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or prepared and served. It is, in other words, a movable side board which can give, sufficient equipment for the immediate operation in hand; whatever it should also carry much special equipment in case of emergency if necessary. The guéridon service itself come in various form i.e. calor gas, trolley, specially made for the purpose, a plain trolley or even a small table.
The origin of guéridon service itself is hard to trace. It includes carving salad preparation, filtering preparation of fresh fruit and so on. This form of service the cost of the dishes being priced individually and the average cost of the meal being therefore higher than a table d’hote meal. Another reason for higher cost with an a’la carte type of meal is that demand a skilled service and this form of service of labour cost. In itself is much higher and is include within the cost that the guest pay also made expensive and elaborate form of equipment must be used fro the service to be carried out.
Flambé dishes first become popular in the Edwardian i.e. the first claimed flambé dishes was crêpes Suzette which was supposedly invented by Henri Charpentier working as a commis at the café de paris is Monte Carlo (1894).
Miss-en-place for Guéridon
Where necessary, the top and under shelf of the guéridon should be covered with a folded table cloth. This, of course depends on the nature of guéridon itself and its general appearance for convenience of working the cutlery and flatware layout be similar to that of the side board. This saves time and speed up the service from right to left.
• • • • •
Service spoon and forks Sweet spoon and forks Soup, tea and Coffee spoons Fish knife and fork, special equipment including a soup and sauce ladle Joint and side knife
The hot plates or table heaters are generally placed on the left hand side on the top of the guéridon. This heater may be gas, electricity or methylated spirit. If the heater the coffee sauces should be placed under the burners. Also on the top be found a carving board knife for carving and filtering and selection of basic accompaniment such as oil and vinegar, Worcester sauce, English and French mustard and castor sugar.
Underneath will be found a service plate and service salver, side plate and some joint plates for dirty tableware. When an operation is being carried out, there should be some silver. Under plate or doilies is useful for a prevantals of sauces and other accompaniments and cheese pads will on the waiters’ of all side board, together with a silver plate of all the guéridon equipment in case of emergencies.
Flare lamps: These are an essential item of equipment for guéridon service and are used in re-heating, cooking and flambéing dishes. The maintenance of the flare lamps is very important and should be carried out very carefully, ensuring each part is fitted together correctly, that it is fitted to the correct level with methylated spirit and than the wick is of sufficient length to give adequate heat where in use. The flare lamp should be cleaned regularly with the aid of plate powder. Regular timing of the wick is essential to avoid methylated spirit fumes baking out and spoiling the aroma of the food. The lamps are usually 20-25 cm high with a grid of diameter 15-20 cm. In a purpose built the same working height all along the trolley tap. This I much safe fro the waiter as he/she works since there is less chance of accidents. The lamps here are generally color gas.
Chafing dish on suzette pans: The true chafing dish in rarely seen now days. This was deeper, had a led and was made to fit into A’s own individual heating unit. The shallower pans which are used today are called Suzette pans. They resemble frying pans in shape and size and have a diameter of 23-30 cm with or without a lip. The lip is usually found on the left hand side. The pans are generally made of silver plated copper as this gives an even distribution of heat.
Hot plates: The hot plates main function is to keep food hot before it is served to the guest. They are always positioned on the side board and the guéridon they come in a vast range of sizes and may be heated by gas, electricity or methylated spirits and there are even infra red ones available. The majority of hotplates in present day use are heated by methylated spirit and therefore, as with the flare lamps care should be taken in cleaning filing and trimming the wicks in both hotplates and flare lamps should be long enough and adequate for the service.
Guéridon (Calor gas): A guéridon may use a gas lamp connected to a calor gas cylinder. The service top is flat the upper casing. This makes it much safe when working dishes or carrying out any form of flambé work at the table. The top of the trolley is stainless steel which allows for easy cleaning other facilities are the control switch for the gas lamp, the drawer for the surplus equipment, the cutting board for use when cooking dishes at the table the bracket on the lower tray used for holding bottles of spirit and liqueurs and the identification on top of the trolley for holding accompaniments.
Care and maintenance of equipment: These are many reasons why all equipment should be maintained on a regular basis. Primarily, it is because of Hygiene and presentation in front of the client and legal suspects of the food Hygiene Regulation, 1970; the Food Act 1984; the Food safety Act 1990, and the Food and Drug act.
Work performance: Efficiency of performance is lost and possibly as a result loss of custom and therefore revenue.
Work safety: The legal aspects of the health and safety at work 1974 would apply here as well as applicable insurance acts. To ensure the above takes place a daily inspection and cleaning rota as schedule. This work should then be carried out by the food service/personnel during the normal mis-en-place period and under the supervision of a senior member at the team of brigade.
• • •
Check that all moving arts move freely. Ensure both the jet and burner and free from soot and dirt.
Clean by appropriate method – silvo or geddards plate powder – but remember do not even immerse in water.
Ensure at all times there is no heated equipment or naked flames near the lamp.
• • •
Spirit lamps :
Follows at all times there is no heated equipment or naked flames near the lamp. Checks all taps are in the off position. During storage all gas bottle should be kept cool.
• • • • • • •
Check the amount of methylated spirit. See that the air hole is free. Trim the wick and check it for length. Clean of any excessive dirt and spent matches. Ensure all moving parts move freely. Clean by the appropriate method – but remember do not immerse in water.
Any decoration of equipment should be checked carefully and if necessary cleaned with a toothbrush. GUÉRIDON SERVICE:
Certain qualities and attributes are expected are expected of a waiter in carrying out this forms of service. It is as well to bear the following in mind at this stage.
Taking the order :
It has to be remember first and foremost that you are a sales person. You must sell the dishes, which will involve you in work at the table. Suggest to the customs, item on the menu, this focusing attention in dishes. You may wish to sell. Use the carving trolley and sweet trolley as visual selling lid. Your must always have a good knowledge of the menu so as to give good discipline to the guest of the dishes available. Recognition of the host is an important factor.
• • • • • •
Stand to left of the host, Each guest should have one yourself for reference purposes. Do not positioning yourself too close to guest as this may cause embarrassment.
Size up your host and guest according to ages dues and nature of the party. This should then give you some indication as to the type of dishes on may suggest. Take all order through the host. Try to ascertain the length of time available for the meal as this could determine the type of dishes sold. Warm customer of waiting times. Take note as to whether the party is all male, female or female. Always take the order as score as possible.
Points to be kept in mind while doing guéridon service :
• • • • • •
Guéridon service is job of chef who also responsible for doing the service. Always push the guéridon trolley but don’t pull it helps the avoid accident. The guéridon should be kept in one position for the service for the complete course.
The trolley should never be kept near the service door as it is may be obstruction to the waiter. When more covers are being served only the main dirt should be served fro the guéridon potatoes, sauces, vegetables should be served in normal manner. Service spoon and fork are not used as in the silver service but held with spoon in one hand and fork in the other.
The filling or carving should not be done on silver dish but on the carving board or hot joint plate. Dirty plates should always be cleared from the guéridon trolley.
Alcohol used in guéridon trolley :
Spirit (Brandy & Rum) Fortified wines Sparkling wines Still wines/Tables wines Beer Cicles & Syrup
To flambé To sweeten To colour To balance flavour To determine carrot consistency Remove excessive fat/grease
Note : never leave any spirit near a heated appliance or naked flames always handle, most carefully when adding spirit to a finished dish for flambé purpose. Safety is of prime importance as well as showmanship.
Carving is the joint skill task only pot rated by continuous practice following are the point kept in min while carving : (a) Sharp knife is used to carved a joint because a blust knife may damage certain important issue. Meat is carved across the grain with the exception of saddle of mutton which are sometime cut at right angel to the ribs. The carving fork must be holding the joint firmly as multiple pierced damages the mind.
Equipment is used in carving : a. b. c. Carving knife should be 10-12 inch long and 2.5 cm wide. For poultry on game since long knife is used. For ham long, thick, flexible carving knife is used.
Method for carving : (i) b. Carving of all hot food must be performed quickly so that no heat is allowed to escape. a. c. d. e. Beef and ham : Their slices are cut. Boiled beef and pressed meat is most thicken than roast. Saddle of lamb : Carved in long thick slices. Lamb, mutton, pork, veal tongue is carved double thicknes of beef and ham.
Shoulder of lamb : It is cut from top to bottom and again from bottom to top because the cut has an occurred bone formation which heat meat, tucked between the bones. f. g. Cold ham : Carved bones from to bottom in thin slices. Whole chicken : Carved in six portion.
Duckling : Carved in six portion, two leg, two wing and 2 breast. Turkey : Four cuts, guest is supposed to by ordered breast and supreme. j. Salmon : Fillet and then sliced into 4/1 inch slices.
Carving trolley function :
1. 2. 3. 5.
Function of carving trolley is to act an aid selling.
The chefs should act as salesman and suggest right joint to right guest. The carving is visual treat hence great care should be taken while doing it. 4. 6. 7. Carving trolley is heated by 2 methyl ethylated gas. There are two each for keeping hot plates. Last one to keep carving equipment. Container in which the carving board rest contain hot water.
Presentation of Trolley : Where in use the carving trolley must be presented in between the customer and chef which ensures that the customer can see every operation performed and appreciate skill performed. It should be position in such away that the lid is drawn from trolley towards the waiter and safety wall is positioned on the side away from the waiter.
Mis-en-place : Following mis-en-place should be placed on the caving trolley. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Carving board Carving knife and fork Sauce ladles Service gears Joint plate for dirties Flat ware Spare serviette and serviette cloth
Method of serving a dish at the table : First present the dish to the customer then return to the guéridon. Place on the side of the trolley with the food for service standing on the hot plate. The food for service is then carved as filtered if necessary and is placed on the plate of the guest. Unlike silver service, when the spoon and form are used together in one hand, guéridon service requires that the spoon and fork are used one in each hand.
The vegetables and potatoes are then placed on to the plate by the waiter while the plates are still on the guéridon. The sauces are placed on to the plates by the waiter and plate are then placed in front of the guest. It should be noted that, when there are more than two person at one table, the main dish is served as describe, but the vegetable and potato dishes are as for normal silver service and will kept hot in readiness for service on the hot plates on the waiter side board. During this operation it will be the commis or dibarrasreurs’s function to keep the guéridon clear of dirty dishes and equipment.
Safety points :
Never place the lamp or the hot plate outside the four trolley legs. Never move the trolley near to drapes. Note : The main course does not need to be placed on the hotplate if the service in quick only the potatoes and vegetables for a short period. Serve with a spoon in one hand and the fork in another hand.
Sequence of Service : Presentation of all dishes for all courses is very important both before the actual service commences an din placing the meal upon the plate, especially when filtering and carving.
Hois d’oeuvres or subslitutes : There are served in the normal way except for speciality dishes dish such as pâte de fougras, which may have to be cut into slices. Soup : Always served from the guéridon whether in individual soup tureens or in larger soup tureens requiring a ladle. All accompaniment passed. Fish : Filleted where necessary and served from guéridon. Meat : Carved where necessary and served from the guéridon. Potatoes and vegetables : Served as previously mentioned together with sauce and accompaniment. Sweet : Served from the guéridon in a flambé type dish or from the cold sweet trolley. All accompaniment passed. Savoury : Served from guéridon. Coffee : Normal silver service unless speciality coffees are required.
BANQUETS AND CONVENTIONS
Functions catering is a term used in cover the service o a special function for specific group of people at specific times the food and beverages provided being pre determined. It includes occasions such as luncheons, parties conference, cocktail parties wedding and dinner. Banquet are the functions organized where as banqueting is the service for these function and is different from the casual service in restaurants. In large first class establishment all function takes place. Within the banqueting suites an are the under the administrative staff control and banqueting manager. In the smaller hotels there function normally takes place in a room set aside for the purpose normally takes place in a room and come under the indication of the Hotel Manager. Normally functions are organized and the number of people involved are 15 or more. Types of Function : 1. Formal meals : Luncehons : Company, clubs Dinner Wedding, breakfast 2. Buffet reception Wedding reception Cocktail parties Buffet teas Anniversary parties, Dance part, conference etc. A further breakdown show : 1. 2. 3. Social : Old body meat, lunches, parties reception, cocktail parties. Conference : Political conference, Trade Union, Sales conference. Public relation : Press party to lunch a new product fashion parade etc.
STAFF DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITY Banquet Manager : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Banquet Manager is responsible for approving all the booking after fixing up the rates. He is incharge in deciding upon discounts and additional services. He supervises function in terms of secting arrangement buffet arrangement and there is PR as well. He is also responsible to maintain a checklist before letting out function hall to the guest. He should be a person with list of detail because for certain special occasions he has to make suggestion and create the ambience. He is also responsible, to co-ordinate with the House-keeping, Maintenance, Accounts, Front Office and Kitchen.
He along with the chef are responsible for checking the quality of the food and make change in the menu for dishes which do not sell. Banquet Sales executive
(h) He is also responsible for regroupment and training of staff. (a) He/she is responsible in getting all the business for the hotel.
(b) He/she follows upon arrangements fixed up of menu writing of function prospectus. Making the contact showing the guest the hall and also maketing for the hotel. (c) He/she is also the guidance of a manager co-ordinates in Front office, Kitchen, maintenance and account fro the necessary requirement.
(d) He/she is responsible for maintaining out going and incoming mails, banquet dairy, FP Board to read comments and suggestion book and all the files. Maitre d’hotel : a) b) c) d) e) f) He is responsible for operation as he decides upon the buffet arrangement seating arrangement, car arrangement, lighting, sound and any other, extra arrangement to be hired. He co-ordinates with the Kitchen stewarding and the House keeping fro cutlery, crockery, glassware and linen respectively. He is incharge of Hiring casual and distribute their wages. He is responsible for bill settlement. He approves the food before serving the guest He should have a thorough knowledge of room specification, food and wine combination, decoration. Max, capacity and Menu knowledge. Dispense Bar Staff : If they are member of the permanent banqueting staff, they are responsible for the allocation of bar stock for various function, setting up of bar, the organization of the bar staff, control of bar staff during service. Function Administration Booking and organization of Junction At the initial meeting of the banquelting manager and the dient a file must be opened recording all points mentioned conserving the particular function and to hold all correspondance receipt. If the inquiry is not immediately a firm tooking their the provisional details should be only penciled in until the booking is confirmed. It should then be written in ink. The banquelting manager should have available speciment luncheon and dinner menu with the cost per head and photographs of the various tables layout for different number. This gives the client a clear puture of the facilities available in the price range can afford. After the initial meeting the booking having been confirmed the following bases points should be noted a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) a) b) c) d) e) f) Type of function Date Time Number of coves Price per head Menu and method of service Wines - inclusive or cash Type of organization Table plan Toastmaster Band, cabaret, dancing Place cards Seating plan Types of Menu for printing - formal, Humorous Specialist information - Vegetarian, vegcivs.
After this the final points should be decided upon -
Depending upon the nature of a particular function, its requirement may vary and it is useful for the banqueting manager to have a checklist of these possible requirements. Other than those points listed above, the following should also be considered. List of loasts - who is proposing and who replying · Flocal dicor for the tables, room, reception area and possibly bulton holes · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Audio-visual equipment required Special licence –ocassional licence & number Friundishes Car parking Cloack rooms Artists Changing rooms Cigar & cigarettes Accommodation Telephones Special light, refreshment Lecten Secretarial facilities Syndicate room Photographer Sign-posting Private bar facilities Function cancellation fee amount and dead line date Date for final ins
Banquet Menu There should be menus for each type of occasion. The choice should belarger varied and within a wide price range. Sometimes two or three menus are offered for each type of occasion. Each menu is well balanced offering vegetarian and non vegetarian dishes. A typical lunch or dinner menu would offer. Hors d’ oeuvres Soup Entr Sweet dish Coffee Guest may add other courses according to their choice and budget care must be taken that the menu card is carefully and attractively designed. The person-in-charge of banquet booking must be fully conversant with the preparation of each dish. The banqueting wine list most offer a good range of wines. However ensure that enough stocks are available before committing any wine. Banquet Table Layout The type of layout dependent upon a) b) c) d) e) Nature of function Number of covers required Size of hall allocated The designs of the guest The type of service to be provided
Some typical table layout are provided in fig. – 1. Types of Service in Banquets Silver Family Self
Plate Assisten Types of service in function a) b) c) d) e) Host wishes his dish Time factor Staff available & skills Type of function Equipment available
Procedure to service a state Banquet Reception & Replacement It is customary for a banquet to be proceeded by a cocktail snacks are served and the cocktail lists usually for half an hour. the table plan is usually displayed at the reception room where cocktails are served. The toast master or announces bangs his gaved three times before announcing Mc chairman, My lords, ladies & gentlemen, dinner or lunch is served in a loud clear, formal tone of voice. Dining room Preliminaries The doors of the banquet hall are opened and guests take their seats. The waiting staff stand at attention at their respective stations. The announcer calls guest attention and announces the service meal. Once this has been done the meal begins. Mis-En-Place All cutlery should be on the table arranged neatly for the number of courses to be served. Fruit knives and for K are not kept but placed on the side boards. Various wine glass are kept. Water goblets are placed (liqueur & cordial glasses are never placed). Salt and pepper shakers and the bread and butler are served on the table before the guest enter. The name of the guest is written on cards which are placed at the head of the covers where the guest is to sit. Seating should be arranged such that gentlemen and ladies are seated alternately. Husband and wife should sit opposite each other. A station number stand should be placed prominently for easy identification of waiters. Napkins should be attractively folded for each cover. Flower varies with fresh flowers should be placed on tables. Space and Guest per waitor Usually a banquet table accommodates three to six guests on each side. Space between covers may be a minimum of 20” and a maximum of 32” per cover (24” ideally). Space between tables should be a minimum of 4½ feet. Two waiters are allocated to 8-10 covers. The wine waito-may serve upto 30-35 covers. The banquet supervisor normally stand behind the chairman during the meal. The manager stands sight opposite the banquet supervisor for signal on instruction. Banquet Staff The banquet staff normally consist of the following – Banquet Manager Banquet sales representative Banquet Supervisor Waitors Casual Staff Types of Buffet Formal Buffet It indicates lots of discipline in terms of service, sitting arrangements and the food. Usually those banquets are followed by the hot which is usually done by host which is usually done by host on some Barman Wine Waitor Asst. Waitors Secretary
events. Typical example – Birthday of the queen wedding in Royal family, President of the other country’s company visiting other country etc. Sequence of service in formal banquet is as follows : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Dinner allowance by toast master Graire - Prayer Guest are sitted help by waitor
Serve everyone the first course together the host being the top priority. All waiters should have room after first course in serve. Bring fish course plate, clear the duties place the first course plate. Repeat the same procedure for meat course. Continue doing the same for potato and vegetables then desert and tea coffee. The order of service on the top table at function specially very formal function. This is the one time when the host is always served first or at exactly the same time as the guest of honour. Escandinanian Buffet It is a cold buffet where are expensive display of gelatine pies, Mousses, Pates are displayed along with vast fruits, vegetables and bread display. This kind of buffet party famous at times of Christmas or Easter. The buffes is priating creative and eye catching. Fork / Finger buffet This concept has evolved in recent time because of problem of space managements. The fork & jinger buffet allow you to eat with help of the fork or by hands standing in a hall dishes like savouries, Hossd’oeuves and salads are served which don’t involve accompaniments gravy and sauces. This kind of buffet are not formed at all and they can be seen is use of charity balls. As meeting, here a lot of people are involved and sitting arrangement for as such as huge crowed is difficult. Function of Toast master No guest should smoke until after, the logal toast. This toast is generally allowenced by the toast master after the sweet course has been cleared before the coffee is served. Staff should ensure at this time that all glasses have been changed in readiness for the coming toast. The loyal toast should be announced by the toast master and for the evening Chairman or President of association. The loyar toat is a toast to the airinary monark the queen immediately afterwards a toast master indicates that the company prdsident has the chair provision to smoke. Staff should ensure ashtray are placed on table. Cheese History The fresh cheese has probably made more than 4000 years ago by nomadic tribes in Asia through the years the knowledge of cheese making spread to Europe. Cheese making began in the American colonies in 16th that year settlers in james town in the Virginia colony imported cows from England. In 1851 an American dairy now named Jerse Williams established the first cheese factory near Rome. In 1917 I.L. Kreft an American businessmen patented method for making process cheese. It is company are developed a milk. After 15 to 80 minutes cooks and peanut a substance that contains enzymes on the thinning of calfs stomach, the remet thickness the milk-cheese makers may also promote this action called curing by adding other enzymes. Including pepren from the stomach of calf tenins from bacteria the paddles blend the enzymes in to the milk which is the understand for about 30 min. So curd will form special enives cut into thousand of small cubes and the mhey oozes from them the paddles the curd and whey and the lump in the vat is raised to between zig and 54°C the motion and nead force more whey from the curd. They devid or the and lifted from the vash. The whey is then divided off or the curd is lifted from the vat. Cover & Accompniment & Service The cheese course is normally offered towards the end of meal as an alternative to the sweet course. The cover to be laid as follows : a) b) c) Side knife Side plate Some times a desert fork
In the service of this course the cover should be laid first and then the accompaniment set on the taste as follows :
a) b) c) d) e) f)
Cruet set Butter in butter dish on daily under plate with butter knife Raddish when in season placed in glass bowl or under plate Castor sugar for cream Assorted cheese biscuits
Celery served in celery glass pact filled with crushed ice on an under plate
The cheese board or twlly will be presented to the westmer containing a varied selection of cheese in like condition together with sufficient cheese knives for cutting. Cheese Cheese are distinguished by flavour and categorized according to their texture. They differ from each other for a number of reason mainly arising through variation in the making process. Difference occour in the rind and how it is formed in the paste and in the cooking process, relating here to both time and temperature. Also cheese vary because the milk used comes from such different animal as cow, sheep, goat & buffalo. Cheese should be stored in a cool dark place with good air circulation or in a refrigerator. If is not covered in it’s original wrapping, it should be wrapped in either cling film or alumunium foil to prevent any drying out taking place. It should also be stored away from food items that absorb flavored odour such as dairy product. Dependent upon use cheese may be purchased either whole or proportioned. Depending upon the type of establishment, the butter is more often the case as there is less wastage and no coss in quality, flavour or aroma. The texture of a cheese depends largely on the period of maturation. The recognized categories are – a) b) c) d) e) Fresh cheese Soft cheese Semi hard cheese Hard cheese Blue cheese
Fresh Cheese Fresh cheese is made with cow milk and it is double boiled at 80°F. After a milk is boiled, milk is kept at room temperature and butter milk is introduced. After 24 hour when curd set, curd is transferred into a muslin cloth and hung for around 6-10 hour. After the whole way is drained out cheese is removed at cream. Once the cheese has no more lumbs, boiling water is passed through it so that the cheese spread evenly on to the muslin. The cheese is now transferred into a mould and set according to require shape. At this stage cottage cheese can be flavoured with cream & herbs. Examples Cottage Cream Mozarella Soft Cheese Cows, goat and sheep’s milk are used to make, soft cheese. Soft cheese owe their texture to their eye moisture contain because the way is only partially drained from the curd. Cheese than ripen and hence derive the individual character from mould or bacteria during the ripening of process. Soft cheese can be grouped in the following ways – a) b) Blonmy rind – Because they developed a thick white jizz of pencilin moulds on their surface e.g. brine and canenbert. Washed rind type – These cheese are regularly dried with cloth soaked in brine or cider to keep the cheese moist and to allow growth of micro-organism Soft cheese are meant to be bought and consumed because moisture contained in them in incourage over riping ultimately spoil the cheese. Example Barbery from age de Troyes Bel paise Brie Unripened, low fat, skimmed milk cheese from U.S.A. Similar to cottage but made by full milk
Italian cheese made new from cow’s milk but originally from buffalo milk.
Camembert Carre de liest Feta Munster Hard cheese Hard cheese are distinguished from soft by low moisture content which is the result of close cutting of the curd relatively high temperature during manufacture (scalding) and lengthy pressing. Also ageing contribute cheese hardness e.g. three month old goude semi soft cheese and year old goude is hard cheese. Scalding is done at 55°C resulting into close texture and flexibility. In some cheese like ementhyl after cooking Co2 is trapped inside which result in characterastic holes which result in cheese. Hard cheese can be show for long time and use according to the choice of consumer. Blue cheese Blue green pencilin is artificially added to the cheese during ripening which branches out through the tiny fissicres that remain lightly in the pressed cheese to ripening for a period of 6-8 week, also the cheese now can be transferred into hard cheese, semi hard cheese Name Appenzebla Blue ford Brie Camanbert Caerphilly Cheddar Cheshire Danish blue Derby Edam Cuby Feba Cottage Cream Ricolta Cantal Salads Salads are food served in the dressing, which are made up of vegetables, fruits, piquant food, blend food, chopped food in ashics, coal slow, potato & meat. Salas are served as the first course an accompaniment to the entire and coot course or a dish by itself. To quality as a Salad food must posses kequency or rallisl value. The flavour has to be developed with masinate spices and herbs. As salad are nutritious it is very essential that the freshness is preserved and delicoury is shown while preparing them. Four parts of Salads which are – Base The underlines is usually a leafy vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage and watercrers. Except for tossed salads all other salads have based which adds as a very good contrast to the main salad. At the service time and hencing a appearance of a dish. Body Texture Hard Hard Soft Soft Semi-hard Hard Hard Soft Hard Soft Hard Soft Fresh Fresh Fresh Semi hard Country Name Switzerland France France France England England England England England Holland American Greek U.S.A. U.S.A. Italian French Strong cheese Stronger & more pungment Butter milk flavoured Classic British cheese Crumbly slightly soft Softish & milk flavour Sage flavoured Blend flavoured & cumen Similar to cheddae Made from goat & sheep’s milk Loco fat, Kimmed milk Made from full milk Made from whey of Cow’s milk Similar to cheddar Remark The name is from abbat call
The salad gets its name that are used in the body. The ingredients used have a balance and flavour in taste. The boyd consist of broken salad green, fruit in molded aspic, sliced cooked potatoes, raw cabbage, tomato stuff with cuna, chicken or meat dices etc. Garnish Main purpose of garnish is to add to the eye appeal but in some cases it improves the tastes. It can be a part of the body or it can be an additional item but it always simple and attractive. Dressing A dressing is usually served the tall salad because it adds flavour, provided food value, helps digestion, improve palatability and appearance. The basic dressing are Mayonnire, Vinegeratte, lemon dressing, mustard cream and acidulated cream. Ways of serving Salad 1. 2. 3. As a main dish – Salad which are served as main dish consist of body building food such as meat, fish, eggs and cheese. The volume and residence of this salad are adequate to satisfy normal appetite. Salad course – These are usually followed after the main course and the classical menu. These are light and refreshing which consist of salad green & savoring vegetables. Salads as accompaniment – These salad usually consist of any one vegetables which adds to a flavour of the main course. Simple Salad – Salads which are used either raw or cooked consisting of a single kind of vegetables as a base along with one or two ingredients in small quantity as a garnish are known as simple salad. Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Chicory Salary Endive Cabbage Cucumber Lettuce Potato Beat root Tomatoes Ingredient Wild chicory Chopped salary Curlys of endive Tuliev of cabbage Slices of cucumber Leaves Cooked dices with Cooked dices with Parsley Slices with parsley Dressing Mustard cream Vinaigrette garlic vinegar Vinaigrette Uinegratte Vinegratte Mayonnise Mustard cream Vinegeratte
Compound Salad These are more elaborate salad which are divided into four categories – 1. 2. 3. 4. Fish based Vegetables based Poultry, game & meat based Fruit based
Name VEGETABLES 1. 2. 3. 4. Tossed salad Coals law Oriental Aida
Mixture of salary, lettuce, cabbage herbs, onion and Vinegeratte, shibes Mayonnire Vegetables & Mayonnire Rice, tomato, ch garlic, French beans, pimentos & anchovey Chicory, tomato, artichoke, Sweet pimentos, cieved white egg yolk Mustard, Vinegrette
Quatre of tomatoes, sweet pimentos, rice, garlic, onion, parsley
1. 2. 3. 4.
Carmen Hongroire Bagration Shateline FISH
Rice, red pimeutoes, cold chicken, green peas Bacon Julicn, cabbage, cabbage potatoes, raddish cattuce Lemon and oprica Salory & chicken julien, artichope, macroni, tomatoes, prufful, egg & Parsley Hard boiled egg, prufful articloke, potatoes & caragon Vinegaratide
1. 2. 3.
Perisian Fish Mayonnire Hollandire FRUID BASED
Fish aspics, masedoine Veg. of lopster, pruful, herbs & lattice Fish, magonnire, tomato & parsly Smoked salmon dices, Potatoes, caviare & onion
1. 2. 3. 4.
Creals Japonise Dalilia Watcrof
Scopped melon, gingeidice, acgulated cream dressing Tomatoes, pineapple & orange dishes and lattuce Bananas, apple & salary Salary, walnut, apple Lemon Mayonnire Mayonnire
WINES Introduction The vines grows most successfully between the latitude 30-50° north and 30-50° south of the equator. Some of the greatest wine, like champagne come from the extremities of these wine belts where because of the inteure cold or extreme heat, the wine has a permanent struggle to service. The vine usually produces good quality grapes when it is five year old and will continue to yield healthy grapes up to the age of 35 years. History Wine is probably the earlier of the alcoholic beverages, simple because it could be made without the maker’s having to understand the chemical change that turned the sugar in grapes, other fruits and other product into alcohol. Some of these earlier, wines were made from Honey and were known as mead. Indeed wine may have been brewed in Mesopotamia. It have been made as long as ten thousand years ago. Wine is mentioned in documents three thousand year old as well as in the Bible and in the literature of the Greeks and Roman Bees has been Kurun as long as wine. Wine making goes as for back into history as the act of cooking food goes. Ever since the time man started enjoying his food, he has known the art of making wine to go with it. The metamorphosis wine underwent from the stages where the juice of fruit simply left for a long time and allowed to ferment to the refined wine as we know it, today it took a very long time. The efforts put in by the various wineyard and the wine makers in perfecting the act of making good wine and in keeping the formula and the process a secret have contributed to giving as the wine as we know it today. In countries like France the formula and the process, individually to every growes is a very jealously guarded secret that is passed down the generation only through members of the family. The top ten wine producing countriesace : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Italy France Spain U.S.A. C.I.S.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. France
Argentina Germany Portugal South Africa Romania 67.5 lit 66.5 lit 62.0 lit 60.3 lit 45.8 lit 45.8 lit 45.5 lit 41.0 lit 39.2 lit 31.8 lit
The top ten wine consuming countries are : Portugal Italy Lunemburg Argentina Spain Switzerland Chile Austria Greece
As a contrast, the united kingdom consumes 12.5 lit per capital. Although Britain is traditionally regarded as a nation of beer drinks the consumption of wine has now dramatically increased. One of the effect of the secret recessions is that more and more people are having their diner at home rather than going out for a meal. For massy that meane having a couple of glasses of wine when they eat. It is now estimated that home consumption of wine makes up 75% of the market. A greater interest in television and the obvious deterrent of the drink drivering lauss have also influenced this trend. You can now get the quality wine at a reasonable price in super market and other outlet. Wine has become socially acceptable and is perceived to be more clearly healthy than other alcohol drink.s Principle Grape varities used in wine : 1. 2. 3. White grapes Aligole Bacchus
WHITE Chardonnay Chenin Blasic Gewurtztraminer Muller-Thurgace Muscat Rinot Blanc Riesling Saicnignon Blassic Trebbiasco Making of Wine
RED Cabernet Gamy Merlot Plebbiolo Pinot-Noir Syrah Zinfaudel
The various process involved in the process of making wine – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Harvesting Graping Weighing Removal of stalks Crushing
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
Sulpturing Fersmentation Cellering & second prossing Racking Finning & Filtering Refrigeration Blending Maturing of wine Bottling of wines Pasteurasisation Ageing of wine
Factors Affecting wine quality A number of factors effect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. The best grapevine is the vitisvinifera, which has may different varities. The grape yield per acre is also a factor. The higher the yield is the lower the wine quality will generally be conversely, the lower the yield is the more concentrated the grape flavours and the better the wine quality will be normally, a ton of gushed grapes yield an average of 170 gallon of Table wine. Soil is also a factor the best being one that offers good drainage, which is why gravel and sand are better than clay. Good drainage forces the wines root to seek deepes moisture which cause their root to become longer. These longer root are able to reach deep mineral deposits and these mineral, in turn, add flavour to gapes and this to wine. Another factor is climate Grape vines like Cool nights and Sunny, warm days, as these help them maintain the right balance between cicial and sugar in the grapes. However, too hot wheather when the grapes are maturing, near harvest times, will decrease the acid and increase the sugar and will produce a wine that may not age well. On the other hand too little sunshine will reduces the amount of grape sugar and produce a wine low in alcohol and as a result, sugar may have to be added before fermentation to rise that alcohol level. Also rain at harvest time can diluted the grapes sugar and encourage rolling thereby lowering the quality of the wine. Mechanical grapes-picking equipment can give grapes growers more control over the grapes quality than hand picking can as all the grape can be picked quickly when they all at their peak of ripeness. But if rain has spoiled some of the grape bunches, hand picking will allow those to be by passed. Finally, the skills of the winemaker is extremely important as it can effect the personality and quality of the wine produced. The vinter’s skill can also very, because of local tradition and will dictate the type of wine made. The market for whom the wine is to be manufactured also calls upon different wine making skills. For examples is the wine to be made in a smaller quantity with a high quality or in a larger quantity with a lesser quality for a burader market. Vitis Vinifera The best wines are made from a type of vine as known Vitis Vinifera. Some of which are knowns to be three hundred years only. This wine grows best in his broad belts one north and the other south of the equator. Grapes can be grown outside these belts and be turned into wine, but its quality is not considered as high as that from vines grown within these belts. The northern belt includes as knowledge wine making countries such as France, Italy, Germany and the United States. The Southern belt embraces Chile, Argentina, Australia and South Africa vines will yield more grapes when planted in fertile soil on flat land but the wine made from such grapes will seldom be comparable in quality to wine made from grapes grown on sunny slopes in soil that may not be fertile but is rich in the mineral that create a special, characteristic, known as bouquet, that is present in all quality wines. As the grapes mature, their sugar content increases and their acid content decreased. Grape growers thus must know when the balance between sugar and acid is just right to produce the best wine. Types of wine There are three basic types of wine, still spackling and fortified. All three will be given below in detail – Still wine or table wine Most wine is still wine which is known as dinner or table wine. It can be provided in various shades of red rose and white and has an alcohol content generally ranging from 9 to 14 percent by volume. a. b. Red wine is often more full than rose or white and is often heartier, taster and dries. Red wine is best served at room temperature and some red wine can be served chilled which are young red wine. Rose wine may be slightly sweet & often has a fruity flavour. Rose wine are best served chilled. Rose wine colour is mainly from pals pink to red.
White wine vary from a pale straid colour to a deep gold. Whites are lighter bodied and more delicate than red wine and has less pronounced flavour. While wines are served chilled. Much still wine is referred to by the French Lerm Vin ordinoire which means as inexpensive wine of agreeable quality produced in gread quality for every any consumption by the inhabitants of France and other. European countries very little of this wine is exported to North America. Sparkling wine Sparkling wine contains carbondioxide bubbles which provide their effervesence. The carbondioxide is produced either through a natural process of fermentation that does not allow the carbondioxide to escape during the conversion of the grape sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide or it is added to still wine after the fermentation is complete. Red rose and white wines all can be made into sparkling wines. Whatever the colour sparkling wine is best served chilled like still wines, spackling wines range from 9 to 14 percent alcohol by volume. The best known naturally produced sparkling wine is champagne. Although only the sparkling wine produced in the champagne region of France is true champagne (with a capital C) the champagne method can be applied to any wine to make it sparkling. In Germany, sparkling wine is given the name “Schaumwein” and in Italy it is ‘Spiemante’. Fortified wines Fortified wines are still wines to which has been added a distilled grape spent such as brandy. This fortification considerably increases the wines alcohol content which ranges from 15% to as high as 24 percent by volume. Fortified wines vary from very dry to very sweet and are usually served before or at the conclusion of a meal. The best known fortified wines are poet, sherry, vermouth, Madeira and Macola. Sweetness in sparkling wine Extra trut Brut Extra Sec Sec Demi Sec Factor 1. 2. Soil of the area Wheather condition puretent in the region during the year : : : : : Very dry (upto 6 g) Very dry (less than 15 g) Dry (12 to 20 g) Slightly sweet (17 to 35 g) Sweetish (35 to 50 g)
3. 4. 5. 6. 1.
The types of grapes used and if different variety are used, the proportion on which they are mixed Artificial or natural ingredient added if any. Period of maturity The number of growths during the year Temperature : A steady moderate temperature is essential for maintaining the quality of a wine. It can vary from 0°C to 24°C. However this changes in the temperature must be gradual. This is the reason why cellar are preferred for storage of wine. White wine are more sensitive to temperature variation than red wines. Light : Exposure to light encourages oxidation and hence accelerates aging. Therefore wine must never be exposed to sunlight. Stability : Violent and frequent motion also accelerates the process of aging in a wine. Hence wine must be stored such that it is not subjected to movement Bed wine in the process of manufacture must not be distributed as the sediment to blend in the wine and thus get a perfectly good wine. Position : A wine must always be stored in a lifted or lying down position. The entry affair through a day cock increase oxidation and hence a cock must be maintained moist. A dry cock crumbs when being opened thus spoiling the taste and appearance of the wine. This is the reason why wines are always stored lying down. White wine or hock capacity A.P. wine or red wine Champagne saucer Champagne tulip : : : : 5½ oz 7 oz 6 oz 9 oz
Storage of wines
4. a. 6.
Glass required for wine service 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.
Equipment required jar service of wine Wine basket or wine stand with ice Wine opener Waiters cloth Quarter plate Proper glassware Presentation of Bottle – Draw the wine from the cellar and take it to the table properly wrapped in a waiter cloth. Present the wine bottle to the host from the right with the bottle resting on the forearm while announcing the name of wine and clearly stating the year of manufacture this is to make clear and sure that the host being given the bottle has ordered for this is also the good chance for him to check that the wine is being served at the right temperature. Opening the bottle – Cut the joil well below the tip of the bottle and tear it off wipe the mouth to remove any mould that may have formed near the cock. Insert the corkscrew into the cork not more than 3/4th of the way into the cock to avoid contact with the wine. Draw the cock out gently & present it to the host for approval on a plate the inspection of the cock gives the host as ideal of the aroma to expect from the wine. It also tells the host that the bottle has been stored in the proper manner and that the cock has not crumbled on being drawn. Pouring – Pour wine into the host's glass and wait for him or her to taste it and approve. Once the host apporoves the wine pour it to the guest, starting from the host left hand and pureed in a clockwise direction. Make sure you serve the ladies first. The host must or served last. Put the bottle back in the basket or wine basket with an appropriate wrapped napkin. If the bottle is empty it must be placed neck back down in the wine stand after showing to the host. A few general rules to note while pouring wine – a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Never from wine from a height Never touch the rim of the glass Pour it quality gently avoiding bubbling Pour only 2/3rd of the glass or upto the logo
Service of Wine
While pouring champaque always remember that champaque is always "poured twice" which means you pour a little. Wait for the froth to dry down and then pour again to fill the glass. After pouring twist the bottle slightly to avoid the last drops dripping down the side. When pouring the wine pour steadily on the slope of the glass on the opposite side ensure the flow is smooth. When changing the wine or when serving a fresh bottle always serve in fresh glasses. Before discarding an empty bottle show it to the host to avoid confusion later on. Remove the joil and the wine holding the cork in it's place. Hold the bottle resting in the forearm or place it in the wine bucket (but never on the table). Holding the bottle with one hand the cork in the other. Gently but firmly twist the cork and allow the pressure of the carbon dioxide inside to push out the cork. A properly opened champagne cork should not let out much of a sound only a slightly pop or a hiss. Do not let cork fly out of your hand as this may damage properly or hurt somebody. Wines of France France has 6 regions, which grows wines of greatest quality – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. Burgundy Bordoux Alsace Champagne Locre C8te de Rhone Burgundy
Opening a Champagne Bottle
Most of the wine experts are agreed that the best of Burgundy's are agreed that the best of Burgundy's wines are among the greatest in the world. In general wines of burgundy are firm and balanced and are
powerfully suggestive of the noble char dunnay grapes. The adjectives used for red burgandies are fruity, Emphatic and velvety. Burgundy is said to be very variable in quality. In the past burgundy was often doctored with heavy reds from Midi or even Algeria to give it the weight that customer expected. Now with the low lightened up any wine saying "Apelation controlee" must be made entirely grapes grown in the area. Variability still remains, however, but this is partly because unlike bordeaux, where large properties, often belongs to a single owner, each responsible for tiny pieces of land. Even wines made from adjoining rows, may taste quite differently middle tended and harvested the grapes are then sold to different middlemen each of whom will blend wins according to his own house style and bottling standards. The wine will be marketed with his name of on the label. When buying Burgundy wine a careful study of the label is the best guide. A top ranking GEVREY – CHAMBERTIN or a NUMTRACHET made and boiled by the grower at the property is the best choice. This is indicated by the words, Mis En Boutielles Par La Proprietane, otherwise the clipper can also be depended upon pliable names among shippers arebouis jabet, Louis Labour, Joseph Drouhin and Bouchard pere et gils. Because the label "MIS EN BOOTIELLES DAN NOS CAVES" (in our cellar in – means bottled almost any where). The appellation system which governs the way Burgundy wines are labeled sold in complex. They can be categorised as : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. Baurgone Grand ordinaire Red – Parsefort grains means all grains included. This wine could contain a minute of Gamay grape plus 1/3rd of pinot noir. Whites – Bouragne Aligote – made from the Aligote grape. Ac Bourgogne – made from pinot noir only. Chardonnery gapes to make wine Cote de noite The cote d or the "golden slope" stretching between dijon in the north sontenary in the south, has been legendary wine for hundred of years. The narrow strip of the holside falls naturally into 2 parts of which the northern one is known as cote de noites. There are a important communes in this cote and they tally their names from the village dotted along the length of the slope. For the commune appelation, titled some proudly hyphenate the names of their village giving names lie chambolle – Musigny or noits st yeorges the eight communes are – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2. Firm Gevrey Movey St. DEVIS Chamballe – Musinghg Veugot Vorne – Romance Flagey – Chizaux and Noits – St. Georges.
The individual wine producing areas in Burgundy are listed below –
Cote de Beaune Burgundy southern half, the cote de beaune is world famous for it's white wine. They are soften, lightes and quicker to mature. Communes making white wines – 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Puligny – Montranche Chassagne – Montranche St. Aubin Memsault Volnay Pommard Beaune Alone – curton The region produces both red and white wines. They are good but not exceptional with a shorten life span. The red ones one for better than the whites. They are four principle centre's
Communes making Red wines –
MERCURY GEVREY RULLY Le piece La Tonnere Cloc St. Paul Le Bouchet
RED WINES SPARKLINA WINES
Some examples wines cote de Noir challonaise
All these wines are best enjoyed with in a year of production. MACON The grapes used in this region are mostly "hammy Noir" this district is famous for production of pouilly focsse. This is a sound dry and fruity wine Macon Rossey like the wines of COTE, SHALLONAISE. These wines are also best consumed youngs. N.B. Pouilly Fuisse is an excellent for light foods. Ex fish and shell fish. Le Beaujeaulais A Beaujeaulais wine is a delight full light and fruity red wine. Best enjoyed when about 2 years old. Some of the well known wines in this region are – MORGON FLEURIE MOULIN AVENT BROUIUY LE BEAUTE AULAIC Chablis The wines of chablis are greenish white in colour and are very white fresh and crisp to taste. Depending on the type of grape used they are four grades – 1. 2. 3. 4. (ii) GRAND CRU CHABLIS PREMIER CRU CHABLIS CHABLIS PETIC CHABLIS
Chapati is a popular wine all over the world since it is one of the few wines that travel well. Wine of Bordeaux Region The Vuge Bordeau region extends on both side of river grande in southern France. Bordeaun is known as the wine capital of the world because it produces 1/10 of the wine supplied the whole world. In 1154 till 1453 this region belongs to England. In 1453 the Dutches of Dijon got married to Henry II and it was the whole region of Bordeaux is given as Dowry to Henry II. Other region can match it in quantity, quality and variety in wine. Bordeaun wines are sold in their own special bottle called the 'Bordelaire" designed in the bottle to preserve and serve the wine in the best possible condition. The Lable Bordeaun wines are entitled to A.D.C. (Appelation D' origin controle). They are been covered by the strictly possible guarantee obtainable for freud wine both as regard to authority and quality. The A.D.C. is granted only after stringent cheques including taste are carried out under the authority of the "Institut national des appelation d' origine." Red wine of Boardeaun They are known as claret, cabernet, Sarignon is the grape with the cider wood bouquet gives claret it's taste. The best of the red wines of the world are produced in the MEDOC region. The MELLOT (Black grape) is used more in Sent Emilio & Pomeral region. Dongme river passes through these two region. Red wines are also produced in Premure cotes de Bordeawin Bourze Bleay region. Red wines – CHATEAV HAVTE BRION
CHATEAV PAPE CEMENT VINS OR DINAIRS White wine of Bordeaum Southerns, Bassac, Cerons, Loepice, Saint croix, Duemont, Macaire produces excellent sweet white wines because these grapes are effected by 'NOBLE ROT'. SAMELLION and SAVIGNON grapes used in making of white wine. Different region of Bordeaux which produces quality wine – 1. Pomerol The smallest district of bordeaun produces wines which are similar in characterastic to the wines of St. Emillon but are smoother and velvetty to taste. The wine have a distinct taste of truffles. The well known wines are – CHATEAV PETRUS CHATEAU LE CROTX CHATEAU ROUSET Graves The district devise it's name from the gravelly type of soil pre dominated in the area. The whites are good wines but the reds are great. The red wines properly matured can lost 50 years or more are considered to be the finest of claret. Generally the wines are boburt and thinner than Medox but have a crisp and clean paste. Examples of white wines are : LAVILLE HAUT BRION DO MAIN bE CHEVALTER Examples of red wines are – CHATEAU HAUT BRION CHATEAU PAPER CEMENT Bourge et Blaye and cute deux mers. These regions produces more quality wines then quality wines and are known as vins or dinairs. SAUTERNES This district produces the greatest naturally sweet wine of the world. The wines have a deep colour fruity and lasting flavour. The grapes are picked individually after they show "POURR ITURE NOBLE" OR "THE NOBIE ROTT." These grapes yield lucines sweet wines with exceptional finerse. All good southern are sweet and dry, Southern is a poor wine. Tips on service of Bordeaun wine 1. 2. 3. (iii) Bordeaux wine should rest after a long journey. If possible lay it on its side for a few days before drinking it. The living wine of Bordeaux needs to breathe cork an hour or 2 hour before drinking it, makes wine mace pleasant. Bordeaux wine can be recognised first and foremost by its aroma. The glass should be filled only ½ way to all the bouquet to attain it's full potential. Wine of Champagne region Features of champagne region. It has chalk soil and 2000°F above sea level. Regions of champagne – a. b. c. d. Cote de Blancs produces chardonney grapes Montagne de Reims Valley de la morne Valley de La cube
The name champagne can only be applied to a drink produces by the "METHOD CHAMPENOISE" in the "CHAMPAGNE" area bear Reines to the north east of Paris wines has been made there from centuries but until the 17th century the best known wines of champagne were still the red and whites and not sparkling wines. These wines are highly thought of and rivelled their of neighbority Burgundy. The ate of making sparkling wines was perfected by DUM PERIGNON E BENEDICTINE MONK. The Cellar master of the Abbey of thant villiers. It was seen that sometimes in spring wine bottled after the second harvest began a second fermentation. Warmer weather restarted the fermentation giving rise to the bubbles in champagne. DOM PERIGNON started the use of cocks to sloppen the bottles and
stronger bottles were made. They also deviced a way to blend different grapes from different vineyards and produced a fine blend a side effect of the secondary fermentation of sediment a process was deviced by MADAME CLIQOUT who found a way to make champagne clear and the racks were slowly turned by degree until the neck was down so that the sediment is settled of the neck of bottles. This process is called REMUAGE and DEG ORGEMENT or removal of the sediment was alone by removing the cork, removing the sediment and filling up the bottle quickly with the alcohol and sugar this process has been simplified now by freezing the neck of bottle, Before removing the cork and when the cock is removed the inside pressure pops out the frozen sediment and the bottle is refilled with sugar and wine to maintain the right quality and also to keep the fermentation on. All the sugar and champagne is used up in fermentation so the amount of sugar added now will decide the degree of dryness or sweetness of the champagne. Although most champagne is white it is usually made with black grapes and white grapes, black one's predominating. The grapes used are :
1. 2. 3.
PINOT NOIR – PINOT MEUNIER CHARDONNARY
During vivification process the Black grapes skins are carefully seperated before the pressing begains. METHODE CHAMPENOISE Champagne process takes minimum of 5 years to make real champagne. It undergoes the following process – 1. Pressing 4000 kg of grapes are pressed and the juice is known as MARC. In 1st Pressing In 2nd Pressing In 3 Pressing
10 Carks of Vin de Cuvec 2 Carks of Premier taills 1 Carks of Deanieme taills 1 Cark of Rebeche
In 4th Pressing 2.
1st fermentation occours 8 hours after pressing resulting into dry white wine. The wine is left in the cark for 5 month then it racket & fined. Raching – changing of cark to leave sediment behind finning clasificat. ASSEMBLAGE – Blending of wines of 250 different villagers to get the best product. Yeast and cane sugar is added in the wine select. Maturing, Remuage and Degorgement is done. Aging & bottling is done. This body has established here (France) in 1930. It governes the minimum requirement for each wine producing area in FRANCE. The A.O.C. loss also helps in desiprin (to understend) French wine lable. The A.O.C. controlle in following – 1. 2. 3. 4. Geographical place of origine Grape variety Minimum Alcohol containt Wine growing practises
3. 4. 5. 6.
A.O.C. "Appellatation De Origine Controue
VIDS "Vins delicnetes de qualike, SUPERIEURE are also body lesser then A.O.C. Categorisation. CHARACTERASTIC OF VARIOUS CHAMPAGNE Bollinger Deep golden colour with intencity of flavour, dry and with great fennesse. Charles Heidsick Full bodied and fruity not very dry. Georges goulet A raisy youthful wine very fruity and very dry. Krug Subtle bouquet and flavour silky and well balanced and dry. Louis Rodrer
Great allegance, golden with a delicate flavoure, notably day. Laurent Perrier Light gold brisk and youthful with a leafy bouquet. Mercier Slightly flowery bouquet, dry with a good finish. Muet Et Chandon Straw gold in colour well balanced and not very dry. Mumm Pale and springhtly with a nice finish, medium dry. Pul Roger Very light gold in colour with an extremely fine bouquet, dry and elegant. Veune Cliquot Pale nicely balanced, dry and lively to taste. Wine of cotes Du Rhone The vine yard of Rhome stretch for about 225 Kms between Cyon, Avignon on both banks of a river Rhone in Eastern France. The Rhone wines because of their soberness and alcoholic strength are after described as the most masculine of the french wines. Cotes du Rhone has South & North area of region. North Region Grape Variety Ist cote IInd IIIrd IVth Vth VIh VIIth South Region Grape – Grenache (Red) Ist IInd IIIrd IVth Vth VIth 1. Cote Rotic Tavel Lirac Rasteau Beaumes de venises Gigon Das Chateau neuf du pape Black White Rotie – full bodied Conduf Cherau grillet Harmitage Sent Josaph Cornao St Peray
The important Barishes of Rhone are The red wines take 12 to 15 years before they are ready for consumption, they are beautifully rich full bodied with a hint of rasp berries in their flavour. Most wine in the spanish are red. 2. 3. Hermitage It also produces mostly red wines deep in colour delicate and mellow. Château neuj du papé This red wine is the best known of Rhom district also it may not be a best wine. It recalls the wines that was served in the parple palace when a vinion was the seat of the catholic church from 1305 to 1377. this wine is best drunk young. It is 99% Red wine & 1% white wine produces. 13 types of grapes used in producing these wines. Tavel Tavel is justly famous or the best rosseny wine produced in the world. The wine is fresh and dry with a fruity flavour and is consumed when it is 5 year old. The colour of wine has its beauty in its resemblance to the colour of the onion skin.
Alsace Alsace is situated in the northern corner of France bordering the German territory. These region are strosberg, Riverrnine. The obatian vineyards produced the pleasent luneleon wines. The main production is of white wines which are named after the grapes which are made. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. REISLING MUSCAT GEWURZ TRAMENER SYLVANER TOKAY PINOO RLNCE
Alsace is famous for producing dry white wine. Other types of wines are raisely found. The vins grown on easter vasage mountain & lower down a slopes of rivel ill. The region of STRASBURG is positioned which produces the bulk of white wine. The mighty rive "RINE" make very good location of growing wine and also a dispute between FRANCE and GERMANY. Alsace was in France before 870 AD then it was in Germany from 870-1681, France 1681-1870, In Germany 1870-1918, In France 1918-1940, In Germany 1940-1944, France since 1945. All Alsace A.O.C. wines must 'bottled by law these. The grapes variety used is primerly display on the lable as the custom in GERMANY. Wines makers with * * Astric liger is regarded as Noble wine. Zwicker Zwicker is the term on the lable which indicates the contain of bottle and blend. Edelzwicker Blended wine noble origin 60% of wine of Alsace made of sylvaner grapes. Today is second grapes variety. Alsace wine has 11 to 12% Alcohol. Reliable shippers Hugelfils F-e-trimdach leon beyar Dopple au moulene 1983 is the best year for Alsace wine 1976 is the second best year. Wine of Loire Val de loire is known as garden of France. It stretching on either side of the river loire Noire Valley is known as the garden of France, this region produces Red wine, White wine, Rosé wine and a small amount of sparkling wine. In loire wine are best drunk young. Famous wine SAMUR VOUVRAY ANIOV ROSÉ It is sparkling wine. It is also sparkling wine from Tourailine. Medium sweet and dry wine.
Excellent dry wine known as Museadat come from Pays nautays sancerre, Pourisor. Red wine of Tourline is CHETNON St NICOLAS DE BOULIVEIL Very few wine are sold under the name of the grower of his estate. Most of them an sold under the appellation control of the district or village. Bad wintages are sheldom seen in the loire valley and so it is less importance to know the vintage date then. It is for other France wines. Indeed many of the loire wine are sold without only vintage date. Many of them are best. Some when young WHITE GRAPES MUSCADET CHENIN BLANG SAUVIGNON BLANC RED GRAPES CABGRNET SAUVIGNON
CABERNET FRANC MIDI AND SOUTH OF FRANCE They produces VDQS wines. Regions of midi and South is given below1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Roussillon Carbiers Minrvois Provience : : : : Red, White and Bose wine Red and Rosé wine Red and Rosé wine Rosé wine Red wine
Vins de Pays :
CÔTE DE PROVENCE Provence wines are often sold in attractively shaped bottles however the quality of wine and the shape of the bottle do not match others. These wines are drunk at the natural environment. IURA Jura wines are difficult to come across outside the territory. The most famous wine in the district is CH. CHALON which is made from the SAVIGNON grapes. It is a dry white wine resembling sherry. There is some other wine from jura district is given below – 1. 2. 4. SAVOIC This region is near FRANCE, SWITZERLAND Border and produces Red wine, white wine and little rosé wine. Language, Doc and Roussillion This region producing the quantity of wine but not of good quality consumed as every day drinking wines by the fredge. Few of the principal grape varities White Grapes Aligoté Chardomnay Chasselas Chenin Blanc Gamy Malbec Merlot Meunier Semillon Saunignon Blane Sylvaner Viognier Red Grapes Baco Nois Bouchet Sauvignon France Cabernet, France Burgundy Mainly champagne, Burgundy France, mainly the loire Loire (eg vonvray, saumur) France, mainly Beajolais & loir Bordeaux Bordeaux France in champagne also called Pinot meunier Bordeaux France mainly loire valley and Bordeaux France in Alsace Rhône (eg condieur) VIN FOU CHAREAU CHALON VIN GRES Sparkling wine Dry white wine Rosé wine
Sweet white wine highly Alcohol
France mainly South and Southern Rhône, château neuf-du-pape
France mainly champagne & Burgundy, also in wine.
France mainly cognae and Armghae whers it is known as St. Emillion
France, mainly loire (eg Cobernet d' Anjou, chinon), Bordeaux France mainly Bordeauv and provence France mainly Rhône and Purence Southern France
France mainly Rhône and languedoc Roussilon
ent Information Once a cask of wine was opened, the wine was soon consumed as it was used to Quench first thirst rather than to be shipped for enjoyment and caste has to be comptied quickly for avoiding the wine spoilage. The early bottles was made of leather, pewter, poltery or even wood and was used by people travelling long distances on both foot and lesse back on business, pleasure or pilgrimage. Even when glass bottles were invented they would not be used for shipping wine as there was so known way of firmly stopping them to corning out. Cock was first used only in the early 1600. Ofcourse with the advant of cork to remove the cork wine would be shipped in bottle and its trade increased accordingly. Grapes & Fermentation Any liquid that contains sugar can be fermented with the addition of yeast but grape wine makes itself as the grapes inter skin contains yeast mould. The sugar in the grapes wine is turned into Alcohol and so the higher the grapes sugar, content is the higher will be wine's alcohol content. Effervescence Sparkling wine contains CO2 bubbles, which provide their effervescence these CO2 is produced either through a natural process of fermentation that does not allow the CO2 to escape during the conversion of the grape sugar in to alcohol and carbon dioxide or it is added to still wine after the fermentation is complete. Dom Perignon The discovery of champagne is frequently credited to DOM PERIGNON who was the cellar master at an abbey in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It is often said that he first put the bubbles inside the wine to create champagne. It is quite easy to make a fizzy or effervescent wine. If the wine is bottled before the fermentation has stopped and the bottle has highly stoppened, the CO2 cannot escape until the bottle is opened. What Dom Perignon really discovered, was a process of tightly stappering the bottle with cork. Before that wine made in the champagne region was bottled with cork. The bottles were plugged with two and olive oil was dripped on the top to keep or vinegar spoces that would spril the wine. This wine is not very good wine because of the area's northerly climate. Domperignon learned to cork the bottle and also how to improve the not very good locally produced wine by blending it and converting it into champagne. Viticulture All the classical variation of grapes wine grown in Europe belongs to the spears "Vitis Vinifera". They are however prone to attache from a small grow which destroys the roots. This grubs develops in to the uphed "Phyllouera Vastatrix" which was first discovered in England in 1858. This eventually wert or to destroy the Vinyard of Europe. The remedy was "Grafting" Grafting European wine out to American roots to the which was found to the resistant to phylloxera. Grafting in warm climate can be done into the growing root, in site but in cold northern vine yards the graft is effected in peet bones in leet lovles. Work in Vineyards Northern Hemisphere In northern hemisphere winter during usually start after St. Vincent's day (22nd January). During the cold season the frost is welcomed as it helps to kill some disease organism's but if the tempt falls below 15°C the plant will die. March States and wines are removed and strong themed. New grafted wins are plasted out. April The soil is taken away from the bases of the plant to aerate the soil and to collect the spring rains. May Wines are dusted with sulphur to prevent oidium. June/July Spray of copper sulphate are an prevent black rot and downy mildew, summer prunning is carned out August Sulphuring continues September
Vintage starts November/December Leave the fruit for riping and wealthering. WINE OF ITALY History The fall of roman empire did not put an end to viticulture in Italy but barbarization and economic collapse meant the disappearance of the market for fine wines with Goths then lombards in Rome and most of the north and the remains of the empire administrated precariously from Raverma, Falernian and caeucuban had become disfant memories vet the Italian diet remained based on bread, olives and wine and so wine continued to be grown as one of the necessities of Mediterranean life. One of the reason for the strength of Italian economy was that it had monopolized the trade in luxury items and their distribution throughout Europe. The rich merchants of the cities become a new market for wine good wine become a sign of alluence and a source of profit. From the 13th century onwards wine was medival Italy's most profitable cash crop. Share cropping was traditional throughout the country, with the land owner taking half the wine or more if production was high. Sometimes a contract was drawn up for a longer period at a fined sent, but in Tuscany and the northern plain they could not offered to stay on the better land. Italy has mountain and has few navigable rivers which made internal transport costly and difficult before the coming of the Railways. Also, because Italy was not a political unity there were obstacles in the form of falls, duties and different in coinages, weights and measures. Transport by sea was dreap and export to the other countries no more laborious than much internal trade. So merchants in northern Italy or near the sea readily turned to foreign markets. But it was precisely at this time in the 17th and then in the 18th century that the development of Italian viticulture & wines began to diverge from those of her neighbours. This critical period, which saw the rice of modern wine in Bottles stoppered with cork and from specific producers, left Italy viticulty untouched. Old bottles from this period are non existent, nor is there any evidence of a long history of bottled wine from individual properties. The 'FLORENCE' wines so greatly appreciated in the late 17th and early 18th century by lady sandwich by swift and by Boiling brope and described as disagreeably rough by Sir Edward Barry in 1775 and there is good reason not to dismiss his wards as a mere subjective reaction. Pictro leopoldo grand duke of Tuscary, during an inspection tour of his sealam in 1773, reported a significant loss of viticultural commerce with England due to the lessend quality of the wines of Chianti Barolo & Barbarano were sweet wines until the middle and end of the 19th century, respectively, chianli did not become a predominantly sangionere wine until well into the 19th century. Sicily's first dry table wine, in contrast to the better known sweet wins or blending wines of Island, were created only in 1824, by Duke Edwardo di Salaparuta. The unification of Italy in 1861 and a slow but steady period of economic growth, did much to reserve the decline of the previous two and a half centuries although economic growth and modernization were neither unfaltering nor swift. It was only the economic boom after the second world war which allowed the Italian to attain a truly European standard of living. It also created a class of consumer with both an interest in wine and the means to purchase it, which gain Italian wine produces the essential confidence in their own capacities and their own product which are the only creal basis for making good quality wine. These wine began to be transformed from a daily beverage and a source of calories to a source of feleasure based on the concept of choice. Major development in the recent history of Italian wine are distributed under – DOC DOGC IGT & VINO DE TAVOLA 1. 2. Vino de Tavola (VT) Indicazlone Geografica tipica (IGT) Table wine. A basis wine with no pretensions – basis plank in other words but it can be quite agreeable. These wines are generally superior to the above and reference to colour, grapes, place or typology will appear on the label. It is as the same level as the German lan wines or the french Vin de Pays. 3. Denominazium de Urigine Controllate (DOC) This is supposedly the equivalent of the French A.O.C. when D.O.C. appears on the label it indicates that the wine was made from specified grape grown on a democrated area and that the wine was vinified and aged according to prescribed high standards.
Dinominazion de origine controllate Garantita (DOCG) This category guarantees authenticity of origin, controls the grape variety used and has more stringent restriction on yield, alcohol content, vinification and ageing. These wines have to be tasted & officially approved by a panel of exports. This top ties ranking only includes a few wine within this quality group are chianti; Brunello de Montalcino, Vino Noble di Monlepulciano, carmignan, all reds from Tussary Barbarero, Barlo, Galtinaso; all red plus the white and sparkling Mcrcato d' Asti/Asti spumanbe from piedmont. Tourasi a red from compania, Torgiano Rosso Riserva and sagrentino de Monlefalco red from Umbria, Albane di Romagnek, a white wine from Emilea Romagne.
Wine Making Wooden fermenting vessels have for better worse been eliminated and although cement vats and tanks are still widely in use both for fermentation and for storage, stainless steel tanks are very much more common. Temperature control is widely accepted for the production of both red wine & white wine and the punching down of the cap of red wine has been generally replaced by regular pumping over during the period of fermentation, even if six-week period of fermentations, even if six-week period of the past seem irrevocably gone. Destemming has long been an integral part of Modern Italian wine making since the vigorous tannins of most of Italy's major red varieties make fermenting with the stems for from advisable. White wine making techniques on the other hand changed drastically in the 1970's and 1980's with the introduction of cool fermentation, FILTERS and CETRIFUGES. The most fundamental change of all, however has been the end of practised in fruliners and freshners have been obvious, even if at the price of a certain standardization producing white wine of more character without sacrificing the newly achieved crispness and cleanliness is the current challenge for Italian white wine making fermentation may have evolved considerably in the second half of the 20th century, but ELEVAGE has undergone more, profound modification during the same period large casks usually oval rather than upright have always been prefered containers for Ageing red wine in Italian cellars, but many of Italy's most renowned red wines have tannins which need a considerable time in casks to soften and round and periods of two years in cask are by no mans uncommon even though only Brunnello is still legally obliged to age for a full three years, regular replacement of excursively old wood has been accepted as an integral part of correct cellar techniques. Oak has generally been the preferred wood for cask, much of it from slovenia or elsewhere in central Europe. In the south of in areas such as the Basilicata and Sicily where chestnut foroest abound and there are no local sources of oak, the traditional cherbut cooperage is gradually being replaced by the oak cask to achieve a more international style. General in experience in modern wine making techniques is a chromic problem in Italy, where fine wine is such a recent phenomenon. This led to a major boom, particularly in the 1980's, in the employment of consulting DENOLOCISTS in Tuscarey, fiedmond and friuli the three most important fine wine regions. Press coverage of the exploits of individual consultants threatened to overshadow the significance both of specific estates and of individual Toisocis.
Regions and Principal wines of Italy Valled Aoste Piedmont Veneto Lombardy Tuscany Sicily Liguria Calabrice VALLED' AOSTA This French speaking region with it's capital at Aosta is the smallest viticultural zone in Italy. Most Vineyard lie in the shadows of Most blane and the wines are mostly consumed locally. The best examples are the red and Enferd' Arvier and the whites lasalle and Morgex. PIEDMONT This region bordering Switzerland and France is best known for it sweet effervescent wine Asti Spumante. The capital is Twin using the Nebbiolo grape, fabulous reds like Barolo, Barbaresco and Gattinara have even more prestige Barbera is a grape making notable reds Barbera d' Alba, Barbera d' Asti and Barbera de Monfersto. Another red grapes Dolcelto d' Acqui and other good reds of the whites Moscato d' Asti and cortes Le Gavi are best Baralo wine 13% alcohol full bodied 13 years ageing and has the tag reserva with Beef and park. LOMBARDY The appenines in the South and the beautiful lakes como, garda, Iseo and Maggiore in thenorth, all have an influence on this Alpine climate. Oltrepo pavese is the largest producing area with good reds from the pinot naro and Barbera grapes and lively fruity whites from the Riesling and Muscato grapes. One of the special wines of the area is the sparkling, Santa Maria della Versa, Brescia also produces some fine wines such as the dry white lugana and Riviera del Garda. Also good are Bresciano Rosso Bianco and Chiaretto (Pink). Perhaps the real star of the region is in the bottle fermented sparkling wine, franciacorta up in the mountain near Sandrio, a good red wine. Valtellina is made from the Nabbialo grape. The capital of the region is Milan. VENETO The best known wines of Veneto whose capital is Venice are the dry, light red Bardolino and the immensely popular red valpolicella, of which the apulent style Reciato della Valpolicella Amarone is truly magnificant. Bianco di custoga, a fruity dry white and the sparkles lessini Durello and Prosecco are all well made wines. LIGURIA There is only a limited wine production in this region by the sea Cinquitere (five lands, in reality five fishing village) produces dry white wine called in quetterre and a sweet white version called Sciacchetia Collide luni makes vermentino, a really good dry white wine. Rosses di dal ceasque and Ormeasco from Rinicra ligure de Ponente are classy dry reds. Geneo is the capital. TUSCANY Centered, of course, on Florence this region is renowned for it's truly great red wines Brunallo di Montalivo, Carmigeniano Chianti and Vino Nobile de Montepulciano all grades of D.O.C.G. They all use the Sangiovese grape or a local clone such as Brunellor Pregnolo Gentile as the prime grapes. Chianti used to be marketed in a globular shaped wicker covered bottle called a fiasco (flask). Modern technology has made it impractical to continue with such presentation. More emphasis now a day is on the quality of the wine. Chianti has seven sub districts including classico, colli Fiorentine and rufina. Classico is the heart land or historic centre of the zone. It's consortium of produces is symbolised by a black rooster on the neck label of each bottle of the Tussan white wines Vernaccia de San Cimignano and Cralestro are fresh with an all reactive fruit flavour. Vin Santo made from semi-dried grapes, is an excellent desert wine. SICILY The largest Mediterranean island Sicily produces good table wines and an exceptional fortified wines. Massala, the best table wines are caruo (red & white), Regoleali (red & white), cerasualo de Vittoria (red), Biance d' Alemo (dry white) and the sweet white Malvasis delle Lipari. Moscato de pantelleria and Moscato di siracusa look out for the symbol on labels. This marchia di qualita is ascorbed by the Sicilian Government when a wine has passed a tasting and analysis test. The capital is palermo.
CALABRIA This mountain region surrounding the capital, catanzarro, is the toe on Italy's boot. Although the wines are unremarkable, ciro Rosso, Melissa (red and white) Pollino, Donnici and Savuto (all red) are good with food. Greco di Bianco a sweet white wine, is one of the best of it's kind in all Italy. Understanding the label Abboccato or a mobile Annata Azienda Bianco Case Vinicala Chiaratto Classico Imbottigliato da Dark red Wine received additional ageing Pink Red Dry Foaming or sparkling Wine of superior quality Old Harvest on vintage New wine made by macerazione carbonica WINES OF GERMANY Although not good as french wines. German wines are non the list famous all over the world for their quality the German wine Law of 1971 (WEING & SETZ) divides the wine lands into four table wine region (TAFELWEIN) which are named after the river which flow through them. Quality wines are QUALI TATSWEIN grow in 11 designated regions. The specific regions are subdivided into districts, village, ports of villages are this sights the sights can consist of many vine yard where soil and climate produce vines of similar character. A wine can be bottled under the name of a vineyard only if atleast 85% of the wine come from their. Classification of German Wine The new German wine law divides German wines into three general category. 1. 2. Tafelwein (Table wine) This will be named after the river from where it is produced. These are table wine of Germany. Qualitats Wein Quality controlled wines from the region produced other wine known as Q.B.A. These wines most early a certification number. These wines comes from 11 best region of Germany. 3. LAND WEIN These wines are superior quality wines designated with QMP. The QMP wines are subjected to more rigorous harvest and quality control and are further sub divided into degrees of sweetness. The two major kinds of German wines are – 1. 2. HOCK MOSSEKE Slightly sweet Vintage Estate White Wine company Deep rosé Classical or best zone wine area Bottled by
Voluntary association of producers who ensure high standards above the minimum requirement bottled by champagne method for making sparkling coine
The famous wine of Germany is – He 6 fraumilch Types of Wine There are two types of wine in Germany which are given below – Rhein
These wines are full bodied and higher in alcohol percentage but lower interim. It comes in thick brown bottle. Mossel These wines are light bodied and less in alcohol percentage. It also contain natural affervation (CO2). It comes in Green bottle. Regions of Germany which produce wine AHR Mossel Sars resever Mittel rheil Rheingav Nahe Rhein Phalz Hessischeteg strasse Franconia Warttemburg Badeu Most of the German wines are white their bottles are slim & tall. Tallest bottle of wine is found in GERMANY. Thicker and Alcohol percentage is less. GERMAN SCHAUMWEIN The genetic term for German sparkling wins is Schaumveing, sparkling wines with this word on their label are most likely made from FRENCH or ITALIAN grapes. However, if the label states qualitates chaumwein, it must be made with 100 percent German grapes. If the label says sekt, rather than Schaumwein it can have been made by secondary famentation in the bottle by either locally grown or imported grapes. Although the German were about a hundred year behind the French champagne. French champagne is the ultimate in lightness, where as Schaumwein, particularly when made from Riesling grapes, with their strong bouquet and powerfult flavour, is a more cabust product the equals French champagne in quality but which it should not be compared, as it is a different product. More Schaumvein is made today in Germany than champaque is made in France. Even wines from other countries is often imported into Germany to make it. One well known brand name in Hen Kall Prochen, others are Sonnlein Brillant, Reittegers club, Fabes Kronung, Kupferberg, Gold and Deinhard Rabinett. Note that if Schaumwein is made from a wine from one of Germany's eleven controlled wine region, 100 percent of the product must come from wine made in that region and the label must also contain an Amthiche Druflein gsnummes (official examination number). Indeed, even some of the well known brand name types contain hardly any German wines. The region being that German wines are too expensive, Sekt makers can obtain all the wine they need much more threaply from French and Italy. The description Deutscher Seck (German Seakt) which for many year misled consumer into belivings the product contained only German wine now may legally be used only for wine produced entirely in the controlled region. SUB CATEGORY OF GERMAN WINE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. KABINETT Light & Semi dry wines are made by rippened grapes. SPATIESS Wine from late harvested grapes are picked late as mid December or January. AUSLESE Wines from specially selected repetiarts of bunches of grapes. EISWEIN Wine made from grapes harvested white frozen. BEERENAVSLESE Wine from overrepe part, Grape picks individually and are very expensive. This is also red wine. TROCKEN BEER EN AU SLESE This is the red wine made by extremely effected by NOBLE ROT. GRAPE VARIETY
REISLING ( White grape) If the label contains Reisling it means 85% of grape wines are contwint from reisling grape. 23% of German wine.
2. 3. 4.
SYLVANER (White grapes) 17% of German wines are containt Sylvaner grapes. MULLER THURGAU This is a combination of Reisling & Sylvaner grape. 37% of German wines are Muller Thurgan. GEWURZTRAMINER A grape which is got lesser of importance in Germany but produces a distinguishes wine. It's own category "Spicy Wine".
Difference between Rhein & Mosel Wine Rheir wines are generally have more body than mosels. In additional mosel wines of then have a spirits a natual effervescence. Mosel are also higher in acidity and lower in alcohol then Rhein wines. Most wines in alcohol up of from Red using grape 80% of Rhein phgen wines are made from Reisling. Grapes of Germany MILLER RIESLINGS SILVANNER 31% 23% 17%
Reading the German Wine lable German wine lable give you plenty of information for example. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mosel – Sour – Kewer This is the region of the wine origin now clearly one of the big four disumed earlier. 1976 – The year the grape were harvested. Foil is the lower and Sorentbery is the vineyard in which the grapes originated the German Rules. Just as the person make Reislen just as the prone from New York is called New York. Trocnenber naislese is the style of wine made from the grapes that are well selectively picked from the wine. Pealing is the grapa variety these are thin wine in atleast 85% riesling. Qualitats wine not padinai is the quality level of the wine. APNR 2598176/11977 is the official lasting number proof. Erzengerablutry means estatle bottle. 9. 2 598 119 176 77 Radaly muller is the produces of the wine. The government regional office The registration of the shipper "APNR 2598176/119/77"
The month and the date of the wine was tested by the control authority The application of the number The year the wine was tested by the board Christopher Columbus discovered the West Indies in October 1492 opening up a whole NEW WORLD to spanish trade. This was recognised by the treaty of Tordeoillas in 1494 which under the arbitration of Pope Alexander VI, divide the world between SPAIN and Portugal. All newly discovered territory to the west of a line of longitude. The expulsion from SPAIN of all Jews who refused to be baptized commenced in 1492, creating opportunity for foreign merchants many of whom began trading in wine. The wine regions around cadiz and Malaga, both important SPANISH ports, were the first to attract the attention of foreign traders and SHERRY, often called sack become a popular drink at the English court. Foreign traders in the Sherry town of SANLUCAR DE BARRAMADA was granted special privileges by the duke of Medina sidonia in 1517. The English defeat of the Armed in 1588 destroyed Spain as a seafaring power and on the death of Philip II ten yeas later the country was left with a crippling debt. Trade wine soon resumed and after the death of Elizabeth I, Sack become a favoured chink in the court of James I.
WINE OF SPAIN
By 1754 these were only nine shippers left on jerez owing to the poor slate of trade. But in the second half of the 18th century properity retained to the region and trade resumed. A generation of foreign merchants heralded a new era of prosperity of Jerez. From the middle of the 19th century wholesale change was forced on the spanish wine industry, first by powdery nuldew, which was found to Catalonia in the 1850's and then much lates by PHYLIOXERA. Phyloxera took hold in Jerez in 1894 and reached Rioje in 1901, by which time the epidemic had been controlled by grafting. In 1950's the wine industry began to revive, helped by the nation wide construction of large Cooperative wineries, which had began some years earlier. This turned Spain with vast area of vineyad into a natural source for in expensive bulk wine either sold under proprietary BRAND names or labelled with Supurions GENERIC names such as spanish government has exercised increasing control over wine producers with the proliferation of DO's. The post war history of the spanish wine industry is over shadowed by the Rumase Saga, outlined under SHERRY But Rumasa's horizons can for beyond jerez and Rutz. Mateos accumulated substantial holding in Rioja, catalonia Montilla and La mancha. Rumasa also bought up banks, violets, construction firms, so that by the late 1970's. José Maria Ruiz Mateos seemed to control Spain. The 1960's sherry boom was accompanied by the emergence of Rioja as one of the Spain's best known win es. In the 1970s and 1980's the family firm of TORRES brought a single handed transformation of the wines of PENEDÉS. The decade of General Franco in 1975 and the restoration of the monarchy set the foundation for a modern, multi party democracy set the in Spain Greater economic freedom has in turn stimulated a new interest in high quality wine. Economically deprived rural regions such as La Moncha and Galicia have further benefied from E.U finance, which is helping to change the face of the Spanish wine industry. However, as in neighbouring PORTUGAL there is still a shortage of skilled wine makers in Spain. With the exception of certain notable examples in the early 1990's the transformation of the Spanish wine industry want still painfully slow. Introduction The most well known wines of Spain are MALAGA, SHERRY, RIOJA. The process of production of wine in Spain is found to be very similar to that bounded in bordeaun. RIOJA wines are labelled as per the taste as Seco (dry). Semi Seco and Abocado or Doke (Sweet). It is during the production of SHERRY that we come across the formation of FLOR. A thin film of yeast which develops on the surface and helps in the regulation of air and thus the regulation of oxidation. The SOLAR SYSTEM of blending is also encounted in the production of SHERRY where wines of various years are kept in scales or sacks and used for blending. Various kinds of SHERRY ARE FINOS MANZANILA AMONTILLADOS OLOROSSO CREAM SHERRY AMOROSO PALO CORTADU Spanish Wine Law Since joining the E.U. Spain has brought has wine law into line with that of other European countries. There is now a five tire system administrated countries. There is now line with that of other European countries. There is now a five-tier administrated by INDO. VINO DE MESA (VDM) at the bottom of the pyramid includes all the wine made far unclassified wineyard or wine that has been declassified beg blending. This is Spain's equivalent of the EU category Table wine. Vino comarcel (UC) gives regional status to certain producers of table wine who fall outside a D.O. or Denominacion de origin. Vino de Mesa de Toledo for the wines of Morqués de grinon for examples. VINO DE LA TIERRA (Vdit) covers wine from a specific but usually large region provided producers confirm to certain local norms. This is Spain's counterpart to France's VIN DE PAYS. Denominacion de origin or Do, regions are the mains tong of the system, each with their own Conse Jo Reguladon who regulate the growing making and marketing of wines ensuring that they comply with specified regional standards. However, as they proliferate, the significance of the DO is debased. At the end of 1993 there were 39 DO region covering nearly half the total vineyard area of Spain. As if no rectify INDO has introduced a new category. Dry Very dry Dry Bone dry Sweet Sweet The best
DENOMINASION D'ORIGIN CALIFICADA (DOCA) equates with Italy's Doccr. Rioja was the first region to be awarded DOCA status in 1991. VINE VARIETIES The Spanish Claim to have up to 600 different grape varieties although 80 percent of the country's vineyards are planted with just over 200 of them. Since the arrival of phyllonera at the end of the 19th century formers have tended to grow more variety. AIRÉN traditionally produced base wine for Spain's important BRANDY INDUSTRY. It is capable of producing some simple refreshing dry wines. Dark skinned. GARNACHA is the second most widely planted variety with 170,000 La. It makes rather clumsy red and some fresh, fruity rosés. BOBAL & MONASTELL perform gainacha's role in the levante, where they each cover around. Both varieties yield dark, alcoholic reds and the occasional dry lose. TEMPRANILLO is Spain's most widely planted wine variety associated with quality wine planted on more then 33,000 la, under such aliases as cencible, VII de lutue and Tinto Fino in different parts of country. Other while varieties which are also important in Spain are the Sherry grapes PALOMINO & PEDROXIMÉNEZ is widely famous. The white MACABEO is planted vine variety associated with quality wine, planted in RIOJA and catalonia, especially Pene do's where along with parellado and Xarel to it is grown for cava sparkling wine. High quality white varieties which are making gaining ground include ALBARINO & VERDEJO while other promising grapes which are making a more limited come back include the white LOUREIRP and GODELLO and the red GRACIANO. Foreign varieties are making significants inroads in some part of Spain. CABERNET, SAUVIGNON, MERLOT and CHARDONMAY are increasingly important in catalonia and Navarre. Wine Making Spanish wine making has changed radically since the 1960's. Stainless steel, once a rarity, is now common place and most bodegas have the means of temperature control for fermentation. These improvements transformed Spanish wines, especially in La Moncha and the Levante, where temperature both red & white wine. With the gradual introduction of stainless steel technology an increasing number of white wines are being bottled young without any further ageing with the notable exception of sherry, a few traditional white Riojas and some wines from catalonia's more avant grade wine makers. Spanish wood matured whites have tended to taste flat and OXIDIZED. Spain continues to foster the long established tradition of ageing red wines in Oak. The use of wooden BARRELS as vessel in the second half of the 19th century the French introduced the BARBIQUE (barrica) to Rioja and its use has subsequently spread throughout the country. Unlike the French, however most Spanish wine makers use American Oak, which is not only considered cheaper than French Oak it can also import a stronger flavour to the wine. The Tempranillo grape in particular seems to produce wine that responds to maturation in new oak Spanish oak aged reds are usually denoted by the words CRIANZA, RESERVA or GRAN RESERVA which are enshrined in local legislation. The wines often share a pungent, vanilla character which is sometime stimulated in inexpensive, red and occasionally white wines by short maceration with Oak CHIPS. Most Spanish DOS also Stipulate minimum bottle age and few wines are over released before they are ready to drink. For specific wine region see ANDAIVCIA, ARAGON, CATALONIA, GALICIA and RIOJA. Sparkling Wine making Making sparkling wines most obviously involves the accumulation of gas under pressure in what was initially a still 1 base wine or ideally, blend of base wines. The most common method of achieving this are discussed below-champagne method, transversage etc. Making & Blending the Base wine Wines that are good raw material for the sparkling wine making process are not usually much fun to drink in their still state. Rather like the most suitable wines for DISTILLATION into a fine brandy, they are typically high in acidity and unobtrusively flavoured. There is a school of thought that the austerity of the still wine of the CHAMPAGNE REGION, Cobeann chanponoise is the most eloquent argument of all in favour of champagne's CO2 content. Accordingly, grapes had invariably been hand picked up to the early 1990's since whole Bunch pressing was the norm and such MECHANICAL HARVESTEDS had been tested by then risked splitting berries and extracting harsh phenolics into the grapes juice which could cause astringent, wars characterastic which would be magnified by the pressure of bubbles. It is possible that gentler mechanical picking machines will change this, although it is essential to press grapes as soon as possible after picking press bouses in
the vineyard have long been de rigveur in champagne and are increasingly common for other top quality sparkling wine. Grapes destined for sparkling wines are usually picked at lower must weights than the same varieties would be if they were to be sold us still wine. In very general terms average yields can be higher for sparkling wine than still wine partly because there is no imperative to achieve high sugar level. PRESSING is an important stage in sparkling wine making particularly in champagne, where black grapes are used as it is essential that the concentration of plrenolis both artingency and colour is kept to a minimum. There has been much experimentation with horizontal presses of various types and modern airbag or tank presser can certainly offer a reliable high standard of Hygiene, but modern technology has found it difficult to improve upon the traditional vertical presses of champagne although they are labour intensive. So called thin layer presser which minimize pressure and therefore the extraction of phenolics by pressing a layer of grapes no more than 70 cm/27 in thick are used increasingly. The wine maker can then make the usual still white wine choices concerning oxidation versus protective juice handling juice clarification choice of yeast strain and fermentation rate, Protein stablization and Malolactic fermentation (Sparkling wines made from wines which have not undergone malolactic fermentation may be simpler and fruiters in youth. The comes the crucial blending stage, the true art of making sparkling wine and one in which experience is an important as science. A large champagne house such a MOET & CHANOON may be able to use several hundred base wine in order to achieve the house style in its basic expression, that years NONVINTAGE blend. A small independent concern especially outside champagne may have access to only a very limited range of base wine a disadvantage in a poor vintage, although not necessarily in a good one. And a producer of the most basic charmat process wine may simply blend the cheapest vaguely, sent able ingredients available in the market place. WINE OF PORTUGAL The British have always enjoyed an amicable relationship with the portuguese. As early as the 12th century, wines were being shipped to England from the MINHO in north went Portugal. Portugal was therefore the natural alternative sources of wine. PORT often called 'the Englishonan's wine' originated from the conflict. By the time England and Portugal signed the METHLIEN TREAT in 1703 which laid down tariff advantages for Portuguese wines a thriving community of England & German wine shippers was already well established in apoito. In 1803 rekindled demand for Portuguese wines BUCELAS CAR CAVELOS and a red wine simply called 'Lisbon' were popular in Britain until the 1870's. In the last 30 years of the 18th century PHYLLOXERA devastated Portuguese vineyard as severely as those elsewhere in Europe. Some Portuguese wine region never really received. Many growers resorted to planting high yielding vine Hybred which still predominate in many of the small holdings of north and central Portugal. For much of the 20th century Portugal turned her back on the outside world. The Junta Nacional do vinsho founded in 1937 initiated a programme of Co-opertization. Over hundred winery cooperatives were build, mostly in northern Portugal in less than 20 years. At the time they represented a significant advance but all too often the system impored by central government was too inflexible and wine making standards detivioted. It is a paadonical, however that against this background of self imposed seclusion Portugal should give birth to one of the greatest international wine success stories of modern times. Medium sweet, lightly sparkling rosés called MATEUS & LANCERS. In 1974 Portugal was once again thrown into turmoil by a military led revolution but after two years of upheaval the soldiers politician returned to barracks and subsequent elected government eventually Portugal to the European mainstream. Portugal wine makers benefited enormously from joining the European union in 1806. Monoplastic legislation was overturned and thanks to EU Policas of supporting agricultural undergoes, money poured in to help update the wine. Industry, much of which continues to be hide bound by arehaic techniques and technology. Geography and Climate For such a small country Portugal produces a remarkable diversity of wines. Roughly rectangular in shape. It is under 600 km 1360 miles long and no more than 200 km wide. The produced on the flat coastal littocal are strongly influenced by prevailing Atlantic Westerly winds Rainfall, which reaches 2000 mm/78 in a year on the hills north of oporlo, diminishes sharply to less than 500 mm in some land wine areas. The temperate main time climate with warm summer and cool, wet winters becomes more extreme towards the South and East. An average annual temperature of around 10°C / 50°F in the northern hills compares with more than 17.5°C on the Southern plain where in summer temperatures frequently exceed 35°C / 95°F. Reflecting these contracting climatic conditions, no two wines could be more dissimilar the VINHOVERDE and PORT, which are produced in adjoining regions. They are pocket of viticulture all over Portugal. Vine Varieties
Portugal vineyards have evolved in isolation only a handful of varieties have crossed international frontiers, leaving Portugal like a viticultural island with a treasure trove of indigentous grape varieties. Since the end of the 19th century however little research has been undertaken and Portugal hathazard vineyards have remained terra incognita not just to outsiders but to the vine grower themselves a number of studies have been undertaken since Portugal joined the EU, in order in identify the country most promising vine varities. Among whites LOUREIRO & ALVARINHO (in vinho verde) ARINTO (in Bucelas) and FERNAO PIPES (in Ribatejo and the South) are showing potential. Among Portugalo best red grapes are TOURIGA NACIONAL, TOURIGA FRANCES also known as Periquita where it is planted in the south. Internationally famous foreign varieties such as CABERNET. SAUVIGNON and CHARDONNAY have made few inroads. Wine Laws Portugal wine law pre-dates that of most other European countries. In 1756, then Prime Minister, the margins of Pombal, drew a boundary around the vineyards of the Douro Valley to protect the authenticity of Port. One of the wines world's first examples of geographical Delimitation Buclas, Colares, Madira Carcaulos, Da'o, Setúbal and Vinhoverde were all awarded RÉgiao demarcada (region) status between 1908 and 1929 followed by Bairrada, Algarve and Douso (table wine) in 1980 & 1979. Since Portugal joined the European union the Regioes Demascandas or RDS have been redesignated Denomicao de origin cont coldde (DOC). A second ties of Indicacaó de proveniencic Regulamentada (IPR) wine regions have been also introduced. This brings Portugals wine law roughly into line with that of other E.U. countries. For details of Portugal's extremely varied viticultural techniques, wine making practices and expertise and individual region most important PORT. The Viticulturally important Atlantic islanda of MADEIRA is an antonomous port of Portugal. Port Port comes from Douco region of Portugal 20% alcohol is lessen to 18% is in sherry. In fact, in recent years to avoid the misuse of the name "PORT" in other countries, the time Port from Portugal has been renamed "PORTO" or "OPORTO". Port is a blend of 6 grapes. These are two types of Port. Wood Port This types includes Ruby port which is dark & fruity blended from young non-vintage wines and Towny Port, which is lighter and more delicate, blended from many vintage, aged in cork, some times up to 20 years. Vintage Port This wine is aged two years in wood and will mature in the bottle with time. In the 1800's Port wine was always shipped from Portugal to England. Because of the long voyage, the shippers fortified the port with alcohol to pressure, it resulted in port as we known it today. Regions of Portugal Producing Wine
VINNO DOURO BARRADA DÂO LISBEN ESTAMDURA ALGARVE There's not much to say about Portuguese table wines, because the best ones usually remain in Portugal of six designated wine growing regions, only two produce wine that is available in the United states. They are vinho vede for the white wines and Dâo for the red. Vinno Verde They can be either red or white through the white is more commonly found in the United states. A light wine sometime having a slight spriz. It is a good summertime wine and goes well with shellfish and light foil dishes. DÀO The best known red table wine in Portugal, it is big, rich and sometimes compared to Bordeaux in style. ROSÉ Without question, the best known Portuguese wines are rosès. I am sure you are familiar with Maleus & Lancers. Although they have lost some of their popularity, both wine remain on the list of the top 10 imported wines in the United states. The following are three important definations you should be familiar with when you are looking for a good Portuguers wine, Calheita which means vintage & Reserva and Crarrafina, which usually signify higher quality and longer ageing. DOURO Because of steeper the mountain and interference of cottler it is pain to produce the grape. Vineyard are build on tarroses. The Dowo is famous for Port wine but 70% of wine is unfortified wine. BACRIDA The main river which flows in Barrida region is Mondego on excellent location for wine making, Red, Rosé, white, sparkling coine. COLRES Red wine with Bright. WINE OF AUSTRALIA Australia the IInd largest wine producer in the world making every one of the major wine style from aromatic, dry white table wine through to wines fashioned in the image of wintage port. Sometimes its wines the unwooded Semillons of the Hunter Valley the fortified Muscat and Tokays of north east victoria have no direct equivalent elsewhere, but overall the wines manage to be at once distinctively. Australian yet fit easily into the world scene. History On the 24th January two bunches of grapes were cut in the Governer's garden from cutting of vines brought three years before from the cape of good slope. The year was 1791 the chronicler Watkin Tench, and the site of the garden is now occupied by the Hotel Intercontinental in Sydney's Macquarie street. Between 1820-1840 commercial viticulture was progressively established in New South wales, Tasmania western Australia, Victoria and finally South Australia. It was based upon comprehensive collection of VITIS VINIFERA imported from Europe there are no native vines in Australia and neither crossing nor HYBRIOS have ever taken root by 1870 South Australia, Victoria and New South wales all had substantial, industries that year they produced 8.7 million gal of wine. By 1930 South Australia was producing over 75 percent of Australia's wine and the Barossa Valley had become the centre of production, pressing not only its own grapes but much of those grown in the Riverlands then and now the engine room of Australian bulk wine production in the same way as California's SAN JOAQUIN UALLEY. As the geographic based moved from the cooler parts of Victoria to the warmer region of South Australia and specifically on the Murray and then Murrumtridgee, Biverlands came in to production, so the type of wine being produced changed.
The industry of today started to make shape in the mid 1950's cold fermentation of white wine in STAINLESS STEEL was pioneered, the big wine companies moved into coonawera and nearly padtharay and the decline in fortified wine production and the consumption contracted with Epectacular growth in the consumption of red table wine and thereafter white table wine. The 1970's witnessed the arrival of cask wine of cabernet Sauvignon and chardonnay the phenomina of boutique winery and the reestablishment of viticulture across the cool corner of South eastern Australia running east from coonawarn and pathway right through Victoria. The 1980's saw more of the same the fine wives of today bear no resemblance of those of 50 years ago. The next 50 years with bring further refinement, a continuation of the trend towards quality and a decrease in the use of chemicals in all aspects of grapes growing and wine making. But only the bravest profitiet would suggest a further degree of change equivalent to that of the second half of 20th century. CLIMATE With a land mass similar to that of the United states of America, winter snow field larger these toe of Switzerland and with viticulture in every state. The Southern States experience a winter spring rainfall pattern with a day summer and early autumn. Ridges of high pressure sweep across the southern half of the continent from Perth to Melborne during vines growing season uninterrupted by mountain ranges; day time temperature typically range between 25°C and 35°C. There is less profound matritime influence than in California the resultant even accumulation of heat in the premium wine region is seen by Australia researches to be a major factor in promoting wine quality. The other more northerly wheather system derives from the topics. It provides a more even rainfall pattern, higher temperature and higher humidity the Hunter Valley in prone to receive rather too much of it's annual rainfall during Harvest, only to suffer the subsequent dual burden of winter and spring bought. VITICULTURE Equal pay for women, introduced in the latter part of the 1960, had some un for seen consequences. One was a major stimulus to the development of mechanized viticulture, initially with harvesting but in due course extending to pruning and in the latter part of the 1980's, to all aspects of canopy management during the growing season. International cost comparisons carried out in the early 1990's for the pen hold wine group established what common sense suggested. Australia is able to grow and harvest grapes more economically than California, France or South Africa more economically than Chile. At the other end of the spectrum Australian viticulturist and researchers have bon at the forefront in developing advance TRELLIS SYSTEM and Canapy Management system. The other major development is the more towards what is loosely called sustainable viticulture with phrase such. WINES OF UNITED STATE The United states has two major wine region the first centered in the state of New York but squads into other states as for away as Chio Indiana, Michigun, Wiscunsin, Otelanhona even halti American wines rugged end so study north American wines they produces one often described as foxy flare. The other region is contered in California but spreads as for north as Oregan and Washington and even into British, Columbia in Canada. Here the climate is for miler as so as the European vites vinifera used. The wines produce their European lossins the best of the wines come from the northern part of California. Temperature – Controlled Fermentation One of the major development in US wine making in the last two decades is the one of the stainless steel. Temperature controlled fermentation takes their taxin allow wineries to ferment, while wine made slowly at lower temperature a procidure that allows the wine to retain more of it's fluid feams and remain more delicate. In there case of red wines fermentation so as to more their flavour male pronounced. Another technological improvement in the use of micxo filleration to careful the wine before bullting Micro filteration removes all yeast, bacteria resulting in clearer waves, older process still one pasteurization to kill then bacteria in the bottle in the wine orelie sufar is added to the wine, while gives it an acid taste. WINE NAMES GE WERIC WINES A generically name wine is one that beas the name of a European type such as burgundy. Chianti, chablis is mine this torminology has traditionally been used. Since the early as wine makes treat to
imitate European wines even through the resemblance will slight Genezizic wine in the United States. Really have mole in common with one another and it is no fair to compare them with their European counter parts whole names they use. VARIETAL WINES Today there is heridaway from garning us wines a generic label gus lead homing then after the grape variety the world varities used to male them. A verilat wine is once in which 75% or more of a single grapes predominates. In comparison in France a variety named wine must contain 100%. BRAND NAME WINES Generally the very best is wines as those that contain a specific brand names these are sometimes referred to as proparietory wines. Brand name wines one those whose name is confined to a particular vineyard or shipper who is incuillrny to stand behind the wines quality. By law band name wines also state the class or type of wine and although the brand name is imphesized in the label it may actually be a vasillal wine trade entirely from pinto Blanc grapes in refering to a varietal wine. WINES OF CALIFORNIA In the late 70's as a new trend began to develop. American began drinking more white wines than red wines. Ideally, you'd think the vineyard owner could rip out the red wine and replace them with white grapes to give the consumer what he wanted but it's not that simple. As you already known it takes three to five year from planting of the vines to the day the winemaker can produce wine from the grapes. That's the maturing process and it's slow turnaround time to keep up with the trend, California wine makers created a new style of wine. They began making white wine from red grapes. This explain the white Zinfandels Pinot Noin Blane and so on. To produce these types of wine they minimize the contact of the grape skins with the juice. The better ocean in Southern California one similar to the growing districts of Southern Spain or North Africa. When as the cooler areas in Northern California are a cool as the most. CENTRAL VALLEY REGION The other major California area in the wide spread and hot inland region which contains three viticulture areas. The central three valley Sacramento Valley and Sanfranqires valley the region etrecteenes some of two hundred mile. North from Bashen field most California vine yards planted in the last twenty year are in this valley it is to much hotter because tend to have less individually character than do the varielats produced in the cooler Coaster region these Southern grapes and used primarily for blues wines as well as sweet and fortified wine. CALIFORNIA GRAPES The best California wine are the only red. Some of which are excellent made from the Cabernet Savignon. Grapes also used in Bordeaun region of France as well as in Italy Argentina. Elisle and Australia for their variety used in the linot Noir found also in the Burgundy and Champagne distilets of France. Other major red grapes varieties used in California are Gamay Bagolasis Nap gamay also known as gamay nois, Barber mulof, Infauses grape mature to group only in California chastone gringels grignevo, cundia, carmer centero. CALIFORNIA WINE LABELS The many ways California wines are easier to understand than many of their European Gusine. Labeling desvulpion one minimal but still informative tough California wine labels do sometimes Indicate their specific place of origin. For example sonome Valley pinot noir or nape valley chatus. The place of origin is no guarantee of quality. In Europe the sial grape and production method must meet rigidly controlled government approved standard in order for an area to use a place of origin name distinguishing the wine special chanutes. In California there is less correlation between place of origin and wine character. VARITEAL LABELINE If the grape has a varieties grape name. There 75% of the wine must be from the named grape. If used with a geographic appellation the minimum required percentage of the named grape must come from the appellation area. A generically labelled wine has no requirements regarding the grape varieties used. ESTATE BOTTLED If the label states bottled then 100% of the grapes must been grown by the winery and the wine must have been bottled there. ALCOHOL BY VOLUME The law allows 2.5% variation on either side of the stated account of alcohol by volume some labels also indicate residual sugar in fermented grape sugar total and other items.
VINTAGE DATES Vintage dates do not normally appear on U.S. wine labels although there date of production if the labels contain a vintage date 95% of the grape must have been harvested in the year in the region name on the label. The 5% taleranto allows for topping up wines that are origining containers. LATE HARUEST WINE Some California wines are made with revineled grapes highly concentrated in sugar known in Germany as Edenfamle or in France as pour line noble. The label of these bottles will state that the wine must also state grape sugar content when harvest the wines. OTHER COUNTRIES ALGERIA Algeria wines are mostly cobust red Algerias not dry climate is situated to producing low acid wines that blend well harsher wines such as those from the French medi region. Today a great deal also exported in bottle as well. In the past bottle as well. In the most Algeria's wine was shipped in bulk to France and other European countries for blending. But in 1962 Algeria gained it's independence from France and since there it's wine production exports have declined bonsi derbly. No much is consumed locally become Algeria is a Muslic country and Muslim do not drinks alcoholic wines. SOUTH AFRICA The South Africa climate land itself well to the production of quality to North America that country Dules settero first planted wines there is the wind seventeenth country. During after the French revolution the British to the South Africa as a some of wines to replace those no longer available from those France this created for local wine industry. The principal grapes used as Cabernet Savignon for reds and chardony for whites. South Africa also has it's own Blanc Hybrid pinot age today the industry is controlled by the cooperative nerynbouhles Africa with elamfies the wines. HUNGARY WINE Hungary wines belongs to the state no private vineries is allowd to grow grapes. One of the oldest and famous wine was known as Bull blood. Legend says that the Army of Hungary was finosias and grown on the bottle field hence the disfited warrious use to feet that Hunghsian drink Ona's blood but the red thick wine is given the name. OLASZ RISHLING This is the principle grape of this country while produces excellent white wine near the river clanube. PECH ROSÉ It is fine dry Rosé wine of South of Hungary. TOKAY Tokay is made from ferment and has least effected by noble rot 'Red wine'. These grapes are crushed to a pulp known as bulton yolk. This is the 7 gallon containers of grape crushed which may be added to the one year old wine the quality and degree of sweetness are indicated of the neck label which state how many puts has been added. These are aged & matured in cover enterence being 1.3 hight after 7 year of ageing 35 gallon wine is bottled.
WINE OF INDIA In the 17th century European visitors to the count of the Grand Moghul Shahjahan, the Builder of the Taj Mahal, would have had the opportunity to enjoy Indian wines which were justly appreciated there. Wines from the vineyard of Golconda and Surat being particularly renowned, as were those produced in the Royal vineyards of Maharashtra. Today lineal descendants of these famous wines are produced on the east facing slope of the Sahayadri mountain of Western Maharashtra at a height of about 750 meters above sea level. The precise site of the indage vineyard has been selected with the assistance of a team of French experts from the champagne region of France. A key to the quality of wine, is the climatic and soil condition of the vineyards. The indage vineyards of Narayangaon match the precise conditions of the famous wine making district of France. The winery is located 180 km Southeast of Bombay, on the banks of the river Kuledi on the junnar taluka of Pune district. Two wineries, adjacent to each other are equipped with wholly imported manufacturing equipment and the same state of the art computer controlled system used by the great name of France. Each winery is fully air conditioned to the exact specifications essential for the production of fine French, wines. GRAPES VARIETY In the early 1990s there were 20 million acres of land under grape cultivation world wide, producing over 60 million tones of grapes, making this the world's most important fruit crop. There are literally hundreds of grape varieties of which only the classic varieties are used to make classic wine. Classic Reds and whites grown in India are mentioned below – WHITE GRAPES Chardonnay : The greatest dry white wine grape in the world. This classic variety is responsible for producing the great white Burgandies and is one of the three major grape varieties used in the production of champagne. Chenin Blanc : A variety that ocquired the name from Mont-Chenin in the Touraine district around the 15th century. The grape has a good acidity level, thin skin and a high natural sugar content, widely used in locie. Muscat : This variety is used for the famous dry wine of Alsace. Sauuignon Blanc : A grape at its varietally best thrives in the central line yard of the locie, where it produces aromatic dry wines. In Bordeaux, it is also used to produce dry wine. Semillon : Semillon is the main stay of white Bordeaux, both dry and sweet. In 60 ideaun it is appreciated for its rounded quality to lesser extent in dry white wine. It is also widely grown in chile and South Africa. Ugni Blane : Ugni Blane is a grape variety mainly used for producing cognac/Brandy. However, in warmer climate as in India, it gives a very fruity taste of distinctive character. Pinot Blauc : A variety of grape with full character grown in Alsace, Appley & butterly fresh & leafy. RED GRAPES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cabernet Sauuignon : The noblest variety of Bordeaux. Rich in colour, aroma and depth. Many of its classical traits have been transplanted in California, Chile and Australia. Gamay The famous grape of Beaujolis. Wine made from this grape variety by Maceration Corbonique method should be drunk very young and fresh. Merlot : This grape produces though not very deep, nicely – coloured wines, soft in fruit & capable of great richness. Widely used in Bordeaux in St. Emillion. Pinot Meunier : An important variety in champagne which gives more fruity appeal that the pivot Nour, when young. It is therefore essential for early drinking champagne. Pinot Noir : One of the classic variety of Champagne and is the most popular grape variety in Burgundy. Under ideal, slightly warmes climatic condition, the Pinot Noir can produce the riches, most velvety smooth wines in the world. Cabernet Feancs : A variety grown throughout Bordeaux. It is known as Bouchet in. All the above grape variety normally grown in India are table varieties which do not produce good quality wines as described above. However, in the last decade most of the climatic varieties as described above are cultivated and produced in India by importing the root stock from France and other wine producing countries. Classic wines can produce only from classic grapes. It has been said that great wines are made in only great
vineyards. Each part of the grape contributes to wine, the skin, the pips and the pulp. Some wines are made from a single grape, other from a combination of two or more. If one thinks that red/dark grape makes red wine exclusively and light coloured grapes only make white or light wines, one would be out of thousand who think so. In reality grape juice is colourless, so the juice of any grape, including red, black or even purple grapes produce white wine. When the skin of black grapes are left in the fermentation tank, the result is red wine. If the grape skin are removed after a short time one gets pink (or rose) wine. When skin are not kept in contact with grapes juice, the result is white wine.
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