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Methods Of Teaching Office System Subjects With e-Learning Aproach

The Analysis Phase

What the module is all about? This module aims to give you the first part of the underlying Methods of Teaching Office System Subjects with e-Learning Approach. The specifics of the analysis phase will be presented in this module. The author hopes to give the students the best ideas that you will need to pass the course. What do you expect to learn from this module? After this module, you will be able to: 1. Understand the principles of analysis phase in e-Learning approach in the methods of office systems subjects. 2. Appreciate analysis phase in developing your own web-base training. 3. Develop analysis phase with competency based learning in the course subject.

Module Content
Information Sheet 1 How do you determine a solution to a performance problem? Information Sheet 2 STEP 1 How do I know if training is even the solution to the problem? Information Sheet 3 STEP 2 Analysing the Gap Information Sheet 4 STEP 3 Closing the Gap Information Sheet 5 STEP 4 Audience Assessment Information Sheet 6 STEP 5 Determining Resources and Constraints Information Sheet 7 Five Categories of Learner Characteristics

Pre Test
Direction: Write True if the statement is correct, and write False if the statement is wrong. Write your answers on the spaces provided before the item. ____________1. The first step in any user centered design process is to understand the user’s needs. ____________2. Knowing your audience requires an in depth assessment of the learners to develop a generic profile. ____________3. To perform a proper analysis, you first determine if training is the solution to the problem you are trying to solve (needs analysis). ____________4. Step 5 analyzes the resources and constraints of the situation. ____________5. Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. ____________6. Need analysis is dividing goal into constituent parts to improve instruction by identifying sub steps and subordinate concepts, knowledge, and skills. ____________7. Self-concept - is multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and nonacademics), gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others. ____________8. Existing knowledge - is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the possession of interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value. ____________9. Learners has the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the action or thought of others. (constraints) ____________10. Analysis has 7 major components in a instructional design.

Information Sheet 1 How do you determine a solution to a performance problem? Analysis is the first phase of any instructional design project. It contains 6 major stages: needs analysis audience, resource & constraints analysis delivery system selection problem and instructional goal(s) statements content analysis; and instructional analysis.

Needs Analysis is the formal process defined by K Tara Smith that sits alongside Requirements analysis and focuses on the human elements of the requirements. User-centered design, according to Katz-Haas, is really about defining who the users are, defining their tasks and goals, their experience levels, what functions they want and need from a system, what information they want and need and understanding how the users think the system should work. The first step in any user centered design process is to understand the user’s needs. Put simply; whereas Requirements analysis focuses on the elements needed to be represented in the system, needs analysis focuses on the requirements related to the goals, aspirations and needs of the users and/or the user community and feeds them into the system requirement analysis process. it is also defined as identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills and developed objective. Content analysis
It is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie defines it as "the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws." It is most commonly used by researchers in the social sciences to analyze recorded transcripts of interviews with participants.

Instructional analysis It is dividing goal into constituent parts to improve instruction by identifying sub steps and subordinate concepts, knowledge, and skills. Take Note: To perform a proper analysis, you first determine if training is the solution to the problem you are trying to solve (needs analysis). Once this has been determined, and if training has been proposed, the rest of the analysis phase establishes the: who (audience, resource and constraints analysis) how (delivery system selection & instructional analysis) why (problem and instructional goal statements); and what (content analysis) of the training program. Although designers agree that the Analysis Phase is the most important phase, it is often the most neglected.

Information Sheet 2 Step 1 How do I know if training is even the solution to the problem?

The Problem

Actual Situation

Gap

Desired Situation

What’s Causing the gap

How might the gap be closed?

Determining the gap The first step in the needs analysis is to determine the actual and desired situation. The gap is an interruption of continuity.

Information Sheet 3 Step 2: Analyzing the gap What is causing the gap between the actual and desired situation? You need to collect data using whatever methods are appropriate for your context. Methods might include direct observation, interviews, questionnaires or document review.

Information Sheet 4 Step 3: Closing the gap How might the gap (need) be filled? The answer to this question will depend on the conclusions you reached in Step 2. It is important to keep in mind that many gaps will not be solved by training, as was demonstrated in the previous lesson. Even if a human performance problem is causing a gap between a desired and actual situation, the solution may involve some change to the work environment rather than change to the performance of individuals through training.

Information Sheet 5 Step 4: Audience Assessment If your needs analysis has resulted in the determination that training is part of the solution to the gap between your actual and desired situation, the next step in the Analysis phase of the ISD process is to analyze your audience. This is an essential part of the process because, regardless of your good

intentions, learners will not buy into your training program if it does not suit their needs, interests, or motivations. Simply stated, you must know your learners before designing instruction for them. Knowing your audience requires an in depth assessment of the learners to develop a generic profile. Without this information, it is possible to end up with a program that is too basic or too difficult for the participants.

Information Sheet 6 Step 5: Determining resources and constraints Step 5 analyzes the resources and constraints of the situation. What is available to the learner and what constraints exist in terms of financial resources, human resources, time, facilities, equipment, materials, organizational characteristics, and existing instructional resources? Resources and Constraints Learners has something that can be used for support or help. (resources) Learners has the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the action or thought of others. (constraints)

Information Sheet 7 Five categories of learner characteristics Instructional preferences Type of presentation Need for practice Type and amount of feedback

Personal/Physical Characteristics Geographic location Sensory, motor or mental conditions. General Characteristic Age Level of education Language ability Entry skill Existing knowledge - is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the possession of interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value. Skills - Proficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or experience Ability - The quality of being able to do something, especially the physical, mental, financial, or legal power to accomplish something Affective Characteristics Motivation - Something that motivates; an inducement or incentive. Self-concept - is multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and non-academics), gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others

Module Activity
Direction: Develop the analysis phase by filling out the diagram below. Specify the problem content to be able to produce the needed solutions.

The Problem: __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Actual Situation: ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Gap: _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Desired Situation: ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What’s causing the gap?: ________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ How the might the gap be closed?: _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Post Test
Direction: Write True if the statement is correct, and write False if the statement is wrong. Write your answers on the spaces provided before the item. ____________1. The first step in any user centered design process is to understand the user’s needs. ____________2. Knowing your audience requires an in depth assessment of the learners to develop a generic profile. ____________3. To perform a proper analysis, you first determine if training is the solution to the problem you are trying to solve (needs analysis). ____________4. Step 5 analyzes the resources and constraints of the situation. ____________5. Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. ____________6. Need analysis is dividing goal into constituent parts to improve instruction by identifying sub steps and subordinate concepts, knowledge, and skills. ____________7. Self-concept - is multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and nonacademics), gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others. ____________8. Existing knowledge - is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the possession of interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value. ____________9. Learners has the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the action or thought of others. (constraints) ____________10. Analysis has 7 major components in a instructional design.

Asnwer Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. True True True True True False True True True False