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Write a note on the characteristics of Management.
Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics.

ECONOMIC RESOURCE: Management is an important economic resource together with land, labour and capital. As industrialization grows, the need for mangers increases. Efficient management is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity as it is the force which assembles and integrates other factors of production, namely, labour, capital and materials. GOAL ORIENTED: Management is a purposeful activity. It coordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieve. DISTINCT PROCESS: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. In essence, the process of management involves decision making and putting of decisions into practice. INTEGRATIVE FORCE: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individual goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. INTANGIBLE FORCE: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of management is result-oriented. RESULT THOUGH OTHERS: The manager cannot do anything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. A SCIENCE AND AN ART: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated as science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art. SYSTEM OF AUTHORITY: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority or a hierarchy of command and control. Manager at different levels possess varying degrees of authority which gets gradually reduced as you go down in the hierarchy.

an effective selection process will improve the fit. Training can keep the abilities of incumbents current or provide new skills as times and conditions change. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the field of business. care should be taken to assess critical abilities that incumbents will need in the job and to match those requirements with the organization's human resources.MULTIDISCIPLINARY SUBJECT: Management has grown as a field of study taking the help of so many other disciplines such as engineering. government and hospitals. A final alternative is to provide training for employees. Examples would be to change some of the equipment used or to reorganize tasks within a group of employees. Applicants can then be tested. Second. Given management's desire to get a compatible fit. Often modifications can be made in the job that. anthropology. This is applicable to both new workers and present job incumbents. Ability directly influences an employee's level of performance and satisfaction through the ability-job fit. promotion and transfer decisions affecting individuals already in the organization's employ should reflect the abilities of candidates. interviewed. while not having a significant impact on the job's basic activities. With new employees. UNIVERSAL APPLICATION: Management in universal in character. sociology etc. better adapts it to the specific talents of a given employee. education. much of the management literature is the result of the association of those discipline. A job analysis will provide information about jobs currently being done and the abilities that individuals need to perform the jobs adequately. the fit can be improved by finetuning the job to better match an incumbent's abilities. military.2 Discuss intellectual abilities in detail. Q. Third. and evaluated on the degree to which they possess the necessary abilities. what can be done? First. The following is a list of characteristics commonly displayed by person who are talented or gifted in Intellectual Abilities: y y y y y y y Understands complex concepts Draws inferences between content areas Sees beyond the obvious Thrives on new or complex ideas Enjoys hypothesizing Intuitively knows before taught Uses an extensive vocabulary .

Therefore. Sheldon proposed a theory about how there are certain body types ("somatotypes") that are associated with certain personality characteristics. You can rate yourself on each of these three dimensions using a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high) with a mean of 4 (average). muscular body overly mature appearance rectangular shaped thick skin upright posture Associated personality traits: y adventurous . rate the degree to which you think you possess each of the three body types.2 repetitions for mastery Manipulates information Q. etc.. A pure endomorph would be 7-1-1. Ans: In the 1940s. a person who is a pure mesomorph would have a score of 1-7-1. Endomorphic Body Type: y y y y soft body underdeveloped muscles round shaped over-developed digestive system Associated personality traits: y y y y y y y y love of food tolerant evenness of emotions love of comfort sociable good humored relaxed need for affection Mesomorphic Body Type: y y y y y hard.y y y y Does in-depth investigations Learns rapidly in comparison to peers 1 . A pure ectomorph would score a 1-1-7.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. A mostly average person who has some endomorphic tendencies would have a score of 6-4-4 .. and ectomorphy. mesomorphy. In the boxes below. He claimed that there are three such somatotypes: endomorphy.

.4 What are the different barriers to perception? Ans: It is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions. perception is a term by which a person looks at the world and emotes out his feelings for a particular situation. bold zest for physical activity competitive love of risk and chance Ectomorphic Body Type: y y y y y y y y thin flat chest delicate build young appearance tall lightly muscled stoop-shouldered large brain Associated personality traits: y y y y y y y y self-conscious preference for privacy introverted inhibited socially anxious artistic mentally intense emotionally restrained Q. Perception helps in understanding perciever·s own mindset and also helps in understanding human behavior in the organization. halo-effect.y y y y y y y desire for power and dominance courageous indifference to what others think or want assertive. The barriers to perception are stereotyping. nose. Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give relevance and significance to our environment. similar to the effect or projection. selective perceptions. distribution and contrast effects. In general terms. tongue and skin generate various impressions. Human sensory organs like ears. eyes.

Perception is very important as it enables the organization to adapt to a complex and ever changing factors through perceptual constancies. tongue and skin. Robbins defines perception as a process in which people organize and interpret their expressions arising from the sense organs in order to give the feedback to the environment around. This is called perception. the environment in which perception occurs and the individual does the perceiving. attitudes. targets. It is defined as the way a person looks at the world and his feelings on a particular situation. to become aware through the senses.. Pattern of Behavior It is influenced by three set of factors and they are: 1. Perceptual inputs of stimuli 2. eyes. functions. . Human beings are blessed with sensory organs such as ears. verbal and non verbal communication.these are the factors related to self concept. internal experiences and expectations. The dictionary meaning of the word ´perceive ´ means is to take in mentally. nose. Many others have also defined perception which concludes the fact that functions of the workers are duly affected by three classes of variables ² the objects or events being perceived. motives. It helps in evaluating various factors of organization such as size. occupation. personal characteristics. organize. background and proximity of the target. 2. Factors in the perceiver. time etc. perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give relevance and significance to our environment. This process includes: 1.. shape. Perceptual Mechanism 3. novelty and motion of targets. Perceptual Output 4. These actions allow our mind to take due attention on the selective ones only which has importance and significance in our life. status. sounds. Baron defines perception as the process where in we select. size. which gives a concrete idea about the functioning of an organization. Factors in the target. Through these sensory organs we generate various impressions and expressions. In a nutshell.it includes physical appearance. location. and interpret various inputs from our sense organs.

Chandan. It has proved important concept for managers and its main managerial activities include: advertising. HR of a leading Automobile company. Avoiding Common Biases 6. To show supervisors and managers how to build a more productive work environment. halo effect. distribution and contrast effects. Dr. to improve quality. 5 Mr. judging employee·s loyalty. the HR consultant. evaluating performance. He is having a meeting with Mr. Techniques involved in enhancing or encouraging perceptional skills are: 1. organizational role. This theory describes the external or internal behavior in an individual. I·ve created a five-step process called the PRIDE system. Edwards Deming said. Enhancing Self Concept 5. work setting.3. and simultaneously to bring pride of workmanship to people. maintaining safety. Kelly·s theory of casual attributes states that we need to focus on three types of information namely distinctiveness. managing impression. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction? Ans : I would give below examples to suggest the below suggestions for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction. Leaders can improve motivation within their organizations by following this process: . to increase output. in order to determine the internal and external behavior of an individual. Mr. location and time. Having Positive Attitudes 4. The important barriers to accurate perception are stereotyping. Assume that you are Mr. selective perceptions.µ A motivating environment is one that gives workers a sense of pride in what they do. Giving and receiving feedback 2.it includes social context. managing performance. Chandan. The leaders of the organization have the responsibility for creating a high level of job satisfaction. Having empathy 3. a leading HR consultant. Communication and Correct use of Attribution Q. What suggestions will you give to Mr. building corporate image. It also helps in understanding perceiver·s own mindset and tendency in judging others may become the barriers to accurate perception. Batra is the General Manager. Attributes is a significant phenomenon for understanding perception. self assessment and development and building relationship. consensus and consistency. Perception helps in understanding of human behavior in the organization. similar to the effect or projection. Batra is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing job satisfaction among employees. Factors in the situation. Batra. ´The aim of leadership should be to improve the performance of man and machine.

At Federal Express. postage stamps. all customer contact people are given six weeks of training before they ever . check cashing. they never forget it. This creative way to reward employees has a bigger impact than cash. to find what motivates people.µ This is the most important factor in the process. childcare information. A motivating working environment requires going over and beyond the call of duty and providing for the needs of the worker. ´I can live for two months on a good compliment. and bus passes. it wouldn·t mean very much. scientists and engineers display projects and ideas they are working on.y y y y y Provide a positive working environment Reward and recognition Involve and increase employee engagement Develop the skills and potential of your workforce Evaluate and measure job satisfaction STEP 1²PROVIDE A POSITIVE WORKING ENVIRONMENT Job satisfaction begins by first providing a positive work environment. A pat on the back. informal celebrations are many times more effective than a once a quarter or once a year formal event. co-founder and CEO of Rackspace Managed Hosting. The Sony Corporation fosters the exchange of ideas within departments by sponsoring an annual Idea Exposition. STEP 4²DEVELOP WORKER·S SKILLS AND POTENTIAL Training and education motivates people and makes them more productive and innovative. Some of the services included employee discount programs. During the exposition.µ Employee assistance centers are spread strategically across the theme park. but are they engaged and productive? People are more committed and engaged when there is a process for them to contribute their ideas and employee suggestions. STEP 2²REWARD AND RECOGNITION Mark Twain once said. This gives them a sense of ownership and pride in their work. When someone gets to drive my car for a week. Open only to Sony·s employees. The Walt Disney Company realizes that taking care of their employee·s needs keep them motivated. a personal note from a peer or a supervisor does wonders. money orders. ´If you gave somebody a $200 bonus. gives the keys to his BMW M3 convertible for a week to his top performing employees. He says. Walt Disney World Company provides an excellent work environment for their employees or ´cast members.µ Personal recognition is a powerful tool in building morale and motivation. ´you have to find what turns people on. this process creates a healthy climate of innovation and engages all those who participate.µ STEP 3²INVOLVE AND ENGAGE THE WORKFORCE People may show up for work. on the job and loyal to the company. Fran Tarkenton says. Small. Graham Weston.

Well-trained employees are more capable and willing to assume more control over their jobs. complain less. but is not limited to. Employees are more capable to answer the questions of customers which builds better customer loyalty. . It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know. water to drink. What all aspects does it take care of. Evaluation is a nonstop activity that includes a specific cycle of steps focusing on job satisfaction and employee engagement. Pass/fail results are sent to each employee within 24 hours. which frees management for other tasks. Next in order of precedence comes a set of needs for such things as safety and security. Learning never stops and testing continues throughout their employment tenure. according to Maslow·s Need Hierarchy ? Ans : As per Maslow·s Need Hierarchy the most basic need is related to physiological survival air to breate.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of ´iMagineµ. food to eat and sex to procreate. maybe their friends. Employees who understand the business. They need less supervision. 3. Once an individual has taken care of his or her basic physiological needs and feels safe and secure some degree of need for love and belonging may well rise to the forefront of their concerns. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. ex. contributing their vitality and energy toward the goals of the enterprise. colleagues. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. Every six months customer service people are tested using an on-line computer system. Businesses have searched far and wide for the competitive advantage. There are many reasons training and development makes sense. All this leads to better managementemployee relationships. It includes the identification of problem areas needing improvement and the design and implementation of an improvement plan. The true competitive advantage is trained and motivated people proudly working together. Continuous evaluation includes. The primary purpose of evaluation is to measure progress and determine what needs improving. the best equipment. and are more motivated. Good organizations conduct a job satisfaction survey at least once a year. morale. batch mates and relatives. They receive a personalized ´prescriptionµ on areas that need reviewing with a list of resources and lessons that will help. STEP 5²EVALUATE AND MEASURE JOB SATISFACTION Continuous evaluation and never ending improvement is the final step of the PRIDE system.answer the first phone call. robotics. These devices provide only temporary solutions. the measurement of attitudes. an advertising company 1. Q. and motivation of the workforce. Federal Express· intensive training and development program has resulted in higher motivation and lower turnover. or the latest business technique. are more satisfied.

in choosing between that which is more and that which is less worthwhile . you have a deficit -.being independently confident in meeting life's challenges . belonging and respect but!!! enough of self-actualization is harder to attain. and have their being. Maslow saw all these needs as essentially survival needs. move. in contrast to D-needs). People might have enough of food. or D-needs. Maslow referred to the four levels of need already mentioned as deficit needs. Maslow used a variety of terms to refer to this level:. Even love and esteem are needed for the maintenance of health. once experienced it is something that people tend to want more and more of! Moreover people can only really pay attention to self-actualization needs once their more basic needs are satisfactorily met! Abraham Maslow considered that very few people actually live. within the realms of such self-actualization . being needs (or B-needs. and for self-respect.i. and self-actualization. security. In point of fact self-actualization is seen as being somewhat addictive. .you feel the need.e. Several things are associable with "self-actualization" .growth motivation (in contrast to deficit motivation).mainly because people are generally involved in meeting the other needs already outlined. are seen as being next in order of precedence. The Abraham Maslow hierarchy of need theory was later adapted to include a greater complexity in the area of self-actualization.Need for the respect of our fellow's. If you don·t have enough of something -. The remaining layer of need is different in that it is seen as being intimately related to the selfactualization of the individual. Under this adaption human needs included a thirst for knowledge and a need for aesthetical order and beauty prior to self-actualization and a "Transcendence" need beyond self-actualization where people would feel a need to help others to find fulfillment. The last level of the pyramid is a bit different.and in feeling that one's time has been used creatively and inventively.