail'lzed :iCS: it is imporrnnt for the proper idem:WtabiOOll of me 3.iCcused d\J ring 'tine uiiill to prov,eguil't bey'O:l'lld reasonable dDubt."

Another Imeali&J re .of 'e1ffiec.tive law enforoemerlic lis lin e arrest o.f' clriminals," This ,e:oul!d wo rk te the d~~!!.d'J,J'<!l'ltage of the: IP~o~ec;u~on if no,l; IProipii! fly C!lFFtecl out or if done fo If limp mper mom'es.The security {ar,oe!> hav.e: to be ¥i,giI3.111ii: observers ,of basic. ~'!liI mall'li lightli:tc become iJl~trumcfltsofjus;tioe~

The !'loo!" WQr\king~QIIlJdit~OJli!il. ~0w~OIiil1!:pe'll;s;!'1Jion, an d ll!i!!~k of il1cell1l~ves fur me profess~on:all am,:an:cemel1lt of proseclltion persJOnnel OIifl"ec:t the ,efficiency of~e proslecliJitilon seli'vi:ce.

A1~Ih,ou~hirlh,e lifJ:L!lmber of cases bas mounlle<!l ,over~n,e! 'tears, Ilofiistial support devo!ioo Ii.o PFQse~ytill,g ~.-um i 1Il!;!11 cases j)aJrticubrly in f1iJ1 rnl lIreas I~a'!i dediilrlled. OIflIl11;e av;em,g;e, a prosee:ut>Otr handles 41,50 cases <It any glvantime rIIlngi ng frem criminal to Q~h~lr e,,~~~ like land Ir,e.~i~trnith)!~\ adJoiPt.ign,ann~lme1l'1Iii: of marrica,ge:, ,etc. Givel1"lt:n ns 3!l'1Ilount of wo rk, a prosecutor WQ'lJlld 1ii Ii'l.d ~t tTia'lI'dto, do quality ~s;earc:hl all1,dJor ~Q Ipre~Fe fOF the next utal_ Thi~ is t!i'i.E dme wil.en me Ihelp' or pnV3!1!e IPmsocuoo:rs aregreaitly appreciated.

~ n ad\::l'ii~ion, "'it mcay be' i m;proipeu"l!o, m antlen finaoejial matters in ,c;ol'lln,eajlcn with o~r work bUlt we have corn e ~o reallizie that zeal, i!'ldus:U"y. ,and peru;v@.-a:~oe alQ:n~ do not winc"se~ muo'rn less s ustal iiill aJ miiilfllll'llii~1 against II mptlnd.ty." Ah:hough me p:rosec!lJIt:ors u:nderst31iil d that resources 31t1e scarce. they still hope that <!.u!i1!Olriti:(!!!S] will prnper:ly ad!dFeli~ these rnarters,

'19

The M.rilla CDl1l.."I1IC~ 00

I HPUNITY.AlND li'RESS fRl:l:OO:H

Desplce the porvayaJ of tJlle Wimess Pir-orectJiQn Program (WPP) in Plhilippine movies and telleViision\ it is not alii that ~lamoroUis. The program p.rovides judges and their IP ersonnel Se-lCLJ rity pl'"atJ~CtiOIi'1. ·tiransportuion, and allied services ill'll Ih igjh risk cases upon the i'udige~s requese, 'Giveln al I these responsibi !.iDes, the program is stli II lacl'<iitng im resources.

IPlroSlI2C'Ultors are "'glorified caregivers"_ Thls ts because aside from their actual protective duty, tJrne bulk of thelr jasks il'l¥Olive running errands for witnesses Ilike hou1sekeepin.g, hospital visits, PTA meetings to go 31long with mlinor willm~SStlS; etc.

Nevenlrneless, "we f@ell that witness protectionl is a powerful tool available to people eamestfy prosecuti ng Iheinous (rimes!" AI! the end of 2007,~he program had about 600 witnesses 1ii3.riollM!'ode_ At an average fa,f1I1Ii~y size of four, thes,e meant ;som.e 2,.400 warm bodies relying O~ ·t:he p r,oFlam for various services, Some 90% of ·tlhe WdUleSSES are from tlh~ poorer sect·ors of socilety.

In the end, "th:e s i ncere dedication· to the c3USlEl of prosecution and the~r e.a.rnest des~re fo·r ·tlruth <lind justice over and above ecenemie and personal g.ail"lsshould determine their m,efulne-5s to ou r cause,"

The workifl_.g witlness protectilo n scheme is dependent on the sl;rel1~dn of 'dbe ether pillars of~lle c:rimiil'l3!1 lustice system which consist 'Of Ilaw enforcement; d1e prosecutlon, tine ]uldiciary,1thecorrection system, OInd 1jhe communky.WithooLJ1t: a properly functioningWPP and the rest of 1lhe erlmlnal jusrlce s)"s1(:em, there weuld be no falir trial.

There is a meed for constant vigilance and enduring support from everyone. Mllrder, INhether of a rnillitam: or a media persofla!liir.y, is IiJlnlaccepmble and is a. heineus crime. The "proper pUblicity of media. and extrnjudic.i3!1 issues in the c-ontext: of our nanonal inllerest and its effec~.on our country's secur~ty and developmElillt 'WOuld go a long; way tOWillrd~ rnaki ng We p,u'blic understand the real nature of thi,s crilme:;

S~nitt. Start! Proseruoo.r Leo Da~ Is .p.!<Ogl'am ·(j'iofiedor of"lhe Wrorttt .Proooa.Km 'sKurilf (Ina ~eneP~ Program or Itle !)epartmen~ of Jf;J~t!r;.e. DlK,era served at the ream SMd'~~ a[' the proseruriollteam m tile People .of the Phlllppinet Y.t. ~nfsloo BismOllM et, tlr. ·mmina' case, which e'O'eIIltua'l.'l ~ielded co!'!¥lafons ('or lillree men m rlie muM~r a{ slain joomalsi Mam:M &pMit

I)~m hils a Bm:hel!!JG af law 4egree (mm the AteMO de Maffl.la CoJI'~.P: .of ltr-", .and a Mas~l!i m M$an~ SWJr.ity

Adm~ from tile Nall'ooo! Detense ~ Dr tIN!' PhilippfnE's·_ -

80

PAI\U:IL. DISClJISSIOlN ,~

The lO .. day IPihlilippine Vlisit of Professor Philip Alston, me United Nations ,(UN) SpeGial Rajpponem" on ExtraJudicial,Summary orArbitrary IExecurtlol1ls, was made possuble d'lrou,g'" the assistance and full coordinati.o:n of the Coufltry's human rights community;

Maria So eorro I. Dio kno Secretary Gen:erol

Free Legal Assistance Group PhfjIf:tpines

I'n Feb. 2007,AIston looked inlio the human rights situation i:n time ClOUll1uy. He released 3. report critudzing key government agencles and ul'Istitultlions

f()r their failure to address e!Xtr3.judr,cial kilillill1lg5 and en'rorced dicSappear:moes.The A~ston report also pointed out the appaFent partic:ipatlolf1l of the millitary in most cases. AIs:wn was a,ble to inte,rvliew mo:re ehan 1100 witnesses and gather 200 plus documents.

The human rights c~mmlL.ln[rty <came together because it thinks the killin,gs had gone up too much."You have nQ,Jlm'bers exoeeding 800 fOil" political activists,.SOO for common criminals, and about 70 journalists .. So you lIrtl talking about a lee of ki Illings mat a re goilf1lg em all over; So everybody was very concerned:'

The community recognized d1cat th~ Allston missio:11I was an imlPort,mt venue to bring out the S"oori'es of the pteple who were killed or missing. Several individuals and groUlps decided 1tQ provl de mputs, suggestion!s, an d reeemmen datlons to th e Alston report,

fhe members. of the oommllJll'lIity reii.l'iz)ed thaI; they needed each other to succeed in the cause. By agree'i f1Ig to, partl cipate on the Alston investigat.ion, the members 'Of the ,co:mm~hilrrty were also alble eo evajuats tneir own undlvidual strengths,limitation,s. and wealkness-es.

Tnetruth is,o:1l me side ofthe witnesses, the families of th e vi c:ti ms, an d eh e surviVli,rng viCllims. Time people 'Mhio 'Were afrald and had Ilest an faith and trust in th e government agll'eed to talk with Allsto\n becauseef the help and coordlnatJion of the members of tihe human ri;ghts cemmunlty

The consensus, among the members of the communlir;y made things work and in fact, they consid!elf ie a big achievement that aliI honored their agreements. We were tr.:m:s.pr.uielil,t in alii of the activities done and made sure that: they had discussions.

But, 1110'[ all went well. The negotf<atJions with th.~ "UN City" were Olil e of the hardest things: we had ee do .. The: UN asks aU their a.gencies [.() wonk in "unity 'Of purpose and in a

81

on

IHPUNIIT AND PRESS FR!I:EDO:Jl1

new spirit of cooperation andl collaboration" under the ONIE UN program (http::lfwww. unsysc.emoeb.orgloneun). Therefore, the team had to coordirna.te with the UN Cicy tn terms of Alston's mission and ln turn wid'll the governmelilt for the vjsi~ing rapporteur's sc:hed:u lie and security:

We negotialled for safety-mat there WOI!J lid be no governmeliltsurveillance, no governme:flt people present in any oftltne mlil'etings an d no r:akillilig of pictures, videos, 0 r attendance. To no <lVail, me gOYemme'l'lt did ,not hon 0 r eh e agr~emenn_"

Lasdy"anor-her big problem was, financial resources. Deaica:l'Jion made the ream beg fur and borrow mOI"!'ey just to .accommodate more than <I hundr-ed people.

We I earned several, les.soiii<li. Unity was a c rueial aspect ofthe rnisste n and so W'aS WO! preparation. The UN City i:nJ these cases has an i m pertane 1"10le which the human rights community needs to recognize and work with.Aho, direct and open comm.unic:!I!ti,on with the peerson dloing the mission is tmpereane iin 'me suc~-e:s-s and evalwat!ion of the project.

"The numbers, (of the cases of extrajudkial killing:; and enfo'roeci disa:Pipeeanmces)r have gone down, yes. But even if the numbers have gone down, the fact is no ene has been re..alliy heM accountable so the practice eontlnues," What matters most is to absolul:ely stop the practice and to holld me people who perpetrate the killlin,g,s, alii the wa:y' ~p to the maslle rrnmds, ac.oolll~table.

Mario Sooorro f, O~IjO is ~t:l"ewry genernJ af thI!l f:~~ lef~ i'lurstm.re 'Group (fi.AC) ill the Pml\tJ-Pm6. She dfreaeJ tlOO oo.oc~prudlilZl!lrJ\Dn an;:! ~emen~an ,of fiAQ; ~lmal'1'1ic. :rodaf, ,QFld ~l[ro/ r(gI1tl: pragrum from j 990 to ~ 9'9:7. Djo!mc, is' ~ Sl!Cmorr-rMf'ltlJ c(dlie RegroJ")cl Co.un~· on H~i'»On Ri:gh!:!" ill kin dill'd'is a oomurwnt of ~ O~e o{tlm GOl'eMment CorparmE CaUIJSI!'L

$he Iw$ p!fblW;ied vlIrioos pIeces fOr aoo made (I' J1!1mDer of pjr~rctiM!i to o~r O'l!an.izClWm 0/1 (i renge of rigfi!5 t~SIlIts, Her (I~ ,of e;o'_peM'e jracllllde human rights aoo dotvdmpment and ~ased approcrch to d~dDpmMt

Open forum

Polio!:! Senlior Insp,~"tor IEdmund BayJe ,ofTa:sk if'or,ce Usig of the IPh illippine N:atJiormi Po:li ce (PM P}I saijd~he PN P crE<iiJ1::ecl Task IF(m~e Usig on May ~ 3, 2006 to address the problem of extraj u:dicial killings 'of m i Ilitant aotivists ali'ld medi:a pra.ct.itioners. lie ¥liaS formed "to ",rovi d!~ aneff"ecti"",e amd effident smaoogic ;;IjPipmach in d i recti ng and optimizing the irlvestigar:fr'l!ie 3JtiH11 prosecutorilll capabill ities of :a.1I PNP UI n [,ts for th e, re:soIUl:i:on, ·off cases;" (http://www. p n p.gov,p ilIa bo u reI comern:l,offl ces1:s pl_u n i.u./tf _ us ilgu pd ates/u.s ig_ se p1J !l.boutUlsig.html)

Bayle: s<IIidi that th e, esses of extir.a,judiciiall kmin,gs, as per PNP' 'tallJlnlt was 14!, wh lch i n eludes I 13 mmmif'lit and party.ilist mem biers <lind 28 medii"" prac,tition:en based u pan rlgjd and lntenslve veriflcaJtiolilland iWilvestigatio:til, IHe added that ~hey do notCOllJlnt the other cases as ~tra~ udWe:ial killin,gs: burt merelyjus,t as IfIta~n mlLllmer eases becausethe mctiYes be~im:l their k!i 11'liiI~sare private. Bayle d~fi!led e.xtrOlijuaicial lkilll i tilgs b:ased om, the ,com,cept that it lis a "~olidc<!1 ki II~iJ'lg attri outed tot/he military or lpolliioe. hence me term, extli;lj'lJid i clal 'or summary execul:ion, ,of victim,s""

IBayl'~ emphaJsiiz:ed ma,t the PNP iis one wim the goal to put ani end W ii 1'lflIj'l unity in the Pfnmppines" But he meiiliIJioned several mad blocks and II i miita,tions.

Tile inve.stiij"atorsolll'l' the gro'UlWlid Ire~y mainly on, te'stimoli"lial eviden,ce. Thestakes for potentiOliI wit1nes:sesare very [h,irgh. Key Witlil,essesmce a degree of ~!1QO nvellience. economlc Irep>E:ff!US5nOnS, and S,€!QU rity problems.

Time pa~ice cO'IJi'ld ordyf!nd few peoiP I,e who would volulilteerlio release ~Ilifo'rrnado n that could help idem:iify, fde cases >Ig1lJinst, and pa5sHEI~ prosecute perpe~ramrs.

Pdl ice inveslligawrs find difficu Ilry ingather!i ng and preserving physkal ev~de:nC!e gfl¥e:til Ilrneilr limi"ed reSiOI:,H"l;:~~_ The lack of scientifi c fcrens i·e: eqllJl~pmem: allild tminil1lg ilm forensic sc:ierllce are alse n ega.tiv-e iac:wlfS.

Thereis nc ~aw~h:at g~arnJllitee.s a na!tiianal id@ndfic~tiQn :system to Iheip name key wUtJtiI,e~5es and pinpoint~u~p~cts.

Taosk ~orce Usig ShOIUI~d be moreactir\lle, and proacdve. It would be best aliso lif it cemmunlcated mo,~ closely wi,dT! alii eeneerned g,OYerlnlmem; ageltilcl:ecs 3Jnd the me&a to speed! up the ill\l'e$!)igation :a.nd prosecution.

83

The IMaJ1lb Conrl'eren(e on

IMIPUNliTY AND PRESS FR.EIEDOM

Push fur le,gislation of stronger laws and bigger budgets to address the worsening prob' em of elCtrajudiic:ial ki!~ i ngs ,amId enforced di'sappearances.

'.

Improve and overhaul rhe Wlhole cri minal i~stlioe s.yst,~'m_ People have to push ~or a syst,@matic approachthat would ensu re the propel! r identif cation of perpetratio rs, sdendfu;: eellecti O:1il of the necessary evidence, an dl evef]t!l.lal conviction for all the peoj:)Jle responsi bl ~ _

Assure me secl.lliity olf witnesses through the availa.bility or court rooms which have facilities for their procecnen, decent vehtcles for transportation, and judges: whO' could issue protection orders"

In Ph i IiippiiM law, the priiVatie preseeurer lis IL.UIIildeF the concrol and direction of the pu b I lc prcosocuoor. Theereeea Ily, the private prcseceter lis mere onlytio look <lifter the ciIVil aspect of the case and the publk prosecutor is supposedtc look afwr the' crirnmalaspect. In praeeee, the succ.~~s of 11 case depends largely on d1e personal relationship and cccrdinarlen of me public and private prosecutors. Gemw:oIlly. the private prosecutors, are preferred and the public prosecutor is mosdy hands off in the cases. The role of private prosecutors should be institutionalized to assure their particlpaticn in the cases and to provide all e>nvlronment where the pub~k and the private prosecuecrs could work together amkmly beyond the politics of personal relatlo nships,

!Law enfo rcers, (he media. and pri'l'a'te prosecutor's shou I d work rogether to pus h for 11 case's change of venue if necessary and hav'ill strong reaso ns todo so, Past cases proved more successfu I when trnos;ferred to urban centers and places where th e influence of the perpetrators is less.The bpe:rat case is a worklng template fo,rother 0ISe:s:_

.'

There must be an optjmum level of cooperation between pmsecutors and the police. This lis because usually the firse responders un cases are the police.The case rellies on 't!he f! nd i ng~ of the pollice for eviden ce so there slhould be dose cooroinadoml Wdth and g~~dance gi¥~n to them .

Local mecliia that kn.ow about a partl cular case have to put some pressu re on the national media for its pUlblidty. ThieS should begin as earily as the arrest orders are issued.

84

Stakeholders and F1unders' Caucus

T'o e.J"Icou,rage partkipents to re~pond t~ _ the .chaillenge. of t~e issues raised dl!Jltlng the ccnference. the meeting provided time' for diseussion of ideas and ~uuestiions that ,COY I d II ead to concrete ~1fforts, and plans for action. These ilnv'o'~ved t~ e: stakenolders n~ presented in the cOlrde renee: IPhi I ippin@' gov~rn ment in sti tunc n s (the Pihillippiille Natiortal Pollee" the Depalrtm~nt of Justice" and state prosecutors, the Supreme Court), lawyers, law school faculty, human righl:s activists. [our-nalists, an d rned i a-oriented nen-gcve rn In eH11t organ Illa!Ji ons, who Ii IrI partners nip or th ro ugh fJhe,i r pro'grams co u Id in i,tiat'!:: stJraregies <lid dr'>~ssirlg i In pun ity and fu rth er p'LI rsu iing the advocacy of pr€ss freedom .

ContillllnJe dialogJJe and establish mechanisms far shal"illflt8 inrormationmat will present the issues of i mrP unity as a locel, natlo nal, and N!,gional concern an d build networks at the local na[ionall, and Iregional lev·els.

85

IMPUNITY AI'!!"!) PRESS FIU:I:D()M

For instance, those who, have il1fonmation could tip off or brief the media, in, nandlilng th e cases better.Also, can cerned infjilivi duals 3II1IeI grou ps could together Prie"ss IJ re those responsible into ta1kin.g eenerete actiona to add ress the issues an d help in the fo!llow dl'ffillJign, of the effom al'ready in place.

Conduct training: progrnms fo:r me media to hel p them understand the 'CUitUII'e of impunity and to deve~op inl their flews formats process or context relPorting an its, varieus aspects.The tlraining program would consist Olshan lectures and/or mod Liles, a!bout 'the 'con'text and lar:ger meaning ,of impunity. It is important to diiSCI..ISS as, wen media's coverag,e .of traditilonall justice '~SllJes.

Specifically. tne media, should unci entand dUll mandate an d operational pmclEld LI res of tlhe members of the Judid,wy sys~em. Members of the i~dicia.ry sys'wm :!lhOIlJI~d Ile31f"n more abeut me role. wo ,kings, and dY1l<amics efthe p:r'f:ss.

Develop a rnulti-seclloral database which would include the experiences of the stakeholders; in particular the mediaand the Iaw)'lers. There' should be agreement on the fflteirpretati.on of terms used in discussing impl..lni~y: Establish a hodine and/or web.site where people ,collJllld accessall imonmatioll on the issues and dle individuals and ol'ganiza:tiions ecneemed.

Ed ucare and engage the pu bllk.llhiis ,COLJ I d start wid'll a p!!Jbll ic campajign to ma'k.e d'l e people more aware ,o,f what is happen i 011. The cau CUiS c::wUed fo:r me comm i;t.iI1l1ent of various, mediaJorganizil!tiOlTlis to COllillllfilll'E'i: with reports on diPS subjec!t, through IliJe\iVS accountsand d'lrough a.dvertisement which will speak ;;0 the general pllJIblic <lind ~n~ge their support.

Revise .malor imlPl"orve the law currlculum te prepare lawyers for the kind of work nee<! ed to handle cases involving impunity IDe pr€s:-s freedom.

Otf;!!!1J" rcaw c.enifiCa[e: CQ'U rSES specific.llly for tih~ members of the press.

Crealte leg<ll elinics.The medii-a shollJlld build its own ba,tte:ry of lawyers.The II egaJl defense wOlLllld handle C<lSJeS specific to the problem and other concerre .efehe media,

86

DeSP:i1te the Philippines' reputation as one of dile most G3Jrngerous eeuaeries for journalists. [ournalists do not have 1;0 submit themselves to the same volatile environments in w.llr fronts while, doing their [cbs.The sixth panel agreed tlh<at ~c'urn<lilisu can prorect 'themsehtes through ech i:eal and exe,eHem pr-aJctice, <I united m eel la, an d the ,Sl.!Ipport of the various stakeholde.rs of press freedom.

The spea~~rs for the panel wen~: Melinda QU~l1rOOS de Jesus. e'_xeC!utive direcwr of the Cen~r for Medl[,a Fr-eedom and Respo'l'isibilil;y. Mllirialieresa Ronde:ms of the FUl'ldaci6n para hi lfberead de, IPrensa iin! ColombiaJ; Jose L. Pavia, chalrman of the Freedom Fu F1 d for Filipino journalists.; and Rowena Parraaliit. l:reasur{tF (former secretary ~neral}o of the Natiional Union ofJourl'lalilsts of the: Philippines.

,81

The ~nll a Coofi!reoca on

II MIPUNITY AND PRESS FREEDOM

De Jesus stressed the impo rtanoe of press :self~r:egulatory mechanisms and urged the need to educate the public about media ilssues. S!tne IPointed out that through ,ethical and competent Irepo.r~i~g. the press will provide me publtc the ser'llice that will he appreciated by society. which win in rum defend the IP'r~'SS-

Ronderos said if journalists work more dosely together, they can help protect not only themselves but also the information that the pobhc needs to know. She shared her experience in formiing allltali1,c~s with differelf1lt newspapers that workedl together in investigating and r,eporting the Ikilli[llg of journalists and other issues th<l.'t yi,elded posiliive results,

For his pan, Pavia dflsrossed tJheobjecti'il'eS 'of the rreediom FUlnd for rilipilllo JoulmalistiO, an '0 rgali1,iz-a:tlion 'of media groulps li1atiionwide lau nehed <liS a Goard i nat:ed i'latiional e.ffort to address the problem, oft:he ldll i ng of j ou mallsts. He called forilie h@lp of dlifferent srakehelders to let the public know what is happening to journalists,

Hlow [ournallsts can protect themselves and plress freedom

In her preseneation, P~raa.n discussed short-term and leng-eerm tas.ks wllichjOl..ln1lillists 'can do not only to protect themse:lves and their familiies against attacks 3!l"Id threats but also 'CD put an end to th~ culture of impunity. These lndude the launching of narion131 an d ii nternation all word i nated protest aenens, reforms in t!liie ed ucationsys:wm. and the passage of l<lWs foD" me protlec.don Q,{ press, freedom OImong others"

~ Etllio as protection Joumalusm 3S protection

A united frondg,ettin,g media's act tog'~ther

Melinda Quintos de Je.sU$ Executive Diredor

Genter for Media freedom ondRespo/lsibi!jty

The Center for IMedi<! IFreedom and Responsibility (CMFR) has framed its plTIgram model by regarding freedom and responsl oi Ility as essentials iin a democratic press system. As a w;ry of protecting press freedo m, emncal compliance amon.g jOll.!l rnalists is the long term aim eM FR WOllJllid like to achieve.

There are I'awstlhta't either protect OF a!brid!ge p're~~ freedlO:I'Trn;IDe people need to ~mdelfS1t:;md! me IT! ix of laws. 0 n ~h e, on e hand. d\er,e are ci rcumstances 'rlha.t 'D"y~o sillence 'the press Ilke the killiflg of ~ourlTll!ll:~t5. On the other hand. there lies stm,rng public. support and j,udiciall 'backtlTlg fQF die IPIi'~S_ Oirlle of ilie cO'mpOne!l1l~tlhat should be add ressed in dlait mlix tsto defend an,d protect IPress freedom and pra.otice.

The principles of ,ethical j]ou rnalism are acc!!Jra.cy (bc~l!Ia!1 and conoo){I!:Ua.I). b:al3nce. and rnimess. Wlim this kindofreporlli ng, jou rnalim will be vailuedl and protected by th e community slnee they provide a IPI,lI[b'I,ic servioe_

But une,mital ]ou rnallsts do not deserveto be killed fOir badjouFlTl:i!.IIn..srn_IBut bi1l.d repernng enoourages bFiE! wndency to tol'e:l7lte aJttac:iks :a.ndtlhreats ~inst me preu.There is a, gap' imJ the IPLlIb1lii's ulfI,derM:andin,g of the press alt c:en:ailTll times. This ,gap should be do?SeiCI by ~xpl~inling wdT!~ fu~op~e th,~ role efthe press Tnl c,isiiS sijw<!tiOll1s.

Self~regij~atD'1" mechanisms I Uke press counci Ii!; are also i mpolrtanlt.l[mitaJ pmctice grows best wrough self~regl!la.don. ThE! press should not :aill!ow dle govemmel'ltto clothe r'egullatillg. 5elf-re,g-uliltiOrry effortS should be m~de knownto the public :so~a1i: it can [ili3!rtid~ate in add l'iessin.g ~1!)S, cOITl(;€'fns.II'f this Pllf'IJiCI!J:liaF mechani'S1ml devoelop~ the plllM.ic will fl\ea~i!ze, that abuses api nse the lPr'eSs are unrea.sonable.

There "IN d i1'furtilnt press CQunc! Is O!!nd press complla!i'Flits IbGarn~~AmO;l'1\g the dwee In:!gio:mal councillsit!hat eM FR organi-red.me Gebu Press Couli'loi'l lisllhe most activE. There are press cl;l'Um::ins p<!i~rrtl~d! .. fue, dhe S.wedj~h and! IBl'iitish modelis but mere' a re issues il1l develo;p:in,g; lpress counci~s il!'l the PhiliplPifilessuch as ,!how to oomposetimem and what lkind ,oHundin;g they wDuM need, In the Philip,p:irne expertence, press 'C:~l'u:ils need 00 be, further developed.

Other available self~regLj lawry mechanisms: are me press ,ombudsman.freader's a.dvoca;te <lind the K(]'pj~~n fig mga Brvdka~~er ,I'lg ,PiJ\j)rnm (Association of Brioacl'caners of the IPhilippines).:The C!MIFR's .Philrppine journalism Re!i'iew (and ~JR Reports) are mechanisms of peer li'e'Yiew and self-reg"da1ii.on. eM FA. also 3.dknowledl.ges good joul'\IlIal'i,sm practice,

IEl\feaive selr~regl.lli31~i.cn CilJI'II be s![J!stainedl by al'lactiivE, viifiilia.nlt,. and wen~infof'\!'1t1led media audiel'l{Je_The 'impoi'Umclf! of self.lregubltio:l'1 shoul!d be made kilfloWTII ~o the public, .

. Mi!linoo Q.uin!i1Sde· Jesus is ~ d.iredN of Ihe Manilo-hasoo Um!~I (iN M!!.:OO ,~om' orJ~ ~sit!iJIty {CMmJ.

SlJe 00s W11)~ os <iI joomalls;! .in prUl~ and broadros! med.ia .m the Pn~!!s .. IntIJe ·8D.s.dJ~· i!fIJ'!5' a ,000000000nist to< BU!!le~n lfotiy, wflWlg ~llrl)' ~I (he M~ regime. Larel'; ~he edited' ve~~ Ne~ WeeIl'Jy. _ af:~e' ~~oru;

89'

The M~llll\!i CoM~renfe O~

~M pl,lN!iIi"II' AND PRESS :1i=1REI;IDOMI

ll!!!.Jesus wtlS ~ jOUfllm\~~,ffl-~~nt;;ea~ !:he Uni"l<Efiit)! of Micniga~ in .AM ArOOr and a feJ.iDW at !he, Shore.ru;!~n u-n!tf (or Pren. Po~'tIcs (Ina PlJ~1k fuji')' al; tJlje~edy x~{I{I\I (If Wrerornem in HUlW1id' U!<Nvermy.

~l'1e' LW.5 the 2000 ~e~igno' S, AQumo I': ~ (or Praje~~ionoJ ~m~m m r~(lg.oo(ion of hereJrDJ"ls to stffirJgtl18n Pflilipf,tme .d'emoGltlcy' ~y pr'()l'1'taun,f ~iglje;r .~r\!ikifQr& of mM'1o res.~~itl.t)' ~na p~ssroll6flSm,

Maria l'enl!sa Rondero!! ftJnd(iC~'6n POir(i '<I Ubertad de Prensa (;oJombi(il

Colombia is 0'1 v,@r'y dangerous place for journal lsts, who ~rave had to report on OOllmct over the last 60 't~.w~. As a resu It me Colemhlan pre-ss has developed m edhalF'Iiisrns to protect [eurnallsts,

:itickin:g to the job and bei ng fair and honest will ma~ a journalin s,afer; In laci n American couocrie5. the press has tended to be biased 1;.Qwa,d~ the partiies respol'Isil:ille for conflict. Tlhle cou nlJries where the press has

been physicaUy attacked as a result of th ls perception include Cdombiia, Vefle:z!Uleb, Boliviia, an dI Mexico" The media should be able to Us-ten 00 me pu bhc and not only to those in power:. The members of the press should aliso a,""okl dev€lopin:g: ,do!Se I~btio,n~hip Wid"li 1!h~ir :~olUJn:;e~-

"The use of moderate l!angllJ1age" is semeth i ng [eurna lists illilJ the reg)ion have issues wid'L TIM e lase ~o'!j r jlou malistsslain in Colombia. were kllled not beeause they were e;xpo~i ng corrupt personalities bUll; beceusethey we!r,e insulting them ra.ther' than reporting the fact-s, wh ich is a bask:responsibiliry O{ioulMalilmo.

Death threats against ~oUlrndst5 in Co[lomoia are rn.mpill11t. It is common pra.ctice amolillg jour!'lallis~~ to FeSOI"t W per~o:rnalilly resolvilrng canfl lets wim me sOlllrre of~!hJe~hreat, This, pract~ce has led to many jOll,.!rnalists getting killed, II nl GisE1S where ajmJlmali:s;t receives, a death threat. sJhe can cons1ullt experts in either IlQn'gO"'ernmelnt oFgaJniz1I!ti:mlJs or a oo~lle<l,gue in his/her news group, E,d reers should also b~ trai ned sothat they would know how to protect their reporters in dilfficll.!lllt situations. journal i'st~n~ed p\S,ychologi cal support since receiving death threaes is, trau mane.

Not e~ni!l inl i I I eg:a I activmes is one way furjou nm.llists lie. proreC[ themselves, Many Colannbian Ilo'Uln"nailislIB resort ro uaeth ieal praetlces like: ulsillflig h ldden cameras, to roqpose wrongdoill1\g_ Jioul'if1l;'llists should use legal means to obtaiin lillrorma1lioiill,Aside from shyl ng wway fi'Ofn iIIiidil:ac!Jlvities, j:ournalist.s also have to avoid maki'rng promises they C'II'1n,o~ d>eli\oIeil".

There areeertaln ~to rie~~h<!t are ~OG risky ~o publish but such storie5 could be publish ed wiilio'ut bylines.

'Co~ombiaJn journalists have organized an 'lIl1b1nce of media prcactEti 0 me rs (rom, 20 W1ewsM~iI'S and magaIli meso The Olilliance. ai dan investi:ga:bi,¥e repcre orlme pen etrntion of militllries in the stare Ilottery" Thesro r)' was publis'~.e<!ll Ii Ii'I IrlriIaJrny newstpr<!jpeirs in CoiOlTion,L

Worikin,g rogetheH" wi~h Ol:lhier m ed ia~roups has also been ClUII" approach in in\lestig.alli ng ilnreatJ;and the kill I i!i1g of jCl"JJr1n .. ~ lsts, For example, s,everall s.IDf'ie:s. on whllt the :s.rrain local j~um3ilists were working on have been publis h ed ii JITI various Irnational newspapers.

lime media all laneas have become. 3, p:J'e\l'lefltive force ag:ains'tNwl'e a~c:ks against journalists . . hide from mllkin,g local oorru,ptio:rn Cases bnOWli'll 1I,t the: n1l!bona~ level, mese: media aliiaiil,Q~ hallie convinced pro~~cl,lwf'S and j~dg>f!S to reop@r1 Q.Si~'5-.

The Ifdle of jcmmallistl> :am d d "'IWe rent :srnkenol ders il1l tile COntext of weak government i~Stitl!!!tiOflS, s ~ou~d be diso~ssed. The media, rl.O!'ll "go~l!"nmell'1!l; organizatiQns. aCaJdemia, and thinktaiilb need m work together ~i'iI d:efending press freedom,

Malfa' ]iere~a Ron~ Is Il'le e~ Gd:otIwr q[ s.em~n~ M~ne, Q wee~_1'y ~ m(ig>!ll1:rl'!"e F!<l ~~ A r)l>M~~er tif w C~nttr (0, PuDIk: .rn!~~,rizyt tti!ll:MIlru'ooG/ UasDrrur.rm of !ffiIt~UYe jooMilristt, RMde~ ~ 4110 pretidem af C6t.Jmb.ia's FauooatlilMl fOr the freedom afrhe p~ ,(Jiund.a.o:rol'J poro' 1!lJ l.:ikrtcrd de ~a a. mp)_ ru.P~ ~ Coramb.ioo ~teJlt oil'~i;:non tnat ad~ ~~ freedom to ~W"e oc(;es.'i W iriI{mnll1'!l!WIl in ~lJi.an ~ooe~

lWd'e from' ~g (i! reap1ent a[ flie Rey 4e ~aM AW(IIrQi aM a ~ fim~ ~ ~ (pys. r~ )!I_~' f'QI her worK lIiYt~atmi: fI~mrp!:Kio ~.RMd~~(jI's!!!m:mMrh~ 1(l~.7 M~ M~ Ubo!.p~e ((K~!~ to ifI1'P~

~ pr«tlce in ~nrID::!.

The Fif'\eedom Fiund for f~lipino Journalists erH]) is an o:rg;lniIaiuo!i11 that addresses 8!tta.dks:ag-:ahl,sr.jO!lJlrln~ists and news groulPiS based inltlhe [FIhil!ippines., IFFFj is composed of six. organ i:z;:a,uons; the Cem:er for M!edia. freedom and Responsi billity, the Cenller ~ot Corn mtll1~t)' Jou malism in Development. me Ki:iI~'$CiI/Jan ng mg~ &-odka~Wif ng' ~mpirlaS1 ,(ksQei:il,tiOIl"l of BroadcastelfS of the Philippines). tihe Phm,ppi ,i.e Cen~e r for Investi;pbive Jourm.lism. tlhe r~mppine Press In:s.1l1rul!e, and me Ul6-lbased FiIJp'liIl,o. ne-wsp;lfler 7lle PhilippIne News.

Jose It. Pavmat

OIair~ ~()m ,"~mcl (er f"il~p;.I"w loum::iliJsts: otJd Exec~ Director" Plu1~pprfie' Pre4~ h:l's:titl1~e

n- ... Ha.lliila COIlli'erl!lKl8 Of!

IHP,UNITY.A!ND PRESS, FREEDOM

I. Ra.icse funds an d receive donatl o:ns fur the protecnon of joumall lsts under threat:

The objectives o.f the FFFJ are to;

2_ Pro/!{lid e immedlkate assiStilnce to the (am i ltes of jou rnalisu, killed in eh e lillle of duty;

3. Act as a sUPiP0rt group (o'r journalists wlho are illl distress by, among others. formil'lg qu i'elk. response teams: to help get. investigatiolillS under way or 1tO look inw the circumstances of' rhe attack agai n!S't ~oulmalis1;S;

4" Follow up the prosecutlon of cases, involViing attacks apinst [ourneltses in the Iline of duty;3Ji1Id

The 2:002: murder of IE,dgar Darnalledo, breadcaster and ma.nagingedi't.orof the Zambooilga Scribe. was what II,ed to 1ll1e founding of 'the FFIFJ- Damalerio was based in the city of Pa,gPidian in SO'I.!I1ihem Zambollnga, M i IfliOOi'lla.O. The FFfJ is a gr'o'l.!IlP' effort by lts six member org:rnizal;ic!i''i<S 8Jnd other iil ews, and media groups natlo nwi de, to protect [ou rnalists ~gains,t threats and attacks throiUlg~ different types of assistance.Also, international me(ii<l org31rnizatiollS have ,given support to FF1FJ.The Committee to IP~otectJoumailiscs and o1lher organ izations provide financial aid to the families of sli;;!.i,if1 loulrnalists,

The formari()i'l! of a fund i~ siigllifi:cant to FFlFJ's advocacy sin cethe absence of it makes, organizational oo'llabor-<l!ti:o:n difficiUll/t, The organizations involved in me or,eatiol'l of flFfJ worlk. ilil different areas o.f their advoccacy in promoting and protecting press freedom.

One of the plans when the RFFJ Yi3.S organlfimd is, ee ensure the implem8I1mtl:o:MI of a q uiek response ream, FFfJ also p'l"o,Vlid!ll!s iimmediaJte: financial assistance to. the relanves o,fthe joumallists, whether killed in the line of duty or not, FFFJ sends r'ejpr,eset'ltati¥es 'to the places of work of 511ai 1'1 ~oum2l.Ii5ts_ Wlh.oo both Aldan-based ioumalis~ Robndo Ureta and Herson Hinolan were lkilled. the Tamilies 'o,f me vi:c:ti ms and the local media were, happy W see that there were representatives from IIFfFj.,

.r- L Pa~ ~ e,:;:ecutive d'ill'OOD.r DfrJj~ Ph_1M ~ fMUMe cm.d ~haiTOf th~ Frm~dbm ~nd (Or fIlipJ1W ]w1'!'1~ (Fffj,. rn'J i~ ~' roalfll'oo of $ix media ~rgtlilljza!fum toan~.:I Nl.200J m r~OJ!l<re to tJ\Ie rising J'mmDer ofjiOul'MITs!:t kIJ.Ied. P6wa .s!rrmd as a n~p.aper rej'JOfter III the '~ cmd is aJso IlOO jUullNife.t. p~t;.J.lsJ'jef. anal edlto! of !M8buha)'; lJ' WEB'kJy l'Ie~paper ill Centro' !.uzon'.

!'.:Jh'i"a was gBrmroJ mOO!l,il'N of !tie Phlripprn.e ~ Ageocy in the 1970s_!-j~ sOllr~d as liMed NaOOni tEducan\Mal, S~!ifft. <iIldi GlIlftum' ~animtiDno GDJJs~iM.m: M NeM ~ O~~lIl'1~ ill D!!!vero~ CDW~ III tile '98(\1:5,

PAN.iEllm!SCUSSION ~,

Ii., Respond w atta(;k;.~ agaiiliilst jO!llmailists through a qUick response t€:ilJm.

The N ~ JIP has 55 ~h<!pte,~ oolijl1!tf'ywid~ whidh m<!k~s iit ea~i@r for lit to. r,espon d qUlicklly;

[Rowena. Pl'U'a3!rII

r{ea~!Jrer ((Qrmel ~~iWry gen'erai)

National UtJioo ofJoumatists of th~ Phmppine:ro

The Media :Safety Offi,ce is a jount project of the National Un i:r:m of jourrnalis,l$ of the IPIhiUlippines {NLlJP} and lihe Iliilootiilatilonal Fedell":allion of JOiJlmallists.

fhe omc~ is taskedl to:

1. Docume;nl1r: vaniolUs types of attacks, harnssmentts;, and threastsa,gain:st ]olLJll'irila;1 lsts, The NUJ P has documenl1~d s~encase~ of hl'fOtrawd m ~m;ier .. gai nst ~ 0 ]ou mall.ists:;

3. Conduct safety training for ~ourn!allists wn,iich indludles discussions on holW Joumahst$ (~n prObert memselves dutiliil~ various ty]p>es, ofcovem,ge:

4_ lLauodh Y!'iJlj)aJig!ms fur :s;afuty and pres~ wi!!edom_ The NUJ P has 11 tmnp:lnWfil lilm the prOvilt1l0esro popu Ilaniz.eamoit1lg joumal'vsts a safetygu~de ca II ed "20 steps to saifety"; aJil1d

5- 1D~lop a radlio p,mglfam 'Nih! iclh wOILJM add ress various issues jOUFll'l:oJ.1 iiSts ncave w cope with.

On me s!Ulbject ,of uniting [eurnalises ~fl!dlef!.ght apl!lst Ii mpunity, one of nu;! i~w€!~ that has kept new-sgt'cmps from working tioge1lher is thel:lhiinking of some members of majer fIIetwo:riks1n1ewslf'2lPersdhi:llt olnl;" these in the provinces are at risk, But with incident:> suctfl as what happened ln ~he Mlan i la Pe!ninsula siege whef'\e! journalists were aJrNs.te,.d,andl P1residentiil.~ Proclamation I 0 ~ 7, varticms mecliia ol'g;tJrnizallions liIave real~d the needto joinl forces iiln addrlO!$Sing die! eulture of imp~1i1 ity; This awa~n~ss has resul~.e.d iome Thi~in.g of fiMIO cases sEeking mmag,es from golffirn ment penonn,eland agencies .mdd\e conduct ,of caucuses and dosed deor fI'iIeetill&~ :i!IInrnon~ jcmmilJlisrs to adld'r,es;s i mpormnt issees,

The immedlkaretasks incJI ude:

~ . E.St:abUishing aJ. dalm mml. on press t\r,eedom and urn pu ii1Jq reliaood maeeers, As!ide, from ~'OiI.Jlrnali~u and other members of tile: media, :anyone who wlInts"o research on media. issues should be able to use the data bank:

93

'Th~ H'''ifi> C6111f~""n"" om

l~pUt.!IT'I" ANO PR~!!i5 I"fleJ!;DDM

2. Building a rH::twork of lawyers malt will help th e vi ctJi 11I1:S and then r fu;1Tf1I iii esseek iu~~oe,

4. Condw:ting, mere safety ~raAlliling wor'lks,nops to educ:a~e me pu.b~ic. journalists, and ceneerned <W!thoritlles abeut urgent med Ea issues: and

s. Piroviding assiistance to the famillies of sJainl jO'l~rnalists"

Wh~~e these ~lI1flmediOl!n;etasks are eruclal to~hre slain iounl!a~ists' rnmiliies, and ch e; witliH~SS~S to the killings, there are also ion,g"tenn .. as ks that have w be addressed ill eliminate the cultu re of i m pUllilliity.

These are:

II. Refo rms in me eci!JJ:ca!tiiontall :system Th ese reforms should! edl~C:1I"e the next: generatiol1ls about pr~s freedom;,

2"The passage of laws~hat will screll,g!l:ihen <lind defend press; freedom such aJS the Magna, CaFtll for [ournal ists and me ~reed!om «){ Ill1lformati'O:11l ,Ac.t;and

:3" O~nizii1giou"'nalil~ts to bu i lid their ~tr~lilgth and impro¥~ dleilr ecenemie oo:nldi,~ion~For ~Iutam:e.the' iiss~e of local brood!casters, who. reoe:ive thiei r wages, from the advernsements tlhey get from th eli r news ,so~rce~ should be ",dlclres;$,e,dL lilhiese eireu mseanees malke froulma~iists vulneralb I,e to unethical practices.

14 ere are some additions to me "wish list" that Mennda de JE!'SUS had <l!sked fer frernthe stakeh 0 I d!ers ~n the second day Qfth e confeil"enc:e:

2,. A watch on several [pend i n;g House ltIiins~ Medlia should wa!i)ch eut fcr these bililis thiat indi r~ctly afl1ect press f,e'Eldom. There were sever",lllaiws rel1li~e;:lto med iate whic~ tine medi!a h:ardlly r,ea.cted; and

:1" Holdil'llg a. press freedom, week. celebration in IMaJl1llila 1111l 11 place wh ere dliSiCU5siolill~and ether activ~ties mre concerts ami sports iests can be held.

The sllaii n Fi~ipi n 10, j Q'~ malises should ser~e as rem~r1ders of the need 00 er;a!CIic8ite the ,c;~!IJU re of i Iflfi,pU n it)' 3Jrlid to defend press freedom,

94

pANEL O.$CUSSIO'N 6

Ra-...-ena Poro'(l'll is exew&fve OOOrd'iooIDF of !he Media Safety Oftk;e, ~ joInt project of rh~ IntcrRc!roooI ~erotioo Df JwmqlJru (if}) d'M rh~ Niloonal Union of jouroofi~ts Ill( l1!e Philippine..!: (NUJP}.rFJ is dJe wo.rId's largest <Wg!l~t.ion Q{ JQIJ!]';I(l[f~~ whrk NUJP; af wnrm P-arm:lJl is (~rer ({c.mi'>f'( .swc-tary ~n;mrl),. i5 an ossixfat,iOll de4!!;ated~o p;fmllCl !!JIId ,QaVJ:l1'KE 'dJe' rlltaresC!; a(the fll)P~lO WOI'~ir1i p,n::ss,

Paroan is a fOrmer cssaOate editor of l~e PI1i1ip,pine,s G ra,phic, a notionaJ ne~ (jfid bYllfnett weeIJy. Site was: also one aftite (w!lders o[.the ati:eli'Jld'lA'.t ooIine ne\!fS moga,zine !.lu!at!at (lnd sil\fVed es irs mondiing editor finm 200 i to 2005. Sjle If one a(th4:: 1l'C';II'5' safeo/ troinq,<:!; (Qr SQUtJjeasfk!J!1 onlle jn~mationat News and Safelyl~lute'. $he hat ~ Md' irnpIlm'lented l'arjQus tfflinrll'g wotks~ops (ot juuma.Us15, i.oc/mJJng ri51i: awa"eneu ~OO $afew trnimng. elet!liiln n!~li"lf, i~gotfve reporHrlg, ond numon ~lS mp.mmg_

'Open 'forum

The 'open forum mal n 11' foculSed onl the po~siible s<JIfety <lind protective measures mat journallists could take advantage: of, such as ca,rryin,g arms and availing of tlrllining courses tailored for those who work in cO'llfliict areas" and organizing ailliiances among media groups iln p,ublishin,g: stories about slain journalists in several newspapers,The panocipants pointed out that:

The Colombian government has a protectlon program for i'oQJrn<llis'ts. journalists in danger 31'\egivenl bullet proof vests, armored cars; and bodyguards.

• A. [kind of i nstituticH"I-alliirntion should be insta!leiCI i n radic S,tatiOlib5 and news morns wherein people from dhe top com mgt to the framewol"k of s.afety. News grou p ewners and heads should be aware of tine danger'S involViifllg their journalists, while a buddy system could enable [eurnalists who have reoeived safety tlraining to share it with other jiournOllis,t,s.,The Colombian press lacks this kind of ins:titutnonali~tjon.Thereare 3JSO gaps h'l training in Venezuela and Eouadlo r,

The National Union of J0l,lrnalist:s of the, PhilipP'ilnes has desi,glilecl a three-day safety train,ilnrg course.

I n Colombia as intlne Philippil'iles, a manual for self~pl"Otlectionand ways on, how to deal with lssues most jou rnelists ~ncount'er has already been pu bllshed,

There is an association of newspapers in Colombia whose mem ben; collaborate with each ether to do me maill1l research and to publislh) stori es simu l't.meous[ly. One ,of me challenges encountered was the fact that t!he members of line association are di~ct corn petite rs.

"

Proyecto Man izalles, is a project in itia.t.edl by Semana Mlagazjne that gathers jcu malists from various new,spapens. It worked on a st,ory about Orlando Sierra. tlhe depurty

95,

[Mfl

directcw of a, main ti1ewspaper in Ma1t'lizaies, Collombia who was ki~lled.Jouma,1 ists joined forces to investi,gail!e Siellra's assasslnaclon. rrt drew public: support and theloUim31~s,ts jnvollvad diid r~ports on eeher cases ·of attackso:!"I andl)h rears agai rrst j:c;l'I,J rnelists. The <;hallem~e for iOUima~iiS1:S UlJOW istc invo~ve television netW'Ooo and radio stanens,

96

Panel Discussion, 7

A- ~er providing ani owrvi:ew of tll'le, killin,g of' louma!1 ieSts worldwlidle. the speakers preJ>elfllood !Slpedfi(: ':;~f1~ an da;h@ proMe rn of impunity in thei" ceuneries, They abo d'iscussed ways of addressing: dlJE problem,

'7

"file Miinil3 CCrir;" ..... tee {)n

IMPUNITY AN,o PlRE55 FREEDOM

Models of international/reg.o,nal campaigns to end impunity

Joel 'Sim onl Executive Director

Committee to Protedj(}JJmalisU 'JSA

Journal i mare bei ng kl II ed worldwide in reeo rd numbers, Ac.co rdin,g to, Commktee to P'trotectjournalists (CIPJI), there were 65 cases of killings last Y€-;lr-the ~~ghle5't rlU rnber in a. decade, Nearly halif of tho~e happened i t1I Iraq. making the war I n, I F.Uj th e deadliest conflict for du. press. in history, Ac:cor,dlng to CPJ, there have been 124joumalist:S and 49 media wQrk'ers kJI lied in liraq since war stsrted iill Man:1h 2003.

Altl1ou~ the problem of impunity remaios worldiwide, only a few countries: sufl"t\l" from i'm:punity over a long period of time. The sustained Ikilling of jounnallists in significa!l'lt n umbers only happens in a numberof countries .The Ph iillippines is one of th ose countries. The number of je u rnalists killed iin the Pih.il i ppl IileS has made it the firfth most dangerous OOQJlltry jn~he world forloliJimaillst.s-afteF ~ mq, Alg'~ria. Russia. and Colomh13,

The re is <! "sustamed im:r,easill1,g rate ,of impunity" in regi a rnSOlFQU'1l d the world. There are sustained il'lcreasillilg rates irll Asia, Europe and Centrall Asia, the Middle East and Nordi Africa as well asthe declining figl.lll"eS ilnAfrilca and the Americas.What is in!)e'res~ing is the systematic campaign by hh'lltern,a1ilonal and local press freedomgreups against impunity.

Can the Philippines IJlnldertake asys-oomatllc effort to red uce the I~e'lo,f impunity in dh,e, ccu ntry~ ln order to do that, the governme!'1,t sholJllld have enough political wi II to address the is-sue. Due to local and international preSSIJIre5, the Phi~ilpiP:ililie govemmenlt has been forced to recognize the problem of Impunity as a serious issue it needs ee address. The gov,ernme;nl1::, has caken steps to solve the problem, such as creatin,g a task force and committing funds to S'UIPporl: investigations. "I'm IIilOC s'l:lggestlng that the gov@rnment is doillg enough ... " But II think there is recognition here at the highest level that this lis a real issue here and that thegevernment has an obligation and responsibillit.y to address lt, ..

The j u cliiciary has also made some posidve steps in sQllvingtJhe problem, eh i ef Justice Reynato S. Puna also dsscussed ehe problem as ke,Ydlote s Freaker 011 I:lfLe fin;! dar of me conference, FUilpino journallsts are ve,ryfortunate and weH-served by a v,igorous press

98

Ireedom GommlJlnity which is made up of orgamzatlons SlJdl <IS dle freedom Fund for Filipino jeurnallsts.

The Marl erne E~pera.t case showed d'ltat it ls poss,i ble to' b ring to justlCie rh e killers of ~oulinal ises, "And maybe, if we keep this up, we call get the mastermmds, whuchwou I d really, I think, send an importan·t message to everyone in the Phil'ippines and to journalists around the world that JUStice is possible. ... And I realliy hope that we can achieve mat." AJso,th e re ars gains fur u ~ing the rneta-legalapproach in ~ollving the problem as aisclissied earlier by human rights 1000000e,r Jose Maf"IILUel D iokno,

J~d Sim'Oll is ~tl'IIe Qjrectorfjr~e Commil1!U w Protertj_rmlis!5 (G'j) ~ill(;eJuiy 200-6, !!~s~ed in NGwlhrl<:, CPj is om iIiIdepeooen~ ~overllmeru OJRlinrzlD!ion that is romm/Ued (0 prom~ P~tt fiudwn Wfllldwide_

Prior to wad:ing (Qr CPJ LI'I [997 crt progro.m rownaror (Dr Ame,ica, mOil worked (]'S a jooorooI"rst in Cali(orma ,anq Lath! America. He W(I.~ !l WfII.Clr-pharogmpher based ill Centror Amerloo CIt :rhe !iron ,[]f his career_ I-Ie moved tc Mexi@ Ott ill '989 o[!t:r Fflinr rr mas:ter's degree In latin AmefJe(l1l 5!ud~ fivm Stanford UniYersity. WMe III Me.:o'jro Orr. lit: v.'Od<:td (Or Pacific Ne~ 5erl1te: ~afl _nl[e ~dao.r ood for VlJrious US pu~ ~f a (reel= wrfMr-phorogrophe',:

Sirn'Oll ~ WlLIe.!l a~ rmmlgro!IM. enllilonm~nt. and the NordlklJerkai:1 free fmd'eAgte~mcnt debale wirile m .Me1tiro. He wafked es a contriOOtlnli: Mrlor for Sf Vl/eeidy ~ he moved ttl San FMI'ICisc!!I in 1991_ In 1994, ~e returned ttl MexJco to wort. I1S ,a fr«/aoce colTesj'XNl4'ent for Uie San lirandsco Chronicle where he l'e,Poned 00 the ZapoMla uflli'SMtg ilil Chiapmc

Carl,os Cortes Cudl h) Fimdado.l'l pam fa' Libertod de Pl'ensa Colombia

There are strli!k)1 rng siim i landes between the Philippine and CO~Qmbian media. The most noublo are the killl ng of and threats ~11Is-t jcu rnalists. 1111 Co,lombill, there has, been a Ibig increase ill the number of threats. wid! some journl1llist-S prac:tiCJing s-~Jlf-censo:rship or livin'g in exile.

The Colombian gO¥enilmellll: created a protection program, initiated by Fundao16n para la Ulb~rtad de Prensa ~FLlP)I. to addre:~:s attacks ,against l'oumali~u;. A~ound 400 journalist:> hllYe received benefits from the program.A!thoUlrgh there were .~oms [problems implemern1ting the program in some regio,liIs spel:ifica~1y beuUlse of lack of trust ill ~he authorities, 'vhe program has head some impact-

The development of a similar protection program for jOI,ll'nali.sts in~he Philipp,ines should be explored, Based on me Coilombial1 experience, there are several key poi nts that. ne;~d ~'o' be addressed wlhen creati ng Sll.l'dh program.

I.H~UNIT'I'·AND IPR~51S FREEOOM

Ifilrs,t,a,good Pl"ol)!!!ction pr,o~ram sho'ulld not jus,t beunder one government ag:en.q.Ra[rner.~ committee sholJllld administer tile program.The committee should include representatiYES from govern rnent agencies tasked to handle human ri,ght.s an d sseu rity affui rs. HaVlil'l,g all agencies related to human riglus and security lssues (such as the office ohhe ombudsman, the interior ministry. and the polliioe}eJrlsUJlres proper eocrdination of effo,rts toO protect me jrourm",lists.

The committee can moot every month to discuss the CUlllTeni: situa:tion and efforts.

Providing and co.o:rclinati ng ill"lfomlation em cases an dl issues slse needs to be dislclJ,ssed. h'! my experience with the prorection, program. the government eirther did not have enough info:tma1tion 0 n cases .0 r head difFe rent information, Upd"'t,~s on cases and issues such a~ funds and expenses should be coo rdinal)l:ld and open to v~r~fucati on.

The third k>ey pOi,1"l1t is the i ndl!,JlSion of ciiVil society ,groups in the prorectiol'l progit<11m cemmietee, The Colomb-ian committee h'ilscivil socie:tyand press gro'ulp's as members, iildudin,g FLIP. a IPulb'lisher-s' group,:an editors' group. and a. media advocacy institl.l!tlion.

Also, mere is <I ne~d to IiInlik the protection program with inootrifll<llJional e1forts.lIhe program can also ask for funding from lilrltematioil'all sources" The commlrttee can be centralized to minimi~e pressure from local commQ.l!Qloties.llu;: committee can be establts hed ln the capital or can art I east have Ir-epres,entatil\l\es, from national o,rgl'lnizati,ons,

A r,egijonOJiI m~dh!ar!'1lism calm also be put in place to quidkly move jouma!iists under threat fromone country to another,

(ados Cori:e~ C~O hew ~ exeaJtive dj"r@ctor or me rfiOIJ!nootion for mE! F~ Of !he Preu (F~ooaoi6n pam Ie Libertad de ,Prt!md 0; flJr, sliKe AIIg.ust 200'5. "a~£ilio is also 1I1d~.f wJM) earned ,(I spedOOzation illj'ouffl(f/lsm (rom w. An~ Ul).i~-er$!y. 8etwee-.rl.200J dlKllf)05, Ctl$"t!1'lo, '!Itt;Ir.l;;l;!a fanh~ Off~ cfll1e Om~~(I1l W'CoJom!Jia in addrettlllg ~ of·spee<:~ Issues, He al.!o w.M:ed cs a ~oortl'iailWr o{ll1e ~umai!l righils ~·pMgrom of the ~m~ ~ID!,.