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Part one of a presentation used in the SETN 2010 tutorial on n-gram graphs. N-gram graphs are a very powerful machine learning tool, used in many applications like document classification, document clustering, summarization, summarization evaluation, behavior recognition from video, user modeling and others.

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N-gram Graphs: A generic machine learning tool in the arsenal of NLP, Video Analysis and Adaptive Systems. (Part I)

George Giannakopoulos1

1 University

of Trento, Italy ggianna@disi.unitn.it

04/05/2010 - SETN 2010

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications

Outline

1

2

3

The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix

George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications

An N-gram Graph

_cde 1,00 _bcd 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 _def 1,00 1,00 _abc 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications What does an n-gram graph do? Indicates neighborhood Edges are important Edge weights can have diﬀerent semantics George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Perception People can read even when words are spelled wnorg George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Perception People can read even when words are spelled wnorg But order does play some role: not it does? George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

.. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Perception People can read even when words are spelled wnorg But order does play some role: not it does? The same stands for images.

. . and audio...Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Perception People can read even when words are spelled wnorg But order does play some role: not it does? The same stands for images.. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

or causality George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Assumptions Neighborhood (or Proximity) can indicate relation.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Assumptions Neighborhood (or Proximity) can indicate relation. or causality An object can be analyzed into its constituent items George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Assumptions Neighborhood (or Proximity) can indicate relation. or causality An object can be analyzed into its constituent items You can compute similarity or distance for the domain of these items.

Size of the neighborhood: level of description. or causality An object can be analyzed into its constituent items You can compute similarity or distance for the domain of these items.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Intuition — Assumptions Neighborhood (or Proximity) can indicate relation. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

LMAX ]. Assign weights to edges.0) . One graph per rank. bcd. bcd-cde abc-bcd (1. cde abc-bcd.0) George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Determine neighborhood (window size Dwin ). bcd-cde (1.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Extraction Process (NLP example) Extract n-grams of ranks [Lmin . Example String: Character N-grams (Rank 3): Edges (Window Size 1): Weights (Occurrences): abcde abc.

symmetric and gauss-normalized symmetric. Each number represents either a word or a character n-gram George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Window-based Extraction of Neighborhood — Examples Figure: N-gram Window Types (top to bottom): non-symmetric.

Dwin value 2. symmetric and gauss-normalized symmetric. N-Grams of Rank 3.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph — Representation Examples Figure: Graphs Representing the String abcdef (from left to right): non-symmetric. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications What is an N-gram Graph? Restrictions upon relative positioning Correspond to all texts that comply with the restrictions Smaller distance. less generalization / fuzziness George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications What is Common with Existing Approaches Instance and class: common representation Updatable model George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications What is New with the N-gram Graph Co-occurrence information inherent Arbitrary fuzziness based on a parameter Generic applicability (domain agnostic) due to operators ... George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .and more.

)? Not needed Are N-gram Graphs probabilistic? Not necessarily Are N-gram Graphs automata for recognition? No. lemmatization. Optimizable a priori George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs ...Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Frequently Asked Questions Why not bag-of-words? Much more information What about preprocessing (stemming. etc. vertices are not states Are they grammar models? Can be I see too many parameters.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-Gram Graph Generic Operators (1) Merging or Union ∪ Intersection ∩ Delta Operator (All-Not-In operator) Inverse Intersection Operator George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-Gram Graph Generic Operators (2) Similarity function sim Update U (Merging is a special case of update) Degradation George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Representing Sets of Graphs A representative graph for a set is similar to functionality to the centroid of vectors cannot be represented using the merging operator (unless trivial) can be represented using the update operator for non-common edges the eﬀect is non-linear George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

00 _bcd = 1.5 2 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .00 _bcd _abc _abc ∪ 2. Update (1) _abc 1.50 _bcd 1+2 = 1.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Merge vs.

50 _bcd _abc _abc ∪ 3.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Merge vs.5 + 3 = 2.25 2 But what if we want 1+2+3 3 = 2? N-Gram Graphs George Giannakopoulos .25 _bcd 1. Update (2) _abc 1.00 _bcd = 2.

George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Update (3) updatedValue = oldValue + l × (newValue − oldValue) where 0 ≤ l ≤ 1 is the learning factor Representative (or Centroid) Graph (1) 1 Use update operator with learning factor: instanceCount .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Merge vs. where instanceCount is the number of instances that will be described by the graph after the update.

5) = + × = = 2 3 2 3 2 2 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .00 _bcd 1.00 _bcd .50 _bcd . 3.l) = 2. Update (4) 1 3 _abc l= _abc _abc update( 1.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Merge vs.5 + 1 3 1 3 4 × (3 − 1.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph – Similarity (1) Size Similarity: Number of Edges Co-occurrence Similarity: Existence of Edges Value Similarity: Existence and Weight of Edges Derived Measures: Normalized Value Similarity Similarity measures are symmetric (with some exceptions) Overall similarity: Weighted Normalized Sum over All N-Gram Ranks George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

every common edge adds j i min(we .|G2 |) max(|G1 |.we ) i . Value Similarity: Using weights. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . SS factored out: NVS = VS SS Overall Similarity for n ∈ [Lmin .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph – Similarity (2) Ti maps a set of graphs Gr Size Similarity of G1 . G2 : SS = min(|G1 |.w j ) max(we e SS Normalized Value Similarity.|G2 |) 1 min(|G1 |.|G2 |) Containment Similarity: Each common edge adds to a sum. LMAX ]: Weighted sum of rank similarity.

0 e d |G1 | = 2 Result: 2 4 |G2 | = 4 = 0.0 c b 4.0 a 1.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph – Size Similarity Example a 1.0 1.0 b 8.5 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .0 c 1.

0 e d Result: 1 2 + 1 2 = 1.0 c b 4.0 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph – Containment Similarity Example a 1.0 a 1.0 1.0 c 1.0 b 8.

0 4 = 1 4 + 1 8 = 0.0 b 8.0 1.0 c 1.0 a 1.0 8.0 c b 4.0 4 + 4.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph – Value Similarity Example a 1.375 N-Gram Graphs George Giannakopoulos .0 e d Result: 1.0 1.

0 c 1.375 0.0 c b 4.0 1.5 = 0.75 N-Gram Graphs George Giannakopoulos .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications N-gram Graph – Normalized Value Similarity Example a 1.0 a 1.0 b 8.0 e d Result: VS SS = 0.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Can the noise be easily detected and removed? Yes through simple graph operators.: Classiﬁcation – Common inter-class graph. Text representation – ‘Stopword’ eﬀect edges.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Noise – Deﬁnition The deﬁnition of noise is task based. e. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .g.

The noisy subgraph can be easily approximated in very few steps. Is this (sub)graph unique? – No. Noisy subgraph approximation? – Yes.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Noise – Questions How can one determine the maximum common subgraph between classes? – Intersection operator. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Is the removal of the noisy (sub)graph eﬀective? – Yes. it is not.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Eﬀect of graph noise removal (1) The task Sets of texts. each from a diﬀerent topic Create representative (centroid) graph per class Using training instances assign each doc to maximally similar class NOTE: The maxarg operator is trivial for classiﬁcation George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

8 1.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Eﬀect of graph noise removal (2) Count 0 0.2 0.0 2 4 6 8 10 0.0 Class Recall Figure: Class recall histogram for the classiﬁcation task including noise George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .6 0.4 0.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Eﬀect of graph noise removal (3) Count 0 0.0 Class Recall Figure: Class recall histogram for the classiﬁcation task without noise George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .6 0.0 2 4 6 8 10 0.4 0.8 1.2 0.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

sentences.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Example Domains NLP: Texts. whole texts George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . words.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications

Example Domains

NLP: Texts, words, sentences, whole texts Pattern Matching: Time series, short sequences, long sequences

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications

Example Domains

NLP: Texts, words, sentences, whole texts Pattern Matching: Time series, short sequences, long sequences Natural Science: Events, simple events, complex events

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications

Example Domains

NLP: Texts, words, sentences, whole texts Pattern Matching: Time series, short sequences, long sequences Natural Science: Events, simple events, complex events Social Science: Relations, groups, community

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

cc/2008/challenge/ for more on the challenge.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Text Classiﬁcation – Spam ﬁltering CEAS 20081 Classify 140000 e-mails as spam or ham (on-line feedback).ceas.22 Spam% 1. Gold Standard Ham Spam Filter Ham 24900 1777 Result Spam 2229 108799 Total 27129 110576 Percentages: Ham% 8. 1 See http://www. Extremely few instances needed (tens).61 Using the trivial maxarg operator for the decision. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Record Linkage and Text Stemmatology (1) Lineage of texts or record descriptions Compare all to all texts/records Determine threshold of similarity and cluster Create latent parents. through merging George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

9 0.8 e2 0.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators Noise Applications Record Linkage and Text Stemmatology (2) l1 0.9 e1 e1 0.8 e2 Figure: A case of latent node addition George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Intuition — Language Analysis One thing that is common in all languages: context George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Intuition — Language Analysis One thing that is common in all languages: context All characters are important in a text George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Intuition — Language Analysis One thing that is common in all languages: context All characters are important in a text Even delimiters play a role in meaning George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Intuition — Language Analysis One thing that is common in all languages: context All characters are important in a text Even delimiters play a role in meaning A word is a neighborhood of characters George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

determine the quality of a given peer summary text. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications The problem Given a set of model summaries.

Version 2: OR merge models and compare peer text to merged model. Solution Represent all texts as n-gram graphs. Version 1: Compare between models and peer text and extract the average similarity. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Indicative of responsiveness. determine the quality of a given peer summary text.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications The problem Given a set of model summaries.

Includes Uncertainty / Fuzziness No Preprocessing AutoSummENG method [Giannakopoulos et al. Language-Neutral Word N-gram or Character N-Gram (Q-Gram) Based Graph Based on Neighborhood i.. 2008]: State-of-the-art DUC 2005-2007. TAC 2008-2010 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Overview of AutoSummENG Statistical i.e.e.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications AutoSummENG – Evaluation Over DUC & TAC Figure: Pearson Correlation: Measures to (Content) Responsiveness for peers only George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Optimizing Parameters (1) Minimum n-gram length. Maximum n-gram length. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Neighborhood Window Size. indicated as Lmin . indicated as LMAX . indicated as Dwin .

. 2008] Symbols (Signal): contain letters neighboring more often than random characters Non-symbols (Noise): the rest George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Optimizing Parameters (2) Signal-to-Noise Optimization [Giannakopoulos et al.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Signal-to-Noise: Elaboration (1) We count. represented by |T0. represented by NX . the total number of n-grams of a given size n within T0 . represented by NXy . how many times the string Xy appears in T0 . given a corpus T0 : times X appears in T0 .n |. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Signal-to-Noise: Elaboration (2) P(y |X ) of a given suﬃx y . given the preﬁx X is P(y |X ) = P(X ) ∗ P(y .n | and P(X ) = NX |T0. X ) where P(y . X ) = NXy |T0.|X | | Random sequence probability is P(yr |X ) = P(yr ) George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

LMAX ) N(Lmin . George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Weighted symbols are calculated and redistributed over ranks (Appendix — Slide 5). LMAX ) = 10 × log10 ( LMAX S(Lmin . LMAX ) ) N(Lmin . LMAX ) = i=Lmin |Non-Symbolsi | Signal is more complex: Importance of symbols is related to their length.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Signal-to-Noise: Elaboration (3) Signal-to-Noise SN(Lmin .

end end // Add last symbol S = S + st . L st = T0 [1].length(T0 )] do L y = T0 [i].Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Extracting Symbols L Input: text T0 Output: symbol set S // t denotes the current iteration // T [i] denotes the i-th character of T // is the empty string // P(yr ) is the probability of a random suffix yr // The plus sign (+) indicates concatenation where character series are concerned. ct = st + y . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . st = y . L for all i in [2. if P(y |st ) > P(yr ) then st = ct . end else S = S + st . S = ∅.

.. P(y |st ) = 64 60 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Extracting Symbols — Example Text: Trying to understand. 1st Step st = T y= r P(yr ) = 1 1 .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Extracting Symbols — Example Text: Trying to understand. P(y |st ) = 64 40 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .. 2nd Step st = Tr y= y P(yr ) = 1 1 ..

.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Extracting Symbols — Example Text: Trying to understand.. 3rd Step st = Try y= P(yr ) = 1 1 . P(y |st ) = 64 80 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Extracting Symbols — Example Text: Trying to understand... New Symbol st = y= t and so on... George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

92 q q q q q 0.90 q Performance 0.88 q 0.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Optimizing Parameters (4) 0.94 q q q qq q q qq q qqqq qq qq q qq q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q q q 0.84 q 0.82 0.86 −30 −25 −20 Estimation −15 −10 Figure: Correlation between Estimation (SN) and Performance George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Summarizing Multiple Documents Given a set of texts referring to a subject Output summary George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Summarizing Multiple Documents Given a set of texts referring to a subject Output summary Capture salient information Avoid redundancy George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications The MUDOS-NGSystem query Source Texts Analysis Query Expansion Candidate Content Common Content Expanded Query Candidate Content Grading Redundancy Removal or Novelty Detection Summary George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Per Subtask Strategy Common Content: Intersection Expanded Query: Query expanded with synonyms Chunk Grading: Similarity Redundancy Checking: Similarity of Chunk vs. other chunks iteration summary text George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Gcs . keep only Gcs = Gcs CU . Set the score of the sentence to be its rank based on the similarity to CU minus the rank based on the redundancy score. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . because we expect to judge redundancy for the part of the n-gram graph that is not contained in the common content CU .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Novelty Detection Algorithm 1 2 3 Extract the n-gram graph representation of the summary so far. 4 For all candidate sentences in L 1 5 6 Select the sentence with the highest score as the best option and add it to the summary. Gsum as the sentence redundancy score. For every candidate sentence in L that has not been already used 1 2 3 extract its n-gram graph representation. indicated as Gsum . Repeat the process until the word limit has been reached or no other sentences remain. Gsum = Gsum CU . assign the similarity between Gcs . Keep the part of the summary representation that does not contain the common content of the corresponding document set U.

1260 0. 0.0170) 0.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications MUDOS-NG Performance (1) System (DUC 2006 SysID) Baseline (1) Top Peer (23) Last Peer (11) Peer Average (All Peers) Proposed System (-) AutoSummENG Score 0.2050 0.1437 0.1842 (Std.1783 Table: AutoSummENG performance data for DUC 2006. NOTE: The top and last peers are based on the AutoSummENG measure performance of the systems. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Dev.

1029 0. NOTE: The top and last peers are based on the AutoSummENG measure performance of the systems. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Dev.1648 (Std.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications MUDOS-NG Performance (2) System (TAC 2008 SysID) Top Peer (43) Last Peer (18) Peer Average (All Peers) Proposed System (-) AutoSummENG Score 0.0216) 0. 0.1303 Table: AutoSummENG performance data for TAC 2008.1991 0.

2009] Classiﬁcation task Positive vs. Negative thesaurus sense descriptions Polarity assignment based on similarity of word sense to classes George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Sentiment Analysis [Rentoumi et al..

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Semantic Annotation [Giannakopoulos. 2009] Symbolic Graph Indicates substring relations as a tree Mapping strings to sense descriptions or synonyms (from thesaurus) A string is assigned the union of meanings of its substrings George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

G2j ) |D1 | × |D2 | Similarity: the average similarity between all pairs of senses. t2 ) = G1i .G2j sim(G1i . George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Semantic Similarity (1) relMeaning (t1 .

0020 0.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Semantic Similarity (2) t1 run smart run smart smart hollow run hollow t2 jump stupid walk pretty clever empty operate holler relMeaning 0.3105 George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .2162 0.0000 0.1576 0.0017 0.0020 0.0036 0.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Almost there.. N-gram Graphs and Operators Richer information Domain agnostic Generic applicability George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

and others George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs ... record linkage .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Almost there. clustering... N-gram Graphs and Operators Richer information Domain agnostic Generic applicability State-of-the-art performance in summary evaluation Promising for language-independent summarization Usable in classiﬁcation.

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Sneak Peek in Second Part Representing behavior with N-gram Graphs George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Sneak Peek in Second Part Representing behavior with N-gram Graphs Combining N-gram Graphs with the Vector Space George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix

Sneak Peek in Second Part

Representing behavior with N-gram Graphs Combining N-gram Graphs with the Vector Space User modeling with N-gram Graphs

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix

Sneak Peek in Second Part

Representing behavior with N-gram Graphs Combining N-gram Graphs with the Vector Space User modeling with N-gram Graphs The JINSECT toolkit: An open source LGPL toolkit for N-gram Graphs

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing

Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix

Looking forward to seeing you in the second part

Thank you

George Giannakopoulos

N-Gram Graphs

Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Outline 1 2 3 The N-gram Graph — Overview and Framework Introducing the N-gram Graph N-Gram Graph Generic Operators N-Gram Graphs: Deﬁning Noise Applications NLP Using N-gram Graphs Introduction Summary Evaluation Optimizing N-gram Graph Parameters Text Summarization Other NLP Applications Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .

1933 (< 0.2896 (< 0.3788 (< 0.8945 (< 0..01) 0.3819 (< 0.01) Pearson 0. Ling.3762 (< 0.01) 0. Spearman 0.01) Kendall 0.1982 (< 0. Resp.01) Pearson 0.5307 (< 0. Ling.7208 (< 0.01) 0. Resp.01) 0..1492 (< 0.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix AutoSummENG – Evaluation TAC 2008 AE to.01) Table: Correlation of the system AutoSummENG score to human judgment for peers only (p-value in parentheses) AE to .01) 0.8953 (< 0.01) Table: Correlation: Summary AutoSummENG to human judgment for peers only George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . Spearman 0..5390 (< 0.01) 0.01) Kendall 0..

1218 0. QE: Query Expansion.1198 0. redundancy and query expansion.1202 0. NE: No Expansion. SS: Sentence Scoring.1303 0.1299 0. RR: Redundancy Removal.1255 Table: AutoSummENG summarization performance for diﬀerent settings concerning scoring. Best performance in bold. ND: Novelty Detection. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs .Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix MUDOS-NG Variations’ Performance System ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 CS SS RR ND QE NE Score 0. Legend CS: Chunk Scoring.

‘personnel. ‘persist’. ‘permit program’. ‘pers and’. ‘perty’. ‘personal computers’. ‘person or’. ‘pesticide’. ‘person kn’. ‘pes o’ Figure: Sample extracted symbols ‘permit </HEADLINE>’. ‘persuade’. ‘pers’. ‘permits’. ‘person’. ‘permitt’.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Symbols and Non-symbols ‘permanent’. ‘personal’. ‘permit’. ‘pesticides. ‘permi’. ‘permit approved’ Figure: Sample non-symbols George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . ‘pes’. ‘perti’.’.’ ‘persons’.

weighted symbols Wr0 for rank r are calculated by: Wr0 = Wr × |Symbolsr | LMAX i=Lmin |Symbolsi | (3) We indicate once more that the Wr0 measure actually represents the importance of symbols per rank r for the symbols of the texts. as longer symbols are less probable to appear as a result of a random sampling of characters. Thus: P(sr |sr −1 ) = 1 |Symbolsr |+|Non-Symbolsr | 1 |Symbolsr −1 |+|Non-Symbolsr −1 | if r = 1. within the given range [Lmin . The normalized. The weight ws is deﬁned to be the inverse of the probability of producing a symbol of rank r given a symbol of rank r − 1.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Signal Calculation The number of weighted symbols for each n-gram rank r is calculated in two steps. Normalize Wr so that the sum of Wr over r ∈ [Lmin . LMAX ] is equal to the original number of symbols in the texts. This means that we consider more important sequences that are less likely to have been randomly produced. So wr = 1/P(sr |sr −1 ) (2) 2 where |Symbolsr | is the number of symbols in rank r . George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . instead of the number of symbols per rank that is indicated by |Symbolsr |. LMAX ]: 1 Calculate the weight wr of symbols for the speciﬁed rank r and sum over all weighted symbols to ﬁnd the total. × 1 |Symbolsr |+|Non-Symbolsr | else. weighted symbol sum Wr for rank r .

Karkaletsis. P.. Speech Lang. Automatic Summarization from Multiple Documents. Vouros.Overview and Framework NLP Closing Summary and Sneak Peek Appendix Giannakopoulos. G.iit. Giannakopoulos. http://www. Rentoumi. and Stamatopoulos.pdf. V.. G. (2009). Process. (2008).. Samos. V. Greece. and Vouros. University of the Aegean. Borovets. V. Sentiment analysis of ﬁgurative language using a word sense disambiguation approach. Summarization system evaluation revisited: N-gram graphs..gr/˜ggianna/thesis. Bulgaria. PhD thesis.. Giannakopoulos.. Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering. G. ACM Trans. Karkaletsis. G.. George Giannakopoulos N-Gram Graphs . 5(3):1–39. (2009).demokritos. G.

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