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Journeys to Participation




All Aboard the NCPC

RIGHT IN THE heart of Naga City lies Barangay Triangulo, so named
because of the triangular formation made by rail tracks that run through it. “This is where trains can turn around,” a local resident explains. More than a decade ago, Triangulo and its neighbors, Barangays Lerma and Tabuco, were typical urban poor communities, living at the edge of the tracks, the edge of the Naga river and indeed the edge of despair. They had no security of tenure and did not seem to have any hope of getting it, nor did they receive any recognition or services from government. With practically no resources and little say in their development, people from the communities started to organize themselves with the help of ngos and church-based groups in the city. When the People Power revolution of 1986 came, Naga had an active civil society sector composed of ngos, people’s organizations, and church-based groups, not just from the three barangays, but from all over. Today Triangulo, Lerma and Tabuco are thriving communities looking forward to improvements in their lives. In fact, they are busy preparing for a drainage project in partnership with an ngo and the lgu, to be funded by official development assistance (oda). Certain sections of the area already enjoy security of tenure, thanks to a local government program similar to the Community Mortgage Program



(cmp). About a hundred families in Lerma will shift their homes to a more suitable property just a few meters away, courtesy of a joint venture between the National Housing Authority and the city. The story of Naga must have been told many times, yet one never tires of hearing about it because there is always something new to learn. Sometimes the story begins with the phenomenal Jesse Robredo, Naga’s mayor who is credited with its success in participatory local governance. Mayor Jesse would always be quick to attribute Naga’s success to everyone else, pointing specifically to the Empowerment Ordinance and the Naga City People’s Council (ncpc). Quite a number of cities within and outside the Bicol region, have passed their own versions of Naga’s empowerment ordinance. The national participatory governance train seems to be driven by various versions of this empowerment ordinance. It is not without reason, of course. In Naga City, people from poor communities contribute actively in meetings and in the implementation of projects. But they are not afraid of contradicting the powers that be, if necessary. Local officials are equally respectful and listen to their constituents with rapt attention. Problems are raised, but the solution is not far behind. Despite the many debates and divergent viewpoints, things get done quite efficiently in the city. A spirit of partnership pervades almost every activity. People seem to be relaxed about differences in opinion, but will not absent-mindedly agree with each other either. The ncpc is acknowledged as a primary mechanism for eliciting participation and partnership. The ncpc sprung from Naga’s Empowerment Ordinance, “An Ordinance Initiating a System for a Partnership between the City Government and the People of Naga.” The ordinance essentially widened the areas where the people of Naga can participate in local government’s decision-making and program implementation. In Naga, for example, all current and future committees of the City Council must have a voting membership of at least 25% from the ncpc. Dave Bercasio, Executive Director of ncpc, however, cautions that theirs “is a story, not a model.” “Many cities have passed an ordinance similar to ours, but they should not be lulled into believing that the ordinance is sufficient.

“This determines how. and may as well be a symbol for the value that Nagueños have for discussion and the exchange of ideas. Discussion not only takes place in the park and city hall. They must be true to their culture. however. Naga’s people are not afraid to take risks and trust in other people. 84 of which are people’s organizations. they must search their own souls and find their own way.” If others want to replicate Naga’s success. Participation cannot be forced. These members have voting rights and must come from the ncpc. On the other hand. their situation and not allow themselves to be boxed in by “models. not just local special bodies. This “free for all” debate has become a feature of the city. must be composed of at least 25% psrs. Discussion and consensus-building Almost every evening. The ncpc uses the “orolay-olay” (informal talks) as a means to . debating on anything from the bible to current events. it will not happen. why and where people will participate. one notices a small crowd of people gathered around two or more men. In a lot of cases they need to be that way because of their situation. discussion and the struggle of ideas. If people are not ready to participate. Naga City’s “centro” or downtown park. Not all lgus have a pool of ngos and pos like Naga City. They think it was so easy to get that. ncpc itself has 108 members.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 5 They see that a portion of the city budget goes to ncpc. all old and new committees.” For example. 20 are ngos and 4 are federations or networks.” Soul Search: Local Identity and Culture Dave emphasizes that there is a need to look at the characteristics of the people of any given locality.” Dave continues. This trait has served us well. “The temperament of Naga’s people may be different from those from other places in the Philippines. You can say we’re more laid back than others whose ngos are more fiery and feisty. at the Plaza Rizal. What others fail to realize is that these systems that are in place are the result of years of debate.

” An oversimplified view of “private sector representation” may lead lgus to think that private sector only refers to “business” or prominent persons outside government. Those who conceptualized the Empowerment Ordinance and consequently the ncpc. some of whom were quite wary of ngo and non-traditional leaders at the start. the ncpc allows for a process wherein the common and strategic con- . needed to be part of the decision-making and implementation processes in the lgu. In fact. Some of the more contentious issues that the ncpc found itself embroiled in were a proposed golf course. Working Principles of the NCPC What can be learned from the ncpc story? What are the elements present in the ncpc experience that others may want to replicate? Is ncpc a product. and the location of the 20% portion of socialized housing required of real estate developers. ncpc found itself having to prepare position papers. too. a process. Naga’s experience show that they have gone beyond a simplified notion of “private sector. it may be said that Mayor Robredo is as much a product of Naga’s constituency as he is the engineer and promoter of their participation. These people. recognized that there are other major stakeholders in any given locality. a lot of organizing had already been going on in Naga. lobbying among other members of the City Development Council (cdc) and actively discussing in sessions.6 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION interact with members of the Sangguniang Panlunsod and Barangay Captains. Beyond lumping together an “amorphous” poor or basic sector. it may be said that Naga’s people only know what they deserve and voted one. Representing and capacitating the basic sectors The ncpc was borne out of recognition that any given locality has its share of a variety of stakeholders. a land fill. If Naga has a competent mayor. or initiator? Prior to the empowerment ordinance. Such “orolay-olay” paved the way to better understanding between civil society and political leaders.

“ncpc’s greatest contributions are in policy and direction setting.. When the city needed to renew a new operator for the Central Bus Terminal Executive Committee. notices of meetings did not get to them on time. ncpc recognized that the basic sectors needed to be represented. We have provided little or no legislative work. It is worth noting that one of the earliest obstacles to participation was the breakdown of communication between the lgu and the psrs. programming. This way.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 7 cerns of the poor are discussed and distilled without losing their relevance to all that is concerned.” Indeed. cooperatives. they seem to be in planning. Where is NCPC Now and Where is it Going? ncpc has certainly gone a long way. ncpc chaired the committee to screen and select proposals. It set up a competent secretariat to take care of the coordination needs of the ncpc members. This is why we’re looking forward to local sectoral representation at the Sanggunian Panlunsod. people’s aptitude for participation increased exponentially. nor do they become vulnerable to disunities that can be sowed by traditional political power games. e. The ncpc was also in charge of the catering committee for the Palarong Pambansa. ncpc undertook orientations on People’s Participation in Local Governance (pplg) to ensure appreciation of the purpose and the need to engage with the local government. The ncpc provides that opportunity. “it is still the councilors who craft ordinance. budgeting. yet as Dave says. but they had to be capacitated first. implementation and monitoring/evaluation.” As far as planning processes are concerned. Participation in budgeting occurs because of our membership in the committee on appropriations.g. For example. With government support. women. youth. etc. ncpc members provide inputs and help implement projects at the sectoral committees. while the ncpc’s contribution is not technical. the contradictions and competing interests of the poor do not stall decision-making. The ncpc solved this by taking care of monitoring meetings and informing members of the schedules. Dave points out that the .

cooperatives. At the moment ncpc is enjoying its position in the well-oiled participatory governance train of Naga City. while three (3) are NGO representatives. Twelve (12) members of the Board are representatives of the basic sectors. labor. civic and church groups. • What is NCPC? Who is currently represented in the NCPC? The Board of Directors (BOD) is composed of fifteen (15) members. But they are also being very cautious and concerned about the independence of the ncpc. “There may come a time that we may need to go against the lgu’s decisions. senior citizens. transport. youth. The other members of CDC aside from NCPC—private business.8 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION lgu is looking for ways to eliminate graft or perceptions of corruption by assigning procurement processes to an entity that will ensure transparency. . needs to step down. academe. six (6) of whom comprises officers of the organization. the ncpc will continue to endure. The basic sectors represented are the following: Children. What happens then? Some members of the ncpc believe that it is about time that they start to raise internal funds to ensure their independence. even when the chief engineer. women. barangay people’s councils (community based organizations) At the moment. we know that with its track record and forward-looking attitude. persons with disabilities. business. One of the questions they are currently asking concerns receiving the allocation from the city budget. peasants. Jesse Robredo. political parties and church groups are not represented at the NCPC. especially when faced with an unfriendly lce. If anything bogs down in the future. the academe. urban poor.

One is gratified that Infanta still has its five eco-systems quite intact. Clusters of huts and sheds on the roadside display nature’s products. Quezon) and 9 . The only road that existed wound strenuously along the openings in the mountain ranges of the Sierra Madre. As a result of national governments’ calabarzon (Cavite. baskets. and a thriving marine ecosystem. Pray that the way be long. Rizal. full of adventures. sparkling river systems. productive alluvial plains. browse and forget about the destination for a moment. For a long time. full of knowledge” – Constantine Cavafy THE ROAD TO Infanta meanders through the verdant Sierra Madre Mountain Range. an abundance of fruits. Travelers will be astonished at how green the scenery is so close to Metro Manila. Infanta had been isolated from the rest of Luzon. It has flourishing upland and mangrove forests. Laguna. perfect for a Sunday drive. brooms. one finds Infanta nestled between the vast Pacific Ocean to the East and the great Sierra Madre Mountain ranges to the West. Batangas.The Road to Infanta “Do not hurry the journey. even furniture from tree roots and other products from nature tempt one to stop. Upon arriving at the coast.


5 hectares from a total land area of 34. Most of them own an average landholding of 0. He is an indefatigable advocate of people’s development and has been working in that field for more than 30 years.576 hectares. Francis starts his story by warning us that the Infanta experience in participatory planning is “nothing new. former parish priest of Infanta and President of Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance Inc. two roads were proposed. the upland forest and coastal areas closer to their source of living. Infanta’s population of 50. Obviously the vision of an industrial Infanta did not materialize. Rizal. It is also because of the partnership efforts of an ngo with the local government that enabled a small isolated town without expertise to come up with a Comprehensive Land Use Plan (clup) and Medium Term Development Plan (mtdp) more responsive to its situation and sustainable development needs. Infanta’s story is told by Father Francis Lucas. Many other farmers and fisherfolk occupy public lands in the mangrove forest. Infanta is a 5th class municipality and does not have any factory and heavy-industry based employment. the road was a sure avenue for development aggression and a threat to their way of life. Such infrastructure would make it easier to bring products in and out of the municipality. This is mostly due to the willingness of Infanta’s people to participate in their own development and not watch helplessly as bulldozers rolled by. Today in Infanta. The first one is the Infanta-Pililia road and was finished in 1997. For the people of Infanta however.000 is made up mostly of farmers and fisherfolk. It would also connect Infanta quickly to Manila and to the China Sea. it is green and lush. except in the compact poblacion.” . (icdai). If at all. The second connects to the Marcos Highway starting from Antipolo and is still under construction. with the vision that Infanta and the rest of that area of Quezon would be the Philippines’ gateway to the Pacific Ocean and link to global trading and manufacturing. Fr. it is a story of people working together and making a difference in their hometown. Laguna. Quezon) regional growth corridor plans.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 11 marilaque (Marikina. These roads were conceptualized to support the industrial development goals of the region.

The local business people are also organized. Infanta is best suited for sustainable tourism. analysis and action-reflection methods are not new to ngos and people’s organizations. “They have seen a long history of struggle for human rights and in defense of their natural resources since the Martial Law days. If any planning over any specific area is undertaken. Communities were not new to participatory action research and analytical methods. problems and solutions from the point of view of the community. it involved mostly sectoral concerns or ecosystems and was not necessarily based on political or administrative boundaries of government. The type and scope of planning that ngos and pos undertake however. Civil Society and the Private Sector in Infanta Fr. Because of co processes. the organized groups of Infanta were used to some amount of visioning as well as goal/objective setting. Francis describes the people of Infanta as kind and strong hearted. The co approach emphasizes and highlights people’s awareness and analysis of their situation.” Fr. but at the moment seems to be the weakest group. are small scale.” These people have experienced more than twenty years of organizing. The Church and ngos introduced community organizing (co) to the people of Infanta as a strategy and development approach. the generic planning process. This helps them identify issues. also played an important part in providing information and analysis of issues both inside and outside of Infanta. organic farming as an industry and prime habitat due to its clean environment.12 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION “At the moment. Infanta therefore has a relatively strong organized civil society composed of ngos and many pos. The partnership between icdai and the local government showed how the comprehensive land use and medium term development plans were used to express local needs and perspective. Because of this experience. making the plan more useful and relevant to all stakeholders. Francis continues. Infanta’s story shows the important roles that ngos can play in decentralized planning. . The community based local radio station dzjo of the Bayanihan Broadcasting Corporation. and project or activity oriented.

This positive attitude created a climate that made it easier for civil society or any other organized groups to advocate their agenda . The expected role of the municipality before the lgc was as local executor of plans coming from the region and from the national line agencies. the Regional Development Council (rdc) and the growth corridor commission of marilaque would ask him for the Infanta clup. icdai was often able to discuss Infanta’s development challenges with the lce and municipal officials. Whenever the mayor attempted to criticize the calabarzon and marilaque plans. They instinctively knew that these plans did not consider the real needs and aspirations of those below. According to Fr.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 13 Importance of Local Leadership The local government’s experience in planning mostly involved implementation and administration of plans from national government. People barely were able to appreciate the substance of the plans nor had the deep understanding. Infanta was blessed with a mayor who was truly conscious of pro-people development. “Although some regional plans undertook local consultations.” Fr. this mayor recognized the contribution of ngos in his administration despite their frequent disagreements and differences in perspective and opinion. technology and time to properly and intelligently react. The mayor was aware that a comprehensive plan as indicated in the lgc was crucial to the proper development of Infanta. It practically had no experience in area development planning. The ngo and the mayor both recognized that the municipality was helpless in protecting its interests when confronted by regional plans designed to fulfill national development goals. but they did not know how to articulate their arguments in credible technical terms. in 1995. Fortunately. these often occurred in hurried public hearings. Other local government officials also demonstrated openness to civil society’s participation in local planning and program implementation. Francis. Francis laments. The need to respond to such demands pushed the mayor and icdai to forge a partnership to prepare a clup as mandated by the lgc.

coastal and marine eco systems. in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. Vehicles for Participation: Tools and Replicable Practices NGO as facilitator of planning processes The Infanta icdai initiated. UNDP-FAO.14 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION and encourage them to participate in activities led by lgu and enter into partnership with them. forestry. Fr. SEARCA. ICDAI’s board of trustees is composed of well-respected persons in the local and national scene. It has the following programs: Community Organizing Community Planning Resource Tenure Improvement Local Governance Rural Financing/Micro Enterprise Sustainable Agriculture Natural Resource Management Partnership/Linkage Building From Fr. ICDAI has partners like the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Francis Lucas’ paper delivered during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Regional and Local Development Planning. (ICDAI). The Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance Inc. Francis attributes icdai’s acceptability to the local government to its track record. UNDP small grants project. facilitated and provided much of the perspective for the planning exercise. services. projects as well as the competence and credibility of its staff and board. Has worked in Infanta for the past 20 years. It also provides scholarships and development strategy trainings. Philrice. ICDAI is credible to the communities it serves because of its effective projects in agriculture. . programs. UP Los Baños among others.



Visioning exercise as prelude to planning Prior to the clup process, the icdai had already collaborated with the lgu by undertaking visioning and strategic planning exercises at the village level. These exercises paved the way for the more arduous task of clup preparation. Instruments for formalizing collaboration in planning The local government and icdai forged an agreement to form a partnership and share resources for the planning process through a contract supported by the Municipal Council or Sanggunian. The contract indicated that financial and human resources would be shared 50%-50% between the local government and the ngo-icdai. Fr. Francis notes that when the ngo becomes a partner of local government and shares counterpart funding, the government is somehow kept from treating the ngo as a mere subcontractor, but as a full partner. Utilizing existing NGO networks and programs At that time, the Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Reources in Rural Areas (phildhrra) a national network of development ngos of which icdai is an active member was espousing the Sustainable Integrated Area Development (siad) as a Provincial strategy. A central feature of the program was its emphasis on peopleled development, and encouraging ngos to facilitate the preparation of plans for the areas where they operate. icdai, however, had already been pursuing the siad concept prior to phildhrra’s decision to adopt siad. It was using the strategy on the municipal rather than on the provincial level. icdai asked the network to help them to find technocrats that understood the ngo spirit and was willing to charge only a minimal cost for their services. phildhrra’s consultant for siad at that time, a respected land use planner and professor, agreed to work with icdai. Alternative arrangements with expert consultants community as source of information To help cut down costs, the consultant required icdai and the local government to undertake the preparatory work involved. The



experience of the visioning and strategic planning exercise proved handy as it enabled the ngo and local people to gather data at the barangay level. Experts saw the initial work of the ngo and the community and were convinced that with proper guidance, the workload of external consultants would be cut by more than half. For one year civil society implemented the initial steps for the clup. After the initial data gathering, experts were called in once more to review the output and to facilitate the different community and municipal discussions.

Resource mobilization and cost cutting measures Because of the above approach, the lgu and ngo spent only 20% of what would have been the normal cost of plan preparation. The partnership between lgu and ngo also minimized, if not totally eliminated, time consuming red-tape and other expenses. The community also looked for other ways to cut costs. Research, venues, collation of reports, secondary data, preparation of maps, consultations were not undertaken in the traditional way. For example, the church was used due to the absence of a big hall for a consultation activity. Farmers, on the other hand, found ways to determine the size of their landholdings using the volume of seeds that they planted. This way, they were able to save on full geodetic surveys to get the information they needed for the planning process. To minimize the number of participants in official meetings, villagers and sectoral organizations would elect leaders to represent them in the consultations. But they required their representatives to report back to them. The radio was also used for information dissemination.
Multi-Stakeholder Approaches The Infanta experience demonstrated that when the multi-stakeholder approach is used to safeguard and air the interests of different groups, ownership of the plan is ensured. Participation in implementation becomes more interesting to the groups involved. The following are



some of the specific factors that made the approach in Infanta more effective.

Recognition of people’s potentials and clear assignment of roles The people of Infanta recognize that nobody plans for the interest of others. As members of the community, and indeed the municipality, people realized that they needed to participate if they wanted their interest and aspirations reflected in the plans. This mindset attracted them to participate in formal planning process, i.e., in the preparation of the Comprehensive Land Use and other related plans for the development of Infanta. The willingness of people to participate productively reinforced the openness of lgu officials. As co-members of the same municipality, they showed their readiness to share power to local communities. Their mutual enthusiasm, however, was supported by a well-defined delegation of responsibilities together with capacity-building, not only for communities but for lgu functionaries as well. Political leaders are considered essential in the whole planning process because it is one of their primary mandates. Other local leaders such as those representing different sectors and organized groups existing in the municipality are necessary not only for representation sake but to provide plans with the necessary clout. Because these local leaders have social and/or economic power within the communities, the implementation and acceptability of the plan was more or less assured. Significant participation, however, came from the organized grassroots population through their elected representatives in the Technical Working Group. Grassroots representatives were also involved in the different mechanisms installed to ensure participation in the clup process such as public consultations, barangay hearings, PO sharing, etc. These activities took place systematically during the pre-, mid- and post-clu planning phases. The clup consultants provided the necessary technical expertise and experience to provide the analytical tools, plan preparation pro-



cess and standards. They acted as resource persons and as co-facilitators together with the members of the clu Planning Secretariat. The clu Planning Secretariat was composed of representatives from the local government unit and the ngo/po. This was an important feature of the Infanta process. All activities were jointly managed by the ngo & lgu over a period of less than a year.

Shared vision facilitates planning participation and consensus-building How did the people of Infanta move from self-interest to common interest? All interest groups were represented, so lobbying for own interests was quite predominant and quite an exhausting experience in the beginning. After a while, the discussions mellowed to people working for the common good without jeopardizing sectoral concerns. The fact that the people of Infanta were able to forge a common vision helped to facilitate the process of finding a common ground.

The Infanta vision We envision Infanta to be a community of God-loving, healthy, peaceful, prosperous, self-reliant, and self-directing citizenry, with a diversified economy, a balanced ecology, and a local leadership that is committed to social justice and equity.

Planning as a learning process The clup not only provided the lgu with a long term tool for managing development, it also provided a venue for all interested stakeholders of Infanta to learn about research, analysis, decisionmaking, consensus building, and the planning process itself. With the guidance of experts, ngos, grassroots and lgu functionaries learned the techniques and rationale of planning through hands-on experience. This built the participants’ self-confidence and developed a sense of ownership in the different sectors involved. The clup preparation as a learning process showed a dynamic version of partnership as ordinary people, organizations and lgu functionaries went through collective activities involving studies, analysis,

Competence: the NGO must have disciplined professionalism and possess technical competence to handle difficult and challenging projects while at the same time remaining embedded among the grassroots in rural communities. Capability and Track Record: the NGO must have multi-disciplinary staff expertise. must have ran projects in partnership with recognized bilateral.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 19 reporting. As they have shown. but the view in the end is rewarding. NGO Characteristics For Effective Partnerships Fr. and is professional in dealing with community and other ventures. is aware of its comparative advantage and has years of experience in the different fields of development. 6. . As they went through the journey together of learning. research institutes. Credibility: the NGO does not beg for funds from government. it has effective projects. analyzing and discussion. From Fr. discussions and dialogues and decision-making. Linkage: has links with national and international institutions. Constituency: the NGO must have a following among the grassroots and has organized sectors supporting its mission. Francis Lucas’ paper delivered during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Regional and Local Development Planning. 4. 2. multi-lateral and funding NGOs or foundations. 3. Francis presents the following characteristics that NGOs should work for to gain recognition from government and in turn be able to influence policy: 1. Commitment: the NGO must be recognized by the community to pursue its mission and never renege on its political and moral stand on issues that are anti-people or anti-environment and anti-life. in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. must belong to national networks of NGO and have other NGO partners. consensus-building did not take too long and too much energy to realize. it may not be straightforward at times. 5. All the activities were jointly managed by the ngo & lgu over a period of less than a year. The Infanta experience provides us with a road map for other journeys in participation.


poverty would have been considered the most costly to heal. Club 20 consists of the 20 poorest provinces in the country. If at all there were concerted efforts to find a cure. but also the human commitment to pour creative energy. housing and employment. At the regional and local levels. No. organizational enthusiasm and personal passion to incise the root causes of poverty. On the contrary. the war against poverty takes another form. among others. that of engaging all indigenous resources available to reverse the tide of poverty at the community level. health and nutrition. The usual reaction would be. IF IT were a disease. not only in terms of financial requirements. poverty reduction takes the form of a package of interventions to address lack of incomes as a structural issue of poverty. what now and what can be done about it? At the national level. including the urgency to provide capability interventions through human development efforts. It is not flattering for all provinces in the Cordillera Region to be included in the Club 20. It is discomforting to be jolted with the reality that all Cordillera provinces made the cut. such as education and training. Club 20 is not an enviable group within which the rich and famous hobnob. why and how come Cordillera provinces are among the country’s poorest? But the more important reaction should be.Scaling Mountains of Poverty in Cordillera POVERTY. 21 . can be considered an epidemic in the Cordillera Region.

particularly in areas where government is perceived to be weak. to widen the scope and positive effects of poverty reduction initiatives. that is. organizing them to build constituencies for poverty reduction initiatives. through the rdc. supported by code-ngo. It does not believe in confronting government about its lapses and inadequacies in combating poverty. cordnet was about to implement a Localized AntiPoverty Project. without the community-based and people-oriented approach of non-government actors. Rather. but the breadth and reach. . This is the need filled by cordnet (or the Cordillera Network of ngos and pos). much less. the faces and voices of poverty at the community level. in community organizing. The usual expectation would be that government should do it. But government is not good at mobilizing people. the government may be relied upon for antipoverty programs. On second thought. Neither does it compete with government in its anti-poverty efforts. it was received with determination to break the cycle of poverty. participatory development and ownership-building. the most abundant of course is people. in collaboration with government and other non-government partners. Organizing people to meet their basic needs is an indispensable first step. in 2001 when the Regional Development Council (rdc) for the Cordillera Administrative Region (car) was created. It clothes itself with confidence offering government its expertise. Having all Cordillera provinces in the Club 20 was not seen as an opportunity for bashing the government for allowing poverty to persist in the region. Tapping the resources of non-government players to complement those of government should also be encouraged.22 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Lending a Helping Hand By indigenous resources in the Cordillera essential in the fight against poverty. cordnet seized the opportunity to champion community-based poverty reduction and in bringing to the attention of government. Limited resources of the government have to be stretched. cordnet puts premium in complementation and partnership. Rather. as well as efficacy and effectiveness of these programs may not be optimal.

all the provinces in the Cordillera Region were classified under the Club 20 or the twenty poorest provinces of the Philippines. Investing in Integration and Participation cordnet finds value in integration. in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. (b) to ensure prioritization of unmet needs of communities assisted by ngos. Rather. CORDNET evolved gradually into a regional network of city and provincial networks with total membership of 47 NGOs. When CORDNET was formed as a regional network in 1998. integrating with the government in the regional and local bodies was slow. and (e) to respond to the government’s social reform initiatives to ensure a conducive climate for people participation. By integration. Being young as a network that was struggling to survive. 65 POs and 25 cooperatives. youth women and farmers. In 2002. (c) to encourage complementation of resources bringing about wider reach and greater impact. cordnet does not imply losing out to government. Although it started as a network of 34 individual NGOs and POs in 1998. The worsening poverty scenario served as a bridging force for various NGOs and POs to form a network. cordnet President Marietta Paragas shares the wisdom behind partnering with government: (a) to avoid duplication of programs and services. (d) to uphold that governance is not only the sole concern of government. Nevertheless. cordnet decided to partner with government line agencies and local government units. it advocates for integration . CORDNET rallied patiently its members towards a common direction to partner with other local players…to alleviate poverty. delivered during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Regional and Local Development Planning. “Vertical and Horizontal Integration Strategies: CORDNET Experience”. but also of other local stakeholders. The network assists indigenous children.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 23 • CORDNET at a Glance CORDNET is a 5-year network of development NGOs and POs in the Cordillera Region whose membership is composed of one city network and four provincial networks. Taken from Marietta Paragas’ paper.

systems and procedures of regional and local development bodies. Paragas stressed that possessing the right attitude. cordnet had to invest in strengthening provincial network-members. Having the competence to do so is as important as having the heart to do so. trust. particularly at the grassroots level. cordnet took this option to support broad-based and participatory governance. given the orientation and advocacy of non-government actors. academe and civil society) in the rdc and local development bodies. confidence and commitment.” cordnet found itself representing the private sector (encompassing business. It is also healthy not only to be confident about one’s strengths. but also to be open to one’s weaknesses. and government-centric approach. Part of the organizational readiness to participate is to enhance attitudinal and technical capabilities. Among these strategies are: (a) deepening capability-building efforts of ngo and po networks at the provincial . mutual trust and balance of power. Commitment and shared responsibility have to be demonstrated. is important as much as understanding the structures. fuelled by the principles of equality. programs and projects. At the same time. cordnet also finds this as an opportunity to explore avenues for shared responsibility. power-driven. It may be starkly different as night and day.24 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION as a prelude to active participation. It sees this both as an option and an opportunity. hence the need to orient network members on government processes. a departure from the traditional. such as. First Things First It is not enough to have the passion to lick poverty. among others. cordnet had to pursue strategies to ensure functional and effective integration. Paragas emphasized thus: “cordnet’s integration in planning and development is viewed along the light of mutual governance by which both public and private representatives have shared decision-making power over policies. Work culture between the public and private sectors may not be the same. Paragas admitted that to ensure effective integration in the rdc and local bodies.

implementation and delivery of basic services. Partnership and Poverty Reduction: A Commitment at the Community Level Implementing the Localized Anti-Poverty Project (LAPP) brought forth a new realization to CORDNET: that dispersed. this tool assisted LGUs to identify. attitudinal and organizational skills of cordnet members. analyzing and utilizing data regarding the minimum basic needs (MBN) of community members. in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. • CORDNET. LAPP is being replicated to other barangays and municipalities in two provinces in the Cordillera. an initiative of CORDNET. . who. There was a need to pool distinct competencies and contributions of government and private sector. which enhanced resource allocation at the local level. This has been particularly useful to planning. (d) pooling resources to participate in development planning. where and how many the poor are and what they need. demonstrates the power of partnership and complementation in poverty reduction. CBIMS provides local governments a gauge for determining and responding to priority local requirements. LAPP II.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 25 level. being an initiative of CORDNET and in partnership with barangays and municipal governments. programming and budgeting. Due to the acceptance and success of the project. compartmentalized initiatives failed to bring about maximum impact to addressing poverty. and (e) piloting successful cases of horizontal and vertical integration in local development processes. (b) developing technical. From Marietta Paragas’ paper. delivered during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Regional and Local Development Planning. Known as the MBN Community-based Poverty Indicator and Monitoring System (CBIMS). (c) enhancing the creativity and ingenuity of members to interface with regional and local development bodies. This project. made use of barangay-based information system for gathering. “Vertical and Horizontal Integration Strategies: CORDNET Experience”.

but also to give voice to the communities and peoples in the mountains of Cordillera. capital and commitment are important as much as organization. It admits it cannot do poverty alleviation alone. it looks forward to trekking heights of partnership and complementation with government. mutual respect and empowerment (come). As cordnet shares the same development vision with that of the rdc. creativity. Its decision to sit at the rdc and local development bodies is in pursuit of its commitment not only to share its expertise and to influence development directions. cordnet is on its growth spurt towards maturity.26 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION A WelCOME Treat in Scaling Mountains of Poverty cordnet carries the torch of partnership and complementation. Capability. . With such insight. Paragas offers an alphabet soup for development enthusiasts in the non-government sphere.

significant unemployment rate.” is the oldest city in the country. and increasing violence against women and children. Prosperity has continued. the hub of sea and air transport. It is also a hotbed of a growing services sector including banks and financial services. THE MAJESTIC “Queen City of the South. Current economic indicators point to a healthy lifeline. among others. and a rising 27 . limited safety nets for the poor. is a thriving. Its development as the polar growth center has brought about emerging burdens such as high in-migration rate from the Visayas and Mindanao. an increasing and improving exports industry. Lapulapu City and Talisay City. Cebu City. highly urbanized center after Manila’s bustling metropolis.Moving with Women in Cebu CEBU. Cebu City. Even before the Spanish conquest. and the center of trade and commerce south of the capital. these challenges have not weighed down the march of the city’s progress primarily because of the dynamism and aggressive stance of local entrepreneurs and the resiliency of Cebuanas and Cebuanos to overcome adversity. and today. trade with the Chinese already flourished in Cebu. Cebu City is the center of education and culture. radiates its influence to the rest of the Visayas and Mindanao regions as the hub of development. However. along with Mandaue City. Cebu City continues to ride in the crest of a booming economy.


but also in making them responsible citizens. government and ngos set aside their ideological differences and concentrated on getting Cebu City back to its feet. The women of the city play a critical role not only in rearing and empowering daughters and sons. Potable water was scarce. For once. the community. Mobility was a huge problem. . they say. The Typhoon that Blew Away the GO-NGO Divide Women. children’s health. it was not surprising to witness women’s ngos in Cebu flex their muscle and respond to the situation. Suddenly. government infrastructure projects of the city contribute to additional opportunities for employment and incomes. even from the ngos. A prime mover among them is Teresa Banaynal-Fernandez who has tackled a wide range of issues including women’s poverty.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 29 ecology-sensitive tourism industry. Agriculture and industry were humbled. Ruping was no ordinary typhoon. and the city. family violence. The electricity network was badly damaged. Practically every Cebuana and Cebuano needed help. Tess has struggled long and hard to advance these social issues in the development agenda of the city. Despite the limited coordination in the economic and development activities within the metropolitan Cebu area. But these glowing indicators of development do not fully capture Cebu City’s prosperity. as the bridge linking Cebu and Mactan was damaged and the whole city was littered with debris. respect was the order of the day. A portion of this prosperity is the result of the city’s efforts to nurture and protect women and advance their position as partners in development. Whatever initiatives and contributions might be extended to quicken Cebu’s resuscitation to normalcy. are default crisis managers because they are honed to respond well to the day-to-day challenges of the family. Cebu City government has widened the space for the women’s movements championed their cause within the household. clean water supply and sanitation. When Typhoon Ruping devastated the city in 1991. were greatly welcomed. It rendered Cebu City power-less for about a month. consequently enlarging the consumer base.

water and sanitation. a component of the unicef-assisted Philippine Country Program for Children (cpc). Ruping wrecked Cebu City. the city government realized that its non-government counterpart is as capable and committed as the city government itself. not as visible as Ruping. especially to the poor. “Together with other ngos…. Cebu was back to its old self. families. But what was unusual was the need to address a persistent crisis. The seed of partnership was sown. but it also nurtured the beginnings of partnership. live- .” Fernandez believes that collective action is powerful and that what is more important is the spirit of oneness in responding to a crisis situation in the city. and Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (hudcc) and other memberagencies taking turns for inventory and audit. the Kaugalingong Pagbarug Sugbo (Self-Help Cebu) was launched. but just as damaging. but persistent violence against women and children leaves an indelible scar to the well-being of individuals. the money was returned to the city government. Presidential Commission on the Urban Poor (pcup) as commodity center. Commodities were made available to depressed communities. Ruping might have left thousands of families homeless. communities. if not worse. The group negotiated for a P1 million loan from the City Hall with the Pagtambayayong as fund holder. A tattered roof is more humane than a battered wife or an exploited child. environment. Under the Urban Basic Services Program (ubsp). emerged the need to examine the integrated effects of health. There was no other way but to get the government’s commitment as well as that of other ngos. From Crisis Ruping to Gender-based Crises Not for long. Ruping’s fury was just a distant memory. Partnership-building made post-Ruping rehabilitation efforts possible. The crisis was over and the city was back to business as usual. nutrition.30 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Tess Fernandez vividly remembers how Ruping ignited government organization (go)-ngo partnership to avert further damage of the typhoon. women’s education. citizens and the whole society. With the commitment and track record of ngos. After three months.

community organization. The results of the documentation processes were shared with the member-agencies of the ubsp. Cebu’s Bantay Banay trailblazed formal partnership between the ngo sector and the government sector (city and other local govern- . Through Bantay Banay. Government employees were oriented on gender-based issues. advanced the need to put up a Crisis Center for Women. relegating it as an issue between wife and husband. Injustice and violence perpetuated at home get replicated in so many forms in society. social welfare. often with undesirable consequences. government agencies. The city government provided a room at the City Health Department where women could go and ask for help for violence-related concerns. It is often swept under the rug. children in exceptionally difficult circumstances. low productivity and poor self-esteem are late manifestations of persistent violence at home.500 volunteers. Zonta. hospitals. “A strong Cebu City Bantay Banay Inter-Agency Council has been formed. by deeply rooted patriarchal traditions and norms. Bantay Banay network in the city includes 1. and advocacy and research. Cebu City pioneered the Bantay Banay (Family Watch Groups against Domestic Violence). community leaders were trained to respond to cases of domestic violence. Domestic violence is a silent crime. with representatives from the police. lawlessness. Part of the women’s education component was the conduct of fora and workshops on gender sensitivity and rights of women and children. Lihok Pilipina documented the extent of domestic violence and shared the finding that six out of ten women were battered by partners. But what happens in the family has social and economic implications outside. The Federacion Internacional de Abogadas (fida) committed to provide legal assistance to victims of domestic violence.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 31 lihood. ngos. barangay and community groups. lgus provided funds for their respective crisis centers. violence and legal protection. one of the ngos sitting as a cluster member under the ubsp-cpc. Crimes. land tenure. if not made invisible.” adds Fernandez. It is made trivial. and the quick referral system. most of the 80 barangays have trained volunteers to respond to genderbased violence. This suggestion was acted upon favorably. outside the reach of the law or anyone. Fernandez claims that to date.

women’s groups pushed for the women’s agenda. Moreover. which include among others. During the 2001 local elections. members of the Bantay Banay and the Cebu Women’s Coalition pushed for the creation of the Cebu Women’s Commission. While the typhoon and the gender-based crises made women ngos. After the elections. the city mayor and barangay officials were invited to a consultation on the Gender and Development (gad) policy. The efforts to advance women’s issues in the area of human settlements and urban local governance by formulating and implementing gender sensitive and responsive policies and legal measures earned Cebu City the first ever gender sensitivity award . including the proposal to have a representative of community women and for the executive director of the commission to come from the non-government sector. the passage of the Gender Code. the lobbying for the gad budget resulted in the allocation of P34 million by the barangays for gad activities in 2000-2003 and P20 million by the city government for gad in 2002-2004. Bantay Banay members educated barangay officials on the Local Government Code and lobbied for the implementation of the gender and development budget policy. Women Cebu is proud of its women. in collaboration with the city government. In 1999. Network members attended the deliberations in the City Council and provided all Council members with a yellow rose. Moving with. amendments were introduced on the composition of the Cebu City Women and Family Affairs Commission. It is now being replicated in 70 cities and municipalities across the country. the observation then was that ngos were reactive to natural and human-made crises rather than a deliberate advocate of gender-based reforms.32 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION ment units). and Learning from. From Crises to Opportunities Ruping and Bantay Banay have pushed women at the forefront of city governance. Before the conduct of the local polls. the Gender Code was passed under the leadership of Mayor Alvin Garcia. responsive. In 1997.

Japan on 8 March 2004 during the celebration of International Women’s Day. “Lihok Filipina and Bantay Banay gave the winning edge. the City has been an active partner in their community initiatives especially in the campaign against violence to women and children and other gender concerns. The international recognition named the Cebu City as one of the Most Gender Responsive Cities in Asia Pacific. too. lies in the ad-hoc bodies. and Lihok Filipina Foundation.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 33 from the United Nations-Human Settlements Programme (UNHabitat). Fernandez who submitted the entries to UN-Habitat said. Bantay Banay and the Cebu Women’s Coalition also lead Cebu City to becoming the first lgu in the Philippines to enact an Anti-Domestic Violence Ordinance. Mayor Tomas Osmeña together with his wife Margot. First is that the formal avenues of participation like the City Development Council is limited. particularly in similar advocacies shared by ngos and the government. The same distinction also goes with Naga City and Visakhapatnam City. Bantay Banay has developed into a community-based organization adopted in 50 barangays in Cebu City and 65 other cities and municipalities nationwide. a community watchgroup on violence against women and children. Mayor Osmeña said. India. Aquino Foundation. Through the networking and advocacy of Bantay Banay volunteers. it is quite ideal to expect substantive discussions to take place. Second. they. Bantay Banay has been a recipient of various national recognition including the 2003 People Power People Tour Award by the Benigno S. However. It is mandated to meet only once per quarter and with about 150 people in attendance. and the more relevant processes and mechanisms to participate in. Lihok Filipina created Bantay Banay program. caution other ngos about self-restriction. every police station now has installed women’s desk. Inc. which are only temporary . Councilor Gerardo Carillo. which is currently used as reference by other cities and municipalities in the creation of their own similar ordinances. Chairperson Tessie Fernandez received the award in Fukouka. Women’s networks. They had the best programs in addressing issues on battered women”. appreciate the value of partnership-building. such as Lihok Pilipina and Bantay Banay.

their conditions. They have to tap knowledge institutions and use information to support their advocacies. Third. women are bound to conquer more. “Basic principles in organizing. for example. the problem is in sustaining the momentum after the issue has been responded to. a stalwart in the women’s movement in Cebu. Tessie Fernandez. Let people own the issue. ngos need to reflect on its own gains and history. Nobody wants to fail. And with such convictions. their interests. With people assuming more roles and harnessing more initiatives. their realities. whether in the community or in the council. networking and management are what it takes. shares the commitment behind the strides of women in the queen city.” Having shared that. Successes such as the Bantay Banay and the Typhoon Ruping rehabilitation efforts started from ad hoc bodies. Start with where the people are. and coming from a woman who speaks from the heart of experience and track record. Failure of the undertaking. they develop their own stake and consequently will do everything to make it work. Women’s groups in Cebu. will be their own.34 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION and often are issue-based. too. Of course. have partnered with the academe (office of Professor Etemadi of UP Cebu) to document and do research on various advocacies. Fernandez captures one of the many legacies of the queen city. . and encourage them to work…whether in the communities or in the council. But successes even in ad hoc circumstances might even pave way for more formal and institutional partnership arrangements.

Three sub-regional groups compose visnet. Parts of Leyte that face the West speak Cebuano and but those who live towards the East.Connected by Water WILLIAM HENRY SCOTT. the anthropologist. by water. but almost simultaneously and almost in the same manner. spoke Cebuano. These groups are based on existing political regional subdivisions and ethno-linguistic clustering. Geographically separated. while those from the West facing Panay island spoke Hiligaynon. while those who were separated by mountains but living in the same island did not. observed that in the Visayas. In Western Visayas (Hiligaynon-speaking) or Region VI. People from the Eastern side of Negros for example. visnet is composed of the following: 35 . speak Waray. whose island they face. the language of Samar. The Visayas Network for Development ngos (visnet) provides them with these opportunities. communities in islands of the Visayas are able to concentrate on undertaking development independently. “communities were connected. Perhaps it is because of their isolation that Visayas ngos are intent on consciously sharing and learning from one another on a systematic basis. It as if the ocean currents brought news of techniques and methods of engaging and forging partnerships in development.” He further notes that people who were able to travel to each other’s villages by boat tended to speak the same tongue. not separated.


TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 37 IloiloCode Panay-Guimaras Caucus Capiz Code Negros Caucus (Negros Occidental) Aklan Code Antique ngo-po Coalition Central Visayas (Cebuano-speaking) or Region VII has the following members: Kaugmaran (Cebu Province) Kaabag (Cebu City) Bangon (Bohol) Negornet (Negros Oriental) Siquijor Caucus Finally. Samar Biliran Caucus Console (Southern Leyte) “rdcs in the Visayas are supportive of private sector participation. to influence the development framework and to establish partnerships with lgus. Leyte-code’s first general assembly was held in 1994 but it was finally registered in 1998.” Pauline notes that ngos participate in regional and local development planning to promote the basic sector’s agenda. that ngos can also participate through political engagement and lobbying at the local level. She notes. Eastern Visayas (Waray speaking) or Region VIII has the following members: Leyte Code E. Its current membership of 19 has ebbed . Samar ngo-po Coalition Kasugbong Samar (W. Samar) Visnet-No.” says Pauline Nayra of visnet and Leyte-code. She further emphasizes that while “consultation (only) informs. The experience of Leyte-code more or less reflects the experience of other members of visnet. however. participation increases the stakes and collaboration produces concrete results.

it is how such a culturally diverse nation such as the Philippines can eventually learn to craft development plans without being trapped in uniformity and mere compliance with programs and projects dictated from above. members have been able to identify opportunities for lgu-ngo/po partnership by matching their organization’s program and services vis-à-vis devolved functions. Runggiyan and Leyte Family Development Organization (lefado) are members of Municipal/City. In the past ten years. Leyte-code and visnet show us that the various islands of participatory development in the Visayas need not be isolated from one another. Their presence at all levels of development councils enables them to provide information as well. If there is anything that can be learned from them. from women to farmers to the urban poor. Accreditation and eventually participation became a regular Leyte-code program. They are able to upscale their impact through the use of networking and conscious capability building efforts among their members. Such efforts allow these ngos to gather information on development issues at various levels. the network disseminates accreditation guidelines and timetables to the members as well as follows up the status of applications with the lgus. In fact. Provincial and Regional Development Councils. Its member ngos provide services to various sectors and locales.38 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION and flowed through the years. Leyte-code’s membership gives it a broad view of the various development concerns in the province. A healthy respect for diversity need not mean a laissez-faire attitude. All of these members have made conscious efforts to actively participate in Local Development Councils. Two of them. While oceans separate them in this archipelago. from coastal to upland areas. with some ngos hibernating and finally closing their operations. they eventually speak the same language—that of development. .

. • Western Leyte Association for Agro-Rural Entities (WELFARE)—women organizing. (PFI)—environmental protection and management. audit and consultancy to cooperatives. enterprise development and community mortgage program (CMP). alternative basic education • Rural Development Institute (RDI)—agrarian reform and rural development • Leyte-Samar Rural Workers Association (Labrador)—communitybased resource management in the upland and coastal areas. reproductive health education. (RSDF)—Women Support Center. • Leyte Rural Advancement Program (LRAP)—sustainable agriculture and agri-enterprise. women’s health • Visayas Cooperative Development Center (VICTO)—training. reproductive health education and services. Inc. • Pagtinabangay Foundation. • Peoples Inc.—farmers and urban poor • Institute for Democratic Participation in Governance (IDPG)—participatory rapid appraisal-barangay development planning. Inc.CHAPTER TITLE 39 LEYTE-CODE members • Bayanihan. • Leyte Family Development Organization (LEFADO)—maternal and child health.—upland development • Runggiyan Social Development Foundation. GAD and Anti-VAW advocacy and training for LGUs and POs. Inc.


there are fewer and fewer tourists who come to Mindanao. his eldest daughter will finish grade school. thinking about his children’s future.From the Barangay to the Boardroom: Bridging the Divides in Mindanao BAE WAKES UP to the sound of gunfire coming from the edge of the forest. 41 . and their lone cow brought to pasture. she gets ready for the day. Very soon. Ronaldo sits patiently on a cement post at the port. She and her family have things to do. The children wave at her. and he was not quite sure if they could afford to send her to high school. She waves back. In fact. They would eventually visit the cooperative office at the barangay center to check if the feeds that they ordered have arrived. Ronaldo sighs. she passes through a carpet of copra slivers painstakingly tended to by her nearest neighbor Mario and his children. The ferry is coming. his wife seems already resigned to the fact that his beloved daughter may have to stop studying and work for the fish dealer to augment the family income. and too many porters waiting to carry them. however. Later in the morning. their vegetable garden watered. On her way. There is less baggage to be carried. The chickens need to be fed. Ronaldo stands at attention. It will be a sunny day today. Then. These days. Seemingly unperturbed. she would go to her cousin’s house and find out if all is well with the new born calf. Bae looks briefly at the sky and smiles.

Ester wonders when they would have a foot bridge like the one that was built from Barangay Kalipay to Barangay Sangalan across Sangalan river. her basket on top of her head. maybe we should go to more barangay meetings to make sure that we get what we deserve. It was simply another day. the river is not swollen yet. not portable water). potable water gyud.” (It’s so much better in Manila.”Maayo pa sa Manila. She excitedly told her playmates that it was because of the “portable” water project that had just been finished. She mentions this to one of her co-passengers who repeated a joke Ester heard from one of the few community meetings she attended. A woman asks. Ester then whispered to her new-found friends. “if we can. and quietly corrected her.) An old man attempts to console them.” At the end of the day.42 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Ester wades through knee deep water. The jeepney they were riding to town broke its axle and they would have to wait at the wayside for another vehicle to come. Along with other residents of the uplands. yet they have so many bridges. because the rains have not come. “Mindanao will have more control over its money. dili portable (Dear. the man who called himself landowner had brought some armed men to come and guard his newly fenced acquisition. “But how do we know that our local politicians will not control it for their own purpose? Do we poor people get our bridges then?” Before a debate starts.” someone said. where there is no water. “Pangga. a jeepney comes rambling down the road. One of . bisan ug way tubig naay daghan nga nagsapaw sapaw nga bridge. “At least.” Someone asks how they can have more money to build bridges in their remote barangay. she was trying not to fall as the swift waters of the river swirled around her legs. Bae discovers what the gun shots were. She must remind her husband to go to the barangay meetings more often. Apparently.” Little Victoria is happy today. to bring up the issue of the road any chance he gets. She and her brothers and sisters have more time to play because they need not go far to fetch water anymore. Her mother smiled. A middle-aged man quips that maybe federalism can help make this happen. Smiles return to their tired lined faces. their vegetables unsold. Or else they would have to walk back to where they came from. it’s potable.

“We work with communities and participate actively in local and regional planning activities because we want to give a people’s face to development. The fireflies at the edge of the forest reminded Bae of her grandmother and how she had been guided through childhood. more landowners or lowlanders with pieces of paper may come and take what was left from other tribes. herself a converted Christian but proud of her tribal identity went home to ponder this dilemma. Like many people in development work in Mindanao. it would just cause more trouble for them. They were concerned that the family of the so-called intruder would revert to old customs that meant retaliation against the gun man. Faces grim. a network of cooperatives in Mindanao and sits at the rdc X as psr. She sits as one of the Board of Trustees of Balay Mindanaw Foundation Inc. They have known these lands as their ancestors’ as far back in time as they can recall. she wears many hats. (bmfi).TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 43 them shot an “intruder” who had gone to harvest bananas at a small clearing inside the area. she was afraid that if they did nothing. to her husband and now in her life. What will become of their many projects then? “These are just some of the dilemmas and issues we face. She knew that if her family retaliates. be able to claim they own these lands? What will they do with it? Where will she and her family go? Bae. and ask them to talk to their relatives. They turn to Bae and her husband. although her father has been Christianized. the community leaders gravely considered the issue at hand.” . or indeed many colors. and where they have been hunting for food. conduct tribal rites. She is Higaonon. On the other hand. These are lands where they bury ancestors. Bae is angered and saddened because the land claimed by this man called landowner is part of the “gaop” (lands owned by their tribal ancestors). How could these men bringing with them pieces of paper they call titles. She is the Chief Executive Officer of Mindanao Alliance of Self-Help SocietiesSouthern Philippines Educational Cooperatives Center (mass-specc) Cooperative Development Center. revere as sacred grounds.” says Sylvia Okinlay-Paraguya.

It belongs to business because a cooperative believes in profit and cost recovery. Tribal people who worked in National Integrated Protected Area System (nipas) projects in Mt. Kitanglad. The problems of Mindanao are not simply economic. Balay Mindanaw Foundation Inc. They try to build bridges between the peoples who have lived in harmony with their lands. It is an ngo. not charity. culture. the great divide between ideas. the tribal and traditional way is to avenge the death. because it concerns itself with larger issues of society and advocate sectoral . priorities are bridged with “participation. as well as ngo development workers who know better and are aware of these customs and traditions. It is a fragile link that bridge-builders from government and ngos attempt to construct. make sure that people and government understand each other and the laws of the land. If a life is taken. The various tribes that inhabit Region X deal with an intricate history that they themselves are trying to unravel and fashion into something that will take them to a more prosperous and equitable future. mass-specc itself wears the many colors of cooperatives and indeed of Mindanao. with some government functionaries insensitively saying. but neither are they simply cultural. To many of the tribes. that Indigenous People’s Rights Act (ipra) is the worst law in the land. desecration of ancestral lands is serious and calls for immediate punishment.” openness. communication and a respect for diversity. How can regional and national projects and programs avoid losing sight of local goals? Organizations like mass-specc. belief systems. there are those in government. those who govern and those who wish to introduce development. for example. ensure that from the barangay to the boardroom. Fortunately.44 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION She laments the fact that people’s issues are sometimes forgotten in discussions at the regional and national level. Bukidnon for example. How indeed can community and gut level but highly complex issues be considered and reflected in development plans? How can development planning reflect everyday life issues without being sucked into specificity or reduced into motherhood statements that can be misinterpreted at regional or national levels.

Barangay Sangalan is one of the focus barangays of bmfi has accompanied the barangay and its people in its participatory planning. vendors.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 45 agenda. It is a people’s organization. and in setting up and strengthening the mechanisms for genuine participation by people in governance. . 2. bmfi used the following approaches as first steps towards ensuring that people’s issues make their way into development plans: 1. The Local Government Code in Section 109 mandates the bdcs to mobilize people’s participation in local development efforts. Continuing Community Organizing and Mobilization: bmfi organizes people’s organizations in areas where there are none. to prepare barangay development plans based on local requirements and to monitor and evaluate the implementation of national or local programs and projects. youth. Barangay lgu Capability Building and Organizational Development: bmfi assists in capability-building of barangays for effective and efficient local governance. implementing and monitoring several programs and projects. fisher folk. women. they are also able to actively participate in local mandated structures like the Barangay Development Council (bdc). interest. budgeting. Basic sector organizing advances the cause. and actions of the people. because it is composed of men and women. These basic sectors are the peasant/ farmers. Active Participation in Barangay Development Councils: Strong local sectoral organizations and cooperatives are capacitated by bmfi to assist in the formulation and implementation of the community plans and projects. bmfi assists existing people organizations in the community. tribal. Local Development Planning Processes: bmfi helps facilitate a participatory local development planning process leading all the way to project implementation. 3. As a result. and cooperative. 4. Sylvia Okinlay-Paraguya provides us with a list of approaches used in Barangay Sangalan. individual members of the communities that work towards a common goal.

sa Kalibutan (Equality. Kalambuan. has proven to be an effective mechanism for fund mobilization. It aims to pursue its development work in rural areas of Mindanao through principled partnerships with peoples’ organizations. non-profit Mindanao based and Mindanao focused NGO which aims to promote sustainable integrated area development. for the Philippines and for the World). Balay Mindanaw Foundation BALAY Mindanao Foundation Inc. Kalinaw sa Mindanaw. NGOs. Peace for Mindanao. • Plan Implementation . Recently it had the opportunity to do more work in 5 municipalities in the Misamis Oriental Eastern Towns (MISORET).46 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION 5. • Resource Mobilization. Development. • Barangay Development Planning. A Stakeholders’ Forum where programs are presented to politicians and funders. Misamis Oriental and Gingoog City. sa Pilipinas. Resource Mobilization and Setting Up of Barangay/Community Development Support Block Fund: The bdp becomes the basis for project prioritization and development. to develop the mechanisms and structures for the democratic participation of people and communities in local governance and to facilitate agrarian reform implementation. Kaangayan. Because the internal resources from the barangay and the households are not enough to implement the priority projects bmfi assists the barangays to mobilize external resources. (BMFI) is a non-stock. BMFI covers 22 barangays in Claveria. government and other agencies. • Sub-Project Development. A Project Implementation and Monitoring Committee (pimc) draws up appropriate policies and mechanisms to guide the utilization of the fund. BMFI’s components of participatory local development planning are: • Barangay Profiling and Assessment. BMFI has adopted as its vision.

with different degrees of success. provincial and regional levels truly gave development planning “a people’s face. Efforts in ensuring that culturally-based barangay development planning are reflected upwards to the municipal. There is also a parallel experience in Impasugong. At least four stakeholders’ forum have been conducted to mobilize external resources. bmfi. Impasugong has a population of 31.TALES AND SIGNS FROM BELOW 47 The story of barangay Sangalan is repeated across several barangays where bmfi operates. Participants to the forum include the barangay people. Impasugong shows that it is possible to come up with bdps in a participatory manner.000 which is 60% Higaonon. one of the 23 towns of Bukidnon.” . lgus. is now shifting from purely barangay-based work to municipal level integration and is now working at the congressional district level. Government Line Agencies (glas) donor agencies. of course. bmfi works in 5 municipalities out of 11 in a district of Misamis Oriental. bmfi continues to share its technologies providing consultancy services for lgus interested in the participatory approaches to ppbime. in its efforts to pursue development work. The lgu works with another ngo called Kaanib Foundation for this purpose. ngos.

2 Journeys to Participation INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS .

professional associations. as used by the RDC. Gonzales. business. church groups. VII and VIII. and will help clarify these differences. Gonzales on April 19. 2003. The author recognizes the need to make the distinction between these groups. With the use of a framework by which participation may be assessed by both private sector2 and government. Fernando Aldaba’s paper will delve into the nuances of the terminology.On the Way to the PSP Conference1 THE STUDY “ASSESSMENT of the Nature and Scope of Private Sector Participation (psp) in Regional and Local Development Planning” (hereinafter called the psp study) provides an overview of the range of situations. It offers lessons as well as ideas for reflection and action that can be used by various stakeholders in development planning processes at the local and regional level. Dr. as well as civicminded individuals sitting as private sector representatives in the development councils. This includes non-government development or social service organizations. civic groups. most notably representatives of highly organized non-government develop_______________ 1 This paper takes off from the study called “Assessment of the Nature and Scope of Private Sector Participation (PSP) in Regional and Local Development Planning” by Darvin G. 2 For purposes of this paper. 2004 in the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes: Gains and Challenges in Regional and Local Development Councils. the study team discovered strategies and practices by which the private sector. Yambao and Anna Maria M. Prepared and presented by Anna Maria M. 51 . practices and challenges involved in participatory planning and development in regional and local development councils in Regions VI. the term “private sector” is used to refer to all entities outside government. November. Cebu City.

52 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION ment organizations are able to optimize their participation and voice given the limitations that structures and processes in the rdc and ldc pose. Realization of the need to refine the definition of the term “private sector” as used by the rdcs. . A forum was seen as the best platform from which to launch some of the recommendations from the study. The framework defines criteria for participation which were used to surface and formulate more specific indicators. to avoid the confusion with “private business” and to reconcile this with the term “non-governmental organization” as used in the Local Government Code. accountability and transparency from government 3. Discussion of a conceptual framework for assessing and benchmarking the quality of participation in the context of regional and local development planning 2. horizontal and spatial integration through their current efforts in coalitionbuilding. The conference design (see Annex B) takes off from the following outcomes of the study: 1. substance and content of planning through information and viewpoint that they provide. partnerships with local governments through participatory bottom-up planning and identification of development priorities 4. Recognition of psr (largely from civil society) contributions to the process. most notably in exacting responsiveness. The framework recognizes that empowered participation is necessary for development to occur. Identification of good practices and challenges in the management of the planning process to enhance participation Conceptual Framework for Assessing PSP and for Setting up Indicators Figure 1 shows the framework used by the study team for assessing private sector participation in the Visayas. The clarification is needed to ensure that all relevant stakeholders in development are adequately represented in development councils 5. Recognition of the potentials of the private sector organizations (psos) and networks in vertical.

provides a foundation on which all the other levels of participation can be built. other institutional avenues of participation partnerships. autonomy This classification does not present a hierarchy of participation in the sense that one type of participation is superior or inferior. advocacy and adoption problem/project ID and analysis. selection and representation input-generation and processing. Figure 2 is a tool that categorizes psrs according to their expectations and contributions. collaboration. Types/Levels of Participation Substantive Participation (Tranformative) Technical Participation (Representative) Process-based Participation (Instrumental) Procedural (Nominal) accreditation. complementation. The level and intensity of participation depends on the capacities and inclination of the private sector in any given locality. agenda-setting. the study also recognizes that one dimension of private sector participation involves the expectations of psrs on one hand. Nominal or procedural participation. and their capacities to contribute on the other. advocacy and adoption. substantive participation may not contribute to empowerment if it is used by a limited number of private sector partners and is not supported by representative participation. Related to this. consultations. alternatives-raising. internal nomination. For example. agendasetting.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 53 Figure 1. It describes the possible motivations of psrs . At its best it becomes transformative and at worst it may result in collusion. alternatives-raising. feedback problem/project ID and analysis.

with transparency and accountability being the main expectation and contribution of psrs to planning and decision-making. cultural. This typology is not meant to represent absolute correlations nor is it hierarchical in the sense that one motivation is considered better or worse than another. ethnic. Possible Motivations of Private Sector Representatives (for validation) Terms (Indicative) First term or first time PSR First term or first time PSR Expectations of PSRs Contributions of PSRs Capacities/ Background From new PSO or new in development work From PSO with some experience in development work From PSOs with specific advocacies Learn from participation Share experiences Access to networks/ contact-building Provide diversity of views and experiences (geographic. below.54 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 2. The motivations are generic and applicable regardless of one’s background. The framework lists the basic skills that may be required of a psr. Figure 3. The chart converges towards the center. .) First term and beyond Beyond first term Ensuring transparency and accountability Most types of PSOs Push development agenda Contribute program From PSO with ideas and straexperience in tegies. class. etc. M&E development work Investment or development or implementation of projects From private business sector or PSOs involved in project implementation From PSOs representing basic sectors interested in access to government services First term and beyond Access to resources and information in engaging with government and acknowledges the importance of the “layperson’s” contributions to what is otherwise a technical process. recognizes that ppbime is a technical process that needs to be transparent to psrs and psos.

as long as the individual PSR has facilitation and process management skills Require. Core capacities required for participation in PPBIME Planning/ Programming Optimal ProcessLevel of based Participa. however. They contribute to a comprehensive and programmatic policy and program agenda that cuts across sectors. Some psrs provide an integrative view and are able to go beyond the concerns of the sector they represent.Orientation.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 55 Figure 3. support and venues for mentoring between old and new PSRs. this is not true throughout all development councils. counterparts in government also ments from rdc have same capacities Vertical. Unfortunately. continuing education for new PSRs.Technical tion Desired Capacities Analytical skills Ability or means to provide accurate information Budgeting Implementation Monitoring and Process-ManEvaluation agement (Horizontal and Vertical Integration) Processbased Technical Technical Process-based Process-based Substantive Technical Technical Substantive Financial planning skills Knowledge of budgeting procedures and sound financial practices Experience and track record Transparency and accountability (PCNC guidelines may be used for this) PSO with capacity for implementation/ clear systems in place Same as in PP Participation in planning and programming Some level of familiarity with concerned projects/ programs Consumer/ “watchdog” Experience in project implementation Facilitation skills Familiarity with PPBIME Experience in PPBIME and consensus building Desired PSO background Clear proConsumer/ gram areas “watchdog” and geographic base Any. Even in councils were there are psrs that are able to facilitate . Horizontal and Spatial Integration through Private Sector Participation The study reveals that there are psos that have the capacity for productive partnership with lgus in project implementation.

psrs. psp seems limited to planning and programming. are in a unique position to bridge the rdcs and ldcs. Coalitions and networks enable organizations to share limited resources and therefore increase their impact. The study shows that there is a need for some psrs to consult a greater number of people. It may be possible that psrs are merely taking their cue from how plans and programs are currently being prepared by national government. horizontal and spatial integration as a result of these tendencies. In the ppbime process. even at a limited scale. can provide the linkage required for integration. Organizations also share information and borrow capacities to enable them to be more effective in their chosen mandates. where psos are able to participate actively in all of ppbime. Coalitions also serve as a means for organizations to ensure accountability from each other in a collegial manner. with their limited resources. Not all psrs in either rdcs or ldcs are members of existing coalitions or networks. programs and projects. however. and gain more legitimacy for their advocacy. The case of Cebu City. psos also . They traverse various levels and are able to bring in information. also tend to focus on their sector’s concerns. however. Development planning bodies are permeable to psrs who are mobile stakeholders. There is great potential for psp. given their networks and alliances. as psrs have their own advocacy in terms of development policies. Development councils are not able achieve vertical. It is understandable that some psrs. There seems to be little scope for psrs to participate in bime at the moment.56 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION integration. Seasoned psos may provide capacity-building services to other pso partners in lgus that have yet to convene their ldcs. psrs. their counterparts in the development council. networks or development paradigms may only be responding to a well-entrenched system wherein national agencies. in bime given psrs usual orientation for exacting transparency and accountability from government. provides a case that highlights the potential of psp in all of ppbime. insights and advocacy agenda beyond sector or local interests. there are still some psrs that represent only their sector without much appreciation for their impact on other development imperatives.

Spatial integration can be also made possible by area-based networks of organizations in contiguous lgus. psos in local development may have different levels of capacities and involvement in development planning. private individuals engaged in business also came to represent what is called the “private sector. With an agreed vision statement the rdc will hopefully be able to frame its plans according to the needs of the region. the term “NGOs” needs to be clarified in the same manner. however. some degree of guarantee that the socio-economic needs and preferences of the populace are articulated. but refered primarily to the private business sector and professional organizations.” With the rise of non-profit organizations. After the enactment of the local government code. participation in development councils changed somewhat. ldcs and psos/psrs determine who can best contribute to the planning process. Because of the context in which private sector participation was originally conceptualized. . The study also notes that a shift from a technical ppbime to a more strategic approach to planning enables stakeholders to agree on strategies that are viable for government and transparent to psrs. There is therefore. as well as to lgus. instead of merely reflecting plans and programs determined by the priorities of national line agencies. The strong network of pso in all the regions provides an ideal venue for consultations/feedback on development concerns among psrs and their constituencies. A consensus and a refinement of the definition of what or who constitutes “private sector”3 was seen as necessary to help rdcs. _______________ 3 In the case of the Local Government Code.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 57 provide training and community organizing services to enable people’s organizations to advocate for convening barangay development councils and participate in the same. more and more non-profit development organizations found their way into local development councils to give expression to their chosen mandate of participatory and bottom-up development. Refining and Clarifying the Term “Private Sector” The term “private sector” as initially used by neda encompasses all entities outside government.

2. particularly with respect to qualification of psr nominees. 3. 1. after clarifications on the nature of and criteria for psrs. the study notes that the following should be done: 1. Orientation of psos on the lgc and local governance prior to accreditation 2. Innovations made to existing rules (especially those involving more openness) should be assessed with the view of strengthening the overall selection process by (i) ensuring the participation and accreditation of qualified psos and (ii) guaranteeing the right of accredited organizations to determine their representatives through a process of self selection. The following practices have already been undertaken in different rdcs and ldcs. Some of these practices may have been suggested or initiated by psos themselves. Managing Planning Process and Participation The study recognizes that participation is enhanced by the facilitative capacities of secretariats of the development councils. In other words. being essentially still “outsiders” to government and ppbime. psrs. will only reach a level of competence that the processes and . Assigning psrs as chairperson of sectoral committees and ensuring that there is always a psr co-chair in the full council. psos meeting with the lce at the start of the latter’s term to agree on a common direction for the socio-economic development of the province The Challenge of the PSP Conference: Up-Scaling the Impact of Private Sector Participation The psp study showed that psrs can only be as effective in contributing to development if the implementing agency has the appropriate mechanisms to ensure the integrity of the planning process. among others. Review of selection procedures to identify areas of improvement.58 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Concretely.

but may also deal with structural issues in the face of decentralization. current planning structures and processes may have to be scrutinized for their adaptability and adequacy for private sector participation. Visayas psrs and rdcs may eventually improve not only private sector participation in ppbime. Stakeholders are independent and competent 4.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 59 structures will allow. i. The presence of a very strong civil society in many areas in the Visayas contributes to the ability of its psrs to exact responsiveness from government institutions.e.. Moreover. A common vision is shared by all stakeholders The topics and cases chosen for the Visayas Forum on psp are envisioned to provide participants with enough ideas and concrete measures by which to up-scale psp in the Visayas. Leadership. Based on the examples of practices of localities with effective psp in ldcs (i.. the Local Chief Executive appreciates participation 2. Policy for private sector participation is present and clearly articulated 5. . The best that they can do at this point is to try to influence the way rdcs and ldcs conduct ppbime processes so that better planning and implementation can result. all the types-levels of participation are present) the following conditions are crucial: 1.e. Technical and administrative infrastructure / planning staff/ technocracy/ bureaucracy is present and strong 3.

academe. However. proper representation becomes a crucial issue especially _______________ 4 Prepared and presented by Dr.e. Fernando Aldaba during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes. the terms ngos and pos were used to refer to all organizations outside the sphere of national and local government units.. in a democracy. In this kind of definition. terminologies do not matter as long as there is effective participation among key stakeholders in the development process. NGOs and POs are called private voluntary organizations (PVOs) and this is why they are categorized as private sector groups. This broad definition also captures the business and profit-oriented institutions. However. in the Local Government Code of 1991.The “Private Sector”: Differentiating Business. media. NGOs and POs4 Introduction: the Private Sector in RDC and LDC THE MEANING OF private sector participation in this conference obviously refers to a wide range of organizations and institutions outside the government which include but are not limited to business. Private sector participation has been explicitly used in Regional Development Council documents.5 people’s organizations (pos). 5 In some countries. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. state agencies and other bureaucracies. non-government organizations (ngos). private sector is a generic term used to distinguish groups not public in nature i. etc. For some people. 60 .

Redefining Terminologies The most recent categorization of social institutions. The objective of this short paper is to contribute in clarifying the various interpretations of what is the private or the non-government sector.g. The state usually has the authority to formulate and implement laws but at the same time has the responsibility to provide services and public goods to its citizens. the state is typically composed of an elected government and an executive branch. etc. A competitive market supposedly un- . In the case of the Philippines. The state In democracies. The market is also associated with the pricing systems where the forces of supply and demand determine a competitive price for a good or a service. It also has fiscal authority in that it can exact taxes and duties from its population and also allocate revenues according to its priorities.. pickets. which many sectors accept is the state-market-civil society distinction. These enterprises are aggregately called the private sector. definitions become critical especially when the actual selection of representatives is done. we have the three major branches of government—the legislative. media barrage. The market The market typically refers to the economic domain primarily driven by profit-maximizing firms as economics textbooks would usually describe. executive and the judiciary. The market is also the domain where goods and services are sold by business firms. Thus. The undp calls these three major sectors as the “domains” of governance. they may resort to other means not always legal to be able to transmit their ideas or proposals e. mobilizations. Articulation of interests is a primary role for these groups and once they are not adequately represented in developing bodies.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 61 when certain groups feel marginalized and dominated by others. It also controls the military and armed forces so that it can effectively rule and secure its territory. demonstrations.

civil society. the National Confederation of Cooperatives (natcco) even has a political party and can also be in the realm of the state. Ford Foundation .7 Civil society Outside the state and the market is the civil society sphere. pos. In the case of the Philippines. Thus. Many business foundations while technically in the civil society sphere are still controlled by their mother corporations. Cooperatives are both market and civil society.. and socio-civic groups.62 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION leashes the entrepreneurial drive6 of the citizenry so that economic activities are developed and sustained creating more capital and more employment. “Hybrid sectors” One cannot neatly categorize all organizations and institutions according to the three spheres or domains. have their roots from civil society organizations particularly the ngos. which won seats in government. While it is outside the state. Government corporations for example straddle both the market and government spheres. the market can be driven not only by local business but also by foreign business such as multinational corporations. Many party list organizations. is “the part of society that connects individuals with the public realm and the state—a political face of society”. Thus this would refer to various institutions and organizations which are usually driven by values and causes (sometimes inappropriately categorized as nonprofit motives) or specific interests. media. 8 There are business foundations though that became fully autonomous e. However. Civil society is typically defined as the “organized” citizenry.g. (See Annex A for an elaboration on ngos in the Philippines). civil society is comprised by ngos. academic institutions. faith based groups. _______________ 6 7 Economists call this as “animal spirit.8 Trade unions are market organizations but they can also be classified as a civil society group.” Singapore and Hongkong are countries where foreign businesses drive the economy. There are some groups that fall in between two or sometimes even three spheres. according to the undp.

Civil society provides the foundations of liberty.” The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum. “Managing Partnership.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 63 The Specific Roles and Interests of the Partners Each sector plays an important role toward the resolution of the issue or the promotion of sustainable human development in general. the provision of social and physical infrastructure and other public goods. on the other hand. human and social) and trade (of goods and services) that create employment and build the foundations for greater prosperity. . groups in the three spheres differ in their major orientation or driving motivation. Public Sector. The public sector provides the framework for economic. While Figure 1. Business. political and social rights that are the bases for regulation. advocacy for democratic participation and governance and voluntarism in social delivery. Business and Civil Society Contributions to Development PUBLIC SECTOR Foundations of equity. safety nets and national security. (See Figure 1 for an illustration) As also discussed in the previous sections. is the engine of economic growth and development through investments (physical. justice and peacekeeping through: LAW Regulations Physical infrastructure Social Infrastructure Safety nets Peace and Protection BUSINESS Foundations of economic growth and development through: CIVIL SOCIETY Foundations of liberty. responsibility and self-expression through: TRADE Employment Human resource development Supply chain Setting of standards Social investments Provision of goods and services SOCIAL COHESION Education Legitimisation Service delivery Culture Individual development and self-expression Source: Rox Tennyson (1998). the promotion of culture. responsibility and self-expression through social cohesion.

it is important to recognize this especially when development issues are being discussed and debated. According to asean statistics. some academics ventured into categorizing the driving force for the key sectors. Official statistics show that 39. Provision of Social services Market/Private Sector Profit Maximization Productive Investments and Employment Generation Civil Society Common Cause or Shared Value Protection of Human Rights and Promotion of Participation Many can come up with other formulations. the crux of the matter is that the interests and motivations of the groups under the three spheres definitely differ. The Context of the Three Spheres in the Philippines: Partnerships in Promoting Development Poverty Situation and Regional Disparities in the Philippines Poverty Incidence has remained high in the Philippines. Balisacan (2003) clearly shows that poverty in the rural areas is still relatively higher than the urban areas.4% of the population in 2000 was earning incomes below the poverty line. However. Definitely. and some will even debate the categorization above. For example: Sector Motivation/ Driving Force Public Welfare Promoted State Power and Authority Rule of Law. And thus. specific groups are able to transcend narrow vested interests in favor of a compromise or in the pursuit of public welfare like those mentioned above. Poverty has remained high because of the failure of the country to sustain economic . it is not entirely true that collaboration is impossible for there may be overlapping interests and motivation.6% of our population earn incomes below US$1 per day and 46.4% below US$2 per day. However. 14.64 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION one can say that it is difficult to pin down the main motivations of specific organizations.

regional (15 regions). The improvement and development of the lives of the community members also redound ultimately to the fulfillment of the various needs and interests of these key stakeholders.Many factors account for these disparities—natural resources. C. municipal. Luzon. governance. Tagalog. Visayas) contribute two thirds of the total output of the Philippines. Convergence means the trend towards reducing disparities among regional and local economies. The concept and relevance of inter-sectoral partnership holds true also at the regional. asset distribution and property rights. local and municipal levels of a country like the Philippines. The Aim for Convergence10 through Partnerships Globalization of markets coupled with revolutionary advances in communication and information technology has brought about a new and more complex environment in the world.11 An example of multi-stakeholder partnership at the municipal level is given below. participation. The Philippine developmental situation amidst this more complicated world needs greater social responsibility and better governance among various sectors of a nation and the entire world. S. and barangay. 1987 and 2000. geography. high inequality and high population growth rates. and W. it is not at all impossible to find commonalities among all of them in terms of objectives for the over-all welfare of the community. .INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 65 growth. Note that only five regions (ncr. economic prosperity. peace and order. A “win-win” situation is usually created such that social welfare is increased as individual interests are satisfied.. democracy. declining productivities. and en_______________ Traditional politics based on patron-client relations. infrastructure. economic growth and development also vary greatly among the regions. 11 The political units in the Philippines include the national (whole country). As many social scientists have observed over the past decade. See Annex B for specific gdp share per region rates for 1975.9 weather. issues and problems cannot be effectively resolved without the involvement of key stakeholders. etc. human capital. While each stakeholder has its own agenda or interest. provincial (72). In the Philippines. C.e. Community development (i. 10 9 .

f e n (e. Figure 2. v ns ies go tio sid ity ula sub tabil reg s& oun tive acc cen cy & in ren spa ance tran vern o in g s ce ur so & s itie ci l fa s g rtn NGO romotins & pa p link ag e n g atio s” inin iliz ct tra mob roje t ity en dp un tion & o nm mm iza ho ro co an eli s nvi g liv e or ve su . A Local (Municipal) Level Inter-sectoral Partnership General Framework GENERAL FRAMEWORK PO m & em de be v’t rs liv .y for ers ello or com hip wc mu mo or adv nity bil n) o de izatio issu cacy o v’t.g ject sf mb .g. nv s ge al blin or na re m &e ’t. ag e raria mbers n re form COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT • Economic Prosperity • Democratic Governance • People’s Participation • Social Cohesion/Peace & Order • Environmental Management & Sustainability s ua n io & U LGip ad le sh er MULTI-STAKEHOLDER INTER-SECTORAL Collaboration/Partnerships •Specific Issue Advocacy (HIV-AIDS) • Specific Project/Program (Yellowcorn) • Specific Social Service Delivery (Immunization) ’t. takes the lead in investments and provides business linkages with the other sectors. e ati i s on rn of a t i lte “a cy cip ca arti vo p ad . pos on the other hand commit their membership in project and program mobilization and ensures that benefits form community development accrue to them. hi p me eliho se mb od rv ice er pro s( me e.66 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION vironmental sustainability) is achieved as various sectors in a municipality collaborate on an endeavor whether it be issue advocacy or an economic enterprise (See figure 2 for an illustration). Other civil society sectors like media offer services that are crucial for the dissemination of accurate and truthful information while the church acts as a “moral conscience” of the community. The lgu provides the leadership and the enabling environment and contributes relevant resources and facilities to the common project or program. (e s hip ers OCS sectoral concerns & dev’t. on the other hand. ngos act as intermediaries between sectors and catalyze partnerships and coalitions for the betterment of the community. The private business sector.g s of m . The academe also assists in generating and imparting new knowledge and providing relevant education and training for the members of the community. inve s s cap sec ines ital) tments tor s lin s k pa in the ages yin com and g mu oth th nity ers e rig ht ta xe s PS c te i hn l ca ex rti pe se . participation in governance group mobilization advocacy of issues accurate & truthful information (media) ethics & morality (church) knowledge (academe) job c re inco ation & me g phila enera nthro tion (inc ludin phy & g hu s bu man oc.

In development planning. the interests and concerns of these key stakeholders will be heard and that pragmatic solutions and strategies will be formulated.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 67 While the process of building multi-stakeholder partnership is painstaking in terms of time and resources. there should be a more accurate definition of the key sectors that should be involved in the process. Proposal for Redefinition Why a redefinition? To make local planning more effective and participatory. There is also a necessity for more solidarity and understanding among these various stakeholders so that a more peaceful society can be attained. 2004). The following are the key reasons why a redefinition is important: • The need for adequate representation among various groups and sectors (democratic requirements). Intra and inter-regional disparities are major reasons for armed conflict in the country (Aldaba. In reality. it is the key towards the promotion of development and eventual convergence in the Philippines. Because of resource constraints especially in countries like the Philippines. A more complete picture of the local situation is essential for more effective and precise planning. As long . then these groups will be able to provide the necessary information and data to development planning. it will be relevant to differentiate and disaggregate the term “private and/or non-government sectors” so that various constituents can be adequately represented. In this way. • The need to get a more comprehensive view of regional and local situation (information inputs). The call of the times is for closer collaboration and cooperation among the various sectors of society to solve these problems. there is still an increasing number of complex development issues to confront as globalization sets in. • The need to manage possible conflicts arising from development programs and projects (implementation issues). there is a need to optimize resource use and to maximize contribution from various sectors. If the key sectors are involved.

It is proposed that the three general categories be articulated in accreditation procedures adopted by the relevant bodies. i. • Be aware and sensitive to the nature and dynamics of the three major sectors and identify their key groups. It is impossible to get all sectors to be represented in the planning processes. the critical partners in the development process may be selected. private sector and civil society will help disaggregate these sectors among key stakeholders to capture the essential constituency of the specific region or locality. With adequate representation. • Select possible partners in the over-all development processes. Another tool that can be used is political mapping. managing them will be easier if there are formal links with the sectors involved in the issue.68 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION as key sectors in the formulation of a project are represented. the implementation process will be facilitated and possible conflicts may be averted. This is important to be able to select the right groups for the development planning process. functions and roles in the local and regional context. Partnerships are important in sustainable human development. their contribution to development. their benefit from participation in development process and their political and economic influence. Awareness of the three categories. Specific Recommendations • Refine the definition of private sector used by the regional and local development councils by using the tri-sector paradigm. . arise. state. If ever certain problems.e. but the pre-requisite is to accurately identify key stakeholders and determine how they relate with each other functionally and in the context of local socio-cultural frameworks. maximize resources available in the region or locality.. • The need to foster multi-stakeholder approaches to development. • Use stakeholder analysis—list key stakeholders. By doing stakeholder analysis and political mapping. all possible sources of resources (financial and human) can be tapped.

2003. Ateneo de Manila University Press. Aldaba. and Fowler. “NGO Sustainability”. Consensus can at times and will be difficult but the aim of multi-stakeholder partnerships is to promote the general public welfare. one sector equates their own interest with the public welfare. Governance for Sustainable Human Development. Philippine Council for NGO Certification. . Challenges and Choices: A Strategic Study of Philippine NGOs. 2000. Aldaba. Aldaba. Quezon City. Balisacan. 2002. T. unpublished paper. F. T. T. Public Policy. Alegre. Trends and Traditions. Doing Good and Being Good: Aspects of Development NGO Governance in the Philippines. Makati City. Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs. T. (ed). London. F. Poverty and Inequality in The Philippine Economy: Development Policies and Challenges. Regional Underdevelopment and Armed Conflict. this may not be impossible. References Aldaba. 1996. A. 2003. A. et al. Third World Quarterly. With mechanisms of adequate representation and venues for constant dialogue. A. 1997.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 69 Building partnerships is the key towards sustainable human development but accurately identifying key stakeholders is the most important foundation of all. 2004. F. Often times. undated United Nations development Programme. Every sector must transcend its interest so that public interest may prevail. Philippine NGOs and Multi-stakeholder Partnerships: Three Case Studies in Voluntas. NGO Self-Regulation: The Philippine Experience. F.

The other part of the paper is where I proposed a system of integration of planning processes and documents from the national down to the municipal level. regional planning was mainly directed towards servicing the requirements of national development. politics and practice of land use planning in the Philippines. THERE was a project funded by usaid on “A Study of Regional and Local Planning Processes”. The first half of that paper entitled “Review and Prospects for Land Use Planning in the Philippines under the Local Government Code of 1991” is a critique of the philosophy. Rey Crystal. Ernesto Serote during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes. one of which was written by myself. Another paper writer. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. hinted at a need to connect the regional plan with lower level plans because up to the time that he wrote the paper. this is a good time to revisit the proposal. Crystal called for a change in regional perspectives from that of looking upward to the national government to one that looks downward to the _______________ 12 Prepared and presented by Prof. Nothing came out of that proposed integration. 70 . The study came up with five (5) papers. Now that the gtz-funded dpsp seeks to operationalize a concept of integration of planning systems. In the light of the devolution policy brought about by the passage of the lgc.Private Sector Participation in Regional and Local Development Planning Processes12 IN 1992.

a possible framework for effecting integration of planning and plans. a rising standard of living. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform. Specifically. In this context. the State shall protect .” Another Constitutional provision. states that: “The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services. Section 9 of Article II. especially the underprivileged. integrated planning processes. a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people. and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. promote full employment. and an improved quality of life for all. the possible points of entry for private sector participation are indicated. Constitutional and Legal Mandates The foundation of public sector planning can be found in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. This is to see how at higher levels. and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all. hierarchical planning structures. In addition.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 71 local governments. Section 1. However. four aspects of integration were looked into. and hierarchy of plan outputs. In this paper. through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources. It declares that: “The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities. which is also a good basis for public sector planning is Article XII. Declaration of Principles. both vertically and horizontally can be laid out. namely: constitutional and legal mandates. local governments particularly in their local planning can be assisted and strengthened to become not only self-reliant communities but also effective partners in national development. income and wealth.

and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. use.” . Individuals and private groups. to wit: “The use of property bears a social function. ownership. there is a corresponding condition. In addition Article XIII Section 1 provides: “The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity. But further down in Section 6 of Article XII. equity and social justice is not being served. and political inequalities. shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. Private enterprises. reduce social.72 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices. shall have the right to own. the State shall regulate the acquisition. it can be noted that although private enterprises have to be promoted. It is also a tacit recognition of the role of private enterprises as engines of economic growth. and disposition of property and its increments. and operate economic enterprises. all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. cooperatives.” It is obvious from this provision that the anchor of the country’s economic development and policies shall be regional development. cooperatives. subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. and similar collective organizations. The justification and rationale for public intervention in society is derived from this statement. and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. including corporations. the State reserves the right and authority to intervene when the interest of redistribution. including corporations. To this end. and similar collective organizations. establish. In the pursuit of these goals. economic.” Hence even in the use of private property.

Within their respective territorial jurisdictions. Turning to the mandates pertaining to planning in local areas. acquire. on the other. the structure of regional planning was laid down in Presidential Decree No. the preservation and enrichment of culture. as well as powers necessary. By virtue of loi 1350. the State also reserves certain rights to intervene in the way people use. The nluc has counterparts in both the regional and provincial levels. Focusing on the legal mandates on land use and physical planning. The same structure with certain modifications introduced every now and then still exists. or incidental for its efficient and effective governance. among others. no equivalent structure at the municipal/city level exists. The general welfare clause states that: “Every local government unit shall exercise the powers expressly granted. and those which are essential to the promotion of the general welfare. local government units shall ensure and support. the State promotes and guarantees individual rights. those necessarily implied therefrom. among other things. appropriate.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 73 Thus. That is the regulation of land use. coordinates the development and periodic revision of national and regional physical framework plans and prescribes standards and guidelines for physical framework planning. enhance the right of the people to a . while on one hand. 1 of 1972 or the integrated reorganization plan for the Philippine government. the National Land Use Committee (nluc) was created which. which up to now is still the legal basis for establishing the structures and practice of land use planning in the Philippines particularly at the national and regional levels. use and disposition—only one has been devolved to local governments. the Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160) is the definitive guide. Of the four transactions about property that the State regulates—acquisition. Much earlier. promote health and safety. we cite an old Letter of Instruction (loi) issued by President Marcos in August 1983. From this provision the rationale for comprehensive land use planning in all levels is derived. ownership. The mandate of local governments can be deduced from Sec. privileges and freedoms. enjoy and dispose of property. 16 of the said law.

appropriate and self-reliant technology. . Quoting in full paragraph a: “Each local government unit shall have a comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan to be initiated by its development council and approved by its sanggunian. in Sec. they need to have the clup as a framework or guide. enhanced right to a balanced ecology. maintain peace and order. The promotion of the general welfare on the other hand can be achieved not only through land use planning but also by comprehensive development planning. human settlements.” It can be noted here that the definition of general welfare and public interest has been expanded to include references to preservation and enrichment of culture. that the requirements for food production. and industrial expansion shall be taken into consideration in the preparation of such plans. enhance economic prosperity and social justice. promote full employment among their residents. and social justice. improve public morals.74 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION balanced ecology. 106 of the same law. 20 of the lgc pertains to reclassification of lands but scanning down to paragraph c. Thus. The law is clear on the distinction between the plan that local governments will use for regulating the use of land and the plan that they will use in promoting general welfare. in conformity with existing laws.” This then becomes the legal basis for the continuing concern for land use planning. and preserve the comfort and convenience of their inhabitants. Sec. continue to prepare their respective comprehensive land use plans enacted through zoning ordinances which shall be the primary and dominant bases for the future use of land resources: Provided. there is a reference to a comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan. we come across the provision that says: “The local government units shall. For lgus to be able to exercise their devolved function of regulating the use of land. encourage and support the development of appropriate and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities. For this purpose.

The importance of the political component cannot be overemphasized. there is strong coordination and vertical linkage between national and regional levels because the regions. municipal. At the local level. are administrative extensions of the national government. Not all lgus are represented in the rdc. the provincial-municipal linkages are effected through the automatic review powers of the provincial government over all actions taken by municipal governments. The regional-local linkage is effected through the membership in the rdc of the provincial governors and mayors of chartered cities. there are two components of the planning structure—political and technical. nothing will be done. or barangay level. shall assist the corresponding sanggunian in setting the direction of economic and social development.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 75 the development council at the provincial. The structure that ought to be doing planning at all levels is given below: Table 1.” Planning Structures At any level of administration or political unit. . Planning Structures Political National Regional Provincial City/Municipal Legislature NEDA Board Regional Development Council Sangguniang Panlalawigan Provincial Development Council Sangguniang Panlungsod/ Sangguniang Bayan City/ Municipal Development Council Technical NEDA Secretariat NRO RLUC PPDO PLUC C/MPDO At present. The review and approval of land use plans and zoning ordinances by the provincial legislative council after a review by the pluc is an example of such vertical linkage. city. Without it. and coordinating development efforts within its territorial jurisdiction. It has the authority to use and spend public money. except for armm.

A Study on Regional and Local Planning Systems. Book II. the proposed integration of plan documents is shown below. The leftmost column pertains to the physical framework plans from the national down to the municipal/city level which have to be integrated. concerns the comprehensive development plans. A dotted line is placed _______________ 13 Crystal. The second column on the other hand. This is illustrated below: Figure 1. December 1992. .76 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Planning Processes and Plans Crystal in his paper13 tried to outline a vertical integration of national-regional and local planning. Integrated Planning Process In practice. it is the national-regional integration that materialized. “The Regional Perspective Under the 1991 Local Government Code”. The participation of local governments is limited to submitting their wish list of projects which usually do not make it to the national budget. Meanwhile. LDAP Project. Rey Estanislao.

This is an area of concern that remains unresolved.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 77 between the regional and provincial levels because under the devolution policy. Outside of those devolved services. Serote. it is implied that lgus wanting to have the services implemented in their own territories must coordinate with higher level authorities. Patrimony and Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines” by E.M. programs and projects. lgus ought to be given a latitude of freedom to determine their priorities. These agency-developed and implemented plans and programs are not integrated into and made an essential part of the area level plan. Section 17 of the lgc mentions the devolved services that lgus will have to perform. Hierarchy of Plans Source: “Toward an Integrated Planning System in the Philippines”. The third column pertaining to national agency plans is somewhat problematic because although national agencies participate in the neda Board and in regional area planning. Figure 2. . The rightmost column illustrates that there are programs and projects that lgus are not in a position to implement all by themselves. excerpts from Chapter 4 of the book “Property. they however implement plans and programs that are developed by their national head offices.

loss of cropland. 54. NGOs. Articles 54 and 55 of the irr of the Local Government Code provide: Art. Zoning as the tool for land use regulation has limited effectiveness if the lgu is not supported by higher levels. Therefore. the lgu officials themselves represent the propertied class who are out to protect their interests. the lgus cannot stand up in the face of large landowners. formulate. its impact upon the people and the commu- . should not be left to the devices of lgus alone. there will be a uniform set of policies for certain land uses so that when the lgus try to enforce these land use regulations. or forest cover. The current practice of National Government Agencies (ngas) trying to devise. (b) NGAs or GOCCs authorizing or involved in planning and implementation of any project or program that may cause pollution. rangeland. Often. regulatory policies should be consistent across political and administrative levels because every piece of land has a unique municipal address. implement programs using their own resources without coordinating with the clup can be cited as another rationale for vertical integration. Mandatory Consultations . climatic change. POs.(a) ”All NGAs shall conduct periodic consultations with appropriate lgus. any violator will understand that the whole facility of the national government will be against him. By having vertical linkages between plans.78 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Vertical Integration of Physical Framework Plans Since the physical framework plan should be used as a guide for the regulation of land use. and extinction of animal or plant species shall consult with lgus. and other sectors concerned and explain the goals and objectives of the project or program. local governments in their exercise of their regulatory power should be backed up all the way by the national government in order to be effective. NGOs. The lgc has now made it mandatory for ngas to consult with lgus when they want to implement programs in the latter’s territory. Land use regulation particularly through the use of zoning ordinances however. or else. depletion of non-renewable resources. and other concerned sectors of the community before any project or program is implemented in their respective jurisdictions.

Within the lgu territory.” Therefore. ancestral and public as depicted in the figure below. and the measures that will be undertaken to prevent or minimize the adverse effects thereof. there could possibly be three domains: private.” Art. . including duly certified budgetary allocations and expenditures. It requires that ngas should now treat lgus as their partners not their subordinates. the management of the other domains shall be exercised jointly by the lgu and whichever national agencies are responsible. 55. This change in perspective is necessary if the co-management principle is to be effectively operationalized. Except in the private domain for which the lgu is solely responsible. As explicitly stated in Section 3(i) of the lgc: “Local government units shall share with the National Government the responsibility in the management and maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction. Coordination with lgus . Another graphical illustration of co-management is shown below. If the territory extends from the uplands to the coastal areas.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 79 nity in terms of environmental or ecological balance. Co-management is a modality whereby lgus can manage their entire territory even if certain portions of their territory are under the responsibility of national agencies. monthly reports. city. or municipality shall furnish the LCE concerned. subject to the provisions of this Code and national policies. for his information and guidance. the management of certain sections of the territory could then be done by the lgu alone or in a co-management arrangement with national agencies. (b) NGAs and GOCCs with field units or branches in a province. lgus’ authority should not be limited to the private domain but should embrace the entire territorial jurisdiction. They shall ensure the participation of lgus both in planning and implementation of said national projects.(a) “NGAs with project implementation functions shall coordinate with one another and with lgus concerned in the discharge of these functions.” The preceding rules require a shift in perspective.

. But if they learn to manage their areas of responsibility jointly with the lgus that have the territorial jurisdiction of those areas. Figure 4 Co-management Illustrated Source: Fellizar. The Three Domains within the LGU Territory Figure 4.80 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 3. much less the regions.3-3. et. 1997. as adapted in “Legal and Jurisdictional Guidebook for Coastal Resource Management in the Philippines”. The truth of the matter is the national government. through the national line agencies. DENR/DILG/DA-BFAR/CRMP. .al. they might be able to perform their functions more effectively. do not have the resources to be able to regulate the use of land and water and other natural resources within the vast national territory. p.

the horizontal integration of medium term and short-term development plans and investment programs with their respective physical framework plans is a must. it is not all that necessary for short-term and medium-term development plans to be vertically integrated. the investment program and the annual capital budget at the regional. Horizontal integration at the regional level The Medium-Term Regional Development Plan. The discussion shall focus more on the substantive elements and less on the timing and sequencing of activities. The following subsections will elaborate on the horizontal linkages between the physical framework plan and the medium-term development plan. provincial. This is to give substance to the principle of local autonomy. This approach is based on the notion that land and other resources must be used to achieve the different sectoral growth targets. The land use and physical dimensions of the plan were invariably treated as incidental to and consisted mainly of the land and infrastructure requirements of the social and economic sectors. the Regional Development Plan (rdp) served as the guide for coordinating the various sectoral development programs and projects in the region. For almost a decade prior to the formulation of the Regional Physical Framework Plan (rpfp). the Regional Development Investment Program (rdip) and the Annual Investment Plan (aip). The focus of planning then was more on what resources and how much of these resources .INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 81 Horizontal Integration of Plans Whereas it is absolutely necessary for the physical framework plans to be integrated vertically. Although this is advantageous in the sense that politicians will now be able to identify themselves with the plans they are going to implement. and municipal levels. Each rdp prepared since 1982 has had a 4-year or 5-year planning horizon and covered the economic and social sectors. However. This long-term stability and continuity is assured with the long-term physical framework plan in place. The argument for this is that the development plans are coterminous with elected officials and are likely to change with them. there is nonetheless a need to provide a measure of stability and continuity to otherwise disjointed political programs.

The spatial and sectoral development strategies are also conceived for a minimum of 6 years. For example. The Regional Settlements Plan provides ideas for the identification of social programs and projects and the location and allocation of support infrastructures.82 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION may be developed and exploited and less on what areas may be conserved and protected. rehabilitation and protection of vital natural resources. The general objectives of the rpfp are comprehensive enough and will be relevant for a considerably long period of time. land (and other natural resources) may no longer merely serve to satisfy sectoral requirements but also to limit. The objectives. coterminous with the electoral terms of national officials. The rdip is finally broken down into the aip which becomes part of the annual budget. With the rpfp already in place. conservation. The physical development policies covering the four major components of the rpfp will likewise serve as the framework for the formulation of specific short-term sectoral programs and projects. This will help operationalize the Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21). The Regional Protected Areas Plan underlies all sectoral programs and projects having to do with preservation. What substantive component of the rpfp can be translated into specific aspects of the rdp? Actually all aspects of the rpfp can be used as a basis for the preparation of the rdp. constrain and shape future development. The Regional Infrastructure Plan serves as a basis for the infrastructure support component of the rdp which in turn is translated into the rdip. But beyond the requirement that all sectoral development programs and projects impinging on the natural ecosystems must incorporate environmental conservation measures. and contribution to the attainment of the long-term development goals and strategies. the Protected Areas Plan component of the rpfp pursues active conservation and . It seeks to build into sectoral development programs conservation measures and practices in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. strategies and targets of the rdp should therefore be tested and evaluated as to their consistency with. the Regional Production Land Use Plan has strong influence on the formulation of programs and projects in the economic or productive sectors. The rdp now becomes one of the implementing instruments of the rpfp.

Sectoral agencies having to do with land and other natural resources may formulate and adopt their own long-term and medium-term plans. An alternative arrangement would be to establish a “development impact” monitoring system at neda’s regional office itself. The purpose of impact monitoring is to capture changes in the social. This resource information system provides data for future revisions of the rpfp and the formulation of other development plans. In any case they . Such sectoral plans must be placed within the framework of the rpfp. Sectoral Plans. Horizontal Integration at the Provincial Level The Provincial Physical Framework Plan (ppfp) and Provincial Comprehensive Plans. The monitored changes may also be intercepted at the provincial and municipal levels. monitoring of environmental change to furnish feedback information into an inter-agency resource information system. economic and physical environment within given intervals of time—usually longer than one year. A system must be set up in such a way that changes on account of planned and unplanned development as a result of public and private investments are properly captured. The sectoral agencies concerned are linked to the rpfp process in at least two ways. Such a monitoring system is an indispensable link in the medium-term and long-term planning cycles (See Figure 5).INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 83 rehabilitation projects in severely degraded areas as “development projects” in their own right. This will supplement the project monitoring system already in place. Fewer still are those who have prepared comprehensive development plans (cdp). The first contribution of the sectoral agencies is in the form of sectoral data and information as an input to the formulation or reformulation of regional development goals and strategies in the rpfp. The latter role includes among others. Provinces that do have a cdp inevitably prepare investment programs as the main instrument for plan implementation. The second role of sectoral agencies in the rpfp process is that of implementing the particular components of the rpfp that are within their functional responsibility through their sectoral programs and projects. Not all provinces have approved ppfps.

small-scale mining. however. In fact. Figure 5 Horizontal Integration of Plans at Regional Level should endeavor to have their ppfps approved and then dovetail their programs and projects with the ppfp. One significant advancement towards devolution of planning powers to provinces is the assignment of the responsibility to the provincial government of implementing laws on the environment and natural resources within their territorial jurisdiction. and mini-hydro electric power generation. It also involves development programs such as reforestation. currently performed by Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board.84 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 5. . the function of adjudicating conflicts arising from the implementation of local zoning ordinances. should now be devolved to provincial governments. Indirectly through its power of automatic review of municipal legislations. Also. it includes implementation of laws on environmental protection. Natural resource management as an added power of provincial governments can apply to conservation of public lands. Land use regulation in privately owned lands shall continue to be exercised by city and municipal governments. the provincial government can also exercise control over municipal land use planning.

This system to capture changes in the over-all environment may enlist the participation of the cenros and penros in as far as monitoring changes on the public domain is concerned. Finally. a provincial development impact monitoring system shall be set up by the provincial government. Figure 6. Provincial Planning and Development System . After two 3year cycles. the feedback information may be used to revise the physical framework plan. city and municipal assessors to capture changes in the land use on account of private investments and of the City and Municipal Development Offices (cpdos and mpdos) regarding changes brought about by public sector investments. Evaluation of the new information derived from the monitoring system shall take place every three years to assist in the mid-term revision of the 6-year provincial comprehensive plan.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 85 The settlements plan and infrastructure plan components of the ppfp shall guide the planning of the social sectors in the pdp and the location and allocation of investment programs and infrastructure projects. Participation of pos and ngos should likewise be encouraged. the provincial.

the municipal/city plan has been prepared without the benefit of a framework plan for a wider area—province or region.86 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Horizontal Integration at the Municipal Level The Municipal Comprehensive Land Use Plan and the Comprehensive Development Plan. they are in the best position to effect the desired land use patterns and mixes through detailed land use planning and enactment of zoning ordinances and adoption of other regulatory measures. However. In as much as cities and municipalities have land use regulatory powers. cities and municipalities need to prepare a 3-year comprehensive development plan that will be translated into 3-year investment programs and annual investment budgets (See Figure 7). Because the long-term comprehensive land use plan is essentially a locational guide for land using activities it can be directly translated into a long-term zoning plan and ordinance. Figure 7. In effect. each town plan is independent of the next. Detailed procedures for zoning are already available elsewhere. Also. At the base of the hierarchy of planning processes and plan documents is the city or municipal planning system. Municipal Planning and Development System . Majority of towns and cities already have their plans.

spur rural industrialization. Linkages with POs and NGOs—“LGUs may enter into joint ventures and such other cooperative engagements with PO and NGO to engage in the delivery of certain basic services. in addition to treating national government as their partners are also called upon to treat ngos as their partners. and enhance the economic and social well-being of the people. civil society. financial or otherwise. or cultural projects to be implemented within its territorial jurisdiction. Concluding Observations It should be noted that the preceding presentation covered the existing public sector planning systems and their possible integration from the regional to local levels. to such POs and ngos for economic.” Sec. through its LCE and with the concurrence of the sanggunian concerned. environmental. promote ecological balance. socially-oriented.” Sec. Assistance to POs and NGOs —“An LGU may. 35. capability-building.” These provisions if properly complied with will eventually put into effect the three-folding image of society where government. therefore. Role of POs and NGOs—“LGUs shall promote the establishment and operations of PO and NGO to become active partners in the pursuit of local economy. Private sector participation. 36.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 87 Private Sector Participation The final point in the topic is that lgus. and to develop local enterprises designed to improve productivity and income. With improved practice. The possibility for psp in various stages and aspects of the system is hard to discern from this vantage point. diversify agriculture. and livelihood projects. The role of ngos in lgus is contained in the following provisions of the Local Government Code: Sec. 34. and the private sector will have their balanced share. provide assistance. the convergence between the three sectors can be enlarged for the general welfare of the citizens. can only be inferred from the .

psp is embedded in the structure of the rdc. (See Figure 9).88 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION explicit provisions of specific laws that define the structure and membership of the planning bodies requiring psr. psos are also represented in the technical component through their mandatory Figure 8. both in the Council proper and in the Executive Committee. At the local level. psrs are also deployed among the different sectoral and support committees according to their area of expertise and advocacy. (Refer to Figure 8). RDC Structure . the private sector likewise maintains visibility in the political component of the ldc. At the regional level.

A more detailed elaboration of this point is made in the next paper where psp is assessed in the context of the whole spectrum of ppbime.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 89 membership in the Local Special Bodies and through voluntary participation in the activities of the sectoral and functional committees. LDC Structure Political component . The specific roles of psos in various stages of the planning and development process can only be inferred from the different inputs and outputs needed for each stage of the process. One psr also sits in the Executive Committee of the ldc. Figure 9.

90 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION References “A Study on Regional and Local Planning Systems” Book II. Ernesto M. Property. Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160).” UP SURP. Patrimony and Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines. Philippine Agenda 21 Handbook. Center for Alternative Development Initiatives. February 1998. Serote. . Perlas. LDAP/USAID Philippines. Quezon City: UP SURP/Planades. Serote. See Chapters 4. 5 and 9. January 1993. Ernesto M. Romulo Gaffud and Ernesto M. “Planning in Local Governance: A Concise Planning Handbook. any edition. Philippine Constitution of 1987. 2004. See separate papers of Rey Estanislao Crystal. any edition. July 2003. Nicanor et al. Serote. Inc. Associates in Rural Development.

_______________ 14 Prepared and presented by Prof. In some parts of the paper however. In this second paper let us take a closer look at the ppbime processes to see what opportunities for substantive. and 2) investment capital in the hands of government is relatively small compared with private capital. I revert to the generic sense of the private sector as referring to non-government sectors. the discussion will focus more on the local level with which I am more familiar. Ernesto Serote during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. technical—and perhaps even political— participation by the private sector are available. The private sector shall be split into private business and civil society. consistent with the three-folding image of society. Also. Rationale for Private Participation Of the many possible reasons why the private sector should participate in development planning and management.Opportunities for Private Sector Participation in PPBIME14 IN MY FIRST paper I sketched out the planning structures and broad planning processes at the regional and local levels and the formal role the private sector plays in those structures and processes. 91 . let us look at just two: 1) the government is not the sole determinant of the development agenda.

the role of each major player is set in bold while the issues and concerns that each pair of players normally tackle when they interact are set in italics. In short.” (In the box below. Equally significant is the contribution of the private sector that invests in the production and distribution of goods and services that people need to consume to .) It would be presumptuous to assume that the local government contributes much to. justice and equity for all citizens. It is concerned with the development of social and spiritual capacities of people in order for them to advance the frontiers of knowledge. Through its rule making function it secures human rights. business. modern societies today recognize the essential role of these key actors namely. and culture. These key actors represent the realms of polity. Much of what takes place in an area can be attributed to the activities and decisions of individual citizens and families to improve their living conditions and their chances of making a living. in the broad sense as the sum of all intervention measures undertaken by government. process and outcome of development. Civil society is the key actor in the realm of culture. represents only a fraction of all that happens in society and the environment on a day to day basis. or is in complete control of local development. Its basic concern is the production and distribution of goods and services to meet the needs of people in a manner that is mutually beneficial. government. As expounded in the Philippine Agenda for Sustainable Development for the 21st Century (PA 21). Its central concern is participatory democratic governance. and civil society participation. The concept of governance that depicts the state riding at the helm or “in the saddle” driving the affairs of society is now being replaced by the three-folding image of society (Figure 1). The three key actors are independent from each other but they freely interact and collaborate for the purpose of achieving the common good of society. state intervention. and their respective roles are defined as follows: Government is the key actor in the realm of polity. Planning. and the civil society. to clarify and organize human values. economy.92 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION The three-folding image of society The state is not the sole factor that determines the content. Business is the key actor in the realm of the economy. for sustainable development to occur “there must be an interplay of market forces. and to advocate the public interest.

Participatory . In this capacity the State has the power to intervene in practically all aspects of community life in the public interest..Gender. Urbanization and Urban Planning in Capitalist Society.Business Climate . the growing influence of various voluntary organizations. non-government organizations.Community-Based Resource Management . . Scott.Social & Spatial Equity . London: Methuen and Co. a) as provider of social goods and services. c) as arbiter between contending social groups and classes. Public planning as a set of intervention measures can be classified under the four basic roles of the State in relation to society as postulated by Dear and Clark (1981).Fiscal Policies . b) as regulator of the market.Sensitive Workplace - PRIVATE SECTOR (Economy) . _______________ 15 In Dear. and similar groups is making its mark in local development. Also. the State has the principal function of safeguarding the public interest and promoting the general welfare.Appropriate Technology . Ltd.Wage Levels .Infrastructure Support .J.Filipino Culture Promotions & Enrichment • Knowledge • Clarity & Coherence • Public Interest of values CIVIL SOCIETY (Culture) STATE (Polity) •Democratic Governance •Securing Justice & Equity .Labor Policies . and d) as social engineer. The state then is just one of the participants in the local development process. eds. Three-Folding Image of Society . Let us consider the first two only. 1981.Environment-Friendly - • Production & Distribution of Goods and Services improve their well-being. The provision of welfare More than the other key actors.Nationalist Economics .Humane Labor Practices .15 namely. Michael and A. however.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 93 Figure 1.

Gabriel. Providers of Welfare • As Supplier of Public or Social Goods and Services This is the most popularly understood function of the State.94 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 2. 1987. New York: Oxford University Press. The Private Provision of Public Services in Developing Countries. But just what are these goods and services that the government must provide? Why cannot (or should not) these services be provided by the private sector instead? Roth (1987)16 describes five situations in which the private sector (business) cannot be relied upon to provide appropriate ser_______________ 16 Roth. The ordinary citizen knows that the government owes him certain goods and services in exchange for the taxes he pays. he shows his dissatisfaction in a variety of ways ranging from quiet whimpers of discontent to raucous demonstrations in the streets. . And when these goods and services are not made available in the desired quality and quantity.

when certain factors of production or resources cannot be duplicated. and telephone connections require scale economies to make the cost affordable to the ordinary citizen..e. Costs are negative externalities. pollution from some types of manufacturing. Again.. c. street lighting. services that create negative externalities tend to be over provided whereas services that have positive externalities are usually under provided. it is as difficult to charge users as it is to exclude non-users. the private owner/ developer of the resource would have no direct competition and be tempted to charge excessive rates. Externalities are costs or benefits borne by persons who are not directly involved in transactions between producers and consumers. When decreased cost is attained by enlarged scale of production. everybody benefits to more or less the same degree. The existence of natural monopolies. benefits are positive externalities. public parks. Some urban services like transport. When externalities are created by market transactions. government ownership or control is necessary in this case. e. d. To protect the general welfare. a natural monopoly is thereby created. In such a situation. As Roth explains.g. when the economies of scale are so great that the industry can support only a few firms or a single firm.. Therefore. public safety derived from street lighting. Examples are national defense. The market is not designed to deal with such externalities. it would be desirable if the service was provided instead by the public sector. When the goods to be provided are “pure public goods”. Hence. the provision of such pure public goods is generally deemed a responsibility of government.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 95 vices effectively or efficiently and which justify their provision by the state: a.g. In the absence of government intervention. In cases like this. it is difficult to isolate particular beneficiaries. i. b. water systems. Some goods are provided to the community as a whole to be collectively consumed. e. . An example of a natural monopoly is electric power generation from geothermal sources.

education. One or other form of price distortion comes in the way of an otherwise free transaction because of the monopolistic tendencies of some producers/suppliers. Facilitation of the Market . Merit goods and services are considered as having special benefit to society but which might be under provided if left to the private sectors alone. And as long as the market is free in the classical sense of producers/sellers willing to part with their wares at a price that consumers/buyers are willing—and able—to pay. on one hand. • As Regulator or Facilitator of the Market In the context of a market economy. however. Health services. Merit goods have similar characteristics to those that create positive externalities. But unlike the latter. When “merit goods” are involved. the principal mechanism for resource allocation is the pricing system. the market indeed is an efficient allocator of goods and services. and housing are examples of merit goods. Another feature of merit goods is that people do not buy enough of them and so they are normally provided by government either free of charge or at subsidized rates. merit goods benefit the target recipient to a greater degree than they themselves realize. The truth.96 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION e. is that the market is not all that free even in a so-called free market economy. and the inability of many consumers/buyers to pay the price Figure 3.

• Tax exemptions. • Increase in salaries and wages. e. • Public sector-created jobs. • Reduced transaction costs through one-stop shops. the intervention may be directed to either the production or the consumption process. Facilitation of the market may be undertaken by the state or by other voluntary groups. price stabilization.. on the other. • Price control or stabilization in basic commodities. e. • More efficient market infrastructures (improved physical access). • Facilitation directed to consumption enables consumers to obtain the goods and services they need at a price they can afford. selective subsidy. private investment The second important reason for private sector participation in public planning and development is the relative insignificance of the . and similar measures with respect to prime commodities and essential services. efficient transport and communications. post-harvest facilities to minimize losses. Public vs.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 97 demanded. • Grant of non-wage benefits. • Job security in private industry. no graft and corruption. holidays and credits. stamps and coupons. Also. programmatic ecc. assurance of peace and order. the dismantling or even prevention of monopolies.. Facilitation directed to production is aimed at assisting producers overcome certain barriers to productivity and profits. This justifies government intervention in the price mechanism through price control. stable foreign exchange rates.g. guaranteed profit levels. Examples are direct transfer payments in the form of unemployment insurance. • Reduction of tariffs on import and export of materials and finished products.g. • Absorbing part of the risk of new investors. Some examples: • Production support infrastructure. • Maintaining livability and attractiveness of the locality for both living and making a living.

in the process of plan preparation however. Although land use committees do not have formal representation from the private sector. The pfp is the basis for development regulation such as land use zoning. regional. The developments on both sides of the street which have an aggregate value many times over that of the street are attributed to private investments. Unfortunately. The comprehensive development plan is the medium-term multi-sectoral plan that is translated into programs and projects that are implemented by public investment or picked up by private investors. the disproportionate share of public investment to total capital build up in any community can be appreciated by walking down any city street. and provincial physical framework plans are prepared by the land use committee of each level. The physical framework plan (pfp) is a long-term guide for the physical development of any territorial unit. the proportion of the public budget that is plowed back to the people in the form of programs and projects ranges from 15% to 25%. there are at least two types of plans that the government is preparing: the physical framework plan and the comprehensive development plan. Recognizing the role of private investments in total capital build up. The national. the lgc has added as a function of the ldc the formulation of “Local investment incentives to promote the inflow of private investment capital” [Sec. many ldcs ignore this function.98 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION investible capital in the hands of the government. Indeed. especially of lower income class lgus. Public investment is represented by the public expenditure in building the street itself and putting up the associated street furniture. If we look at the typical lgu budget. . The greater bulk of lgu budgets go into oiling the machinery of government (Personnel Services and Maintenance and Other Operating Expenditures). PPBIME as Venue or Vehicle for Private Participation Participation in planning As noted in the first paper. psp is quite strong both at the technical committee level and during public consultations. 109(40)].

2) by serving as resource persons oncall in the ldc regarding technical matters. To ensure policy coordination and uniformity in operational directions. and 3) through membership in the sectoral and functional committees. the potential for psp is most intense in practically all stages of the process. the comprehensive land use plan is prepared by the local development council. The private sector can make significant contribution to local development planning in three ways: 1) through membership in the ldc and other special bodies. It may be noted that psp in physical framework planning extends only as far as policy making because this plan is implemented basically through development regulation which is the exclusive domain of the State. The most intensive psp possible is through the sectoral committees.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 99 Figure 4. It is in development planning where the full range of psp in ppbime is possible. Here. The ldcs may form sectoral or functional committees to assist them in the performance of their functions. the sectoral and func- . CLUP Process At the city/municipal level where there is no counterpart land use committee.

the sectoral or functional committees shall: . Sectors in the Comprehensive Development Plan tional committees shall directly establish linkages with ngas and such sectoral or functional committees organized by the government for development. investment and consultative purposes. Consistent with national policies and standards.100 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 5.

and activities within each sector. 6): 1) project ideas that become inputs to the local development investment programming process. • Monitor and evaluate programs and projects. and activities for the particular sector or function. In generating sectoral programs and projects. projects. provision of land. and activities. • Coordinate planning. Three-Folding Strategy in Local Development Desired Distribution of Roles* Sectoral Programs/ Projects/Activities 1. Economic development 3. and • Perform such other functions as may be assigned by the ldc. Environmental management 5. and implementation of programs. State National Local Private Sector Civil Society . etc. • Collate and analyze information and statistics and conduct related studies. programs. programming. • Conduct public hearings on vital issues affecting the sector or function. There are two sets of major outputs of the sectoral planning process (Fig. monitoring and evaluation. Institutional development * Indicate specific type of participation like financing. and 2) indicative titles or subjects of new legislation that the Sanggunian ought to enact to support the implementation of the sectoral plan or programs. distribution of responsibility not only among government agencies but also among Table 1. projects. Physical / Infrastructure development 4.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 101 • Provide the ldc with data and information essential to the formulation of plans. set targets. Social development 2. training of manpower. and identify programs. • Define sectoral or functional objectives.

can be adopted. The remaining ppas become inputs to the local development investment program (ldip) and its annual component the aip. Participation in programming The principal output of sectoral planning is the identification of programs and projects. Sectoral Planning Process the various actors in society. Some of these projects are brought up to higher levels for implementation.102 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 6. Others are derived from lower levels. Still others are farmed out to the private sector for possible investment. . pursuing the three-folding image as illustrated in the table below.

This is because the Local Finance Committee is made up entirely of government functionaries: Treasurer. and the Planning and Development Coordinator. At best. psp is almost impossible in the matter of determining the amount of pubic funds available for investments. On the other hand. psos can use inFigure 7.INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 103 Private participation is possible in determining what projects make up the long and short list (screening) and the final project ranking (prioritization). psos can strongly influence the preparation and application of project evaluation criteria by actually participating in the ldip/aip workshops. Budget Officer. LDIP Process .

led by csos. to name a few examples. the “Report Card”. pso engagement can be done through attendance in public hearings. Participation in monitoring and evaluation There are built-in project monitoring bodies in all levels of government. to minimize corruption and instill accountability in government. In the case of implementation by administration. csos. Again. Also. There is now a growing global trend to monitor governments. preparing position papers. transparency and accountability in project implementation can be influenced by the private sector. such as the “G-Watch”. Finally. there are of late initiatives from organized civil society to monitor public expenditures. may serve as watchdogs to ensure transparent and accountable contract management.104 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION formal channels of communication and various degrees of pressure to influence these public officials to give due course to the cause or causes they advocate. psos may join as project contractors although allowing psrs to participate in bidding for projects may raise certain moral questions. psos may bid for the supply of goods and services procured. . To the extent that these M & E bodies allow membership from psos. Participation in budgeting At present there is hardly any opening for psp in government budgeting. Participation in implementation Different modes of implementation allow various levels of psp. Civil Society Organizations (csos) may serve to monitor the procurement process to ensure transparency. and use of mass media of communication. efficiency. acting in their voluntary capacity. can lend their expertise in assuring adherence to prescribed standards of quality that eventually redounds to the welfare of the citizenry. conduct of seminars and workshops to analyze the proposed budget. professional groups. An emerging third mode of project implementation is that of partnership between the government agency/department and csos on the strength of a memorandum of agreement. In case the implementation of programs and projects is done by contract.

and public expenditure tracking (pet). Local Budget Cycle and Project Intervention .” The components of the ppem include poverty incidence monitoring (pim). UP Planades was contracted by code-ngo to implement a project entitled “Developing Community Capacities for Pro-Poor Budgeting and Local Government Accountability for Poverty Reduction”. Such a system will hopefully enable the poor to par- Figure 8. this project seeks to design and pilot-test a system of participatory public expenditure management (ppem) and poverty reduction strategy. Known for short as lapp II (Localized AntiPoverty Program). 2003. The project aims to “contribute to reducing poverty at the local government level by increasing participation of the poor and other citizens in tracking poverty incidence and making local government budgets and expenditures more transparent and accountable. budget advocacy (ba).INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 105 Case Example Let us end this paper with a brief reference to the ongoing project of code-ngo being implemented by UP Planades. On October 21.

and 3) the very concept of the project involves private sector engagement with the government in ways never before attempted. At this stage of the project no one knows whether it will succeed. All known applications of these tools have been at the national level involving programs and projects of sectoral line agencies. The PPEM Cycle Synchronized with the Budget Cycle Performance Monitoring How do we know that what EXPENDITURE we paid for was actually EXPENDITURE TRACKING TRACKING produced? POVERTY POVERTY INCIDENCE INCIDENCE MONITORING MONITORING What should we be spending on? What was the impact of our expenditure? Outputs BUDGET BUDGET ADVOCACY ADVOCACY Budget Formulation/ Review Where do we get the money? How do we make sure that the government allocates money for it? ticipate in monitoring poverty groups and areas to engage their local government through various forms of advocacy so that the latter will use its budget to address their needs and requirements. This project is a pioneering one in three important senses: 1) it is to be applied at the local government level. and 2) the ultimate users of these tools are the stakeholders themselves—the poor and marginalized sectors. .106 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Figure 9. No doubt its success will depend largely on the willingness of local officials. to share their long-preserved prerogatives directly with the very constituencies they are sworn to serve.

INSIGHTS AND DIRECTIONS 107 References Clark. Patrimony and Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines. Property. UP Planades with CODE-NGO. 2004. New York: Oxford University Press. Urbanization and Urban Planning in Capitalist Society. Gabriel. “Planning in Local Governance: A Concise Planning Guidebook. Serote.” UP SURP. London: Methuen & Co. Quezon City: UP SURP/Planades. Roth. Scott and M. The Private Provision of Public Services in Developing Countries. 1981. Dear. Ernesto M. Serote. July 2003. Ltd. Ernesto M.” Project Framework.J. . 1987. November 2003. “The State in Capitalism and the Capitalist State” in A. “Developing Community Capacities for Pro-Poor Budgeting and Local Government Accountability for Poverty Reduction. Gordon and Michael Dear.

3 Journeys to Participation TRACKS AND TRAILS .

The proposed projects include. solid waste management in the barangays.6 million for ngo/psr/po development projects as part of the Annual Investment Plan (aip) for 20022004. among others. and persons with disabilities. A separate P15 million has been set aside for gender-responsive programs for 2004. Teresa Fernandez during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes. a number of which have developed into programs. 111 .Strategic Partnerships in Program and Project Implementation in Cebu City17 NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS. development administration. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. that have been regularly implemented for over a decade by the city government and its various stakeholders. infrastructure. and services for street and working children. The cdc approved a total of P29. people’s organization and private sector representatives compose about 40% (56 organizations) of the Cebu City Development Council (cdc). elderly. namely. the capability building program for local development council members. _______________ 17 Abridged version of the paper delivered by Ms. ngos chair four committees of the cdc. The extent of formal engagement by the civil society and the private sector in the cdc is a result of and is being enhanced by the various issue-based and alternative mechanisms of engagement. economic development and social development committees. support to barangay development planning.



There are still much more to be done. While the cdc members get to approve the Local Development Fund, there is very little time to really analyze the proposals in the plenary. It is hoped that the committees will have much more time to review these. It is also hoped that the committees also get to work closely with the departments with services falling under the committee concerns to have more room to review existing programs and undertake performance assessments and policy and budget analysis. Except for the chance to approve the aip, the cdc’s influence in the overall planning is still very minimal. In short, the form has yet to develop more substance in terms of really influencing the more long term planning of the city. But the partnership and engagement is there—alive, active and full of potentials. It has shown that civil society and the private sector, doing their own particular roles can advocate their stake in the management of the city affairs. A Profile of Cebu City Cebu City is located at the heart of Philippine archipelago. It is the capital of Cebu Province and the regional capital of Central Visayas. Cebu City is the core of the Metro that includes three cities and eight municipalities. It is centrally located and its excellent harbors make the city the hub of transshipment and center for commerce, industry, finance and education outside of Manila. The City has a population of 712,821 as of the 2000 National Statistics Office Census. Distribution of population over the area is uneven. About 85% of the population lives in the urban barangays (covering approximate 20% of the land area) while 15% lives in the rural barangays (covering 80% of the land area). The population is predominantly young, with 33.1% below 15 years of age. Cebu City also experiences a high level of in-migration from neighboring provinces and lately, from the other municipalities of Cebu Province especially during the daytime. Cebu City, traditionally known as the “Queen City of the South,” has a highly diversified economy consisting of a large number of small cottage and medium industries and corporations engaged in a variety of activities. Participation rate is higher for men



than women (79.2 percent vs. 49.1 percent). About 60% was below the poverty line in 1991, which increased to 68% in the 1994 survey. A 1992 survey showed that 58% of the city’s population lived in depressed communities. Cebu City was among the pioneer cities where open legal community organizing18 continued albeit quietly and mostly under the auspices of the church during martial law. After martial law, community organizing continued. ngos were recognized as actors in development. Partnerships in Cebu City Governance Governance according to undp is the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It includes the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups are able to articulate their needs, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their grievances. Good governance is a goal and a process by which the different stakeholders such as the government, private sector, civil society and other institutions can assume a stake in the management of the nation at different levels. In Cebu City, partnership between the city government and the private sector (including ngos and other civil society groups) on priority development programs has redefined the direction of city governance. Some of the milestones marking the growth of complementation and partnership-building are discussed below:

Community organizing methodology starts from people themselves—making them identify and analyze their issues, finding solutions , mobilizing numbers to pressure the agency concerned to respond to the issues. This method recognizes that the problem of helplessness is cultural and structural. People in power must be put to task. For people to change the system, they also need to overcome their own helplessness by speaking for themselves. First with small issues, later with bigger and more complicated issues. In the process they are also helped to recognize their own weaknesses. It is an action-reflection-conceptualization approach that recognizes that after all things have been done, people themselves will have to decide on their course of action and take responsibility for their lives. Facilitated by the Philippine Ecumenical Committee for Community Organizing (PECCO) and later, Community Organization Philippine Enterprise (COPE) organizers worked with urban poor groups in tackling issues such as demolition, land tenure, basic services in areas like Old Philippine Railway, Bo. Luz relocation, SIR areas, Reclamation, Sambag II DOH property and others.



• Pushing for the People’s Agenda in the City Elections. The idea of influencing the local elections was a brainchild of ngos in Cebu. The People’s Alternative was launched to mobilize local residents to institute popular systems and generate an environment that would make the local elections issue-oriented and program-based rather than personality-oriented. Among the strategies done were the formulation of a local government agenda; sponsoring campaign rallies; and endorsement of candidates who were assessed based on qualifications and adherence to the people’s agenda. As a result of the advocacy, the elected mayor invited the ngos and key personalities to join the city government. In 1998, Members of Kaabag sa Sugbo continued its voters’ education program. After a decade of doing this, Kaabag decided to consolidate the issues of the different sectors and present the same to the politicians. Thus in a People’s congress on March 27, 1998, the Sugbuanong Baruganan (The Cebuano Common Agenda) was approved and presented to the candidates for election. • Championing the Cebu City Commission for the Urban Poor (ccup). The ccup started with an office organized by an ngo from a number of staff seconded by the different existing departments. It operated directly under the Mayor’s office. The ordinance creating the office was signed in May 1988 directing the commission to respond to the problems of the poor especially on land tenure and basic services. The ccup was one of the first two offices for the urban poor created in the country. It triggered awareness in the City Hall and by the public that there was indeed a significant sector called the “urban poor”. It gave the urban poor access to the services of the city government. • Initiating the Community Mortgage Program (cmp). The City had no experience in bridge financing for community groups. In May 1988, the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (hudcc) headed by Teodoro Katigbak had its meeting in Cebu City. One activity scheduled by the Council was a meeting with local government units. Mayor Osmena and the ccup Head pointed out that many of the poor are not members of sss, gsis or hdmf. But they are



willing to pay for the piece of the land they are occupying. The experience of Pagtambayayong Foundation with self-help and cooperative housing and the case of hkki were also mentioned. Chairman Katigbak admitted they have no program for the poor and directed a team to study the possibility of community mortgages for the urban poor. The Community Mortgage Program is now a national government program that enables organized communities to secure tenure through a loan financing from the government payable at installment. Repayment for cmp registers much higher than those of other programs. • Pursuing the Urban Basic Services Program (ubsp). The ubsp started in January 1988 as a component of the Country Program for Children III with assistance from unicef. The components of the program include health, nutrition, water/sanitation environment, women’s education, livelihood, land tenure, community organization and children in exceptionally difficult circumstances, among others. One of the milestones of the Program was the crisis prevention and Bantay Banay program. The Women’s Education component of the ubsp sponsored various fora and workshops ranging from gender sensitivity to rights of women and children. One of the Cluster members , Zonta, proposed a Crisis Center for Women where women could seek help for cases of domestic violence. One room was allotted for this effort in the City Health Department. One member agency, Lihok Pilipina, documented that 6 out of 10 women were battered by their partners. Thus, the Bantay Banay (Family Watch Groups against Domestic Violence) was formed. Community leaders were trained to respond to direct acts of violence. Agencies were oriented on gender and domestic violence. Local governments were asked to support the program and provided funds for the operations of a crisis center and for organizing more communities. • Championing the Women’s Agenda. Members of the Bantay Banay and the Cebu Women’s Coalition (all convened by Lihok Pilipina) advocated for programs for women. In 1997, both networks advocated for the creation of the Cebu Women’s Commission. More-

the ngo members of Kaabag sa Sugbo initiated a series of consultations with 5 base sectors (vendors.116 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION over. the women’s groups also presented a women’s agenda to candidates for local election. and gender-sensitive programs in land and housing. among other priorities. Bantay Banay members. Solid Waste Management Council. The women’s agenda included the following: passage of the Gender Code. the base sectors were not invited to any of the consultation. In the 2001 election campaign. education and training. Consultations were done. the Gender Code of Cebu City was passed. After the elections. In 1999. Among the measures proposed by the private sector representatives and approved by the cdc were: (1) review of the proposed master plan and identification of proposed amendments. Private sector representatives in the cdc took the lead in the review of the masterplan and in appraising proposals included in the aip. the City contracted a private firm to prepare the City masterplan. and (5) presen- . and health and nutrition. However. amendments were proposed regarding the composition of the Cebu City Women and Family Affairs Commission to include representatives from the community women and to draw from the private sector the Executive Chair of the Commission. labor. (3) presentation of program and projects by a barangay and an ngo/ psr during each meeting. farmers and fisherfolks. (4) invitation to city agencies and instrumentalities such as the Metropolitan water district. women and urban poor). The lobbying for the gad Budget has resulted in the allocation of P 34 million by the barangays for gad from 2000 to 2003 and the allocation of about P 20 million by the city government for gad activities from 2002-2004. The Anti Domestic Violence Ordinance (first in the country) was also passed. oriented the barangays regarding the Local Government Code and lobbied for the Implementation of the gender and development budget policy. Before the elections. the Visayan electrical company. A number of ngos was invited to the consultation. In this regard. • Influencing the Masterplan and the Operations of the City Development Council. representation in decision-making bodies. the Cebu City Shelter Board and others to present performance reports. (2) creation of committees in the cdc to allow for more substantive participation.

Third. Data bases are need for good advocacy work. i. There is also a need to strengthen the capacity to advocate on the strength of analysis and information. This can be done through partnership arrangements with the academe. ngos and the POs need to learn from their own history. Second. the Department for the Welfare of the Urban Poor. and the Community Mortgage Program. Nobody wants to fail. is in making issue-based ad hoc initiatives into a sustainable program. It meets only quarterly. A documentation of the experiences provides a legacy of how these experiences contributed to the level of development in the city. UP Cebu. With almost 150 people in attendance. Since resources are limited. Private sector organizations need to start with where people are to understand their realities. The committees will have to be maximized to surface issues and to do good analyses of policies and programs. It is also important to let people own the issues. the formal avenues of participation like the cdc have its limits. The challenge. the importance of organized groups and convergence of efforts are paramount. networking and management are important. conditions. however. whether in the community or in the council. With people assuming more roles and harnessing more initiatives. ad hoc efforts have provided more flexibility and initiative. Enabling Conditions for Partnership-Building Basic principles in organizing. Challenges to Replication First.e. . it is difficult to expect substantive discussions. Failure of the initiative.. among others. such as the Bantay Banay. will be their own too. they develop their own stake and consequently will do everything to make it work.TRACKS AND TRAILS 117 tation of specific project proposals for funding through the ngo Development Fund. whether for meetings or direct project costs. and interests and to encourage them to work in their communities or in local development councils.

In this way. people see their own need or see what they can contribute. often with just a simple objective and more often without funds.118 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Recommendations to Regional and Local Development Councils Not many psrs and lces are really familiar with the Local Government Code.. monitoring and evaluation). these projects are usually with funding. more partnerships whether formal of voluntary may be encouraged. While technically projects undergo all phases of project development (i. There is a need for re-orientation. There is also a need for more sharing of concrete situations and activities among the different stakeholders. initiatives spring from concrete needs and issues. traffic. project planning. employment. etc. By understanding concrete situations. implementation. For ldcs encourage more ad hoc groups within the committee that can work on more specific concerns. such as transport. budgeting. . More successful efforts branch out to other concerns and expand in terms of scope and substance.e. In many cases. housing.

mind frame and strategies used by the lead ngo in supporting the local government succeed in creating its own clup. a story of working together and making a difference. 119 . _______________ 19 Abridged version of the paper delivered by Fr. is viable and important in ppbime. and threatened by two regional development plans (calabarzon and the marilaque) for a growth corridor. the Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance Incorporated (icdai). The initiative. Quezon19 THE EXPERIENCE I AM about to present intends to show how a small rural community took hold of its town’s future development through a multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder creation of a municipal Comprehensive Land Use Plan (clup). The paper reveals the innovative approaches. This project was a productive partnership between icdai. Francis Lucas during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes. Private sector participation. in this case led by an ngo.Innovations in Planning: The Case of Infanta. deprived of expertise. The effort of this ngo in partnership with the local government portrays how a small isolated community. The paper is framed within the desire to pursue sustainable integrated participatory area development. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. the perspective and much of the action was led by a local ngo. which is considered the mother of all local development plans. a community-based ngo and the Municipality of Infanta.

project-focused or activity-oriented. the upland forest. and the marine ecosystem.5 hectares. The local government’s experience in planning on .120 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Background Situation of Infanta The historic town of Infanta in Quezon Province lies snugly between the vast Pacific Ocean to the east and the massive Sierra Madre Mountain ranges to the west. Infanta possesses five eco systems. It is about 160 kms.000. but it is deemed the weakest group. river systems. A first class macadam road was opened only in the year 1997. Infanta is a 5th class municipality devoid of factory and heavy industry based employment. For decades. However. The area is best suited at the moment for sustainable tourism. The local business people are also organized. which the people of Infanta have to face as a challenge. The radio is the community’s window to the world keeping the people abreast with vital information. Infanta has a total land area of 34. The total population today is 50. organic farming as an industry and prime habitat due to its clean environment. Most of the farmers and fisherfolk own an average landholding of 0. The road to Infanta literally connects the China Sea on the eastern seaboard to the Pacific Ocean on the western seaboard to the east. Community organizing was introduced by the Church and the ngos to the people of infanta as a strategy for development. alluvial plains. from Manila. Planning is a vital element in all the activities of ngos and people’s organizations. The community-based local radio station provides information. issues and analysis for the communities. The people of Infanta are strong hearted and have seen a long history of struggle for human rights and in defense of their natural resources since the Martial Law days. The people have seen more than twenty years of organizing. Area planning was mostly sectoral and ecosystems-based. Infanta has been isolated from the rest of Luzon due to the almost impassable road that winds strenuously along the openings in the mountain ranges of the Sierra Madre. It has a strong organized civil society. The road built in 1997 was considered a sure avenue for development aggression.576 hectares. the mangrove forest. namely. planning then was small-scale.

prosperous. local government officials. with a diversified economy. from a conflict-confrontation mode in the early 70s through consultative and critical collaboration to the late 80s. civil society. a municipal wide meeting of representatives was called. a balanced ecology . The visioning exercise was preceded by an area survey on population and land utilization inclusive of livelihood and community problems. and self-directing citizenry. partnership-building was developed. The first meaningful partnership on a municipal wide scale between local government and icdai ngo was the visioning exercise. icdai often discussed with the local mayor and municipal officials the development challenges of Infanta.TRACKS AND TRAILS 121 the other hand was mostly in implementation and administrative planning. business. The visioning exerecise involved eight pilot barangays and later encompassed all the other 32 barangays. It took the community two years to complete this. Representatives from the different villages comprising ngos and pos. This activity was followed by the strategic planning of the municipality as facilitated by icdai and its national partner. healthy. peaceful. The Comprehensive Land Use Plan History and Process In 1995. By the 1990s. After the barangay visioning exercise. despite having differences in perspective and views on development. The Infanta-based ngos and POs developed their mode of engagement with the lgu gradually. The mayor was . He was open to recognizing the contributions of ngos to his administration. and a local leadership that is committed to social justice and equity. self-reliant. and church finally met to finalize the results coming from the villages. Each village went through a visioning exercise. Infanta had a Mayor who was conscious of pro-people development. The Vision and Mission was completed in 1995. The Infanta vision is as follows: We envision Infanta to be a community of God-loving. phildhraa (Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas).

formalizing the partnership. The local people with the ngo at the village level inspired by the success of the visioning exercise started the data gathering in 21 villages initially. was advocating the Sustainable Integrated Area Development (siad) as a provincial strategy at that time. icdai asked the help of the network to look for possibilities of getting technocrats who understand the ngo advocacy and was willing to negotiate for a minimal cost for their services. the ngo started looking for an alternative. that 50% of the costs would be defrayed by ngo funds inspired by the partnership between civil society and local government. the consultant signed a contract with the lgu and icdai and went to work. icdai decided to pursue the strategy on the municipal level.122 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION aware of the need to prepare a comprehensive plan as indicated in the Local Government Code. phildhrra. For a 5th class municipality. The total cost incurred . He reiterated that he would need the ngo staff to do the grassroots and community work. A well-known consultant who at the time was the official consultant of the network for siad was contacted. Convinced that the town needed the plan. a national network of development ngos of which icdai is an active member. The ngo implemented the initial steps for the clup. financial and human would be on a 50%-50% sharing between the local government and the ngo-icdai. This was way beyond the financial capacity of Infanta.000 hectare municipality ranged from 5 to 7 million pesos. Part of the contract indicated that resources. this was “mission impossible. icdai required from the lgu a legal instrument to be passed by the local Sanggunian.” In 1995. wielding the assurance of the Mayor. The experts were convinced that with proper guidance. without sufficient funds and absence of technocrats. Before the icdai fully committed itself to the project. Cognizant that this clup would be ngo led. the cost of contracting a consultant to prepare a clup for a 50. the work of the ngo would cut the workload more than half. The contract was signed. The nagging desire to pursue the formulation of a clup nurtured the beginnings of partnership between the municipal government and icdai. The initial output was reviewed by experts and was referred to the community in various municipal gatherings.

The Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance Inc. What the NGO Addressed • clup provided clear framework and guidelines to rationalize development and protect the municipality from haphazard projects and development aggression in the context of a Sustainable Integrated Area Development (siad). EO 15. • clup formulation was consistent with the requirements of the Local Government Code. Three mandates for public participation are in place: the Constitution. coastal and marine eco systems. RA 7160. (icdai) has worked in the community of Infanta in the past 20 years. scholarships and development strategies trainings. Some of its programs are as follows: • Community Organizing • Community Planning • Resource Tenure Improvement • Local Governance • Rural Financing/micro enterprise . • The clup was a clear output of ngo and po’s influence to governance. The credibility of icdai in the community is high due to its performance in coming up with effective projects in agriculture. ngos and pos were able to influence land use policies by bringing in grassroots perspectives. Memo Order 288 and other legal mandates. It has a good track record in the community as an ngo. The Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance Inc. forestry. Once the government accepts counterpart funding the government recognizes the capability of the ngo. It was also supportive of the principle of encouraging public participation.TRACKS AND TRAILS 123 was only 20% of what it would have normally been the cost had the ngo not intervened. It upholds participatory governance as multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral.

in agriculture. which the lgu may not have. • Able participation from the grassroots works in a bottom-up planning. i. • Barangay or municipal development planning is an effective entry point in institutionalizing multi-stakeholder governance. Existing projects can be enhanced by partnership. only government and the experts can do technical planning. livelihood. environment.124 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • Sustainable Agriculture • Natural Resource Management • Partnership/linkage building icdai pursues strategies to mainstream through advocacy formulation and on the ground programs different aspects of development. i.e. These strategies have been used by icdai in many of their projects. • Demythologizing the seemingly impossible through empowerment and creativity by looking for alternatives that usually are not tried both by governments and civil society enslaved by traditional thinking and ways of doing. It shows the partner government that the ngo is . agro forestry. grassroots cannot do meaningful research. ngos through their expertise can provide supplementary as well as new interventions to the projects due to their technical acumen. monitoring and evaluation of programs and projects..e. • Organizing multi-stakeholder institution amongt the people helps participation in planning. • “Riding on” existing projects of government is a viable strategy for the ngo to partner with government that has funds to implement projects. duplication and useless competition. and village people cannot understand complicated ideas. For the ngo this strategy avoids “reinventing the wheel”.. fisheries and others. • Upscaling and integrating sectoral projects can be done by ngo in partnership with government. • ngo counterparting of funds and technical expertise improve credibility. implementation. among others.

people watch and are consulted in public hearings. ngo influence is enhanced due to professionalism and resource capability. • there is a set formula for doing clup where ordinary people are not privy and are not capable of doing. It proved that civil society intervention is desirable where lgu resources are not adequate. Breaking down myths • only government has prerogative to do a clup • it is expensive and needs minimum of 5 million pesos • costs are set per number of hectares • only the experts can and are able to do it. . and common desire to protect their interest based on a siad framework. looking for solutions. Civil society intervention: initiator • The ngo took the lead. What is of importance is the expression of their vision. • use of jargons and intellectual arrogance with bureaucracy by the government is a matter to be accepted blindly. learning together. Innovations: To Do What Seemingly Can’t be Done Self confidence. In due time both the ordinary people and the government officials were working together. finding alternatives to mainstream thinking and doing are key factors to innovations. Ordinary people can work with the experts. The clup formulation in Infanta is about breaking down myths about what was deemed “impossible”. linkaging and networking to pursue the clup project. Poor farmers and fisherfolk were as ignorant as many local government officials when the study was conducted. It is high technology. initiative and persistence to partnership. creativity. have to be done fast to save on costs. Herewith are two sets of innovations in participatory planning as potential for ppbime.TRACKS AND TRAILS 125 capable partner. These myths were all proven wrong.

In the same manner. receptiveness and positive attitude of local government officials to the civil society’s participation in local planning and program implementation create a climate that makes it easier for civil society or any other organized groups to advocate their own agenda. The clup process was instructive and educational. the venue.126 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • Capability building for the ngo and the grassroots meant learning by doing. and expertise as well as knowhow led the community to look for alternative solutions. The clup consultants. however. reporting. acted not purely as resource persons but as co-facilitators together with the members of the clu Planning Secretariat. the maps. the secondary data. were necessary in giving “technical flavor” in the plan. While the plans were being done step by step as guided by the experts. The whole dynamics was mainly facilitated by the representatives from the local government unit and the ngo/po. The clu Planning process helped institutionalize the part- . the openness. analysis. The research. recognizing and accepting the technical limitations of local people. • Limitations in funds. people learned in depth the rationale and the technology in doing the plan. and finally decision-making. the collation of reports. This has further strengthened local ownership/commitment to the clup. • Multi-stakeholder approach/involves all interest groups. They. The Infanta clu Planning went through a good number of collective activities involving studies. discussions and dialogues. among others. the series of consultations were done not the traditional way. The effective participation of idcai in planning is influenced by its organizational attributes. The CLUP Process The clup process revealed socio-political dynamics of partnership. The history of the organization especially its record of success. suggests the organization’s fitness and credibility to forge partnership with the local government. All the activities were jointly managed by the ngo & lgu partnership over a period of less than a year. on the other hand.

• Partnership of the lgu with the private sector and civil society groups helps in coming up with a more participatory approach to clu Planning. The 3 Ps which are prerequisite to a successful implementation of the Comprehensive Land Use Planning: • The in-depth preparation of the barangays/villages prior to Comprehensive Land Use Planning is crucial to the successful outcome of the whole clup process. etc. ngo initiative to pursue a program that is traditionally the role of government can be effected. they help address the constraints lack of government. . Impact of Private Sector Institutional Partnership: LGU-ICDAI Among the impacts of successful partnership in clup are the following: • Encouraged other municipalities to take the same path and create new partnership avenues • Provided opportunities for new partnerships between icdai and lgu after the clup due to satisfaction and ownership of the project. implementation. This is where the ngos could play a vital role given their organizing skills and expertise in participatory action research. monitoring and evaluation. The ngo serves as a catalyst and facilitator of development. • Participation is at the core. without which the citizens and its local officials will not own the clup outputs. ngos’ comparative advantage has to be maximized as complementary to government. Partnership is needed not only in the organizing or technical aspects but also on the financial aspect of planning. Lessons Learned The experience of Infanta clup shows first and foremost that civil society.TRACKS AND TRAILS 127 nership between the lgu and the civil society in all the municipality’s planning. ngos do not replace government. methodologies.

• Through recognition of comparative advantage and importance for each other by reliable partners in bringing about complementation. • Nurtured private sector ownership of processes and plans • Enhanced community-based approached to local governance. bringing about monitoring and evaluation schemes.128 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • Developed a “demand accountability” attitude from civil society to government and vice versa. ngos will have to show track record to be recognized as able partner by lgu. Conclusions Success Factors in influencing government policies through partnership by ngos: • In-depth preparation is important. The experience of the clu Planning of the municipality of Infanta proved that the following are the four prerequisites for successful lgungo/po partnership: • Organized Citizenry • Committed ngo/private sector • Receptive lgu • Favorable policy environment . • ngo needs credibility and capability to be recognized by lgus as partners. ngos do grassroots organizing preparing their constituencies for activities that would influence local government policies.

cordnet rallied patiently its members towards that direction in partnership with other local players such as the local government units. While the process was deemed slow to articulate collectively the desired direction of development in the Cordillera. poverty alleviation provided the common bridging force for various ngos and pos to network and to partner with the government. _______________ 20 Abridged version of the paper delivered by Ms. The decision to partner with the government in local governance was prompted by the following motivations: • To avoid duplication of programs and services. 129 . government line agencies and community-based organizations. Marietta Paragas during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes.Vertical and Horizontal Integration Strategies in the Cordillera20 THE INTEGRATION OF ngos and pos and their coordination with government agencies in regional and local development is one of cordnet’s strategies in facilitating and supporting the development of the Cordillera Region. • To ensure that unmet needs of the communities assisted by ngos are prioritized and adequately addressed. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004. Concerned with the fact that all the provinces in the region were classified under the so-called Club 20 or the 20 poorest provinces of the Philippines.

participation is token. hence. While cordnet is active in the rdc. cordnet had to prepare its members to interface with local government units and government line agencies. the prevailing culture and even the language used by the government in its operations. • Development plans of the lgus at the municipal and provincial levels are prepared beforehand by their respective technical staff.130 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • To bring about complementation of resources between the government and the private and to ensure wider reach and greater impact. Technically. Trust and confidence are important. • To strengthen and contribute to governance. Organizationally. Requisites to Effective Participation To support the desire to participate in local governance. Private sector groups need to agree on a common agenda to pursue with government. there is a need to orient cordnet members in order to understand systems and procedures of government. It would also be ideal to institutionalize the partnership with the government agency through the passage of an ordinance or Executive Order. The preparedness of cordnet to participate in regional and local development processes rests on building the attitudinal. These are basic requisites to engage in a new arena where the private sector is not very much familiar with. Positive attitude is needed to participate effectively. and • To support the government’s social reform initiatives and the provision of conducive climate for people participation. the private sector organizations need to be organized as a network or coalition to strengthen advocacy and feedback and to avoid organizational confusion and duplication of initiatives. Commitment and sincerity to work with other parties are vital. and . its members are not fully involved yet in local development planning due to the following challenges: • Lack of appreciation by either the lgus or ngos of the importance of local participatory planning. technical and organizational capabilities.

The development ngo members are currently working with indigenous children. cordnet started to participate in the rdc-car in 2001 upon the invitation of the latter. • Preparation of cordnet members technically and organizationally to participate in local governance processes. power-driven approach of “governing the people”. women. It was an option because it was seen as a way of promoting participatory government. Its members also joined local boards. youth and farmers. cordnet evolved gradually into a regional network of city and provincial networks with a total membership of 47 ngos. Partnership-building with other stakeholders like lgus and government line agencies is reflected in cordnet’s vision: A culturally relevant and active network of social development NGOs and POs working in partnership with other stakeholders towards the sustainable development of the Cordillera Region. 65 POs and 25 cooperatives.TRACKS AND TRAILS 131 • Some ngos are not adequately equipped technically to engage and participate in development planning processes. CORDNET’s Participation in RDC and LGUs cordnet is a five-year old network of development ngos and POs in the Cordillera Region whose membership is composed of one city network and four provincial networks. a much-needed change from the traditional. Participation in these bodies was viewed as both an option and an opportunity. It was also considered as an opportunity to promote shared responsibility. Although it started as a network of 34 individual ngos and POs in 1998. . Among the strategies adopted by cordnet to ensure effective participation are: • Formation and strengthening of ngo/po networks in the provincial level so that they could initiate representation and participation in the local governance activities while simultaneously preparing their members to participate in the municipal and barangay bodies.

which serve as a tool in the preparation of the Barangay Development Plan. cordnet decided to respond to the needs and problems identified by the youth participants in partnership with other government line agencies (both regional and provincial) and with the coordination of Municipal and Barangay Local Government Units in the pilot areas. Due to its success and acceptance by both the barangay and municipal lgu s. It was the result of a Cordillera Youth Conference initiated by dswd-car in partnership with cordnet. the community will continue to track the expenditures made. This is an out-of-school youth (osy) project initiated by cordnet which promotes a multi-stakeholder partnership in project management. Another project is the Self-Improvement Geared towards Economic Development Project (siged). This is a code-ngo initiated project of which cordnet is one of the implementers to pilot the model in few provinces of the Philippines in 2000. • Pooling of resources to participate not only in planning but also in the implementation of projects and delivery of basic social services.132 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • Development of creativity and ingenuity of members to interface with the government. • Initiating and piloting models of vertical and horizontal integration in local development process. The target barangays were involved in updating their mbn data. Among the added features is budget advocacy to support the Barangay Development Plan. Once the budget is allocated. and. Two other municipalities were added as pilot sites. siged is a two-year project that aims to tap the potentials and enhance the skills and attitudes of the osy to become productive citizens. the model is currently replicated in other barangays of the municipality. Pilot Projects of CORDNET in Local Governance and Development One of the projects of cordnet is the Localized Anti-Poverty Project (lapp). It typifies a decentralized and participatory approach not only in planning but also in budget advocacy and expenditure tracking. As a result of the partnership with municipal and barangay gov- .

development planning is now participated in by the concerned sector. creativity. pos or civil society should have a common vision and agenda.e. business in governance. is to continue to understand and discuss issues. Organized ngos. i. capital (human and material) and climate conducive for participation and legislation. The challenge. cordnet will continue to encourage and support its provincial network-members to expand membership in every municipality to touch base with various sectors of the province. Summary and Conclusion While vertical and horizontal integration of development plans are not yet fully realized by cordnet in the provincial and municipal lev- . Potentials and Challenges With the implementation of the Local Government Code. pos. undertake joint project undertaking if possible. therefore. The lgus also allocated budgets for the osy activities. even. Conditions Needed for Replicability Organization is of paramount importance for participation to prosper. concerns and. each agency committed technical. Through this model. Criticizing the government without attempting to advocate is becoming less relevant.. the government has opened arena for the participation of private sector like ngos. Other important ingredients to effective participation are capability. Hand-in-hand with expansion of membership is developing and enhancing the skills of members to ensure effective participation in the local special bodies and other avenues for local governance. osy and concerned agencies have provided support to their projects focused principally on livelihood. material and financial resources in various activities related to their respective mandates. They should be motivated also to develop ingenuity or creativity as well as deepen commitment to participate in local governance. Mutual trust and confidence have to be strengthened.TRACKS AND TRAILS 133 ernments.

134 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION els. sustained efforts to interface with the government has produced positive results. cordnet’s experiences in partnering with the government not only in planning but also in monitoring and implementation have brought about an improved socio-economic landscape in the Region. The fact that all the provinces of the Cordillera Region were reported to have graduated from the Club 20 would have been partially the fruit of vertical and horizontal integration of planning and development processes. .

THE challenge of development planning is in the process of formulating the plans and the extent to which these plans are responsive to the real needs of the communities. Development planning requires technical knowhow and skills. the challenges are the same as that of barangay planning. Another tension in the formulation phase is the need to balance responsiveness and comprehensiveness. It is not oriented to make meaningful impact in the lives of the people. held in Cebu City on 19-21 April 2004.Strategies for Upscaling Barangay Plans in Mindanao21 ACROSS LEVELS. and validated by the community during the barangay assembly. 135 . At the municipal and city government level. the barangay plan usually does not respond to the needs of the communities. With a limited scope. local governments that are open to participatory approaches are in _______________ 21 Abridged version of the paper delivered by Ms. the barangay plan could just be a mere listing of infrastructure projects. Sylvia Okinlay-Paraguya during the Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes. except that the scale and scope are different. Making it participatory requires more skills and resources. Inherent in the formulation phase is the desire to make the process participatory. Thus. usually prepared by the Barangay Captain together with the Secretary or the council. In some areas.

These services include education and training. There are cooperatives.136 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION need for assistance in terms of making the planning process more participative. has its own continuing programs which complements that of the government. mass-specc. which not only survived but have also grown to become competitive with the banking system. Scope of Participation in Local Development Based on the framework of participation.000. These services helped build cooperatives. These cooperatives are found in 20 out of the 24 provinces of Mindanao. where fea- . we have specific programs on the ground. with estimated individual membership of about 250. which have grown with over P100 million in assets and have continued to become effective change agents in their respective areas of operations. We do not just stand as critics to government. and computerization. MASS-SPECC Cooperative Development Center’s Contributions to Development in Mindanao mass-specc Cooperative Development Center has more than 200 primary cooperatives and provincial federations as members. We are autonomous because we are financially self-reliant. which have contributed to the development of the communities. among others. with presence in the armm area based in the Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces. integrated and comprehensive. as a network of cooperatives and as a business enterprise. Most of the member primary cooperatives are involved in savings and credit operations. either as a stand alone activity or in tandem with other relevant services. extension services. mass-specc pioneered a number of services primarily designed to build the capacities of primary cooperatives to become viable and people-based cooperatives. audit and consultancy. even as we tap external resources and we maximize available support from government. There are various reasons for participating in the development processes of the rdc and the local development councils. we consider our participation transformative and substantive.

It aims to pursue its development work in rural areas of Mindanao through principled partnerships with peoples’ organizations. Peace for Mindanao. sa Pilipinas. we also need to showcase our own contributions. there are government resources. ngos. which can be directed to the communities. Fourth. there is a need to integrate and push for our own advocacies. our representation provides a people’s orientation in the plans. Kaangayan. We have our own contributions to development. Kalambuan. there is an opportunity to chair the committees. to develop the mechanisms and structures for the democratic participation of people and communities in local governance and to facilitate agrarian reform implementation. Third. Development. non-profit organization based in Mindanao. Sixth. We are not just there to criticize the government.TRACKS AND TRAILS 137 sible. which aims to promote sustainable integrated area development. which the government should also know and appreciate. First. . Recently it has the opportunity to do more work in 5 municipalities in the Misamis Oriental Eastern Towns (misoret). Second. it is also important to build networks with different line agencies and lgus. we come with alternatives. Fifth. Sitting in a body provides opportunities for leadership and therefore the opportunity to steer discussions. programs and projects of government. Kalinaw sa Mindanaw. particularly our strength in participatory approaches in barangay development planning. even on a critical collaboration basis. Cooperatives recognize the need to work with government. bmfi has adopted the following as its vision. we recognize the importance of mainstreaming our own efforts in development work. Misamis Oriental and Gingoog City. Development programs and strategies take center stage in the rdc discussion as these find expression in the different programs and projects. Balay Mindanaw Foundation and its Experience in PBIME BALAY Mindanao Foundation Inc (bmfi) is a non-stock. by participating in these development bodies. for the Philippines and for the World). There are key cooperatives in all the provinces of the region. government and other agencies. bmfi covers 22 barangays in Claveria. sa Kalibutan (Equality.

has accompanied the barangay and its people in its participatory planning. budgeting. cooperative—in areas where there is none.000. Its 20% barangay development fund amounts to P84. Implementation. The bmfi Area-Based Operating Team pursues its work of organizing and strengthening local sectoral organizations and cooperatives capable of formulating and implementing their own plans and projects. bmfi abots . Monitoring and Evaluation The barangay is the smallest unit of government nearest to the people. It is 28. • Local Development Planning Processes. women. Communities are treated not as mere beneficiaries. The work involves facilitating the establishment of the appropriate community/interest/peoples organizations. vendors. but as active partners in planning and implementation of projects affecting their own lives. and the strengthening of those already in existence. It is one of the original homes of the Higaonons.e.00. and actively participating in local mandated structures like the Barangay Development Council (bdc). having Barangay Sangalan as one of the focus barangays. bmfi has developed strategies and technologies across the different stages. fisher folk..138 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION The Barangay: The New Focus for Local Development Planning. The work in the barangay is based on the belief in the capacities of local people to find solutions to their own problems and plan their own development. i. youth. tribal. Once the mechanisms for broad and genuine participation are set up. farmers. implementing and monitoring several programs and projects.46 km from the national highway and 37 km from the poblacion of Gingoog City. These include the following: • Continuing Community Organizing and Mobilization. It is composed of six puroks or sitios with 298 households. It has become the locus and focus for participatory pbime. bmfi. The Case of Barangay Sangalan Barangay Sangalan is one of the 50 rural barangays of Gingoog City.

Sub-Project Development. and in setting up and strengthening the mechanisms for genuine participation by people in governance.TRACKS AND TRAILS 139 function to help facilitate a participatory local development planning process leading all the way to project implementation. bmfi helps ensure that communities. people’s organizations and cooperatives are sufficiently equipped with the capacities to implement the projects that they have identified and developed through participatory local development planning. and other interventions in lgu capability building especially local development planning. prepare bdps based on local requirements. particular attention would have to be given to the establishment and capability building of the bdcs. The work entails networking with the local officials—both elected and appointed. external resource mobilization. Thus. Workshops are conducted to ensure that the priority projects identified though the participatory planning processes are indeed truly responsive to the most pressing needs of the residents. Special attention is given to the enhancement of project-specific capabilities that would correspond to the livelihood projects prioritized. Project development workshops are also conducted to ensure that the people themselves are truly the primary stakeholders even during the earliest stage of the project cycle. Barangay Development Planning. . facilitating the (re)organization of the bdcs. and monitor and evaluate the implementation of national or local programs and projects. and project planning. The Local Government Code in Section 109 mandates the bdcs to mobilize people’s participation in local development efforts. assessing the status of the bdcs. revenue optimization. Resource Mobilization and Plan Implementation. budgeting. The salient stages/components of participatory local development planning are: Barangay Profiling and Assessment. • Barangay lgu Capability Building and Organizational Development. conduct of local governance seminars for officials and staff. implementation and monitoring. The objective is to develop the capability of the barangays for effective and efficient local governance.

Capability-building Agricultural development Land tenure improvement • Release from ALCO concession coverage • Implementation of community-based forestry management program Infrastructure • Construction of bridge from Barangay Kalipay boundary to Barangay Sangalan across Sangalan river • Rehabilitation of farm to market roads • Installation of potable water • Strengthening of the • Copra and banana barangay developproduction ment council • Cattle dispersal and • Organizational poultry raising strengthening of the peoples organizations in the barangay Livelihood development • Copra and banana trading • Buy and sell feeds • Microlending Watershed rehablitation and conservation • Reforestation • Agroforestry . As the barangay goes through various processes. The Stakeholders’ Forum has proven to be an effective mechanism to do this.140 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • Resource Mobilization and Setting Up of Barangay/Community Development Support Block Fund—Once formulated. vision and mission formulation. annual investment programming. such as data gathering/analysis/validation. the following were identified as its core programs. In most cases. the internal resources from the barangay and the households are not enough to implement the priority projects. barangay development planning and budgeting. the bdp becomes the basis for project prioritization and development. bmfi then assists the barangays to mobilize external resources. The Project Implementation and Monitoring Committee (pimc) draws up appropriate policies and mechanisms to guide the utilization of the fund.

this is beyond the financial capacity of the municipality. the plan has become comprehensive. Today this is made possible as bmfi works in five municipalities out of 11 in a district of Misamis Oriental.2 million. in its efforts to pursue development work. not just a listing of infrastructure programs and projects. BMFI Upscaling bmfi. b) in depth presentation and commitment generation from the national and regional line agencies and provincial government. Post-planning activities include a) resource mobilization to include project proposal generation through a stakeholders forum. The town has an annual budget of P56 million. with about 31. . has slowly shifted gears. c) synchronization of programs and plans of national line agencies to follow the targets of the municipality.TRACKS AND TRAILS 141 Clearly.000 per barangay and 13 barangays. bmfi continues to share its technologies through barangay servicing. The lgu has engaged an ngo. Kaanib Foundation. The Case of Impasugong. to assist the municipality in coming up with participatory barangay development plans. Bukidnon: Starting at the Barangays and Consolidating/ Integrating at the Municipal Level Impasugong is one of the 23 towns of Bukidnon. The budget estimates for the barangay development plans is P946 million in five years. The cost for the whole planning process is estimated to be around P1 M based on estimate of P60. d) barangay and municipal annual investment plans.where it does not work full time but provides consultancy services for lgus interested in the participatory approaches to pbime. e) enterprise development plans and f) mobilization of the business sector and civil society. The core programs of Barangay Sangalan highlight the difference from a typical barangay program.000 population of no less than 60% Higaonon. Clearly. from purely barangay-based work to municipal level integration and now at congressional district level. IRA of P52 million and a development fund of only P11.



The stakeholders forum conducted in 2000 generated a commitment of P67M. A number of projects committed during the forum are now on the ground. These include infrastructure commitments by the Congressman and the Governor; minihydro project in a barangay funded by the undp Global Environment Facility; commitments from the Kauyagan Savings Cooperative; vegetable production and marketing funded by the Lutheran World Relief; Local Government Support Program of cida and ifad program in 2 barangays. Conditions for Replication and Learning from the experiences First, local government units are open to partnership with ngo and there is potential of participation of the community in the overall pbime. The approach needs engagement with the local government unit. However, lgus that are not open to working with ngos and pos would find the processes threatening. Second, ngo need to have the capacity to do participatory barangay development planning. There is a technology associated with the implementation of participatory processes. Sustainable Integrated Area Development has a framework. Thus, a key element would be an ngo with the capacities to implement these processes. Existing programs of the ngos in the area would be helpful to facilitate small victories of the communities once they have gone through the whole process. Third, it is important for people’s organizations or other informal structures to be present in the community. People’s organizations facilitate the mobilization of the community for specific causes. Fourth, the whole planning process requires resources. The plans need financing. Note that in the case of bmfi, it has a project aimed at resource mobilization. It has also emphasized the concept of counterparting with the communities, households, local government units and line agencies. In the case of Impasugong, the municipal government really invested in the whole planning process.



Challenges There are also challenges that need to be hurdled. First, there are uneven capacities in doing participatory pbime. Appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes are needed in doing participatory pbime. This is needed by the ngos as they accompany the lgus. lgus have to be trained on the processes so that this becomes their “way of doing things”. Second, there is also a need to focus on enterprise development planning. Barangay and municipal plans need to identify enterprises, which are more likely viable in the area. Third, there is also a need among ngos to work together in specific areas based on specific expertise. One ngo cannot do it alone. While ngos are used to working in specific territories, it should have the capacity to bring in other ngos to work on specific programs. Fourth, ngos need to come up with regional/provincial/municipal development agenda or common programs of advocacy when they sit in specific development bodies. ngos need to speak in one voice when they sit in the local bodies. Processes should be in place to allow the ngos to decide on common advocacies.

Annex Annexes

Annex A NGOs in the Philippines22


NGOs REFER TO private, not for profit, voluntary organizations,
established primarily to work for socioeconomic and political development (Alegre, 1996). They come from diverse socioeconomic and political orientations and ideological and development frameworks. More than 40,000 ngos exist in the country. They represent, articulate and advance the rights, causes, and interests of the different sectors of society, especially the marginalized. These organizations include social development agencies (or development ngos), cause or issue-oriented organizations, civic organizations, community based groups, church related associations, academe-based organizations, professional and business federations, among others. ngos directly working with marginalized sectors, such as urban poor, industrial workers, farmers, fisherfolk, women, children and youth, and indigenous communities, are called development ngos. They number about 4,000-5,000 (Aldaba et al, 2002). These ngos are involved in community organizing and development, education, training and human resource development, social mobilization and advocacy, capacity and institution building, research, publication, and documentation, and resource

This is part of a JBIC study on NGOs by Aldaba, Petilla and Gonzales.




mobilization. These ngos also have projects in sustainable development and the environment, health and nutrition, enterprise and livelihood development, gender and development, social services, microfinance, and cooperative development. The Origin and Growth of the NGO Sector and Movement The following table gives the highlights in terms of the Growth of the ngo Sector in the Philippines.
Historical Development of the NGO Community: Highlights


Socioeconomic and Political Situation
• Heightened nationalism and student activism, rise of Maoism and Moro nationalism • Growing clamor for peace, civil rights, and women’s liberation • Imposition of martial law, halts NGO work

Developments in the NGO Community
• Church forms future leaders and organizations in the NGO community through the basic Christian communities (BCC). • Church initiates the Bishops Businessmen conference. • NGOs adopt community organizing as main development strategy. • Under martial law, some NGO leaders go “underground”; others are co-opted by the regime; still others remain low-key and apolitical.


• Clampdown on the opposition • Church-based NGOs continue party conducting socio-political organizing, • Marcos provides Churchadvocacy, and delivery of basic based NGOs relative freedom services. in the communities. • Some NGOs start of networking • Conduct of the 1978 National activities at the national level Assembly Election, with the • NGOs working with the underground administration party getting groups continue organizing and all the seats raising the consciousness of the peasantry in the countryside and • Labor export becomes the country’s economic workers in the urban areas. development strategy

• Overthrow of Marcos in a popular uprising in February 1986 (EDSA I). women and children are born • NGOs and trade unions test democratic space through strikes and rallies. Jr. • NGOs initiate massive noise barrage and use the international press and expose the worsening situation in the country. • NGOs thrive and sprout. such as Canada and Australia. Marcos’s political opponent Developments in the ngo Community • NGOs expand their work and influence and innovate development approaches and strategies despite increasing militarization and repression. others continue organizing and political education activities. • Some NGOs revive their socioeconomic (livelihood) activities in the local communities. • The number of NGOs increase dramatically. • NGO partnerships serve as “broker” for foreign development aid (e. • Several coup attempts by disgruntled military officials and Pres. • NGOs involved with the environment. Senator Aquino’s widow Corazon. ODA funds from Canada and Australia) 1983-86 • Severe economic crisis. Aquino’s political opponents 1986-92 • NGOs flourish and gain recognition. • Escalating daily street protests against the regime and urban middle class join in • Continued publication of articles critical of the regime by the alternative press. • NGO breakthroughs are: ..g.. • Some NGOs forge strategic partnerships with counterparts in other countries. arrest. • Widespread rage over human rights violations and disenchantment with the Marcos regime. • Birth of NGOs providing relief and rehabilitation assistance to victims of armed conflict and human rights violations. systematic raids of NGO offices. detention and summary executions of prominent opposition leaders and assassination of former Senator Benigno S.ANNEXES 149 Historical Development of the NGO Community: Highlights (Continuation) Years 1978-83 Socioeconomic and Political Situation • Middle East oil crisis affects export-oriented economy • Rampant crony capitalism. graft and corruption • Suppression of democratic rights. • NGOs intensify popular organizing and political education. resulting in the closing down of businesses and massive lay off. becomes president. Aquino.

• Gender openness and capacity for mainstreaming. 3. Stress on localization and regionalization 6. • Declaration of total war policy against the insurgents by the Aquino administration. 4. Revival of relief and rehabilitation work 9. Continuation of inter-NGO tensions. • Institutionalization of NGO participation in national development under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and 1991 Local Government Code Developments in the NGO Community 1. through networking and coalition building.150 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Historical Development of the NGO Community: Highlights (Continuation) Years Socioeconomic and Political Situation • Setting back of modest economic gains due to coup attempts • Resumption of armed struggle in the countryside by the communist insurgents. • Rallying of support from various sectors for the government’s Philippines 2000 vision. • Popular public support for Ramos. • Greater participation of NGOs at the local government level • Successful advocacy in many basic sector issues – urban poor and indigenous people and the law setting up the Poverty Commission with NGO representatives • NGO work as a distinct area of academic study • NGOs participate in electoral party list contests. Basic unity in the NGO movement. 2. Sustainable development as the new development model 5. Professionalization of NGOs. the minority president. from national to international. Lobbying and advocacy for policy reform and social legislation. Ramos as the 12th president of the country. from the more principled to the more pragmatic. . • Political stability • Initiation peace talks by the government with the communist and Muslim insurgents. New wave of cooperative growth 8. from legislative to executive branch of government. • Change in advocacy from local to national. 1992-1998 • Election to office of Fidel V. Participation in the international arena 7.

Also. Regulations and NGOs 1987 Philippine Constitution The 1987 Philippine Constitution. Montemayor) • NGOs rethink impact on poverty after “EDSA 3” where poor people attack Malacanang • NGOs raises funds through bonds. creates controversy • Increase calls for greater NGO transparency and accountability State-NGO Relations Laws. David) corruption • Poverty Issue on the National Agenda as Estrada is seen as champion of the poor • NGOs lead in the campaign to oust Estrada • Sustainability of NGOs as key issue 2000 up • Arroyo’s Assumption to the Presidency • NGO Personalities in Government’s social agencies (Soliman. it mandates lgus to collaborate with pos . The provisions recognize the role of ngos and pos in development. Gasgonia. 16) 1991 Local Government Code The 1991 Local Government Code mandates the local government units (lgus) to promote the establishment and operation of pos and ngos to become active partners in pursuing local autonomy (Bautista.ANNEXES 151 Historical Development of the NGO Community: Highlights (Continuation) Years Socioeconomic and Political Situation Developments in the NGO Community 1998-2000 • Election and ouster of Estrada • NGO personalities in Estrada Cabinet because of massive graft and (Morales. clearly enshrines the importance of ngos in at least three of its provisions. Also. XIII. they highlight the right of civil society sectors to establish their own organizations for development purposes. (Art. 1993:440). Deles. Sec. the fundamental law of the land.

ngos can elect representatives in several councils like the Local development Council. to pos and ngos in implementing community programs and projects. In early 1998. denr. civic. 10. 2001). religious. cultural. It places ngos along with foundations. fraternal. professional. 1997. once registered. All these provisions are reflected in Revenue Regulations 13-98.152 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION and ngos in the delivery of certain basic services. The sec supervises ngos as it supervises the corporations and it can cancel its registration if it contravenes the non-profit rule (Kawanaka. . such as the dole. ngos enter into a government accreditation process when they are engaged by concerned government agencies. charitable. 5. The Comprehensive Tax Reform Program (ctrp) and The Philippine Council for ngo Certification (pcnc) In 1995. Accredited donee institutions can have their donor’s grants excluded from the computation of the latter’s tax liabilities. 62). educational. the sec defines ngos as non-stock. the Philippine Center for ngo Certification was registered with the sec as a non-stock. scientific. Under the penalty of the law. In addition. Art. including activities and financial statements. social and agricultural organizations. a year after the ctrp was signed into law. 29. (Rule XIII. In addition to the sec registration. financial or otherwise. the pcnc and the Department of Finance signed an agreement naming the former as the sole body to establish and operationalize a system of accreditation to determine the qualification of domestic corporations and ngos as donee institutions. 1998. non-profit organization on Jan. Health and other Boards. Securities and Exchange Commission (sec) and Accreditation in Other Agencies As stipulated in the Philippine Constitution. and da. 1999. the Commission requires non-stock corporations or organizations to annually submit reports. lgus should also provide assistance. nonprofit organizations. and development of local enterprises. The word “sole” was eventually deleted in the Implementing Rules and Regulations. adopted on Dec. The pcnc was publicly launched on Feb. capability building and livelihood projects.

Arroyo) NGOs as Service Contractors 1986-present . Immunization Progarms Periods 1978-1985 (Marcos). 2001 to present (Ramos. resignation calls for the President). (Please see matrix below) Type of State-ngo Relations Antagonistic Examples • Protest Actions like strikes and rallies (e. Agrarian Reform Communities (land transfer-). • Protest against Chico River Dam Project • NGO membership in Local Development Councils • Government agencies set up NGO desks to consult and liaise with NGOs. Environment (Philippine Council for Sustainable development) • NGOs implementing Social Forestry Programs.g. 2000 (Estrada) Consultative and Participative 1986-1992 (Aquino) Collaborative and Partnership 1992-1998. clamor for higher wages. • Specific projects have advisory committees with NGO representatives • Joint Programs in Health (HIVAIDs • Philippine National AIDS Council).ANNEXES 153 Categories of State-NGO relations Relations between ngos and the Philippine government can be summarized into four types during the periods 78-present. oil price hikes..

Mindanao C.5 3.4 3.2 2.2 2.2 2.6 3.3 8.1 9.8 2.5 4. Visayas E.2 2.3 3.7 6. Mindanao Philippines 1975 30.8 3.3 14.7 3.3 100. Tagalog Bicol W.8 3.3 100. Mindanao S.8 3.0 2. Mindanao N.7 9.1 4.3 1.1 5.8 100.9 6.0 2000 31.8 3.0 6.9 15.3 14.1 7.4 2.2 6. Visayas W.0 Source: National Statistical Coordination Board .9 3.0 1987 29.5 8. Visayas C.1 2.7 7.2 4.154 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Regional Shares of Output Region NCR CAR Ilocos Cagayan Valley Central Luzon S.6 7.3 6.

with funding assistance from the Federal Republic of Germany through the German Development Cooperation will sponsor a Visayas Forum on Private Sector Participation in Development Planning Processes: Gains and Challenges in Regional and Local Development Councils on 19 to 21 April 2004 in Cebu City. To operationalize dpsp’s KRA 2 (please see “About dpsp” at the start of the book). The findings and recommendations of psp study provide fertile ground for discussion of experiences and learning. Thus. the forum will serve as a follow-through of the psp study. particularly the private sector representatives (psrs). and generation of recommendations using a conference format. VII and VIII.Annex B Conference Design Rationale THE DECENTRALIZED PLANNING Structures Project (dpsp) being implemented by the National Economic and Development Authority Regional Offices VI. It will provide a venue for stakeholders of the Regional and Local Development Councils (rdcs and ldcs). in Visayas regions to act on the findings and recommendations gener155 . a study on the “Assessment of the nature and scope of private sector participation (psp) in regional and local development planning bodies” was conducted and recently completed. The forum is solution-oriented.

and identify gaps and challenges. Thus. • Policy/Operational recommendations to enhance psp in regional and local development planning processes. psrs in rdcs and ldcs highlighted the need for a venue where they could share and learn from the experiences of each other on psp. Expected Outputs • Consensus on the quality. the forum will also be experiential. Participants The forum will have selected participants from the Visayas regions and provinces. • Review current policies and generate recommendations on policy support in enhancing psp. Objectives The forum has the following objectives: • Generate discussions on psp in regional and local development councils and bodies and ppbime towards ascertaining role of private sector.156 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION ated under the study. It will provide opportunities for psrs to learn from one another. • Set of innovative approaches and exemplary practices on psp that serves as quick and handy reference material on the same. limitations and venues for psp in ppbime. particularly from the following: . and enhancing their participation. Likewise. • Recommendation on the definition of private sector to reflect the differences between business sector and civil society. • Assess the gains of psp. • Enable participants to synthesize lessons from innovative approaches and exemplary practices on psp in regional and local development planning processes and governance. as well as from practitioners and facilitators of psp from all over the country. identifying venue for participation.

• 1 private sector representative from each pdc.ANNEXES 157 • 3 private sector representatives from each rdc. • 1 representative from the dilg Regional Offices . • Provincial and City Planning and Development Coordinators • 3 representatives from each nro.

Escandor Director. Regional Office VII neda NEDA DIRECTOR ROMEO C. Romeo C. Director Escandor provided a brief background on the Decentralized Planning Structures Project (dpsp) being implemented under the auspices of neda regional offices in the Visayas with the assistance of the German Technical Cooperation (gtz). processes and outputs need to complement each 158 . Cebu City 19-21 April 2004 Day 1 April 19. Recognizing that regional and local development planning structures. Escandor welcomed the participants to the Visayas Forum and to Cebu City. 2004 Opening Program WELCOME ADDRESS Atty.Annex C Conference Proceedings PROCEEDINGS OF THE VISAYAS FORUM ON PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION Golden Peak Hotel.

He further said that the German Technical Cooperation is committed to search for examples on and good practices of psp in local governance. if not integrated. He singled out the Philippines as one of the first few countries where psp is specifically mandated by law. Director Escandor called on the participants to learn from best psp practices and the sharing of experiences. Mayer expressed his appreciation for the number of participants in the forum and the enthusiasm to learn from each other on successes in private sector participation. potentials and constraints in order that patterns of success would be replicated and recommendations to problems documented. Director Escandor raised questions that were meant to trigger healthy discussions among private sector representatives (psrs) in regional and local development bodies: Are psrs mere spectators or active participants in the deliberation of regional and local development imperatives? As “private sector” is different from the government. the neda Director stressed the importance of private sector participation in sub-national development directions. particularly at the local level. to what extent can private sector participation (psp) enhance regional and local development planning? In the local context where psp may be enhanced or limited by the power of the local chief executive (lce). Mayer further emphasized that the roles of the private sector are many but two were mentioned as crucial. He said that it shows that the people participation has not waned 12 years after the Local Government Code (lgc) prescribed the participation of the private sector in the development of the country. One is the need to . MESSAGE Dr. He also encouraged participants to raise specific experiences. Dr. meaningful for psrs to be effective in their own local areas. how will psrs contribute to the quality of local governance? Finally. Challenging the participants to think beyond the participation rhetoric. Herwig Mayer dpsp Advisor Dr.ANNEXES 159 other.

Moreover.160 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION enhance transparency in decision-making to ensure that the constituencies are informed fully. particularly recognizing the differences. . budgeting. Mayer stressed that one of the objectives of the dpsp is to try to get planning and budgeting system in the regions of the Visayas reflective of the needs of the people. and complementary to the first. particularly of those elected. programming. The other. is the need to ensure accountability as the lgc has intended the private sector as a “watchdog of governance”. FORUM OVERVIEW Ms. Santiago urged participants to agree on the quality and potentials of psp in planning. Ms. contributions and complementarities between business sector and the civil society. He said dpsp would be supportive in enhancing psp to operationalize this objective. implementation. She expects the body to have a clear understanding of “private sector” as a concept. The first objective was to generate discussions on psp in regional and local development planning towards enhancing the role of the private sector. Dr. and monitoring and evaluation (ppbime). Another objective was to identify avenues for better participation. The fourth objective was to assess how psp may enhance regional and local development planning. she looked forward to generating policies or operational recommendations to enhance psp in the regional and local development planning processes. Evelyn Santiago dpsp Coordinator dpsp Coordinator Evelyn Santiago expounded on the objectives of the forum. Third was to assess the gains of psp and to identify gaps and challenges.

Autonomy within partnership meant recognizing respective strengths and contributions so that government and psrs could negotiate from strength. which involves private sector organizations (psos) undergoing accreditation. policies and regulations. It is a relationship among equals. Ms. collaboration and autonomy. Technical participation. Finally. She then described instrumental participation which involves psrs providing inputs through consultations. which included the need to follow-through on the successes of psp in the region and to likewise learn from the experiences of psrs in other regions and local jurisdictions. she added. She first described procedural or nominal participation. complementation. while the latter provides a comprehensive view of the qulaity and nature of participation. Gonzales provided two frameworks for good psp. not from weakness. she added. one could look at psp from a compliance perspective and from the quality of participation. Ms. required the capacity and confidence of psrs to engage with government in ppbime. Gonzales shared highlights of the study. Gonzales emphasized that substantive participation pertains to nurturing partnership. Ms. Anna Maria Gonzales Forum Coordinator/Main Facilitator Taking off from the results of the study on the nature and scope of psp in regional and local development bodies in the Visayas region. Gonzales emphasized that psp is motivated by the desire of the people to ensure transparency and accountability in governance . The former measures how psp complies with legal mandates provided for by laws. agenda-setting and advocacy. Gonzales explained the types and levels of participation in the framework.ANNEXES 161 Session 1 (Plenary) PSP IN REGIONAL AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESSES AND BODIES Results of Study on the Nature and Scope of PSP in Regional and Local Development Planning Bodies Ms. Ms. According to her. among others. Ms.

On the other hand. For psp to thrive better. neda at the regional level and the planning offices at the local level. presence of technical infrastructure. The political side. according to Prof. While the law was silent on the . and • Improved management of participation and planning. She also highlighted conditions that enable effective psp: responsible leadership. the technical side of planning refers to the contributions of the secretariat. is often overlooked in the dynamics of planning. At the regional level. The professor identified two sides of the planning process that run across the hierarchy of planning structures. Serote elaborated on the membership of psrs in the rdc and its committees. Ernesto M. Serote. independent and competent stakeholders. clear policy for private sector participation and a common vision that is shared by all stakeholders. the processes. Gonzales singled out the potential of psrs to link the ldcs to the rdc and vice versa. since many sit in committees at the rdc and ldc. Achieving Vertical and Horizontal Integration in Development Planning Process: Framework for PSP in Regional and Local Development Planning Processes Prof. namely. linkages and outputs. Ms.162 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION as well as to enable them to push their development agenda. the political and the technical side. Prof. namely. the following must be present: • Vibrant relations between psos and lgus in the sub-national units in the Visayas. and the opportunities and constraints in integration. Serote School of Urban and Regional Planning University of the Philippines Professor Serote discussed the structures of planning in the Philippines. The politics of agenda-setting and prioritization in development planning is inherent in the powers and prerogatives of the local chief executives (lces) and members of the local council. • Capability-building for psrs to participate more effectively in ppbime.

There is no consensus on . Prof. Another was through membership in sectoral committees. This is to ensure the autonomy and integrity of pos. He said that psp is not easily discerned in the system. Prof. These plans are prepared and implemented quite apart in terms of priority. except in the form of membership in some parts of the planning structure and that psp in specific stages of the planning cycle can only be inferred from the inputs and outputs of certain processes involved.ANNEXES 163 participation of psrs in the rdc committees. As lgus are deemed the managers of the local territory. “Quality” depends on what lens one is most appreciative about. On “quality” of private sector participation. One was through membership in ldcs and other special bodies. Prof. While some pos expect that they should also benefit from capacity-building assistance from government. On the other hand. OPEN FORUM On participation of p o s in development planning when not capacitated by the government. the body agreed that pos need to capacitate itself and look for sources to be able to contribute to development. Serote indicated that vertical integration is done through the mandatory consultations by ngas to lgus on national policies and programs. Serote discussed different avenues for participation. he illustrated the problem on horizontal integration by way of having two operational plans. Furthermore. Serote enumerated the different provisions of law that mandates vertical integration. Prof. they are also treated as agents of the national government. And the other was through special invitations as technical resource persons in recognition of the expertise and track record of the individual and/or the organization he/she represents. one from the national level and the other from the local level. Serote concluded his presentation by locating the role of psrs and the opportunity of psp in regional and local planning. On local planning. the professor said that the committees provide a forum where most extensive discussions and deliberations occur and where the contributions of psrs are most solicited. timing and resources.

structural and legal norms. technical. Barangay development plans are part of the hierarchy of development plans. representative to substantive-transformative to determine possible the range of participation. On membership in the ld c . was the singular motivation to address poverty in the region and to improve the socio-economic status of the people. Criteria for membership in the ldc ldc depend upon the standards set by the lgu itself. Legal compliance is indicated by presence or absence of the requirements mandated by law. Marietta Paragas President Ms. at the behavioral. Paragas started her presentation by stressing that the private sector should not depend on any funding from the government in order to advocate the people’s agenda. CASE PRESENTATIONS: NGO NETWORK EXPERIENCES IN VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL STRATEGIES Cordillera Network of NGOs and POs (CORDNET) Ms. the lgc did not provide the barangays with the authority to regulate land use. . while participation framework is fully discussed in the paper given. One may wish to look at levels of participation.164 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION indicators or measures of quality of participation. On whether barangay development planning is part of the hierarchical structures of planning. However. She proceeded in introducing cordnet and its participation in the rdc and the ldc as a network of ngos and po in the Cordillera region. Indicators of compliance for psp as enumerated in the study. which might be deduced from the case presentations in the forum proper. The lowest tier with powers for land use planning is the municipal government. The main reason why ngos and pos in the region coalesced into a network. ranging from nominal. Components and indicators of participation are the legal compliance and the participation framework. technical. she said. One may also discern quality from patterns of successful outcomes.

Ms. Furthermore. the cordnet and the rdc share a similar vision. On the other hand. Networking with other ngos having the same vision and mission would be ideal to add into the organizational resources needed for effective participation. This would require nurturing mutual trust and confidence between the lgu and the pso. the structures. Paragas outlined the motivations why cordnet participates in regional and local development bodies: • cordnet believes that governance is not solely a government function but a function of all stakeholders. • Working with the government will complement the limited resources of the ngo—and it would create a greater impact. She stressed that an ngo/po must be organized to deal with the government. • Needs of the community would be better addressed if there is partnership. Ms. processes and procedures of government. she emphasized. Finally.ANNEXES 165 Ms. Partnership building was the major strategy for psp in the rdc. cordnet views participation as an option which promotes participatory government. Among these were the need to transcend participation in planning from the regional level down to the barangays and the capacity to deliver basic services and to implement programs and projects. that is. she said. Three is the behavioral aspect or the attitudinal underpinnings of participation. One is the technical aspect of participation. Ms. she assured. partnership would be futile. otherwise. In the Cordillera region. Paragas underscored partnership as power. • If there is no coordination with the government there might be duplication of services rendered which would be inefficient. Paragas discussed the challenges that hinder effective participation. . A participatory approach from below with ngos/pos contributing their share of expertise and resources is one among various indicators of effective participation. Things are done better when partnership and collaboration is mature. This would require “understanding the system”. Paragas also cited the basic requirements for participating effectively in local governance. Two is the organizational aspect or participation.

which hinder the opportunity of psos to participate in local governance. Third is the need to establish partnership with lgus. rdcs in the Visayas are supportive to psp. Nayra cited the following: • lgu readiness and openness to accept psp • Functionality of the ldc • Information accessibility • psr/pso sharing the same development agenda • Availability of funds . as follows: • to be involved in the crafting of the developmental agenda and preparation of plans. • to participate in the consultation processes for programs. it was stressed by the speaker that psp can still be done even without being a member of the ldc through lobbying of one’s agenda in the council. she identified the expectations of visnet in partnership-building with government. Nayra scored the lack of implementing guidelines for accreditation of ngos/pos in most lgus. One is the need to promote the basic sector’s agenda. Ms. Ms. Second is the need to influence the development framework to be inclusive. projects and activities affecting the sector. Nonetheless. There are factors that could enhance or hinder effective private sector participation in development. However. approaching participation on the political side. While membership in the ldc is the foremost concern of visnet. • to avail of opportunities for program and project complementation. The advocacy to address the development concerns of the marginalized sector is one of the primary motivations for participation. Nayra cited three reasons why psos participate in regional and local development planning. humane and holistic.166 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Visayas Network of NGOs (VISNET) Ms. and • to be trained in the development planning process. Pauline Nayra President Ms.

audit and consultancy services (e. among others). focuses on participation of the pso in the formulation of the barangay development plan. Paraguya expressed that the development process in the different lgus in Mindanao is not participatory because of several factors. Paraguya is involved in.. One is that neither the lgus nor the psos have the financial resources to encourage private sector particiation. lending services 2. or mincode. It is self-reliant in the sense that it has resources to fund its own programs. it also implements programs as an indication of its organizational capacity. a network of ngos in Mindanao.ANNEXES 167 Ms. the ngo she was from. which is part of Mindanao code-ngo. Their efforts brought about a holistic . computerized cooperatives running in 62 sites in Mindanao) While the ngo advocates certain development issues. another ngo that Ms. Paraguya briefed the participants on mass-specc. Among the services provided by her ngo are the following: 1. Among the recommendations are the following: • streamline accreditation process • create venue for regular and sectoral consultations • use ict for information dissemination • activate and train ldcs through a proactive secretariat (planning offices) • replicate meetings in the provincial and regional levels Mindanao Network of NGOs (MINCODE) Ms Sylvia Paraguya President Ms. Ms. Balay Mindanao. Nayra also raised practical recommendations to improve psp. particularly bearing the cost of attending meetings and consultation processes (transport costs and incidental expenses.g. lgus also believe that the people or ngos do not have the capacity to engage with government in the development process. training services for coops 3.

. A higher level of technical participation is being eyed as part of an upcoming training. livelihood development and watershed development—a more integrated approach to planning. psp. On “honest-to-goodness” participation and real partnership. OPEN FORUM On how government recognized the expertise of PS. Initiative also plays an important role. On benefits enjoyed by the people as a result of psp in development planning.g. Henceforth. e. Honest-to-goodness participation motivates psos (ngos) to push the agenda of the organization. which became the impetus for lgus to recognize the expertise of the pso. It also increased the stake of the people. What is more crucial for psos is to show their consistent track record. Honest-to-goodness participation is partnership with the government characterized by passion to meet the . The pso offered to help the lgu update its data on minimum basic needs. People were able to participate directly in the formulation of the bdp. Their participation heightened ownership of the plan. which is on budget advocacy and expenditure tracking. which were mere listings of infrastructure programs. However. In Cordlillera. Current plans already include priorities like capacity building. conduct of Minimum Basic Needs (mbn) surveys for lgus. the openness of lgus to accommodate psp is beyond the full control of psos. A practical advice given by the presenters was to show respect to lgus through courtesy calls and presentation of one’s agenda to officials to gain support. which became the foundation of partnership between the lgu and pso. a healthy respect was accorded to the pso. lgus may have a differing opinion on allowing psp to influence governance. hence their participation in planning moved them to undertake active monitoring and evaluation.168 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION development perspective. and helped their partners depart from previous plans. The results of the survey were used as data for the preparation of barangay development plans. having a common agenda shared by lgus and psos paved the way for partnership to prosper. expertise and performance. On lgus being “open” to psp psp is political.

On perceived insecurity on the part of the lgu or dilg when pso performs functions of the former. by empowering them and making them realize that they co-own the projects with the government. but sharing a common development agenda. government. Real partnership is characterized by having both parties share a common understanding of the issues at hand so that transparency is not compromised. . On sustainability of partnership with lgu On the part of the lgu. an ngo does not monitor the project of another ngo. On competence of a p o/ng o as necessary to have an honest to o/ngo goodness participation. with regard to government projects. For ethical reasons. Government and ngo should complement each other. It is usually important to get the support of the lce at the outset. one may assume this to be highly irregular and misplaced. monitoring may be undertaken through the Regional Project Monitoring and Evaluation System (rpmes) at the regional level. Role of the Business Sector in Plan Formulation in Iloilo City: Challenges and Opportunities Architect Manuel Tingzon Architect Tingzon discussed the history of planning and development in Iloilo City. ngo On monitoring projects implemented by another ng o and by government.ANNEXES 169 goals of both parties. Real partnership also means maintenance of autonomy. There was a consensus that effective participation is aided by competence on the part of ngos/pos. He said that only in 1977 that the Urban Comprehensive Development Plan in Iloilo City was enacted and only in 1998 that the Land Use Plan came into existence. There is no such feeling of insecurity on the part of the government and if there were. because it would be difficult for the ngo to proceed with its project with a hostile lgu. it is necessary to institutionalize the partnership through local legislation so that the partnership can continue despite change of officials. It is imbued with clarity of purpose and commitment. there is strong pressure to honor these projects despite change of political leadership in the lgu. However. On the part of the people.

solid waste management and funding programs and projects of other ngos. Different terrains of participation are available. There are avenues provided by law for psp. Based on the sharing of the different ngos and the Iloilo Business Club. It is known for its capability. as evidenced by the comprehensive framework of vertical and horizontal participation in planning. there exists a legal mandate for private sector participation in governance. particularly in the formulation of the Iloilo River Master Plan. However. Tingzon identified challenges facing psp. this is rather a desire more than a reality. commitment and resources to perform its job. there are also different opportunities for psp to influence development directions effectively. Fernando Aldaba In the Philippines. It coordinated with the different government agencies. ibc enjoys the respect of the people. it has enough resources to help the government. Synthesis of Day 1 Mr. there are indications of good practices for psp in planning and development. Mr. OPEN FORUM On factors strengthening the partnership between the pso and government. . On specific contributions of the ib c to Iloilo City. It has conibc tributed much in planning and development. With a strong network. Among these were the following: • psos have inadequate understanding and appreciation of the planning process • psos are treated merely providing recommendations • Coordination problems exist between lgu s and ngas in project formulation and implementation.170 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION The Iloilo Business Club (ibc)composed of different corporations in Iloilo City contributed much in the development of the city. specifically in the formulation of the Iloilo River Plan. However.

While the three actors (government. Prof. (2) regulator of the market. programming. business and civil society) are independent from each other. budgeting. implementation. Serote School of Urban and Regional Planning University of the Philippines Prof. infrastructure support. monitoring and evaluation (ppbime) process to see what opportunities for substantive technical and even political participation by the private sector are available. that is. Between the state and the private sector are concerns for fiscal policies. and (4) social engineer. labor policies. there must be an interplay of market forces. (3) arbiter between contending social groups and classes. . state intervention and civil society participation. and the private sector that takes care of the economy. participatory governance. Between civil society and the state are concerns for social and spatial equity. 2004 Opportunities for Private Sector Participation in PPBIME Ernesto M. He cited that the four basic roles of the state are as: (1) provider of social goods and services. state that determines polity. they freely interact and collaborate for the purpose of achieving the common good of society.ANNEXES 171 Day 2 April 20. and the promotion and enrichment of Filipino culture. civil society that shapes culture. The private sector was split into private business and civil society consistent with the three-folding image of society. Serote’s discussion took a closer look at the planning. Using the paradigm of the three-folding image of society. Serote highlighted the areas of convergence between and among the three sectors. favorable business climate and environment-friendly production units. Their interaction and collaboration is important because for sustainable development to occur. The rationale for private sector participation in development planning is based on the fact that government is not the sole determinant of development and that investment capital in the hands of government is relatively small compared with private capital.

humane labor practices. local development. Equally significant is the contribution of the private sector that invests in the production and distribution of goods and services that people need to consume to improve their well-being.172 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Between the private sector and civil society are concerns for wages. The private sector can also strongly influence the preparation and application of project evaluation criteria by actually participating in the ldip/aip workshops. In development planning the private sector can contribute through membership in the ldc and other special bodies or in sectoral and functional committees and by serving as resource persons on call in the ldc on technical matters. appropriate technology. the private sector may bid for the supply of foods and services to be procured. preparation of position papers. community-based resource management and gender-sensitive workplaces. represents only a fraction of all that happens in society and the environment on a day-to-day basis. The private sector. the private sector can determine what projects make up the long and short list (screening) and the final project ranking (prioritization). Different modes of implementation allow various levels of private sector participation. or is in complete control of. In investment programming. Private sector engagement in the budgeting process can be done through attendance in public hearings. Civil . These concerns provide avenues where the private sector can actively participate in the ppbime processes. cannot determine amount of public funds available for investments because government budgeting is a closed system composed entirely of government functionaries. nationalist economics. ngos and similar groups in local development. Planning. taken in the broad sense as the sum of all intervention measures undertaken by government. It would be presumptuous to assume that the local government contributes much to. In the case of implementation by administration. conduct of seminars and workshops to analyze the proposed budget and the use of mass media as communication channel. There is also the growing influence of various voluntary organizations. Much of what takes place in a given area may be attributed to the activities and decisions of individual citizens and families to improve their living conditions and their chances of making a living. however.

On psp in the development processes. Refining the RDC and LDC Definition of the Private Sector Dr. Serote suggested increasing beyond the 10 percent limit to increase private sector participation. Aldaba focused his discussion on refining rdc and ldc definition of private sector by comparing the two-sector paradigms .ANNEXES 173 society may also monitor the procurement process to ensure transparency and equity. private sector can participate in implementing 10 percent of the total development fund of the city. i. Prof. Prof. In the case of Cebu City. Prof. But investment programming already includes the private sector in determining how much available funds are available across sectors.. Aldaba Economics Department Ateneo de Manila University Prof. However. OPEN FORUM The following questions were asked following the presentation of Prof. the private sector can still act as advocates of equitable budgeting across sectors. Fernando T. There is now a global trend to monitor government led by the civil society to minimize corruption and to instill accountability among government officials. in the budgeting process. On determining how effectively the budget was used. Serote. At present. there are no formal mechanisms for anyone outside government to decide who gets how much. The private sector can also actively participate in implementing the budgeted activities. Serote highlighted the fact that government budgeting in the Philippines is a closed system that does not provide venues for viable private sector participation. Serote cited the dilg project that tracks expenditure spending albeit only for poverty alleviation funds only. There are built-in monitoring bodies in all levels of government with varying degrees of private sector participation.e. On psp influencing government budgeting.

These stakeholders bring in information. the foundation of economic growth and development through trade must cover the following concerns: employment. human resource development. The Philippines is a very poor country with inter-intra regional disparities. or what the “stand” of the private sector really is. whichever seems to be convenient. legitimization. individual development and self-expression. responsibility and self-expression through social cohesion can be undertaken by taking care of education. These partnerships are a must to ensure sustainable development. justice and peacekeeping through law. This results in some confusion as to “who” (private business or civil society) in the whole “private sector” should be represented in certain bodies (appropriateness). service delivery. regulations. In civil society. and the provision of goods and services. and peace and protection. concerns for foundations of equity. . social investments. supply chain. safety nets.174 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION between the Regional Development Council and the Local Development Councils with the tri-sector paradigm state-market-civil society domains. It is also plagued with weak governance and systemic corruption with added competitive pressures on the national and local economies because of globalization. Nor is the “private sector” composed of people or organizations with the same interests or capacities. The lack of refinement and proper “labeling” gives rise to problems of representation in the councils. social infrastructure. setting of standards. Given these realities. The two-sector paradigm does not make a distinction between market and civil society. resources. Because of this. there is a need to refine the definition of private sector in the rdc and the ldc to ensure more adequate representation and more substantive participation. The varying roles and motivating forces of the three main sectors account for the following: In the public sector. given that the entire “private sector” may not have a homogenous stand. The country need multi-stakeholder partnership as a strategic response to the current development challenges. In business. certain viewpoints within the rdc and the ldc tend to emphasize only one or the other. physical infrastructure. the foundations of liberty. networks and expertise to the partnership. culture.

Bercasio. On matching the development priorities of government and the private sector. Aldaba and Mr. The experiences of Naga City in involving ngos and pos in local governance provided lessons on enabling political environment and ensuring readiness from both sides to enter into partnerships and collaboration. David Bercasio Naga City People’s Council Mr. 1993 with the organization of the Naga City ngo-po Council and 1995 with the passage of the Empowerment Ordinance. It is also a mechanism that allows active and effective people’s participation in local governance.ANNEXES 175 People’s Participation in Governance: The Naga City People’s Council’s Experience Mr. At the barangay level. Mr. ncpc is directly involved in strengthening/participation planning of the barangay development councils as well as in community organizing activities. 1991 with the passage of the lgc. Bercasio shared his personal experience with the Naga City People’s Council. It made people’s representatives as regular members of the council where they actively participate in deliberations and vote on local priorities. budget allocation and project implementation. The ncpc at the city-level is involved in program concepts and planning. monitoring and evaluation. The Naga City People Council in a nutshell is a group of ngos and pos operating within the city. It also gave lessons that participation requires less energy and resources but produce results. OPEN FORUM Below were some of the questions asked after the presentations of Prof. The Empowerment Ordinance was the first of its kind enacted in the country. Bercasio emphasized that while the relationship between the private sector and the local government in Naga City . He traced the history of active people’s participation in Naga City from the 1980’s with People’s Councils. The ordinance widened the areas of participation.

The engagement processes on budget allocation include preparing budget proposals and sitting in budget hearings. Mayor Robredo is a good manager who utilizes the private sector to deliver the outputs it does best. There is a need ngo to break through the barrier of distrust between the private sector and the government. However. however. there is a need to transform sector-specific group interest into public interest by engaging in constant dialogue. civil society. must be learned from the processes that were undertaken. no partnership can be legislated without “creative engagement. Lessons. As an economist. emphasized that Mayor Robredo not only has the management . efficient and effective service delivery may be done by the private sector. The interface among the major players of development in Naga City ensures that there is check and balance among government. there are no representatives of faithbased groups and the academe in the ncpc. On role of local chief executives in promoting psp It was noted psp. Bercasio. Aldaba agreed that there must be a shift in the mindsets of private sector and government. investment programming and budgeting of the city development funds.” On benefits of interface among the major players of development. The empowerment ordinance of Naga City legally enforced people to work together and to strengthen. Mr. Mayor Robredo is open to discussion and negotiation. lgus can learn from the effective and efficient management techniques used by Mayor Robredo in local governance. However. Bercasio stressed that it is important the ncpc become budget “experts” because what the ncpc proposes for budgeting is always included for implementation. rather than merely focusing on the attributes of the mayor’s personality. Mr. The development agenda is the basis for planning.176 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION has not been conflict-free especially on setting priorities. Prof. The development agenda of Naga is proposed by the mayor and then submitted to a congress where it is deliberated. In addition. particularly that of Mayor Robredo of Naga City may have contributed to the active and effective participation of the private sector in the development activities of the city. however. The final agenda is passed by the ncpc. that the personality and mindset of the local chief executive. Prof. On ngo s as alternative agents of service-delivery. Aldaba believes that cheap. and business.

partnerships. According to Fr. Fr.ANNEXES 177 skills but also possesses the proper attitude towards sharing power and information with the private sector. integrating. bottom-up planning (po planning/barangay planning/municipal planning). and component funding. with majority working in agricultural-based activities. partnering sectoral projects. 160 km northeast of Manila. “riding-on” existing projects. It has five ecosystems but is isolated by mountain ranges from the rest of the Calabarzon Region. meaningful people participation. Lucas Infanta Community Development Assistance. NGO Innovations in PPBIME: Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance (ICDAI) Case Fr. Francis B. as well as the need to protect Infanta from development aggression. Lucas.000 population. Quezon.576 hectares of land area with a 50. Infanta is located at the east coast of Luzon. Lucas shared his personal experiences as icdai chairperson on building strategic partnerships to initiate the preparation of comprehensive land use plan of Infanta. upscaling. The valuable lessons learned by the community showed that indepth preparation of the barangays/villages prior to Comprehensive . It has 34. multi-stakeholder management. capability-building. the Infanta clup succeeded in breaking down myths that only government has the prerogative to initiate a clup and that it is very expensive to prepare a clup because only experts can and are able to do it. It was also successful in involving the civil society through persistence. The Infanta clup was prepared to respond to the challenges of integration. greater equity. The preparation of the clup served as an avenue to mainstream the following icdai strategies: demythologizing the impossible through empowerment and creativity. deeper development impact and scale. sustainability. barangay or municipal development planning as entry point in institutionalizing multi stakeholder governance. Inc. and alternative arrangements. The icdai development strategies uphold multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral participatory governance.

The facilitating role and the value of technical input providers also help the production of a good clup. like an ngo. Partnership is needed not only in the organizing or technical aspects but also on the financial aspect of planning. etc. When they understand. The formula for the success of a multi sectoral. Partnership and participation have promoted improved governance because they ensure that political. When highly technical information are presented in ways that are too abstract. Moreover. according to Fr. The process also ensures that the poorest and most vulnerable members of society are heard in decision making. all sectors ought to have internal capability. To effectively participate. material and human resource contributions in the spirit of transparency. their knowledge of the content and process of planning also enhances their participation. social economic priorities are based on a broad consensus. methodologies. All stakeholders must uphold an atmosphere of cooperation rather than focusing on conflicts and differences amongst them. multi stakeholder approach. This means that stakeholders must be ready to provide financial. Lucas.178 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Land Use Planning is crucial to the successful outcome of the whole clup Process. . Partnership of the lgu with the private sector and civil society groups. Multi-stakeholder participation presupposes government and non-government (civil society) participation. The intensity of participation of the basic sectors depends upon how interesting and relevant the whole process of clup is to them. The partnership between civil society and government to formulate the Infanta clup brought together stakeholders to carve a clear direction for the development efforts of an area. This is where ngos can play a vital role given their organizing skills and expertise in participatory action research. Participation is at the core of planning because without it citizens and local officials will not own the clup outputs. that their future is at stake then the participation is more intense and active. is complementation between all participants. however. helps in coming up with a more participatory approach to clu planning. Internal capability is therefore a must for all stakeholders. the tendency of the basic sectors is to slowly withdraw from the activities.

linkage. It was under the direct supervision of the City Mayor. capability and track record. Catalysts. The Cebu City Commission for the Urban Poor (ccup) was swarmed with requests even before it was formally created. committed ngo/private sector. and competence. and favorable policy environment. Teresa B. therefore providing each other reliable partners to bring about complementation. The experience of the clu planning of the municipality of Infanta proved that the following are the four prerequisites for successful lgungo/po partnership: organized citizenry. Fermandez KAABAG Chair. A major success story of the ccup was the implementation of the Community Mortgage Program through which communities were organized to .ANNEXES 179 Some of the success factors that influenced government policies through partnership include: a) in-depth preparation of stakeholders. Fernandez traced the origins of the strategic partnerships between the private sector and the Cebu City government to the creation of the Commission for the Urban Poor. Initiator). commitment. Strategic Partnerships in Program and Project Implementation in Cebu City Ms. Lucas reminds that ngos and the private sector need to position themselves as partners in governance by. Fr. a) changing strategy (from confrontation to collaboration. c) ngo build up of its own credibility and capability as recognized by lgu. Negotiator. b) true recognition of each stakeholder of their respective comparative advantage and importance. now known as the Department for the Welfare of the Urban Poor. Advocate. constituency. from non involvement to involvement). It began with an office organized by an ngo from a number of staff seconded by the different existing departments. Social Development Committee RDC 7 Ms. b) observing their multiple roles (Organizer. In conclusion. receptive lgu. c) possessing the following to influence policy—credibility. and d) participation of diverse stakeholders.

In the beginning. The City Task force on Street Children is another example to strategic ngo-go partnership in Cebu City. A coordinating center based in Parian was funded by the city. a family watch group against domestic violence where community leaders were trained to respond to direct acts of violence. The city government also provided the use of buses as venues for formal classes among school dropouts. Another strategic partnership emerged as a result of the destruction brought about by the Typhoon Ruping in 1991. Lihok Pilipina and City Health Office is another strong partnership in Cebu City. The inter-agency committee that managed this program was composed of 24 member agencies – 9 government and 15 non-government organization representatives. A Women’s Crisis Center operated by fida. a Cebu City-based ngo negotiated for a P1 million loan from the city government. This forced the arrangement to lodge the committee at the City Health Office with the ngo Lihok Pilipina to co-coordinate.180 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION secure land tenure through a loan financing from the government payable in low-installment plans. most of the 80 barangays have trained volunteers who can respond to cases of violence. Pagtambayayong. the ngos that attended the coordination meeting were hesitant to be included in a network under the City Government. . the loan was paid to the city government with successful outcomes. The Kaugalingong Pagbarug Sugbo was organized to facilitate more access to cheap construction materials and basic commodities by members of depressed communities in the city. With efficient and transparent transactions. The crisis center began with the formation of Bantay Banay. The corollary Urban Basic Services Program was also established on January 1988 as a component of the Country Program for Children III (1988-93) with assistance from unicef. At present. The ngos and pos also continued lobbying for the implementation of the Urban Development and Housing Act which was passed in 1992. neither did they want the government to claim their effort. The city government provided the infrastructure for the crisis center and provided funds for organizing more groups in other communities. They did not like to be co-opted.

gabion dams and others. the Cebu City Land Use Plan in the watershed . In October 1999. soap-making. Among its activities are the water educational caravan. In the 2001 election campaign. After the elections. As a result the Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water was formed in January 1995. A fight in the newspaper ensued. It organized consultations among 238 representatives from 17 sectors to discuss the issue of the watershed. after a disagreement with the chairperson of the Mananga Watershed Authority. Many ngo members of Kaabag sa Sugbo. the Gender Code of Cebu City was passed by the City council under the incumbency of Mayor Alvin Garcia. Since then. amendments were also proposed regarding the composition of the Cebu City Women and Family Affairs Commission to include representative’s .ANNEXES 181 Fund raising activities to help member agencies were also conducted in malls. salt-iodization. In 1994. Before the election. Livelihood activities such as micro-credit for production efforts in candy-making. The Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water is another example of strategic partnership to address a common issue. a strong women’s group advocated for the creation of the Cebu Women’s Commission. and herbal tea production. The proposed commission called for the implementation of the Gender and Development Budget Policy in the barangays . movie houses and others. Other shared efforts for health included strengthening of the barangay health workers through lobbying with the city government for increased honorarium and provision of materials and water-sealed toilets to identified communities and campaign for immunization and use of iodized salt. the Mayor abolished the authority. The policy stipulates that a minimum of 5% budget of government agencies including local governments be allotted for gender and development concerns. watershed tours. In 1997. a consultation was held where the mayor and representatives of the barangays were invited to agree on the implementation of the gad Budget Policy. decided to take an active role in the watershed issue. rain water catchments. the women also presented a women’s agenda to candidates for local election. this multi-stakeholder ngo has been strongly advocating for government response to the issue of water and watershed management. department stores.

Fernandez informed the participants that an annual budget of P10 million pesos has been set aside by the Cebu City Development Council for the implementation of development programs and projects by the private sector partners of the city. The monies available for development projects are sustained because of the strong partnerships be- . The Anti-Domestic Violence Ordinance (first in the country) was passed. Committees under this body have not been activated.182 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION form the women community and for the Executive Chair of the Commission to come from the private sector. Most of the efforts that have become programmatic—cmp. Fernandez. The funds are transferred to the partner ngos after they have submitted requests for fund assistance for specific programs and projects that have been approved by the various committees of the cdc. it includes all the representatives from the barangays and other agencies (numbering 120 in all) and only meets once every year. Other gender and development efforts included the Report Card on Gender Responsive governance in 2000 where a multi-sectoral groups rated the City as fair with high on participation and low in equity. On details of the P10 million c d c budget for private sector implementation. A prepared form is filled up and processed by the secretariat following government accounting procedures. In principle. Local Plan of Operation for Children and others—have been initiated by the ngos. a mechanism provided for in the Local Government Code provided for 20% representation of ngos in the Council. and the allocation of almost P20 million by the City for gad activities from 2002-2004. The Local Development Council. The City has shown openness in the effort and has provided both financial and other forms of support. the Council is supposed to plan for the city. However. The active participation is more in the ad hoc bodies. The formal avenues of participation have not been very effective. The lobbying for the gad Budget has resulted in the allocation of P34 million to the barangays for gad from 2000 to 2003. Lucas and Ms. Ms. OPEN FORUM The following questions were raised after the presentations of Fr. Bantay Banay. cusw.

with the “blessing” of the lce. Lucas shared his formula for managing change in the communities that included the importance of a legal framework. To be able to sengo cure government assistance an ngo may have to hard sell its proposal to the local chief executive so that he or she could agree to provide funds after which the proposal. even if they are not directly involved in governance. Fr. On ng o s that are not recognized by the lgus. Lucas for his part stressed that ngos. The workshop groups were requested to respond to the following question. it naturally had to rely on assistance from relevant government agencies for guidance and data. WORKSHOP The body was divided into workshop groups by region. must remain strong advocates of development and must continue to organize stakeholders for advocacy. the link between the ldc and the rdc representation is weak because of distance between the lgus and regional center. Lucas pointed out that his experiences were limited to nearby municipalities and the ecosystems therein. in ecosystems integration a deep linkage with regional line agencies had to be established. the technical soundness of effecting change and positive response of the constituency to the proposed change.ANNEXES 183 tween the ngos and the city government. Fernandez pointed out that the bulk of the technical work of preparing and assessing proposals lies with the sectoral committees. Thus. On managing change. Thus. Ms. On the importance of sectoral committees in local development councils. there is a need to provide capability-building activities for Sectoral Committee and Council members. In order to bring about horizontal linkages and harmonization between ldc and the rdc. However. Fr. Being the first municipality in Quezon to prepare a participatory clup. Fr. On horizontal linkages. This is to keep one’s good track record necessary to avail of future funding opportunities. There is also a strong monitoring system to ensure that program and project objectives are met. “where are we now and where are we going?” Based on the in- . is sponsored by a sectoral committee member for inclusion in the lgus’ Annual Investment Program.

resolution/concrete actions. 7 and 8. She also expressed that the best indicator of participation is the transparency of both partners and accountability. mission and goals. . consensus building and conflict resolution and networking trainings. Felisa Etemadi UP Cebu Professor First Reactor She said that the participants had a good grasp of the concept of honest to goodness participation. She also presented different modes of intervention in decision making across the ppbime. each workshop group was requested to assess psp in rdcs and ldcs. such as critiquing.184 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION puts of resource speakers and the discussions among participants. She further said that there is a need for the lgu to clarify its vision. three panelists were given the time to make some reactions to the presentation given. There must be common vision and commitment between the lgu and the pso. funds allocation. enabling policy. She further said that psr should be given capacity building such as. as well as the ngo to define its principles of unity. as well as to come up with strategies to enhance psp. ngo/po plan integration. After the plenary. counterparting and parameter indicators. Prof. Specific questions were responded to: (a) how do you know that “honest to goodness” participation is happening? (b) what is required to make this happen? (c) what keeps you from doing these? Day 3 April 21. A manual of operation as rules of engagement. moa. mutually agreed upon by the parties must be made to guide them in the planning process. priority programs/projects. 2004 The day started with the presentation of the different workshop outputs from the different groups representing Regions 6. budget release.

business and civil society can agree on a common vision. or exclusive) and tried to validate if they were truly convinced of the importance of the tri-sector approach. She revolved her reactions around clusters of queries. and how a refinement of the definition of the “private sector” will help in ensuring that the relevant sectors are represented in development planning and implementation. Evelyn Nacario-Castro Ramon Aboitiz Foundation Inc. Ms. inverted triangle has structures. where the first upright one has relationship as its base. With the second cluster. Castro asked the participants to define the direction of participation (more inclusive. Second Reactor Ms. Castro started her reaction by saying that for democratic governance to flourish there must be a vigorous exchange of ideas.ANNEXES 185 Lastly. She presents the star as a reminder and as a point of reflection . Ms. true integration means one that transcends his own sectoral concern for all. The star is made up of two equilateral triangles. Ms. systems and activities as its three sides. She said that service is not optional but it is a pathway to real significance and she further said that unity is the soul of fellowship and partnership. Prof. Etemadi said that when a psr sits in the ldc it doesn’t necessarily follow that there is integration because the psr might be sitting only as a representative of its own organization representing its own sectoral agenda. The last cluster was a set of questions that focused on representation. Castro challenged the participants to look for ways to craft better mechanisms for participation. She cited some examples of efforts in Cebu City that are worth looking at for examples on participation and representation. She concluded her reaction by presenting her diagram of a star of david where david stands for democratization of power achieved through a vibrant and integrated development. focusing on what is common rather than the differences. With the first cluster. with process and substance on the two sides. The second. specifically focusing on how government.

Responses from Institutional Partners Hon. projects initiated by government and those outside it are eventually upscaled or are able to reach a wider audience. Using his own experience as provincial planning and development coordinator. Other forms of participation may also be undertaken in collaboration with government in projects or in the delivery of basic services. basic services already rendered by the lgu may be undertaken by private sector organizations if this will be more efficient or can reach a greater number of people. Cambangay explained that private sector participation in planning started out as a matter of necessity. pdcs or cdcs. Atty. Secretary. and shared that the dilg is involved in the ongoing discussion with civil society on how to enhance psp in governance. Moreover. Juanito Cambangay PPDC Bohol Third Reactor Atty. The main issue that he saw. He also suggested that the private sector participate in ldc secretariats. such as the barangay development councils. As mandated under the lgc. He also adds that accreditation seems to be over-emphasized as at the end of the day the basic requirement for better participation are functional ldcs that contrib- . Austere Panadero Asst. through participation. Panadero acknowledged the importance of private sector participation. He said that participation need not be targeted only at the rdcs. Participation may start with the smallest possible unit. DILG Mr.186 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION by which vibrant and integrated development may be achieved through the democratization of power. was whether Local Development Councils were operational or not. however. he shared that government is able to learn new ways of doing things through participation.

. Most of his reactions seconded the reactions made by the panelist but he emphasized the benefits of reaping good psp in a federal form of government. Furthermore. He then suggested that psp should not be confined to the planning process but should include monitoring. Participation must contribute to getting results. Atty. Represenative of the Federation of RDCs He started his reaction by stating his frustrations on the bureaucracy in the government. Panadero shares that the dilg is in the process of refining the concept of private sector as distinguished from the concept of civil society. he stressed the benefits of having it in a federal system of government. but may be undertaken in different formal avenues and bodies where psp is possible. It is also in the process of partnership with ngos and state universities and colleges to help in the training of capability building. He also points out that ldcs in some municipalities are not functional because less ngos or pos are accredited in the area. Mere planning without implementation does not contribute to the credibility of the private sector. he adds that participation should not be limited to the ldc alone. which keeps the locality from meeting legal requirements. He cites the delivery of basic services as one possible avenue. He also reminded the participants that the private sector should not be limited to making plans but also have to be involved in implementation. specifically the non-implementation of many rdc projects. and evaluation. Mr.ANNEXES 187 ute significantly to good governance. Although he believes in private sector participation in planning and all other aspects of governance. implementation. Jose Malvar-Villegas Jr. Finally.

each workshop group was requested to reflect on and assess psp in their region’s rdcs and ldcs.Annex D Workshop Results Summary THE WORKSHOP GROUPS were requested to respond to the question. venues and approaches to participation) (c) what keeps you from doing these? (obstacles) The following are the summaries of the results of each regional workshop: Region VI Indicators of “honest-to-goodness” participation • implementation of partnership projects • participatory planning and budgeting • partnership in decision making process • consultative process institutionalized • proper selection accreditation process • complementation • active participation in special bodies 188 . “Where are we now and where are we going?” Based on the inputs of resource speakers and the discussions among participants. Each group responded to the following questions: (a) how do you know that “honest to goodness” participation is happening? (indicators) (b) what is required to make this happen? (requisites.

skill. attitude Obstacles to honest to goodness participation • lack of project logistics • inadequate skills • inadequate advocacy • lack of political will .ANNEXES 189 Requisites of honest-to-goodness participation from: Private Sector • capability/capacity • credibility • readiness • track record • participatory planning structures/processes in place • psrs have consistent development agenda with that of the government • Capacity for engagement • Shared value and commitment for participation lgu/rdc • open policies • favorable attitude • monitoring and evaluation of implemented projects • willingness to appropriate funds • good listening skills For both private sector and lgu/rdc • unity • sincerity • mutual trust • transparency • commitment • willingness to take calculated risk • work efficiency and performance • clearly defined roles • competency • openness • knowledge.

190 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION • • • • • • • • • • • • many are there just for money information or data inadequacy coa restrictions Varying biases—hidden agenda Holding on to power Indifference Fear of failure Criticism Political interest/biases Difference of political ideologies Lack of commitment Busy schedule Action Plan to bring about honest-to-goodness participation • orientation on the roles and functions of psrs in ldcs/rdcs • psr to heighten/improve advocacy skills thru coalition-building and networking • dialogue with accredited ngos • lgu to undertake special capacity building initiatives • Project prioritization according to approved plan • Fund sourcing from lgu budget • Discussion with lce • Replication of ppbime methodology • Leadership trainings for ldc chair • Regular feedbacking and consultation • Adoption of capability building projects at various levels • Brief training for accredited ngo and po on ldc role and functions For the rdc to do • orientation on psr accreditation and selection process • inventory of accredited ngo/po • trainings conducted by rla for psr Region VII Attributes of honest to goodness participation • clear feedback mechanism .

ANNEXES 191 • systems and procedures for participation are defined and adopted • inclusive • resources sharing • openness and transparency among stakeholders • efforts are sustainable • commitment Attributes clear feedback mechanism Requisites (1) PSRs to submit reports during council meetings (2) PSRs to feedback LDC processes to their sectors and vice versa (3) Develop feedback mechanism between LDCs and RDC (1) (2) (3) (4) formulate assessment standards and tools prepare a manual for participation facilitate accreditation conduct of orientation systems and procedures for participation are defined and adopted inclusive (1) specify number of civil society and private sector in LDC and RDC (2) make masterlist of NGOs/POs (1) conduct inventory of available resources (2) share expertise (3) allocate funds for consultations (1) submit/share reports (2) conduct dialogue with LCEs (3) conduct of annual work planning and development communication (4) formulate criteria for selection of PSR (1) formalize engagement (2) institutionalize effective processes (1) regular attendance in meetings (2) forge MOU when desirable resources sharing openness and transparency among stakeholders efforts are sustainable commitment .

192 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Region VIII Attributes of honest to goodness participation • substantive agenda and inputs considered • resource-sharing • attendance/active participation • shared vision and commitment • structures of participation functional • mutual openness/transparency and accountability • mutual consultation Requisites Attributes Private Sector Government Substantive agenda Capacity building for NGOs (1) timely solicitation of agenda and inputs considered /POs (2) sustained consultation (3) forging of commitments resource-sharing Resource mobilization (1) inventory of resources available (2) financial support (1) Actual commitment (2) Advance scheduling of meetings (3) Regular meetings of RDCs/ LDCs (1) harmonization of plans (2) convergence of priorities of RLAs (1) advocate existing structures (2) open accreditation of NGOs /POs (1) reporting of programs. budgets. etc. (2) open discussions of policies attendance/active participation Actual commitment shared vision and commitment Drafting of principles of unity structures of functional participation Constituency-building mutual openness/ transparency and accountability (1) regular dialogue among NGOs and POs (2) clear rules of engagement (1) informal and friendly get-together (2) broad-based consultation process mutual consultation (1) dissemination of accreditation procedures (2) regular consultations .

ANNEXES 193 Requisites of honest to goodness participation Action plan for honest-to-goodness participation Private Sector • initiate networking of ngos/pos • convene provincial consultations on ldc participation • orient ngos/pos in Tacloban City on ldc work ldc • conduct tailor-fit orientation on ldc in collaboration with dilg and partners • simplify accreditation procedures • reactivate ldcs and their sectoral committees • advocate the appropriation of funds for ldc activities rdc • undertake inventory of ngos/pos • convene forum on ngo/po participation in local governance • share IT resources. including making information available to ngos/pos • promote lce involvement in rdc .

Quezon City. an informal advisor to Cebu City’s Commission on Urban Poverty. DAVID BERCASIO is the Executive Director of the Naga City People’s Council. FRANCIS LUCAS is the President of Infanta Community Development Assistance Inc. Ateneo de Manila University. FELISA ETEMADI is a Professor from the University of the Philippines. and provides advice and assistance to civil society in Cebu City. College Cebu. ANNA MARIA M.. FR. JUANITO CAMBANGAY is the Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator of Bohol Province. Inc. and a mother of eight. EVELYN NACARIO-CASTRO is the Executive Director of the Eduardo Aboitiz Development Studies Center of the Ramon Aboitiz Foundation Inc. GONZALES is an architect and environmental planner providing research. (ICDAI) and the Catholic Media Network (CMN). 194 .. Cebu City.Annex E List of Resource Persons FERNANDO ALDABA is an Associate Professor and Chairperson of the Economics Department. TERESA FERNANDEZ is the Executive Director of Lihok Filipina. project development and management consultancy services to NGOs. LGUs and development assistance agencies.

is the Head of the Department of Architecture of the University of San Agustin. Region VIII. University of the Philippines. AUSTERE PANADERO is Assistant Secretary of the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG). Diliman. Quezon City. MANUEL TINGZON. Iloilo City and Fellow of the United Architects of the Philippines. JOSE MALVAR-VILLEGAS JR. is a representative of the Federation of Regional Development Councils. School of Urban and Regional Planning. .ANNEXES 195 PAULINE LAWSIN-NAYRA is the Chairperson of the Leyte Coalition of Development NGOs and Co-Chair of the Regional Development Council. MARIETTA PARAGAS is the President of the Cordillera Network of Development NGOs and POs. ERNESTO SEROTE is a Professor and former Director of Training. JR. SYLVIA OKINLAY-PARAGUYA is the Chairperson of the Mindanao Coalition of Development NGO Networks and Chief Executive Officer of MASS-SPECC Cooperative Development Center.

rdc. Nos. PDC Iloilo Business Club. 2/F Amigo Shopping Mall. MA.: 09189267880 Email: MS. Lagoon. Co-Chairman.: (033) 3350333 / 3378341 Fax No. SEGOVIA Chairperson. REGION VI Private Sector Representatives in Development Councils PSRs in r d c s MR.Annex F List of Conference Participants DIRECTORY OF ATTENDEES. North Capitol Road. Nos.: (034) 4343842 / 4343736 Fax Nos. Member.: (033) 3378341 196 . PDC Metro Bacolod Chamber of Commerce and Industry Provincial Capitol. LUISA C. ROBERTO MONTELIBANO President. Iznart Street.: (034) 4343842 / 4343736 Mobile No. Bacolod City Tel. Inc. Iloilo City Tel. Vice-Chairman.

San Jose. Bacolod City . CDC Provincial Capitol.ANNEXES 197 PSRs in PDCs Antique MS. SEBASTIAN GARCESTO Development Associates Foundation International.: 09197964347 / 09263357677 / 09263357678 Iloilo MR. Nueva Valencia. MARICEL JARENCIO Sigmahanon Development Foundation.: (036) 3201176 Fax No.: (033) 3376675 Mobile Capiz MS. No.: (036) 5409526 c/o AWIAD Mobile No. Guimaras Tel. (SFDI) Sigma. Vice-Chairman and Presiding Officer. TCDC.: (033) 2371111 c/o Governor’s Office Mobile Nos. Antique Tel. GEORGE ZULUETA Managing Director.: (036) 6470424 Fax No. rdc Poblacion.: (036) 6470424 Mobile Bacolod City MR.: 09165439847 Email: Guimaras MS. North Capitol Road. Iloilo City Tel. LAVAN Chairperson. Capiz Tel. VILLANUEVA Chairperson. Metro Bacolod Chamber of Commerce and Industry Vice-Chairman. MARILOU L. c/o Peach Religious Supply.: 09198142523 Email: mjarencio@yahoo.: 09173020404 Email: scgarcesto@nethepede. Lagoon Park. No. Inc. BOD Antique Federation of Non-Government Organizations (AFON) Funda-Dalipe. No. ANA G. Inc. Molo.. MDC. NGO /PO Caucus Development Guimaras Peoples’ Economic Foundation Member. PDC. No. Avancena St.

: (034) 4343842 / 4343736 Mobile No. Guimaras Tel.: 09173050796 Email: julianacepe@yahoo.: (033) 3358008 Mobile Iloilo City MR.: (036) 5407760 / 5407709 Fax No. San Jose. Nos.: 09173024325 Iloilo MR. Roxas City. Provincial Capitol. Jaro. ANTONIO ASIS OIC. Guimaras MR. Iloilo City Mobile No. EDWIN LARIZA President. Iloilo Council of Social Development. PDC Secretary .: (034) 4343842 / 7097616 Fax Nos. Nos. Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Capiz. Gate # 3 Central Philippine University Compound.: (033) 2371384 or 2371356 Fax No. MARIO NILLOS OIC. JIMMY BABAN Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Guimaras. Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Assistant PGDH.: (036) 6210050 local 105 Fax No. No. Jordan.: (036) 5409649 c/o Office of the Governor Mobile No. Capiz MR. Provincial Capitol.: (036) 6210050 Mobile No. Antique Tel.: 09164528343 Email: mbcci@mozcom.: 09192724585 Email: ppdo@capizinuleb. JULIANA CEPE Assistant Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Antique. Capiz Tel. Provincial Capitol.198 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Tel.: 09196349759 Provincial Planning and Development Coordinators Antique MS.

Bacolod City Tel. JOSE RONI PEÑALOSA OIC.: (034) 4320496 City Planning and Development Coordinators Bacolod City MS.: (033) 3350432 Mobile No. CELEDONIA GENCIANEO OIC. Nos. J.: (033) 3378821 Fax No. Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Provincial Planning and Development Office Province of Negros Occidental Provincial Administration Building. TROMPETA Assistant Regional Director.M.ANNEXES 199 Provincial Planning and Development Office Province of Iloilo. EVELYN Department of the Interior and Local Governments DILG 6 MS. Iloilo City Tel. Aquino Avenue. Fort San Pedro. No. Bacolod City Tel. City Hall Building.: (034) 4343184 / 4337041 Iloilo City MR. City Planning and Development Coordinator Staff support and secretariat to LDC City Planning and Development Office City Hall Annex (COA Building). Basa Street. No.: (033) 5095091 / 3358008 Fax No.: (033) 3358008 Mobile No.: (033) 3360452 . Member. JUDITH SUALOG Bacolod City. rdc-AC DILG Regional Office 6 P.: (034) 4320496 / 4320486 Fax No.: 09173021247 Email: jrpenalosa@skyinet. Iloilo City 5000 Tel. Nos. Nos.: 09176657037 Email: mnillos58@yahoo. Provincial Capitol. Iloilo City 5000 Negros Occidental MS.

Camputhaw.: (033) 3350677. CARMEN BAUGBOG Executive Director. Cebu City Tel..: (032) 2621481 Fax No.: (033) 3376840 Fax .: (032) 2331016 Mobile No. No. Riva Ridge / nro6@iloilo.: (033) 3362652 / 3362653 Email: National Economic and Development Authority NEDA 6 MS. rdc-SDC. ISABEL B. Inc. Cebu City Tel.: (033) 3351070 Mobile No..: 09209072906 Email: mlmiado@yahoo. 710 7/F Trinity Plaza.: (032) 2331016 Fax No. Inc. BLANCIA Senior EDS NEDA Region 6. Iloilo City 5000 Fort San Pedro. Member. No.200 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Fax Nos. KAKASAKA Foundation. REGION VII Private Sector Representatives in Development Councils PSRs in r d c s MS. Fax No. Iloilo City 5000 Tel. Escario Street.: 09273202628 Email: cabesther21718@yahoo. LOURDES MIADO Senior EDS NEDA Region 6.: 09164509733 Email: mart@cebu. No. 16 Platinum Street. CDC-SDC Albert Schweitzer Familienwerk Foundation Phil.: (033) 3350677 DIRECTORY OF ATTENDEES.: (032) 2612503 Mobile No. Fort San Pedro.inter. No. MARTINIANA MERCADO Executive MS. MA. Member. Tisa.

6225 Siquijor Tel. Member. Siquijor Provincial Capitol. Colon Corner Cervantes Street 6200 Dumaguete City Orchids. JR. FERNANDEZ Admin/Training Officer. Member. PDC c/o Ms. Sub-Sector Committee of Social Welfare .: (035) 4809033 PSRs in PDCs Dumaguete City ENGR.: (038) 4112092 / 4112093 Fax Nos. PDC and CDC-Date. LORRY D. City of Tagbilaran President. SACEDA. SELIM Siquijor Public Market Vendor Member. PSR.: (032) 2556605 Email: law_center. PDC-Development Administration Committee Provincial Engineers’ Office. Member. Gladys Estrellada. Tagbilaran City Tel. Nos. PROCESS-Bohol. Inc. SILVERIO B.: (035) 4809033 / 3442014 Fax No. rdc. PDC JEERAP Matransco.: 09184435505 Cebu MS.: 09195912619 Tagbilaran City MS.: (032) 2556605 Fax No. EMILIA ROSLINDA Executive Director.ANNEXES 201 PSRs in PDCs Bohol ENGR..: (035) 4221901 Mobile Siquijor MR. Bohol Association of Women in Government Service Bohol Association of Women in Government Service 69 Airport Drive. 3/F Cebu Provincial Capitol c/o Provincial Women’s Commission Tel.: (038) 4112092 / 4112093 Mobile No. Daro. Legal Alternatives for Women Center. Nos. Ceno 6200 Dumaguete City Tel.: (035) 2252449 / 2250515 / 2259756 Fax No. Nos. GRETA MENDE Vice-Chairman. SALVADOR J. No. rdc-SDC Team Leader.

: (035) 2251638 / 2251559 Mobile No. Provincial Capitol.: (038) 4114406 Email: nitz_cambangay@hotmail. Nos. Inc. Nos. EDUARDO C. No.: (035) 3442014 / 4809033 Fax .com Cebu ENGR. Provincial Capitol.: (032) 2533764 Mobile No. Nos.: (038) 4113641 / 5017742 Fax No.: 9209067446 Email: process@mozcom. PEDROSA Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Negros Oriental.: 09179142553 Siquijor MS. JUANITO G.. QUIROGA Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Governor’s Alternate to PDC Province of Cebu. Provincial Siquijor. Nos. Cebu City Tel. ADOLFO V.202 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION PROCESS-Bohol.: (032) 2535642 / 2533977 / 2543399 Fax No.: (035) 4809033 Mobile / nitz_cambangay@yahoo. Provincial Capitol Area.: 09189386056 Email: gladyzflo@lycos.Tagbilaran City 6300 Tel.: (038)4113641 Mobile No.. 111-A Espuelas Ext.: 09196351185 Email: cvis. CAMBANGAY Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Bohol. Tagbilaran City Provincial Planning and Development Coordinators Bohol Negros Oriental ENGR. Siquijor Tel. GLADYS FLORA ESTRELLADA Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Siquijor. Dumaguete City Tel.

Sudlon. MA. JOSE ROMEO C.ANNEXES 203 City Planning and Development Coordinators Tagbilaran City MR. ABINES LGOO V/Regional Planning Officer DILG 7. Cebu City MS.: (032) 2535473 Mobile No. Nos. Cebu City MS. EDUARDO C. No.: (038) 2353478 / 2355060 Mobile National Economic and Development Authority NEDA 7 ATTY. LEAH B. No. Lahug. ROSA EDNA HUBAHIB Chief EDS . Cebu City Tel. Sudlon. RUTH PAUL-CRUZ Chief EDS NEDA 7. Lahug. Lahug. Cebu City Tel.: (038) 4113715 Fax Nos. Lahug. Sudlon.: (032) 2557730 / 2554849 Fax No. LEODINITO CAÑETE Administrative Officer V NEDA 7.: 09178537582 Email: emacalandag@yahoo. Sudlon. ESCANDOR Chief EDS NEDA Lahug. MACALANDAG Tagbilaran City Hall. Sudlon. ESCANDOR Regional Director NEDA 7. 6300 Tagbilaran City Department of the Interior and Local Governments DILG 7 MS.: (032) 4147500 MS.: 09194542132 Email: dilgro7@cvis. MADELYN SL. Cebu City DR.

Brgy. PSRs in PDCs Leyte MS.. TRICIA AURA BALO Program Manager. Lahug. Sudlon. LEFADO. rdc 8 Member. Cebu City Tel.: (053) 5235903 Email: paulawsin@yahoo. PDC-Health Board Leyte Family Development Organization 206 P.Cebu City Tel. LORNA MANILA Supervising EDS NEDA DIRECTORY OF ATTENDEES. 96. RAFAEL TAGALOG OIC-Chief EDS NEDA 7.: 09172567706 / 09195557662 Email: MR. Cebu City Tel. NAYRA Runggiyan Development Foundation Don Vicente de laCruz . No. PAULINE MS.: (032) 4147500 local 217 Fax No.: (032) 4147500 local 239 Email: lorna@neda7. REGION VIII Private Sector Representatives in Development Councils PSRs in r d c s MS.: (032) 4147500 local 226 Fax No. PSR.: (053) 5239610 Mobile Nos.: (053) 3219847 Fax No. Lahug. Calanipawan. Tacloban City (032) 4147500 local 238 Email: rafael@neda7. Sudlon. Lahug.: (032) 4147500 local 210 Fax No. Tacloban City Tel. Burgos St. No.204 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION NEDA 7. No.: (032) 4147500 local 237 Email: rosa@neda7..

: (055) 2515532 Mobile No. BONIFACIO Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Governor’s Rep. Provincial Capitol. MAHINAY Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator . LORENZO S.: 09163040975 Email: Northern Samar MR. EVELIA Q.: (055) 33101013 / 2612072 / 3301013 / 5609060 Fax Nos. No.: (053) 5009576 Fax Nos. Tacloban City Tel. Catbalogan. Leyte MS.: 09204563534 Provincial Planning and Development Coordinators Biliran MR. to PDC Provincial Planning and Development Office Provincial Showroom Building.: 09194599900 Email: / ppdoleyte@eudoramail. Capitol Compound. DANILO L. 5th Street. / dlbonifacio@yahoo. Provincial Capitol Tel. Biliran Tel. DOBLON Fishery Sector. GIOS-Samar c/o GIOS Samar No.MARTIN Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Provincial Planning and Development Office. Naval.: (053) 5009021 / 5009648 Mobile No. Moñuz.: (053) 3213389 / 5239827 Fax No.: (055) 2515375 Fax No. Nos. Province of Leyte 2/F Justice Eastern Samar MR.: (053) 3211266 Email: ppdoleyte@skyinet. GAVINA P. HENRY AFABLE Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Provincial Planning and Development Office Province of Eastern Samar.ANNEXES 205 Samar MS.: (055) 2612155 / 2612414 / 2612072 Mobile No. No. Samar Tel. Brgy.

Southern Leyte Tel. Samar Tel. Nos. Southern Leyte MS.: 09205071998 Email: gplentejas@yahoo. No. NARCISO S.: (053) 5709486 / 5709018 Fax No. ARTHUR CUENCO Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Province of Western Samar.: (055) 5009126 Fax No. Provincial Capitol Tel.: (055) 3561393 City Planning and Development Coordinators Calbayog City Maasin City ENGR.: (053) 3812138 Mobile No. VIRGINIA LIM-CRUZ Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator Provincial Planning and Development Office Provincial Capitol of Southern Leyte. Nos.: (055) 2096029 / 2091213 Fax No. Maasin City.: 09173725707 . LENTEJAS City Planning and Development Coordinator City Planning and Development Office City Hall.206 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Provincial Planning and Development Office Provincial Capitol Province of Northern Samar Tel. GIL P.: 09176302248 Email: ginlimcruz1383@yahoo.: 09274807300 Email: lorenznsamar@hotmail. Nos.: (053) 5709486 Mobile No.OTHELLO RICH City Planning and Development Coordinator City Planning and Development Office City Hall. Calbayog City.: (055) 5009157 Mobile No.: (053) 3812725 / 3812137 Fax No.: (055) 2096029 Mobile No. Maasin City Western Samar MR.

RAOUL F.: 09172168781 Department of the Interior and Local Governments DILG 8 MS. MABUTE Chief EDS NEDA 8.: (053) 2552893 Mobile No. Tacloban City Tel. EMMA VIRGINIA C. Tacloban City Tel. CAM City Planning and Development Coordinator CDC Head of Secretariat. MA.: 09162680151 Email: vbembot@yahoo.: (053) 3212078 / 3212060 Fax No.: (053) 2552635 / 2553266 Fax No. MADJUS LGOO/Planning Officer DILG 8Kadhuraw Hill.: (053) 3233093 Mobile No.: (053) 3233092 Fax No. JOYCE G. Regional Director NEDA 8.: (053) 3234118 .: (053) 3216609 Mobile No. No. Tacloban City Tel.: 09166681389 Email: pes@mail. VITOR Chief EDS NEDA 8.: 09173061748 Email: lilian_horca2000@yahoo. Nos.ANNEXES 207 Ormoc City ENGR. SANOPO MS. Nos.: (053) 3233093 Mobile No. CDC Techinical Coordinator City Planning and Development Office. 2/F City Hall.evis. MS. National Economic and Development Authority NEDA 8 MS. Tacloban City Tel. LILIAN H.: (053) 3234118 Fax No. Ormoc City Tel.

2307 Pedro Gil.208 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Fax No. TERESA BANAYNAL-FERNANDEZ Executive Director.: (02) 4265661 Mobile No. Nos. ERNESTO M.: (033) 2548092 / 2561341 Fax No.: (02) 9262120 Mobile No.: (02) 5637327 .serote@edsamail. FRANCIS LUCAS Chairman. School of Urban and Regional Planning University of the Philippines Tel. SEROTE Director of Paper Presenters DR. DAVID BERCASIO Naga City Peoples’ Council.: (033) 2548072 Mobile No. Sta. FERNANDO ALDABA Associate Professor and Chairperson. Infanta Community Development Assistance.: 09178446470 Email: faldaba@ateneo. Department of Economics Ateneo De Manila University Lihok Pilipina Foundation. Manila Tel.: (053) 3233093 Mobile No.: 09162157015 Email: joyce@yahoo. Inc.: (02) 4265661 Fax No. Cebu City Tel. c/o Xavier / ernesto.: (054) 8112388 MS.serote@up. No. Ana. PROF. rdc 7 Lihok Pilipina Case Presenters MR.: 09163980470 Email: tessiebf@mozcom. Naga City Tel. No. FR. Nos.: (02) 9262236 / 9206853 / 9206854 Fax No.: 09179667344 Email: ernesto.: (02) 5637313 Fax No.

Cagayan De Oro City Tel.: 09209226427 . Tacloban City Tel. JOSE MALVAR VILLEGAS Technical Adviser on Regional Development Province of Batangas Tel. 2600 Baguio City Tel. 9250361 / 9250347 Mobile No. MANUEL TINGZON Department of Architecture University of San Agustin. Luna / runggiyan@evis. De La Cruz Ave. Don V.: (02) 9266556 / 7231905 Fax No.: 09164602561 Institutional Partners MS. Gen. Mindanao Coalition of NGOs c/o MASS SPECC Cooperative Development Center Tiano & Pacana Sts. #15 Gibraltar Road. EDSA.: (043) 7231338 HONORABLE AUSTERE PANADERO Assistant Secretary Department of the Interior and Local Governments Francisco Gold Condominium ARCH.: (088) 8562339 Fax No.philcom. Nos.: (033) 3360005 Mobile MARIETTA PARAGAS Shantoug Center.: (033) 3284039 Fax No. SYLVIA OKINLAY-PARAGUYA Chairperson..ANNEXES 209 MS.5903 Email: paulawsin@yahoo.: (053) 523. Quezon City Tel.: (088) 8562339 Email: / masspecc@cdo. No. MS.: (074) 4447197 / 4423865 Email: cordnet@mozcom. Iloilo City Tel. No. No. No. PAULINE NAYRA c/o Runggiyan Foundation..

org. Regional Development Coordination Staff National Economic and Development Authority Tel. LOPEZ CSO Adviser Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program Tel. JING 09185584211 Email: ritapilarca@yahoo.: (033) 2553837 Email: etemade@infor.: (032) 2546489 Mobile No.: (033) 3440024 / 2334708 Fax Development Partners MS. Cebu City MS.: 639189250391 Email: cgbalde@ / jlopez@lgsp.: 639177515106 Email: Lgspnpmo@lgsp. EVELYN NACARIO-CASTRO Ramon Aboitiz Foundation.Cebu City Tel. Nos.: (032) 2555626 / 2555627 Fax No. Nos.210 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Reactors FELISA ETEMADI University of the Philippines College Cebu Lahug 6000 Cebu City Tel.: (02) 6373511-13 Fax .: (02) 6313743 / 6313743 Fax Nos. BALDE EDS II.: (02) 6373235 Mobile No.: 09173225705 Email: enacario@rafi. CLAIRE MICHELLE G.: (032) 2338565 / 4122256 Fax Nos. Eduardo Aboitiz Development Studies Center 35 Lopez Jaena St.: (02) 6313708 / 6313743 Mobile No. 38 Acacia Street. Inc. Nos. Business Development Services GTZ-SMEDSEP. RITA PILARCA Adviser.: (032) 2338565 Mobile No. Lahug. Nos.

East Fairview Quezon City Tel. Cebu City Tel.: (032) 2699334 Mobile No. GERALDINE CAHILIG 7-A Gaisano Street. Quezon City Tel. No..: (032) 4147500 local 126 Fax No.: 09177939073 Email: anne@neda7. MARTIN MAPOLON 168 Camia Street.: 09179039280 MS.: 09168421793 Email: mmapolon@yahoo.: (032) 4147600 Mobile No. Sudlon.. Cebu City Tel. Binan. LASAM 12B Paxton St. Loyola Heights.: 09165047228 Email: No. Lahug. JOEL MS. 25 Fabian de la Rosa St.: 09209072908 Email: evelyn@neda7. ORQUIZA DPSP Project Coordination Office Rm. SANTIAGO DPSP Project Coordination Office Rm. No. MARIA ANNA C. ANNA MARIA M. 107 G/F NEDA 7 MS. No.: (049) 5129734 Mobile No.: (032) 4147500 local 125 Fax No. Laguna Tel. Cebu City MR.: (02) 434 1847 Fax No. EVELYN Sudlon. No.: (032) 4147600 Mobile No. San Jose Vilage.: (02) 4307808 .ANNEXES 211 Organizers/Secretariat MS. Lahug.: (02) 434 1847 Mobile No. Lahug. GONZALES Unit 402 Eaglestar Condominium. 107 G/F NEDA 7 Bldg.: (049) 5129734 Fax No. No.

gov.: 09189408815 Email: JBLasam@neda. DONDON ALMONACID Phase 8 Blk 14 Lot 17 Parklane Subdivision Sabang.: 09163368348 Email: . Dasmariñas Cavite MR. No.: (02) 5259186 Mobile No.212 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Mobile No.

Annex G Photos from the Conference 213 .

. Marietta Paragas (CORDNET) and Sylvia Okinlay Paraguya (MINCODE). from left: Pauline Lawsin Nayra (VISNET). of Economics) and David Bercasio (Naga City). Manuel Tingzon (Iloilo City). from left: Prof. Ernesto M.214 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Forum resource persons Top. Fernando Aldaba (Ateneo de Manila Dept. Right: Arch. Serote (UP-SURP). Dr. Bottom.

Felisa Etemadi and Ms. Tessie Fernandez of Cebu City share insights.ANNEXES 215 Scenes from the conference Top: Prof. Right: Participant raises questions during the open forum. . Bottom: NRO 7 staff listen attentively.

Ernesto Serote .216 JOURNEYS TO PARTICIPATION Top. Francis Lucas (Infanta. from left: Fr. Juanito Cambangay (Bohol Province) Bottom: Prof. Quezon) and Tessie Fernandez (Cebu City) Left: Atty.