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The muscular system is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle

) can be completely autonomous. Muscles provide strength, balance, posture, movement and heat for the body to keep warm. Muscles have both electrical and chemical activity. There is an electrical gradient across the muscle cell membrane: the outside is more positive than the inside. Stimulus causes an instantaneous reversal of this polarity, causing the muscle to contract (the mechanical characteristic) producing a twitch or movement. Tendons and Ligaments As fascinating as they are, muscles alone can't do the job. At every joint, tendons and ligaments also help out. Muscles wouldn't be very useful alone because they don't directly connect to the bone, so even if they contract, they wouldn't be moving anything. Instead, muscles are connected to tendons, when themselves are connected to the bones. When the muscles contract, they pull on the tendons, which in turn pull on the muscles, and that causes movement. But without ligaments, that movement wouldn't be too useful because it would not be directed movement. Without ligaments, instead of bones bending or rotating about each other when muscles contract, they would slide by each other. Ligaments are what hold the bones together. They connect at the ends of muscles and keep them from slipping and sliding, and force them to bend. Skeletal Muscle Structure Muscle fibers are multinucleated, with the nuclei located just under the plasma membrane. Most of the cell is occupied by striated, thread-like myofibrils. Within each myofibril there are dense Z lines. A sarcomere (or muscle functional unit) extends from Z line to Z line. Each sarcomere has thick and thin filaments. The thick filaments are made of myosin and occupy the center of each sarcomere. Thin filaments are made of actin and anchor to the Z line. Muscles contract by shortening each sarcomere. The sliding filament model of muscle contraction has thin filaments on each side of the sarcomere sliding past each other until they meet in the middle. Myosin filaments have club-shaped heads that project toward the actin filaments. Myosin heads attach to binding sites on the actin filaments. The myosin heads swivel toward the center of the sarcomere, detach and then reattach to the nearest active site of the actin filament. Each cycle of attachment, swiveling, and detachment shortens the sarcomere 1%. Hundreds of such cycles occur each second during muscle contraction. Energy for this comes from ATP, the energy coin of the cell. ATP binds to the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of energy powers the swiveling of the myosin head. Muscles store little ATP and so must recycle the ADP into ATP rapidly. Creatine phosphate is a muscle storage product involved in the rapid regeneration of ADP into ATP. Calcium ions are required for each cycle of myosin-actin interaction. Calcium is released into the sarcomere when a muscle is stimulated to contract. This calcium uncovers the actin binding sites. When the muscle no longer needs to contract, the calcium ions are pumped from the sarcomere and back into storage. There are approximately 639 skeletal muscles in the human body.

Orbicularis oculi are the two muscles that move the eye are. neck. By lowing an arm raised to the side.Skeletal muscles can be broken down into groups based upon the type of movement they portray. Extendors: Opposites of flexors. or make themselves shorter. forearm. Zygomaticus ands Masseter are the two muscle that work in conjunction to move tyoou jaw and upper lip area. shoulder. Skeletal muscles can't expand. is an extensor of the elbow joint. and abductors. One contracts. pelvis/thigh. or tricep. which is called the bicep. when you contract your major arm muscle. in return the lower arm muscle. Add. Flexors and extensors become plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. abdomen. taking the fist farther away from the shoulder.means to increase or include. or make themselves longer. increasing the interior angle «graphic here. or bicep. Major Skeletal Muscles The muscual body is divide into ten diffren areas where muscles can be found: facial. and reverses its effects on the joint. it becomes a dorsiflexor. like abduct and abdicate. Adductors: Adductors. and in doing so stretches the other. hip. extends. like lifting the arm to the side. is a flexor of the elbow joint. extensors unbend at the joint. it becomes a plantarflexor. but they can contract. possibly the same as that above». Spreading out your fingers uses abductors. Orbicularis oris is the muscle which moves your lips. the opposites of abductors. These muscles allowthe neck to move your head left and right. Frontalis and Temporalis are the two muscles which move the forehead and sides of your head. If an extensor is found in the wrist or ankle joints. extensors. The «tracius» humorous. respectively. bringing the fist towardsthe shoulder. Abd. Facial In the facial are one finds all the muscles wich move the face. when located within either the wrist or ankle joints. The movement of the muscle is based upon the type of joint (hyperlink-Skeletal system) upon which the muscle works. Neck The neck area is almost entirely moved by the sternohyoid and Sternocleidomastoid. adductors. For example. So as you contract one muscle the other one extends. called the tricep. so they generally work in pairs. move toward the body. leg. arm. decreasing the interior angle of the joint «put graphic of this here». These effects can be broken down into groups of their own: flexors.means to take away. If a flexor appears in either the wrist or ankle joints. Abductors: Abductors take away from the body. because you are taking away your fingers from an imaginary line running down your arm. or moving your fingers together while keeping them straight. Flexors: Flexors bend at the joint. your muscles are adducting. The «bracius» humorous. They work with the platysma muscle to . thorax.

Thorax The thorax is the set of muscles which carrying your head. Also. teres major. or lifts a heave load. The interanl oblique and external oblique are the muscles that move your body from left to right. The tricep brachii and brachialis are the two other muscles located in the arm region. The famous bicep brachii is the muscle that allows you to bring your forearm close to your body and form a huge ball of muscle wich catches a lot of attention amongst weight lifters. along with the trapezius an latissimus dorsi allow you to bend down and grab objects. The Transversus abdominus and Rectus abdominus. deltoid. palmaris longus. arms. stomach. Amongst these is the Berachiodialis major. the name of radialis is made by the bone that its attached to. the carples. these gruop of muscles allow your arm to throw a softball. the majority of the muscles of the thorax can be damaged easly is one dose not streach before excersice. Arm Most known amongst teenage weight lifters is the arm area. and any other upper body areas. These muscles allow a person to do push-ups! Forearm A majority of the muscle in the forearm help control a part of the arm. Probably the laziest muscles in the whole system the gluteus set of muscles are used only to sit down on. The name of the flexor carpi radialis is a good example of how muscles are named by their function and location. What allows your head to move up and down is the trapezius-sound. the trapezius looks just like a trapezoid. infraspinatus. Usually. This group takes into account the trapezius. and give your arms a good strech early in the morning. Abdomen The abdominal area consists of the muscles that allows you to bend down and move your waist from side to side. Hip Only two muscles make up the hip area. Shoulder A group of muscles all work together to move the whole shoulder area. Along with the help of the ball and socket joint-hyperlink in your shouder. These muscles are the trapezius and latissimus dorsi. These are the gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. The trapezius is a good example of how some muscles are named by their shape. Muscles like the pectineus and illiopsoas . and the rhomboid major. The trapezius is so large that it extend down to the shoulder and thorax area. pick things over your head. which help support the upper . This muscle is named carpi because of the bones that it helps move. the radius. Pelvis/Thigh An overlaping of muscles is what makes this area so firm.control how far you can move your head left and right. The pelvis area is usualy refered to as the upper part of the leg. The rhomboid major is called so because its shaped like the geometric shape of a rhombus. and Flexor carpi radialis.

. Single unit smooth muscle is most common and lines blood vessels (except large elastic arteries). soleus. and vasculature all contain this tonic muscle type. These muscles help you run. It may contract phasically with rapid contraction and relaxation. cells are mechanically coupled to one another such that contraction of one cell invokes some degree of contraction in an adjoining cell. cells are fastened to one another by adherens junctions.e. and Tensor fasciae latea. Sartorius. rhythmically forcing foodstuffs through the digestive tract as the result of phasic contraction. the urinary tract. Furthermore. smooth muscle containing tissue tend to demonstrate greater elasticity and function within a larger length-tension curve than striated muscle. These muscles like the Gastrocnemius. Smooth muscle contracts slowly and may maintain the contraction (tonically) for prolonged periods in blood vessels. As a consequence. and urinary tracts. However. like striated muscle. as such. and Tibialis anterior absorb the impact when one walks and runs. Cardiac muscle Heart muscles are distinct from skeletal muscles because the muscle fibers are laterally connected to each other. This ability to stretch and still maintain contractility is important in organs like the intestines and urinary bladder. they also give beter cordination for moving. jump. Thigh muscles are very rich in capillaries and support the whole body. the single-unit and multiunit smooth muscle. Smooth muscle may contract spontaneously or as in the gut special pacemakers cells interstitial cells of Cajal produce rhythmic contractions. Smooth muscle fibers have a fusiform shape and. vastus lateralis and medialis. In the digestive tract. The upper thigh muscles are abductor longus. respiratory.leg area are known as pelvic muscles. The resistance arteries contribute significantly to setting the level of blood pressure. skin. Within single-unit smooth muscle tissues. Gracilis. and some sphincters. and the digestive tract. the thigh region trust the body forward while the leg region coordinates where it should be thrusted and where it should stand. It is divided into two subgroups. Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cells. bronchioles. smooth muscle contracts in a rhythmic peristaltic fashion. digestive. Smooth muscle Smooth muscles are controlled directly by the autonomic nervous system and are involuntary. Smooth muscle forms precapillary sphincters in metarterioles which regulates the blood flow in capillary beds of various organs and tissues. Another nomenclature separates smooth muscle by contractile pattern. can tense and relax. a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that is not separated into cells). eye. meaning that they are incapable of being moved by conscious thought. Heart muscles are controlled by the sinus node influenced by the autonomic nervous . Function:To maintain organ dimensions against force. just as with smooth muscles. or tonically with slow and sustained contraction. The reproductive. and walk! Leg Helping the thigh region support the body is the Leg region. they allow for fine control and gradual responses. The contractile function of vascular smooth muscle is critical to regulating the lumenal diameter of the small arteries-arterioles called resistance vessels. porenius longus. they are not controlling themselves. The lower thigh muscles are rectus femoris. the autonomic nervous system innervates a single cell within a sheet or bundle and the action potential is propagated by gap junctions to neighboring cells such that the whole bundle or sheet contracts as a syncytium (i. Located in the back of your leg are the hamstrings. much like motor unit recruitment in skeletal muscle.

which provides nutrients and oxygen. Like skeletal muscle. numerous myoglobins (oxygen-storing pigment) and a good blood supply. but. like all tissues in the body. not enough energy can be liberated by lactate production to sustain ventricular contractions. Cardiac muscle is adapted to be highly resistant to fatigue: it has a large number of mitochondria. . Cardiac muscle cells. Coordinated contraction of cardiac muscle cells in the heart propel blood out of the atria and ventricles to the blood vessels of the left/body/systemic and right/lungs/pulmonary circulatory systems. enabling continuous aerobic respiration via oxidative phosphorylation. rely on an ample blood supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. Cardiac muscle exhibits cross striations formed by alternating segments of thick and thin protein filaments. This can increase to 10% under moderately hypoxic conditions. while the myosin filament is thicker lending a darker appearance to the alternating A bands as observed with electron microscopy. about 1% of energy is derived from anaerobic metabolism. This phenomona is understood as systole of the heart. At basal metabolic rates. under more severe hypoxic conditions.system. cardiac muscle cells may be branched instead of linear and longitudinal. the primary structural proteins of cardiac muscle are actin and myosin. The actin filaments are thin causing the lighter appearance of the I bands in striated muscle. The coronary arteries fulfill this function. The heart is so tuned to aerobic metabolism that it is unable to pump sufficiently in ischaemic conditions. in contrast to skeletal muscle. However.