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REVIEW OF URBAN PATTERNS TO PROMOTE VERTICAL CITIES

LACHMAN KATARIA Architect & Planner La arch plan private limited, New Delhi, India ldkataria@hotmail.com
* Organizing Committee HTTB 2010, Munich, Germany – abauthor@httb2010.com

ABSTRACT: Vertical cities are desperately needed in view of increasing population and environmental imbalance due to deplete of natural resources. There is urgent need to think of radical solutions to reinstate balance in economic and physical environment by controlling population and global warming. While the solution to the former is best achieved by universal education, latter is being arranged on various platforms with no tangible global agreements. Meanwhile unchecked urban sprawl due to economic pressures, life style, political instability and inhuman behavior added in the problem of the certain areas. The role of Urban Regional Planners and other professionals cannot be less emphasized in the current situation. It is imperative to introduce verticality to the city for lesser foot prints & more green areas. Vertical cities will disallow unauthorized expansion both horizontals and vertically. Through splendid town planning, sustainability of cities in the scope of vertical cities can be achieved. 1 INTROCDUCTION 1.1 The chorology of human settlements exposes different solutions in different stages of development of human society such as cave complexes to medieval towns with organic & inorganic growth patterns. It was in the beginning of 20th century that new approach to the design of buildings & human settlements commenced by many masters who started with a clean state and broke away from the prevailing ethos in architecture and town planning and other who gave new shapes to the skyline of the cities. There have been thinkers & creators who propagated new frontiers by designing unusual complexes of mixed use high rise structures over the coasted waters. Examples of Eiffel towers in steel areas first Reinforced Cement Concrete communication Tower in Stuttgart needs to be referred as pioneer creations. The technological achievements in building tall structures have shown the way to tackle contemporary urban problems caused by a balanced in many parts of the world. 2 SUSTAINABILITY 2.1 This phrase has been in use for many year, applicable to individuals, Society, Physical environment, Investments, etc. much has been written and said about this phenomena at various platforms like Seminars, Media rallies, Government policies, individually or collectively via U.N. In spite of all the efforts, very little has been achieved to re-create balanced environment among human, animal and plant life on earth. On the contrary, human activities are adding to the imbalance caused due to depletion of natural resources, and hyper activities of production and consumption, loss of ethical values has driven the human behavior to the extreme and therefore Sustainability goals keep farther and farther. There should be a major change in attitude to development from a „GREED‟ model to „NEED‟ based model.

etc under the UN Initiative. . World Bank. an article in a Town Planning Journal named „EKISTICS‟ published in Greece that worried about the consequences of food shortage due to clearance in Agricultural land and increase in rising population levels. but if each individual changed himself then the entire humanity will change. entrepreneurs. honest and intensive efforts by leaders of all organizations to direct their action to a singular goal of achieving a balanced and sustainable environment. Figure 1 4 NEED FOR MORE BIO GREEN SPACES 4. 4.5 Some may argue that an individual cannot change the whole world. as exposed by scientists is instrumental in increasing Global warming and is a serious warning to the global community to take urgent action in reducing the emission of CO2 and at the same time provide more bio-green foliage and surface to reduce the Global Warming. Let us start with a clean slate in our approach to achieve a balanced environment where the human. 4.1 The phenomenon of indiscrete conversion of green areas to accommodate urban sprawl plus the sharp rise in the world population exposes the danger zone of imbalance in environmental and non-sustainability in the last century.3 The presence of CO2 layer in space. Let us make the beginning. 4. administrators. It will require sincere.3 WORLD ORDER 3. professionals.4 Needless to emphasize on the urgent need to introduce new ideas. There is scope for further co-operation in governance through democratic process and reforms in political motivations to induct humane solutions along with strict implementation of decisions along with strict implementation of decisions through Regulatory bodies. but the absence of such forums could be disastrous for this planet. environmental planning and efficiency in the use of sources is already in action in the last few decades through the voluntary establishment of regional economic communities in all continents.2 In 1972. technologists.1 Universal co-operation in respect of economic planning. animal and plant lives can co-exist and support each other to save our planet “EARTH”. Global problems are discussed in world forums such as WTO. 4. The results of such co-operation are not always successful. policies and technologies to achieve the object of saving land and agriculture to sustain populations and reducing global warming with the inputs from various individuals. scientists. economic planners and the law-makers.

Bauhaus propagates clean geometric forms of buildings and planning by adopting straight lines and brake away from Baroque and Renaissance styles.1 The above thoughts leads to a logical conclusion that the foot prints of buildings be reduced and expansion directed towards air space to higher density on low ground coverage. water supply. was the indicator of a clean beginning of the trend in art of painting from Realism to Abstractism. waste disposal systems.1 The earliest patterns known date back to 2500 BC when the towns to the form of fortified kingdom such as Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa towns in prehistoric India. transportation & communication solutions by respective co professionals to mention a few. structural elements. social matters. 7 REVIEW OF URBAN PATTERNS 7.Figure 2: Clean Slate 5 NEW APPROACH LEADS TO SOMETHING NEW 5. 5. . various architects & urban planners changed the skyline of urban areas by using air space due to constraint of land and economic forces and development of non sustainable satellite towns.3 In the last century. 6. 6. 5.1 A painting exhibited in the famous Guggenheim Museum in Manhattan. 5.4 This century efforts are on to create vertical cities to counter urban sprawl and change the urban & regional pattern of habitation. This paper is confined to subjects related to new urban settlements & forms as well as bringing changes to the existing urban areas by introducing the concept of vertical city to achieve the most urgent goals as discussed earlier. Forbidden City in China & Pharaoh‟s kingdom in Egypt then show grid pattern formation within fortified area. I was told by the curator. Figure 3: City skyline & Vertical city 6 THE VERTICAL CITY 6.2 In architecture.3 Example of Bionic tower and recently completed „Burj Khalifa‟ brings more confidence in adopting „Vertical city‟ concept.2 It is not intended to discuss problems & solutions for a sustainable urban area in this paper since several other aspects of services like energy requirements.

1.5 Reduce foot prints in the design of vertical city as detailed thereafter. The planners devised grid pattern followed by sector planning.2 The contemporary town planning regulations and standards originated in the beginning of the last century & were reviewed from time to time when there was need to do so.7 Introduce urban farms within the city greens.1. 8. slum areas as large as a town itself is allowed to stay on for years. 8. distributed & located at the distances where land permits & interlinked by mass transport system. 8.12 Superfast intercity trains to go underground within the city limits& run over ground in case of regional network. 8. 8. The local political bosses have upper _____.1 We are now at a cross road to need to choose our path. conurbation developments.10 The land so vacated.1. 7. 8. other roads & rail network like many other factors were responsible in the imbalance created in many parts of the world specially in the developing countries. 8. The concerned authorities do not apply development controls. satellite town as anti magnets to megacities etc.1.13 Road areas to be reduced drastically to basically give increased space for commercial & waste management vehicles and access to parking. 8 URGENT ACTIONS 8. The regional pattern started emerging in the country side with highways. 8.16 Maintain heritage buildings as part of urban renewal programme. 8. The following measures need to be considered. 8.1.8 Use interlinked cluster of vertical cities. 8. 8.5 In many countries the migration to towns has given rise to _____ in the town. This greatly disturbed the equilibrium in the cities & therefore disturbed the planned patterns broke the city limits or denseness of the central districts of the city.1. .9 Megacity urban renewal programme be gradually converted into several high rise clusters. water and conventional energy sources must be checked to avoid further imbalance in environment. The transport planners have not been able to solve grid locks in the city centers & so on. We must choose a new approach. 8.3 The rapid increase in population particular in 1st half of the last century gave rise to economic pressure & resulted in the great migration of people to the towns & cities.1.1. 7. 8.000.15 Park & city forest to be located at walking distance from the clusters.11 City clusters to be connected with underground trains.These were planned with ancient knowledge of building science with particular reference to sun & wind directions & security considerations.1.1.1 Establish new hierarchy of towns and cities for new development areas and formulate new planning standards.1.4 Incorporate vertical city concept on the land so consolidated with a minimum area of 4.2 Prevent expansion of existing city limits.3 Identify areas of redevelopment in existing urban areas.1. 8. This then is no organized development. 7. 7.000sq. radial planning. The distance of travel started increasing & the advent of combustion engines & various transport modes started to chores the cities. The growth of towns to cities & further to megacities encroached upon the agricultural areas.1.1.1. all against the planning regulations but accepted to exist. forest.4 The rapid increase in population in many urban areas has made many cities as nonsustainable in terms of housing services.14 Footpaths & cycle tracks should be introduced for approach to the clusters.m.1.6 Convert saved area into bio green areas & merge with agricultural area outside the city limits. The car culture instead of saving time has increased the time of travel thus increasing the emission of CO2. to merge with greens for used by specialized activities which cannot be accommodated in the vertical cluster. Global warming and deletion of natural resources such as agricultural land. 8.

2 Proposed planning standards Foot print of Sub city 5% Foot print of other buildings 10% Roads foot print 10% Organized green 75% Figure 4: Land use plan of Vertical city .000.1. financial incentives and other measures to encourage the transformation of the balanced environment. 8. 8.000 sq.23 Recycling of waste materials and waste water.1.21 Energy saving devices be adopted such as automotive controls and use of fiber optics more efficiently transmits signals etc.8.1 New planning standards assumptions 9.18 Waste management techniques be improved & laws enacted for strict applications. 8. 8.22 Rain water harvesting techniques to be adopted for refreshing underground water resources.1.1.000 sq. 8.1.1.1. meters Or 100 hectares Or 1 km x 1km Or 1000 m x 1000m or 1.1.26 Adequate administrative regulations & laws be enacted such as land acquisition.1 Population 100000 persons per vertical sub city Family size 5 person per dwelling unit No.000.24 Rehabilitation of slum areas.19 Vertical movement technology to be updated to meet new situation.20 Alternate renewable energy sources be empowered like solar farms. 8. rent counter security. of dwelling units 1000 per Hectare or 400/acre Area of land 1. 8. 9. 8.1.17 Locate industrial parks in satellite areas between regional cities & at short distance from railway network and regional highways. 9 HIERARCHY OF VERTICAL CITIES – UTOPIAN CONCEPT 9.25 Target for 100% literacy to be achieved.1.1. wind farms etc.1. m. 8.

600. This is the minimum base unit.9.7 Regional pattern shall emerge with the combination of all the alone categories and punctuated by the agricultural communities situated in farmlands & large industrial complexes & interconnected by an integrated transportation systems with enlightenment suitable to the countryside but keeping the functional character of the overall system of connectivity. 9.4 The tier ii vertical city shall be composed of 9 vertical cities with a population of 3. km.1. 9.000 and designated area of 4 sq.000 Floors – 182 Ht.3 A combination of 4 Sub city blocks shall form the tier iii city with population of 400. km.1. Figure 5: Graphic representation of Utopian concept of Vertical sub city Population – 100.1.1.000 and a city limit of 36 sq. – 1001m. Above GL .5 Clan I city shall be composed of 25 units with a population of 10 million and occupying and area of 100 sq.6 The final category shall be mega city or large conurbations which need to be bestowed by special considerations. 9. 9.000 Dwelling Units – 20.1. km.

Figure 6: Vertical sub city layout (Utopian concept) .

Resultant problems of inadequate services to sustain urban areas need to be solved with pioneering ideas in urban patterns. India. REFERENCES Speer. rational resource utilization. Giradet. demographic changes are the major problems of this century to support life on earth. people. 2nd edition. planet. S. 38th Seminar JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. honest governance and self less political co-operation. "A manifesto for sustainable cities.10 CONCLUSIONS New approach to city planning by introducing Vertical City Concept is the answer to solve the problem of imbalanced environment in the urban areas throughout the various regions on planet earth. Above all. Minimize "foot prints" and maximize "Green" land.A. 2009. equitable economic planning. Jager. universal education. "Cities. J. 2008. innovative technology. 2000) . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to all members of my staff who gave me logistical support in research and presentation of this paper. active development controls. Global warming and reduction of green areas for food production and deforestation. development must take place on the basis of "NEED" model and not on "GREED" model. Institute of Town Planners. H. Games.