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MBA DISSERTATION

An Analysis of Competitive Positioning of


East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(Bashundhara)

By

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097

Supervisor:
Ms. Monsura Zaman
Senior Lecturer,
Faculty of Business,
ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)

October 2010
DECLARATION

I, Rashedul Hasan, hereby declare that this research dissertation is


my own original work, that all sources that I used or quoted have been
accurately reported and acknowledged by means of complete
references, that this document has not previously, in its entirety or in
part, been submitted to any University, College, or Organization in
order to obtain an academic qualification, and that this work didn’t
breach any copyright.

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097
MBA Program, ASAUB

Date:

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

23 October 2010

Ms. Monsura Zaman


Senior Lecturer,
Faculty of Business, ASAUB

Subject: Submission of Dissertation Report

Madam,

I feel immense pleasure in presenting my final report on “An analysis


of competitive positioning of East West Property Development (Pvt.)
Ltd. (Bashundhara)” as a partial requirement for achieving MBA
degree. This report aims to inform what key policy decisions of
positioning have been taken by the firm and the extent to which the
target groups have been influenced through these decisions toward its
products in compare to its competitors.

I have tried my level best to complete the report with respect to the
desired requirements. However, if any explaining is required, I would
be honored to oblige.

Sincerely,

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097
MBA Program, ASAUB

Enclosure: Final Report


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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “An analysis of


competitive positioning of East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(Bashundhara)” subimitted by Rashedul Hasan, ID: 081-14-0097 in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Master
of Business Administration (MBA) to ASA University Bangladesh, ASA
Tower, 23/3 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207 is a
record of candidate’s own work carried out by him under my
supervision. The matter embodied in this dissertation is original and
has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.

Ms. Monsura Zaman


Senior Lecturer,
Faculty of Business, ASAUB

Date:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It took me more than three months to finish this dissertation and


during that time I received support from many people. First of all, I
would like to thank my supervisor, Ms. Monsura Zaman, Senior
Lecturer, Faculty of Business, ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB), for
her time and commitment to my success, for her patience and relevant
advice on all aspects of the report. I owe a special debt of gratitude to
my director of MBA program, Associate Porf. Dr. Md. Mohobbot Ali, for
offering me the opportunity of doing an MBA. I say special thanks to
Mr. Sheikh Mohammad Sayem, Lecturer, Faculty of Business, ASAUB
and Mr. Masudul Hasan, Research Manager, Bangladesh Institute of
Development Studies (BIDS) for advising me to use appropriate
statistical tools relevant to collected data that helped to make this
research project a reality. I also thank my Managing Director, Md.
Asaduzzaman Litu, Al Barew Development Ltd., for his invaluable
insights and professional comments.

Last but not least, I would like to thank a host of friends and well-
wishers, for giving active encouragement and guidance.

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ABSTRACT

This dissertation sought to analyze the competitive positioning of East


West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD) in the real estate
industry in Bangladesh.

The study was basically a survey that used quantitative approach. A


structured questionnaire was developed and personally administered
to the target population of real estate industry by the researcher. One
hundred twenty (120) respondents were sampled by purposive
sampling from the target population of several million and 100%
response rate was got for analysis. The study was carried out among
the four companies – East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(EWPD), Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. (AMFL), Asset
Development and Holdings Ltd. (ADHL), and Rupayan Housing Estate
Ltd. (RHEL) instead of considering the whole industry. The target
groups of the four companies were identified by the researcher
through a comparison between the product price of companies and the
level of income of the group of people. The target groups were - middle
income people, high income people, household client, and corporate
client. Fourteen variables were used as criteria to evaluate the
competitive positioning of four companies and the variables were – (1)
Brand Recognition, (2) Market Share, (3) Size of Competition, (4) Key
Advantage-Perceived Resale Value, (5) Key Advantage-Communication
with Target Customers, (6) Key Advantage-Project Location, (7) Product
Reshaping on Customer’s Desire, (8) Scope of Firm Operations,
(9) Firm’s Ability of Serving the Whole Target Groups, (10) Customer
Perception in terms of Reliability on Completing the Project in Due
Time, (11) Customer Perception in terms of Credibility on Firm’s
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Commitment, (12) Customer Perception in terms of Innovation, (13)
Price Leadership, and (14) Product Quality.

The findings on key variables indicate that EWPD has occupied the
first position in five variables (1, 2, 4, 6 & 8), the second position in
seven variables (3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 & 14) and the third position in two
variables (11 & 13) among the four companies. By assuming the
respondent ratings as score, the researcher finds that EWPD has
occupied the third position on total score obtained from the key
variables.

On the basis of primary data and their analysis, this study concludes
with considering the key variables as a whole that ADHL has occupied
the first position, RHEL has occupied the second position, EWPD has
occupied the third position and AMFL has occupied the fourth position
among the four companies. Brand recognition, market share,
perceived resale value of products, project location and scope of firm
operations of EWPD were found superior to that of its three
competitors. The limitations of this study were fewer numbers of
sampling, data constraint, literature constraint and time limit.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGE

DECLARATION ............................................................................................... ii
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL............................................................................ iii
CERTIFICATE.................................................................................................iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................v
ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................viii
LIST OF APPENDICES......................................................................................x
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................x
LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................x

CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION......................................................................(1-9)
1.1 Background of the Study...................................................................... 2
1.2 Purpose of the Study ........................................................................... 4
13 Significance of the Study ..................................................................... 5
1.4 Limitations of the Study ...................................................................... 6
1.5 Company Overview .............................................................................. 8
1.6 Dissertation Outline ............................................................................ 9

CHAPTER-2: OBJECTIVES ..................................................................... (10-12)


2.1 General Objective ...............................................................................11
2.2 Specific Objectives .............................................................................12

CHAPTER-3: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ (13-24)


3.1 Types of data collected .......................................................................14
3.1.1 Primary Data ..................................................................................... 14
3.1.2 Secondary Data ................................................................................. 14
3.2 Sampling Design .................................................................................14
3.2.1 Target Population............................................................................... 15
3.2.2 Sample Frame.................................................................................... 16
3.2.3 Sampling Technique(s)....................................................................... 16
3.2.4 Sample Size ....................................................................................... 16
3.2.5 Sampling Process............................................................................... 17
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3.3 Data collection procedure ...................................................................17
3.3.1 Personal In-Home Interview ............................................................... 18
3.3.2 Structured Questionnaire .................................................................. 18
3.3.3 Response Rate ................................................................................... 19
3.4 Summery of statistical measurement methods....................................20
3.4.1 Mean ................................................................................................. 20
3.4.2 Standard Deviation ............................................................................ 20
3.4.3 Coefficient of Variation....................................................................... 21
3.5 Data analysis ......................................................................................23
3.5.1 Validity and Reliability ....................................................................... 23
3.6 Ethical considerations ........................................................................23

CHAPTER-4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION................................................. (25-39)


4.1 Respondent’s Characteristics..............................................................26
4.2 Findings on key Variables ...................................................................28
4.2.1 Brand Recogintion ............................................................................. 31
4.2.2 Market Share ..................................................................................... 31
4.2.3 Size of Competition ............................................................................ 32
4.2.4 Target Group - High Income People.................................................... 32
4.2.5 Target Group - Middle Income People................................................. 32
4.2.6 Target Group - Household and Corporate Clients............................... 33
4.2.7 Key Advantage- Perceived Resale Value.............................................. 33
4.2.8 Key Advantage- Communication with Target Customers .................... 34
4.2.9 Key Advantage- Project Location ........................................................ 34
4.2.10 Product Reshaping on Customer’s Desire........................................... 35
4.2.11 Scope of Firm Operations................................................................... 35
4.2.12 Firm’s Ability of Serving the Whole Target Groups.............................. 36
4.2.13 Customer Perception in terms of Reliability on Completing
the Project in Due Time ................................................................ 36
4.2.14 Customer Perception in terms of Credibility on Firm’s Commitment... 37
4.2.15 Customer Perception in terms of Innovation....................................... 37
4.2.16 Price Leadership ................................................................................ 38
4.2.17 Product Quality ................................................................................. 38
4.3 Competitive Positions on Overall Score of Key Variables .....................39

CHAPTER-5: CONCLUSION ..................................................................... (40-43)


5.1 Conclusion of the Study......................................................................41
5.2 Implications of the Findings ...............................................................42

CHAPTER-6: RECOMMENDATION ........................................................... (44-45)


6.0 Recommendation................................................................................45

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REFERENCES................................................................................................46

APPENDICES .......................................................................................... (48-81)


Appendix I Questionnaire for East West Property Development
(Pvt.) Ltd. ......................................................................49
Appendix II Questionnaire for Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. ...........53
Appendix III Questionnaire for Asset Development and Holdings Ltd.. .....57
Appendix IV Questionnaire for Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. ...................61
Appendix V Distribution of Respondents by Demographic
Characteristics ..............................................................65
Appendix VI Distribution of Respondents by Variables.............................70

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.3.3 Refusals, Terminations and Completed Interviews.................19


Table 4.1a Distribution of Respondents by Gender .................................26
Table 4.1b Distribution of Respondents by their Occupation ..................26
Table 4.1c Distribution of Respondents by their Education ....................27
Table 4.1d Distribution of Respondents by Age.......................................27
Table 4.1e Distribution of Respondents by Level of Income ..................28
Table 4.2 Mean, Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation of
the Variables ...............................................................30
Table 4.3 Competitive Positions of the Companies by Considering the
Key Variables All Together .............................................39

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.2 The Sampling Design Process .............................................15


Figure 3.3 A Classification of Survey Methods.....................................17

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CHAPTER- 1:
INTRODUCTION

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The residence units of majority people in Bangladesh are temporary,
sub-standard, unsafe and overcrowded. The supporting facilities
(physical, social & economical) and services essential for the
development of healthy and harmonious community life are highly
inadequate both in the urban and rural areas.

Though real estate is a recent phenomenon in Bangladesh such


activities started sometime in 1964. Ispahani Group was the pioneer in
this sector (Hossain, 2001) and during 1970s there were fewer than
five companies in Bangladesh engaged in this business (REHAB,
2004). But in early 1980s with the inception of Eastern Housing Ltd.,
the apartment project started flourishing. In1988, there were 42 such
developers working in Dhaka and in 2004 there were about 250
companies engaged in this business (REHAB, 2004). As a fast growing
city of Bangladesh, such business was initially concentrated in Dhaka
and later on these activities were spread to Chittagong, Khulna and
some other cities. The Real Estate & Housing Association of
Bangladesh (REHAB), which is the sole organization of the real estate
agents, developers & builders, has more than 450 members registered
in 2009 and around 350 non-registered developers are operating their
business in this sector (Khan & Barua, 2009).

Thousands of acres of land have been developed into housing estate


for lower and middle income families in order to construct their own
dwellings. The metropolitan cities in the country have seen a new
dimension of modern apartments and commercial complexes due to
the initiatives of real estate developers. Since 1985 this sector has

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created homes for over 20,000 families in the Dhaka Mega City (Seraj,
2003). Over the last 15 years, the real estate development sector has
made significant contribution to many sectors in our economy.

At the initial phase of booming up of this sector, people would think it


as a lucrative "business" field. But reality is changing gradually. The
clients are being alert by observing and/or experiencing several tragic
incidents such as, incident of fire burning in the so called gorgeous
apartment like Japan Garden City as well. At the beginning level of
this business in our country, entrepreneurs used to pay emphasis on
physical beauty of the apartments. Now the vision has been changed.
People are more aware not only about the outlook of the buildings, but
also about the structural planning, architectural design, land use
planning, considering earthquake protection, building strength,
building longevity etc. But many of the organizations do not follow
these criterions properly. We have the menace of earthquake. It is
reported that due to the weaker building construction, a 7 Richter
scale earthquake might cause around 1 lakh death in Dhaka city. Now
Real Estate is not only a "business". It is a matter of our existence.

The United Nations (UN) Declaration on Fundamental Rights also


reveals that every person has a right to an adequate standard of
living, which includes housing. But making shelter available to all is
increasingly becoming a significant challenge because the growing
population demands to construct about 4 million new houses
annually in order to meet the future demand of the next twenty years
(CPD, 2003). Along with population growth, urbanization is
considered as the next most alarming threat to the housing sector.
The rate of urbanization is estimated to be 5-6% annually for
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Bangladesh (REHAB, 2004). In Bangladesh about 25 percent of
population are now living in urban areas and due to a high rate of in-
migration to Dhaka, this population will be 34 percent by the year
2015 (REHAB, 2004) and will be 50 percent by 2025 (Singha, 2001).
On the other side, with the continued growth of population land for
agriculture and forest will shrink in tandem. The area occupied by
human settlements and supportive infrastructure in Bangladesh is
quite high at 30 percent (CPD, 2003). Land is becoming increasingly
inadequate to provide individual housing solution to all and as a
result demand for apartments is growing rapidly. Inheritors are
inclined to building apartments as a means to share common
property. Remittance flow which is clocking a high growth also drove
up demand for housing.

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


Fast growth of population, shortage of land supply and lack of
planning, together with social and environmental problems in
Bangladesh make building construction from own initiative more
unreliable for the low to middle income groups. But private developers
construct high-rise apartment building with vertical expansion which
requires small size of land for large number of people.

Since the demand of housing extremely exceeds its supply in the real
estate industry in Bangladesh it shows a little or no competitiveness
among the companies within the industry regarding product price,
product quality, customized product, innovative product, project
completion in due time, fulfillment of commitment, better
communication with target customers, providing better service,

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serving the whole target groups, and so on. For this reason, there is a
possibility of obtaining inferior product with poor service at a higher
increasing price. Though this higher increasing price of that property
indicates its higher resale value which attracts the customer as well
as makes wealthy its owner, it also causes an increase in the cost of
living as well as in the rate of inflation in the economy.

Thus, the purpose of the study is to understand and analyze how the
East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd. acts with their customer’s
need, want and demand in present situation and how extent this
company makes satisfied or/and dissatisfied its target groups.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


This study will be a significant endeavor in developing the
stakeholders’ knowledge and entrepreneurial skill as well. It will also
be beneficial to policy makers and marketing practitioners when they
make or employ and apply effective policies.

By understanding the competitive advantages of the firm and lacking


of firm’s capabilities, this study will provide invaluable information to
stakeholders like investors, shareholders, employees, pressure groups,
consumer associations etc. that allow them to take initiative for
improving company’s operations in Bangladesh.

To the management of East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.


(EWPD), the findings and results reported in this study will provide a
more reliable scientific measure and perspective of describing and
evaluating the level of customer’s agreement and/or disagreement

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towards the organization. It will essentially uncover the dimensions of
attributes that customers think as important and will also serve as a
source of information that brings to lime light the switching intentions
of the firm’s customers. It will also provide empirical support for taking
management strategic decisions in several critical areas of their
operations, and above all, provide a justifiably valid and reliable guide
to designing workable service delivery improvement strategies for
creating and delivering customer value, achieving customer
satisfaction and loyalty, building long-term mutually beneficial
relationship with profitable customers and achieving sustainable
business growth in the real estate industry.

Moreover, the study will be helpful to the marketing practitioners in


training and making them informed in the area of human resources
management, objectives, and strategies. It will also serve as a future
reference of relevant studies. And importantly, this research will
educate clients in deciding on whether the East West Property
Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD) is really fulfilling its responsibility to
the community or is just showing off to promote its business.

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


One of the noted limitations of descriptive research is the possibility
that the researcher simply describes everything. Yin (1984) cautions
against this and puts the onus onto the researcher to ensure that only
selected focused items are considered. In this study, fourteen common
variables were considered and the researcher consciously avoided the
inclusion of less common issues. The study was conducted through
some other limitations for the constraints of resources and time. The

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limitations were fewer numbers of sampling, data constraint, literature
constraint and time limit.

1. Fewer number of sampling:

This paper was prepared by a competitive study considering only four


prominent real estate companies out of about eight hundred firms in
the industry and the number of sample was taken only one with a
sample size of thirty (30) respondents for each of the four companies
which might not represent truly its large target population.

2. Data constraint:

Due to scattered nature of business and unwillingness of disclosing


information as well as unavailability of secondary data, this paper was
done only on the basis of primary data. So there is a probability of
getting opinions which are not real in true sense.

3. Literature constraint:

No major work has so far been done in Bangladesh in this sector. So


there is a dearth of literature in this field. The researcher didn’t find
any literature (relevant theory and the most recent published
information on the issue) relevant to the study to review.

4. Time limit:

The study is also constrained by time. It was conducted within very


limited academic time frame of fourteen weeks. Unfortunately that did
not allow the researcher to use a large sample which is a pre-requisite
for achieving the accuracy of survey. A substantial level of accuracy is
required to generalize the findings and to make inferences from a
sample about the population of study.
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1.5 COMPANY OVERVIEW
East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD), Bashundhara
Tower (level-11), 13/ka/1, Panthapath, Dhaka-1205 is the Flagship
Company of Bashundhara Group, a leading private-sector industrial
conglomerate in Bangladesh. It was founded in 1987 to cater to the
need of growing housing of a high increasing population of Dhaka
City. This company is a member of REHAB (Real Estate & Housing
Association of Bangladesh) and its membership no. - 011/1992.

EWPD has successfully developed several integrated residential


projects adjacent to the capital city. The first and prime project
known as ‘Bashundhara’ near Baridhara diplomatic zone has been
developed on several hundred acres of land. In this project 15 blocks
are there and among them 13 (A to M) blocks are already developed
in planned and organized way and rest of N, P blocks are on process
to develop. It will take 2 to 3 year to complete the whole project and
around 15,000 plots of this project were handed over to the clients.
The second project known as Savar housing project has been
developed at Savar, 30 km away from Dhaka City. The third project
named as River View has been developed on 2.5 thousand acres of
land in Hasnabad, Keranigonj situated at the outskirts of Dhaka city
to provide well planned housing facilities to the inhabitant of the old
town. In this project 7 blocks are there and 3 (A to C) blocks are
already completed and rest of D, E, F, G, blocks are on Process to
develop. It will also take 2 to 3 years to complete the project.

EWPD has recently been engaged in developing apartment in


Bashundhara and River View project to cater to the housing needs

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of a growing middle class in Dhaka City. More or less in every
developed block in Bashundhara and River View Project, EWPD has
apartment projects and about 500 Apartments in Bashundhara
project have already been handed over to owners. By anticipating
the future size of the population, which will be around 20 million in
Dhaka City in 2015, the company is planning to expand its land
development operation in the adjacent district of the Dhaka City.

EWPD developed renowned university like North South University


(NSU), Independence University Bangladesh (IUB), school like
International School Dhaka (ISD), Viqarunnessa Girls School,
hospital like Apollo, large shopping complex, community centre like
Bashundhara Convention Center, Gold gym, park and so on.

1.6 DISSERTATION OUTLINE


This study is organized into six chapters which include, after this
introductory chapter, Chapter-2, in which the research objectives are
depicted, Chapter-3, in which the research methodology is described,
Chapter-4, which includes the result and discussion derived from the
analysis of data, Chapter-5, in which conclusions are drawn along
with its limitations, and Chapter-6, in which the researcher
recommends for further study.

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CHAPTER- 2:
OBJECTIVES

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2.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE
The general objective of the study is a comparative assessment of
firm’s market profile, customer segments, competitive analysis,
positioning strategy and value proposition of East West Property
Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD) and its competitors in the industry
from customer perspectives.

This dissertation paper aims to reveal what distinctive capabilities


EWPD has that set the firm and its product and service apart from
that of its competitors, what type of value EWPD delivers to its
customers and how is this value different than the alternatives. In this
regard, the firms’ brand recognition, market share, size of competition,
present customers and groups of prospects with similar wants &
needs, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, product
positioning, type of value delivered have to be analyzed.

2.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES


To attain the broad objective following specific objectives have been
pursued:

To assess the brand recognition, market share and size of


competition of East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(EWPD) and its competitors in the industry.

To determine and evaluate the target groups of customers to


whom EWPD and its competitors in the industry intend to
satisfy with their offerings.

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To identify the bundle of benefits sought by the target
segments and to analyze the segments’ perception about
EWPD in compare to its competitors in the industry.

To assess the current customers and the groups of


prospects of EWPD and its competitors in the industry who
have similar needs & wants.

To analyze the firm’s strengths and weaknesses in its


internal environment and opportunities and threats in its
external environment.

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CHAPTER- 3:
METHODOLOGY

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3.1 TYPE OF DATA COLLECTED
There are two types of data that are collected for getting information or
insight about any specific object or event. These are -
1. Primary Data
2. Secondary Data

3.1.1 Primary Data:

“Primary data are data originated by the researcher for the specific
purpose of addressing the research problem” (Malhotra, 2009,p.42).
It is what the researcher originally collects from the sample or target
population. In this study, the primary data used were those that were
got from the personal in-home interview through structured
questionnaire.

3.1.2 Secondary Data:

“Secondary data are data collected for some purpose other than the
problem at hand” (Malhotra, 2009, p.42). Due to the scarcity of
available sources of secondary data about relevant sector, the
researcher didn’t use or able to use any secondary data.

3.2 SAMPLING DESIGN


The sampling design process includes five steps that are shown
sequentially in Figure 3.4.1. (Malhotra, 2009).

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Figure 3.2 The sampling Design Process
Source: Malhotar (2009, p.336)

Define the target population

Determine the sampling frame

Select a sampling technique(s)

Determine the sample size

Execute the sampling process

3.2.1 Target Population:


The target population for the study comprised all the apartment and
commercial building owners who have experienced on at least one of
the four companies (past customers of these four companies), plus all
the apartment and commercial building owners who didn’t have any
experience on any of the four companies but have substantial
information and knowledge about those companies (past customers of
other companies), plus all the existing and potential customers of these
four companies, plus all the existing and potential customers of other
companies who have sufficient knowledge about the four companies,
plus the group of people with an ability but unwillingness to buy the
product who have knowledge about the four companies. The extent of
target population was Bangladesh.

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3.2.2 Sampling Frame:
“A sampling frame is a representation of the elements of the target
population. It consists of a list of set of directions for identifying the
target population” (Malhotra, 2009,p.337). In this study the researcher
could not use any sampling frame because there was no sampling
frame available of the target population. In addition, the researcher
didn’t find any relevant as well as similar survey done previously about
that industry.

3.2.3 Sampling Technique(s):


In selecting the sample of respondents, a purposive sampling was
used. This is a non-probability sampling technique. When the desired
population for the study is rare or very difficult to locate and recruit
for a study, purposive sampling may be the only option.

3.2.4 Sample Size:


“Sample size refers to the number of elements to be included in the
study. Sample size is influenced by the average size of samples in
similar studies. Finally, the sample size decision should be guided by a
consideration of the resource constraints” (Malhotra, 2009,pp.338-
339). Since the researcher didn’t have or enable to find any feasible
sampling frame, a sample size of thirty (30) respondents for each of the
four companies were taken based on his own judgment. Because this
study was done only for academic purpose the size of sample was
predetermined by the supervisor with taking into account the shortage
of time and resources.

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3.2.5 Sampling Process:
The sample was selected purposively after recognizing the depth of
knowledge of the prospective respondents about the company/
companies and the willingness to provide responses against every
question, so that the appropriate information could be found.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES


For obtaining quantitative data, survey methods are used based on the
questioning of respondents. Survey questionnaires may be
administered in four major modes as shown in Figure 3.5.1.

Figure 3.3 A Classification of Survey Methods


Source: Malhotar (2009,p.184)

Survey Methods

Telephone Personal Mail Electronic


Interviewing Interviewing Interviewing Interviewing

Traditional Computer- Mail Mail


Assisted Panel

In-Home Computer- E-mail Internet


Assisted

Mall
Intercept

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3.3.1 Personal In-Home Interview:
“In personal in-home interviews, respondents are interviewed face-to-
face in their homes. The interviewer’s task is to contact the
respondents, ask the questions, and record the response” (Malhotra,
2009, p.186). In Descriptive research design, survey and/or
observation methods are used for data collection.
Survey methods are used for obtaining quantitative data and
Observation methods are used for obtaining qualitative data. In the
study, the researcher administered personal in-home interview for
collecting primary data.

3.3.2 Structured Questionnaire:


According to many scholars, in the use of survey strategy, the main
instruments are self-administered/ interviewer administered or
structured/ unstructured interviews and questionnaire or a
combination of both (Saunders & Mark, 2000; Cooper & Schindler,
2006; Malhotra & Birks, 2007). They further agreed that generally
questionnaire can be used for descriptive or exploratory study, and
must have a good layout, familiar wording, unambiguous questions,
complete items, non-offensive but relevant items, logical arrangement
of items, and the ability to elicit willingness to answer in respondents.

In this study, self-administered and structured one hundred and


twenty (120) questionnaires were used to collect primary data from
respondents (Appendix A). Four sets of questionnaire were used to
collect information of four different companies. All sets of
questionnaire were designed with the same contents excluding the
company name and each questionnaire had three parts consisting of
twenty seven (27) items where, three (3) were related to interviewer’s
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information, seven (7) were related to respondent’s demographic
information and seventeen (17) were related to study information. The
study questions were closed end questions used for eliciting the degree
of agreement and/ or disagreement of respondents through 5-point
Likert scale.

3.3.3 Response Rate:

“Survey response rate is broadly defined as the percentage of the total


attempted interviews that are completed” (Malhotra, 2009, p.198).

Out of one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires, all the


questionnaires were administered and constituted 100% response
rate. The non-response error caused by refusals, terminations, and not-
at-homes was found none. The number of respondents were equal
(thirty) for each of the four companies. Problems caused by not-at-
homes can often be resolved by ‘calling back at different times’
(Malhotra, 2009, p.198).

Table 3.3.3 Refusals, Terminations and Completed Interviews

Total Calling back at


Property At-Homes
Sample different times
Number of refusals (1) - - -
Number of terminators (2) - - -
Number of completed interviewers (3) 120 120 -
Total number of contacts (1+2+3) 120 120 -
Refusal rate [1/(1+2+3)] 0% 0% -
Termination rate [2/(1+2+3)] 0% 0% -
Completion rate [3/(1+2+3)] 100% 100% -

19
3.4 SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT
METHODS
The statistical methods used in this study were –
1. Mean
2. Standard Deviation
3. Coefficient of variation
3.4.1 Mean:
“Mean, also known as arithmetic average, is the most common
measure of central tendency and may be defined as the value which
we get by dividing the total of the values of various given items in a
series by the total number of items” (Kothari, 2009,p.132). “It is used
to estimate the mean when the data have been collected using an
interval or ratio scale” (Malhotra, 2009,p.460).

The mean ( x ) is calculated as:


n

∑x
i =1
i
x =
n

where, xi = Observed values of the variable x

n = Number of observations (sample size)

In this study, mean was used to analyze and compare the four
companies by each of the seventeen variables. It was also used to
calculate standard deviation and coefficient of variation.

3.4.2 Standard Deviation:


“The standard deviation is the square root of the variance”
(Malhotra, 2009,p.461). The ‘variance’ is the mean squared deviation

20
from the mean and the difference between the mean and an observed
value is called the deviation from the mean. This variance can never be
negative (Malhotra, 2009). “Standard deviation is most widely used
measure of dispersion of a series and is commonly denoted by the
symbol ‘ σ ’ (pronounced as sigma)” (Kothari, 2009,p.135). The most
common estimator for ‘ σ ’ used is an adjusted version, the sample
standard deviation, denoted by ‘s’ and calculated as:

∑ (x )
n
2
i −x
i =1
Standard deviation ( s ) = Variance =
n −1

where, x = Mean of the observed values


xi = Observed values of the variable x

n = Number of observations (sample size)

The denominator that the researcher used in this formula was ‘ n − 1 ’


instead of ‘ n ’ because the sample was drawn from a population. A
large standard deviation indicates that the data points are far from the
mean and a small standard deviation indicates that they are clustered
closely around the mean.

In this study, standard deviation was used to understand how far from
the mean the data points tend to be and through the scattered view of
these data points we could understand their degree of uncertainty.

3.4.3 Coefficient of Variation:


“When we divide the standard deviation by the arithmetic average of
the series, the resulting quantity is known as coefficient of standard
deviation which happens to be a relative measure and is often used for
21
comparing with similar measure of other series. When this coefficient
of standard deviation is multiplied by 100, the resulting figure is
known as coefficient of variation” (Kothari, 2009,p.136). Thus, the
coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the
mean, expressed as a percentage, and it is a unitless measure of
relative variability. It only makes sense if the variable is measured on a
ratio scale (Malhotra, 2009).

The coefficient of variation ( cv ) is calculated as:

s
cv = × 100
x

where, x = Mean of the observed values


s = Standard deviation of a sample

Since the standard deviation of data must always be understood in the


context of the mean of data it can only compare the scattered variables
expressed in the same unit. But the coefficient of variation is a
dimensionless number (pure number) which enables to compare the
scatter of variables measured in different units. So when comparing
between data sets with different units or widely different means, one
should use the coefficient of variation instead of the standard deviation.

In this study, the ‘CV’ was used to determine the percent of variability
of agreement or disagreement of the respondents on each variable. It
also was used to rank the competitive positions of the companies as a
whole based on total score obtained. In simple language, the smaller
the ‘CV’, the higher is the consistency, homogeneity, stability,
uniformity etc.

22
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS
A pre-coded questionnaire based interview was done and the persons
who owned a land or apartment or those who were potential to
purchase of land or apartment or who kept substantial information
about the firms in the study were the main source of data for this
study. Quantitative data were analyzed by using statistical software
SPSS. Descriptive statistics tools were used to analyze and interprets
the data.

3.5.1 Validity and Reliability:

As the sampling frame was not available, purposive sampling method


was used to collect data. Multi occupational groups and various
income groups of people were selected to reflect the opinions of various
income and occupational groups. Non sampling errors were reduced
through collecting and verifying data carefully by the researcher. The
data was edited before entering the data into the computer. Logical
checks were done to ensure the quality of data been gathered.

3.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS


Consent was given by the supervisor for the entire report and
specifically for the questionnaires to be distributed to the participants
who were past, present or potential customers of the respective
company/ies, or have knowledge about the company/ies in the study.
Each participant was made fully aware of the nature and purpose of
the research and that their anonymity would be ensured. Every
participant was free to respond any or no question in the
questionnaire and also was free to withdraw his/ her participation
from the survey at any time. According to the commitment of the
23
researcher, all the collected data and sources of information were
destroyed after completion of the report. The final research report will
be made available to the supervisor of the dissertation and to the
registrar office of ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB).

24
CHAPTER- 4:
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

25
4.1 RESPONDENT’S CHARACTERISTICS
Among the selected respondents, 79% were males and 21% were
females (Table 4.1a).

Table 4.1a Distribution of Respondents by Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)


Male 95 79.2
Female 25 20.8
Total 120 100

The findings in Table 4.1b reflect a combination of occupational


structure of the respondents. A higher proportion of respondents were
engaged in private services and businesses which were about 32.5%
and 20.8% respectively. Besides this, doctor, banker, IT professionals,
teacher, lawyer, designer, engineer and retired person were observed
in this study.

Table 4.1b Distribution of Respondents by their Occupation

Category Frequency Percentage (%)


Govt. Service 8 6.7
Pvt. Service 39 32.5
Business 25 20.8
Teaching 4 3.3
Doctor/ Physician 11 9.2
Lower 4 3.3
Interior Designer 4 3.3
Banker 8 6.7
IT Professional 5 4.2
Retired 4 3.3
Engineer 4 3.3
Marine Officer 4 3.3
Total 120 100

26
About two third (67%) of the respondents found highly education –
masters & above and one third (33%) found below graduation level,
which imply a higher educated personnel is likely to purchase dwelling
units than less educated personnel.

Table 4.1c Distribution of Respondents by their Education

Education Level Frequency Percentage (%)


HSC to graduate 40 33.3
Masters and above 80 66.7
Total 120 100

A higher proportion of respondents were belonging to age 41-50 years


which is about 45.8%. This indicates the age of people from 41 to 50
years may have enough savings to purchase land or apartment. The
respondents of 31 to 40 years found second highest existence under
the study. A less proportion of respondents were observed under 30
years and over 50 years which is 7.5% and 12.5% respectively.

Table 4.1d Distribution of Respondents by Age

Age/Years Frequency Percentage (%)


Under 30 9 7.5
31-40 41 34.2
41-50 55 45.8
Over 50 15 12.5
Total 120 100

Adequate income is required to purchase land or apartment to meet


their standard of living. About 32.5% respondents subsisted on a
monthly income not exceeding 50,000, 31.7% respondents between
Tk.50,000 -1,00,000, 22.5% respondents between Tk. 100,000 -

27
1,50,000, 3% respondents between Tk. 1,50,000 – 2,00,000 and 10%
respondents exceeding Tk.2,00,000. Monthly income level below Tk.
50,000 is the most dominant income group in the society which
implies a higher proportion of respondents belong to this group under
study (Table 4.1e).

Table 4.1e Distribution of Respondents by Level of Income

Income Level Frequency Percentage (%)


Less than Tk.50,000 39 32.5
Tk.50,001-1,00,000 38 31.7
Tk.1,00,001-1,50,000 27 22.5
Tk.1,50,001-2,00,000 4 3.3
More than Tk.2,00,000 12 10.0
Total 120 100

4.2 FINDINGS ON KEY VARIABLES


Seventeen variables were settled by the researcher as the criteria of
analyzing and ranking the companies. Within those, three variables –
target group-high income people, target group-middle income people,
and target group-household and corporate clients were used to identify
towards which target group(s) the companies were operating their
services and their degree of paying attention to the relevant target
group(s). The rest of the fourteen variables were used for a competitive
analysis among the companies. These were - brand recognition,
market share, size of competition, key advantage-perceived resale
value, key advantage-communication with target customers, key
advantage-project location, product reshaping on customer’s desire,
scope of firm operations, firm’s ability of serving the whole target
groups, customer perception in terms of reliability on completing the
28
project in due time, customer perception in terms of credibility on
firm’s commitment, customer perception in terms of innovation, price
leadership, and product quality. The researcher used these variables
to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the companies within
the scope relevant to the variables by analyzing their individual
performance. Finally, the sum of numerical value of respondents’
rating of all the fourteen variables was taken and used to draw the
competitive positions of the companies.

29
Table 4.2 Mean, Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation of the Variables

Name of organization
Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Variables Bashundhara (EWPD)
Foundation Holding Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Mean SD CV Mean SD CV Mean SD CV Mean SD CV
Brand Recognition 4.40 .67 15.23 3.63 .93 25.62 3.30 1.02 30.91 2.50 .78 31.20
Market Share 3.83 .99 25.85 3.37 .81 24.04 2.57 .86 33.46 2.10 .66 31.43
Size of Competition 3.70 .92 24.86 3.83 .83 21.67 3.17 .83 26.18 2.87 .78 27.18
Target Group - High Income People 3.33 1.12 33.63 3.17 .99 31.23 4.00 .83 20.75 1.97 .56 28.43
Target Group - Middle Income People 2.77 1.07 38.63 3.37 .76 22.55 2.03 .96 47.29 3.87 .63 16.28
Target Group - Household and Corporate Clients 3.87 .97 25.06 3.90 .88 22.56 3.10 .80 25.81 2.83 .87 30.74
Key Advantage- Perceived Resale Value 4.00 .87 21.75 3.60 .89 24.72 3.50 .78 22.29 2.87 .82 28.57

Key Advantage- Communication with Target


3.53 1.04 29.46 3.47 1.07 30.84 3.53 .94 26.63 2.90 .99 34.14
Customers

Key Advantage- Project Location 3.53 1.11 31.44 3.20 .92 28.75 3.43 .77 22.45 2.57 .86 33.46
Product Reshaping on Customer’s Desire 3.30 .84 25.45 3.37 .89 26.41 3.27 .69 21.10 2.83 .87 30.74
Scope of Firm Operations 3.73 .94 25.20 2.73 1.01 37.00 2.30 .75 32.61 1.90 .84 44.21
Firm’s Ability of Serving the Whole Target Groups 2.80 1.16 41.43 3.03 1.10 36.30 2.30 .88 38.26 2.33 .92 39.48

Customer Perception in terms of Reliability on


2.87 1.14 39.72 2.73 1.05 38.46 3.37 .61 18.10 2.73 .78 28.57
Completing the Project in Due Time

Customer Perception in terms of Credibility on


2.77 .90 32.49 2.83 1.02 36.04 3.37 .61 18.10 2.73 .69 25.27
Firm’s Commitment

Customer Perception in terms of Innovation 3.37 1.07 31.75 3.23 .86 26.63 3.63 .85 23.42 2.63 .81 30.80
Price Leadership 2.53 1.11 43.87 2.67 .92 34.46 2.10 .92 43.81 3.73 .78 20.91
Product Quality 3.37 .89 26.41 3.33 .80 24.02 3.90 .84 21.54 2.63 .72 27.38

30
4.2.1. Brand Recognition:
In data collection process, a score was gathered from respondents on
brand recognition of the companies to judge their choice to company
selection. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest
satisfaction. Table 4.2 shows East West Property Development (Pvt.)
Ltd. (EWPD) got the highest score of 4.40 with the lowest coefficient of
variation (CV) of 15.23% which reveal that customers have good faith
to EWPD for choosing its brand. Similarly Amin Mohammad
Foundation Ltd. (AMFL), Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. (ADHL)
and Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. (RHEL) got the scores of 3.63, 3.3
and 2.5 with the CVs of 25.62%, 30.91% and 31.20% respectively.
Thus, EWPD is consistently the most recognized brand, AMFL is the
second most recognized brand, ADHL is the third most recognized
brand, and RHEL is poor recognized brand as views of the customers.

4.2.2. Market Share:


A score was gathered from respondents on market share of the
companies to judge their acquisition of share in the industry.
Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. The
respondents gave the highest score of 3.83 to EWPD for its market
share (Table 4.2). The CV of market share of EWPD is observed
25.85%. AMFL shows the second highest score of 3.37 with the lowest
CV of 24.04%. The satisfaction scores on market share of ADHL and
RHEL are 2.57 and 2.1 with the CVs of 33.46% and 31.43%
respectively. Thus, EWPD achieved the largest market share and
followed by AMFL, ADHL, and RHEL. RHEL shows poor performance
on achieving greater market share.

31
4.2.3. Size of Competition:
Similar score was gathered from respondents on size of competition of
the companies to judge their rivals regarding size. Satisfaction scores 1
to 5 reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, AMFL got
the highest score of 3.83 with the lowest CV of 21.67% which expose
relatively large size of competitors among the companies. Satisfaction
score on size of competition of EWPD, ADHL and RHEL are 3.7, 3.17
and 2.87 with the CVs of 24.86%, 26.18% and 27.18% respectively.
Thus, the rivals of AMFL are relatively large in size in compare to other
three companies and followed by the size of rivals of EWPD, ADHL &
RHEL successively.

4.2.4. Target Group - High Income People:


A score was gathered from respondents on target group - high income
people of the companies to judge the level of operations toward that
group. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest
satisfaction. In Table 4.2, ADHL got the highest score of 4.00 with the
lowest CV of 20.75% which expose its greater inclination of targeting
high income people among the companies. Satisfaction score on target
group - high income people of EWPD, AMFL and RHEL are 3.33, 3.17
and 1.97 with the CVs of 33.63%, 31.23% and 28.43% respectively.
Thus, ADHL shows the best performance in high income people index
and followed by EWPD and AMFL successively but RHEL does not
target that group.

4.2.5. Target Group - Middle income people:


A score was gathered from respondents on target group - middle income
people of the companies to judge the level of operations toward that

32
group. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest
satisfaction. In Table 4.2, RHEL got the highest score of 3.87 with the
lowest CV of 16.28% which expose its greater inclination of targeting
the middle income people among the companies. Satisfaction score on
target group - middle income people of AMFL, EWPD and RHEL are
3.37, 2.77 and 2.03 with the CVs of 22.55%, 38.63% and 47.29%
respectively. Thus, RHEL shows the best performance in middle
income people index and followed by AMFL and EWPD successively
but ADHL does not target that group.

4.2.6. Target Group - Household and Corporate Clients:


A score was gathered from respondents on target group – household
and corporate clients of the companies to judge their level of operations
toward both the groups of clients. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the
lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, AMFL got the highest score
of 3.9 with the lowest CV of 22.56% which expose its greater
inclination of targeting both the household and corporate clients
among the companies. Satisfaction score on target group – household
and corporate clients of EWPD, ADHL, and RHEL are 3.87, 3.10 and
2.83 with the CVs of 25.06%, 25.81% and 30.74% respectively. Thus,
AMFL shows the best performance in household and corporate clients’
index and followed by EWPD, ADHL and RHEL successively.

4.2.7. Key Advantage- Perceived Resale Value:


A score was gathered from respondents on key advantage- perceived
resale value of the companies to judge the resale value of the products
of companies. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest
satisfaction. In Table 4.2, EWPD got the highest score of 4.0 with the
lowest CV of 21.75% which expose the highest perceived resale value
33
of its products. Satisfaction score on key advantage- perceived resale
value of AMFL, ADHL, and RHEL are 3.6, 3.5 and 2.87 with the CVs of
24.72%, 22.29% and 28.57% respectively. Thus, EWPD has the
highest perceived resale value of its products among the companies
and followed by the perceived resale value of the products of AMFL,
ADHL & RHEL successively.

4.2.8. Key Advantage- Communication with Target


Customers:
A score was gathered from respondents on key advantage-
communication with target customers of the companies to judge the
level of communication maintained with the target customers.
Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In
Table 4.2, ADHL got the highest score of 3.53 with the lowest CV of
26.63% which expose the best level of communication maintained with
its target customers among the companies. EWPD also got the highest
score of 3.53 with the CV of 29.46%. Satisfaction score on key
advantage- communication with target customers of AMFL & RHEL are
3.47 & 2.9 with the CVs of 30.84% & 34.14% respectively. Thus, ADHL
maintains the best level of communication with its target customers
and followed by the level of communication of EWPD, AMFL & RHEL
successively.

4.2.9. Key Advantage- Project Location:


A score was gathered from respondents on key advantage- project
location of the companies to judge the degree of convenience of their
project locations to the target customers. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5
reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, EWPD got the
highest score of 3.53 with the CV of 31.44% which expose its locations
34
as the best among the companies by taking into account the customer
convenience. ADHL got the second highest score of 3.43 with the
lowest CV of 22.45%. Satisfaction score on key advantage- project
location of AMFL & RHEL are 3.2 & 2.57 with the CVs of 28.75% &
33.46% respectively. Thus, the project locations of EWPD are the best
by considering the degree of convenience provided to its target
customers and followed by the project locations of ADHL, AMFL &
RHEL successively.

4.2.10. Product Reshaping on Customer’s Desire:


A score was gathered from respondents on product reshaping on
customer’s desire of the companies to judge their ability to cope with
customer’s changing desire. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest
to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, AMFL got the highest score of
3.37 with the CV of 26.41% which expose its greater ability of giving
frequent effort among the companies to minimize the gap between the
products offered previously to the market target and the changing
desires of existing and potential target customers. Satisfaction score
on product reshaping on customer’s desire of EWPD, ADHL & RHEL
are 3.3, 3.27 & 2.83 with the CVs of 25.45%, 21.10% & 30.74%
respectively. Thus, AMFL pays the highest attention to product
reshaping and followed by EWPD, ADHL & RHEL successively.

4.2.11. Scope of Firm Operations:


A score was gathered from respondents on scope of firm operations of
the companies to judge their range of activities. Satisfaction scores 1
to 5 reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, EWPD got
the highest score of 3.73 with the lowest CV of 25.20% which expose
its greater range of activities initiated to fill all expectation of target
35
customers among the companies. Satisfaction score on scope of firm
operations of AMFL, ADHL & RHEL are 2.73, 2.3 & 1.9 with the CVs of
37.0%, 32.61% & 44.21% respectively. Thus, the scope of operations
of EWPD is the largest and followed by that of AMFL, ADHL & RHEL
successively.

4.2.12. Firm’s Ability of Serving the Whole Target Groups:


A score was gathered from respondents on firm’s ability of serving the
whole target groups of the companies to judge their ability to serve
people in the target segment residing within and outside of the greater
Dhaka. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest
satisfaction. In Table 4.2, AMFL got the highest score of 3.03 with the
lowest CV of 36.30% which expose its better ability to serve people
residing within and outside of the greater Dhaka among the
companies. Satisfaction score on firm’s ability of serving the whole
target groups of EWPD, RHEL & ADHL are 2.8, 2.33 & 2.3 with the
CVs of 41.43%, 39.48% & 38.26% respectively. Thus, the ability to
serve people in the whole target segment of AMFL is the best and
followed by that of EWPD, RHEL & ADHL successively.

4.2.13. Customer Perception in terms of Reliability on


Completing the Project in Due Time:
A score was gathered from respondents on customer perception in
terms of reliability on completing the project in due time of the
companies to judge the degree of reliability perceived by customers on
completing project in stated time length. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5
reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, ADHL got the
highest score of 3.37 with the lowest CV of 18.10% which expose its
greater reliability on project completion in stated time length among
36
the companies. EWPD got the second highest score of 2.87 with the CV
of 39.72%. AMFL & RHEL got the same score of 2.73 with the CVs of
38.46% & 28.57% respectively. Thus, ADHL is the most reliable firm
on completing project in due time and followed by EWPD, RHEL &
AMFL successively.

4.2.14. Customer Perception in terms of Credibility on


Firm’s Commitment:
A score was gathered from respondents on customer perception in
terms of credibility on firm’s commitment of the companies to judge the
degree of credibility perceived by customers on firm’s commitment.
Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In
Table 4.2, ADHL got the highest score of 3.37 with the lowest CV of
18.10% which expose greater credibility of its commitment among the
companies. Satisfaction score on customer perception in terms of
credibility on firm’s commitment of AMFL, EWPD & RHEL are 2.83,
2.77 & 2.73 with the CVs of 36.04%, 32.49% & 25.27% respectively.
Thus, ADHL is the most credible firm based on fulfilling its
commitment and followed by AMFL, EWPD & RHEL successively.

4.2.15. Customer Perception in terms of Innovation:


A score was gathered from respondents on customer perception in
terms of innovation of the companies to judge their level of innovation
perceived by customers. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal the lowest to
highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, ADHL got the highest score of 3.63
with the lowest CV of 23.42% which expose its offerings as more
innovative among the companies. Satisfaction score on customer
perception in terms of innovation of EWPD, AMFL & RHEL are 3.37,
3.23 & 2.63 with the CVs of 31.75%, 26.63% & 30.80% respectively.
37
Thus, ADHL offers its products with the most innovative ideas and
followed by the ideas of EWPD, AMFL & RHEL successively.

4.2.16. Price Leadership:


A score was gathered from respondents on price leadership of the
companies to judge their control on price which comes from offering at
a comparatively low price of product. Satisfaction scores 1 to 5 reveal
the lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, RHEL got the highest
score of 3.73 with the lowest CV of 20.91% which expose its lower
product price among the companies. Satisfaction score on price
leadership of AMFL, EWDL & ADHL are 2.67, 2.53 & 2.1 with the CVs
of 34.46%, 43.87% & 43.81% respectively. Thus, RHEL offers its
products at the lowest possible price and followed by AMFL, EWDL &
ADHL successively.

4.2.17. Product Quality:


A score was gathered from respondents on product quality of the
companies to judge the quality of their product. Satisfaction scores 1
to 5 reveal the lowest to highest satisfaction. In Table 4.2, ADHL got
the highest score of 3.9 with the lowest CV of 21.54% which expose its
product as better quality among the companies. Satisfaction score on
product quality of EWPD, AMFL & RHEL are 3.37, 3.33 & 2.63 with
the CVs of 26.41%, 24.02% & 27.38% respectively. Thus, ADHL offers
the best quality product and followed by EWPD, AMFL & RHEL
successively.

38
4.3 COMPETITIVE POSITIONS ON OVERALL
SCORE OF KEY VARIABLES

Table 4.3 Competitive Positions of the Companies by Considering


the Key Variables All Together

No. of Score
Name of Company Rank
sample
Mean( x ) SD ( s ) CV
Bashundhara (EWPD)
30 57.70 8.34 14.46 3rd
Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd
30 55.47 8.58 15.47 4th
Asset Development and Holding Ltd. 30 52.87 5.70 10.78 1st

Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. 30 46.00 5.74 12.47 2nd

The competitive position based on overall score of the key variables


was designed by counting the numerical value of respondent’s rating
as score. Here, the overall score was the sum of total score obtained
from the numerical value of ratings of the key variables. Among the
four companies, the coefficient of variation (CV) of overall score
obtained by each company represents its relative position. As shown in
Table 4.3, Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. (ADHL) was computed
the lowest CV of 10.78%, Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. (RHEL) was
computed the second lowest CV of 12.47%, East West Property
Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD) was computed the second highest CV
of 14.46%, and Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. (AMFL) was
computed the highest CV of 15.47%.

Thus, ADHL got the first position, RHEL got the second position,
EWPD got the third position, and AMFL got the fourth position.

39
CHAPTER- 5:
CONCLUSION

40
5.1 CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY
In this study the purpose was to measure and analyze the competitive
positioning of East West Property Development Ltd. (EWPD) within the
real estate industry in Bangladesh. The researcher chose another
three companies purposively instead of selecting the whole industry
due to the limitations of time and resources. The analysis and
interpretation of data gathered included a thorough measurement,
analysis and interpretation of respondent’s characteristics and their
ratings on variables selected by the researcher as criteria of evaluating
the company’s competitive positioning.

Based on an objective analysis of data and discussion of the results,


the researcher concluded that among the four target groups- high
income people, middle income people, household clients and corporate
clients, the company in the subject matter, East West Property
Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD), targeted all groups, and other three
purposively selected companies - Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd.
(AMFL) also targeted all groups, but Asset Development and Holdings
Ltd. (ADHL) targeted all groups other than middle income people and
Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. (RHEL) targeted all groups except high
income people. Among the fourteen variables, the criteria of evaluating
competitive positions, EWPD occupied 1st position in five variables, 2nd
position in seven variables, 3rd position in two variables, AMFL
occupied 1st position in three variables, 2nd position in six variables,
3rd position in four variables and 4th position in one variable, ADHL
occupied 1st position in five variables, 2nd position in one variable, 3rd
position in six variables and 4th position in two variables, and RHEL
occupied 1st position in one variable, 3rd position in two variables and
4th position in eleven variables. The competitive positions of the
41
companies by considering the fourteen variables all together based on
score obtained from the sum of numerical value of response rating
were - ADHL occupied the first position, RHEL occupied the second
position, EWPD occupied the third position, and AMFL occupied the
fourth position.

Thus, East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD) occupied the
third position among the four companies and its brand recognition,
market share, perceived resale value of products, project location and
scope of firm operations were found superior to that of its three
competitors.

5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS


The limitations of the findings in this study are:

1. The study assumed that every variable contributes the same


value in building customers’ perception. But in practical, since
each variable pays different level of weight to customer’s
perception the findings of the study could mislead the original
result.

2. The findings of the study could be biased by the error of leniency


if the respondents were either easy raters or hard raters
(Kothari, 2009).

3. The findings of the study could be biased by the error of central


tendency if the respondents were reluctant to give extreme
judgments (Kothari, 2009).

42
4. The findings of the study could be biased by the error of halo
effect if the respondents didn’t have enough information about
all traits, so that they made assumption based on one or two
prominent traits which overshadowed other traits. (Kothari,
2009).

43
CHAPTER- 6:
RECOMMENDATION

44
6.0 RECOMMENDATION
This study mainly assessed and analyzed the competitive positioning
of East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd. (EWPD) in the real estate
industry in Bangladesh. It is recommended that future research
should:

1. Consider all companies or majority companies in the real estate


industry to get maximum accuracy of the result.

2. Determine the degree of contribution to build customer


perception of each of the fourteen variables and the degree of
dependency of variables on each other.

3. Determine the variable(s) other than the stated fourteen


variables that pay more weight to build customer perception and
may deduct less effective variables.

4. Examine the competitive position of EWPD by taking into


account the level of weight that each variable imposes to the
customers for building company image.

5. Further examine the test of validity and reliability by applying a


mixture of qualitative and quantitative models and approaches
for a similar study and compare the results.

6. Use different models and methodology for a similar study and


compare the results.

45
REFERENCES

Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. (2006). Business Research Methods.


Journal of Service Research. 1(2), 108-128.

CPD (Center for Policy Dialogue). (2003). Strengthening The Role of


Private Sector Housing in Bangladesh Economy: The Policy
Challenges. DR- 64, Dhaka: CPD (Rehman Sobhan report).

Hossain, A. (2001), Some Aspects of Real Estate Business in Dhaka


City. The New Nation. 14 May.

Jamil, G.M.H. & Ahmed, M. (2006). Housing for low income people in
Bangladesh: problems and Prospects. The Cost and Management.
34(5), 25-37.

Khan, M.S. and Barua, S. (2009). The Dynamics of Residential Real


Estate Sector in Bangladesh: Challenges Faced and Policies
Sought. Available at: Social Science Research Network.
< http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1616829>
(revised 27 May 2010, accessed 31 August 2010)

Kothari, C.R. (2009). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques.


2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age Techno Press.

Malhotra, N.K.(2009). Marketing Research- An Applied Orientation. 5th


ed. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India.

Malhotra, N.K. & Birks, D.F. (2007). Marketing Research- An Applied


Approach. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

REHAB (Real Estate and Housing Association of Bangladesh) (2004).


Annual Report 2002.Dhaka: REHAB.

Saunders, and Mark, N.K. (2000). Research Methods for Business


Students, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall.

46
Seraj, T.M. (2003). Solving Housing Problem Through Private Sector Rea
Estate Development in Dhaka. Architecture and Construction.
Urban Development Volume 10, Dhaka: Quality Offset Press.

Singha, D. (2001). Social Intermediation for the Urban Poor in


Bangladesh. Dhaka: Dushtha Shasthya Kendra
Available at: Scribd.
< http://www.scribd.com/doc/7317889/ARLWSin> (accessed 30
August 2010)

YIN, R.K. (1984). Case Study Research: Design and Methods.


California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

47
APPENDICES

48
APPENDIX I:
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EAST WEST PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT (PVT.) LTD.

An Analysis of Competitive Positioning of


East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(Bashundhara)

QUESTIONNAIRE
(Set-1)

May 2010

(For research use only)

ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)


ASA Tower, 23/3 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka1207 Phone: 8122555, 8114831,
Fax: 880-2-8111175, 9121861 Web: //www.asaub.edu.bd

49
Dear Respondent
As part of my MBA program at ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB), I am
conducting a survey that investigates the competitive positioning of a real estate
firm in the industry. Results of the study will be made available to ASA
university. I will appreciate it if you could complete the following questionnaire.
Any information obtained in connection with this study that can be identified
with you will remain confidential. It is assured that -
a) This research is conducting only for academic purpose.

b) All the collected information will be destroyed after completion


of the study.

c) The collected information will be kept secret and must not be


delivered to out side of the ASA University.

You are free to withdraw your participation at any time. If you have any
questions about the research, please contact to email: rashed449@gmail.com

Thanks in advance for your cooperation.

Sincerely,

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097
ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)

A. Information of interviewer ( To be filled by the interviewer)

Interviewer’s name: _____________________________________________________


Date of interview: ______/_____/ 2010
Place of interview: _____________________________________________________

B. Personal Information:

I. Name of the respondent: _____________________________________________________


II. Address: ____________________________________________________________________
III. Profession: _________________________________
IV. Gender: (a) Male (b) Female
V. Age: (a) Under 30 (c) 41 - 50
(b) 31 - 40 (d) Over 50

50
VI. Education:
(a) No education (d) HSC to graduate
(b) Class one to class five (e) Masters and above
(c) Class six to SSC

VII. Average monthly income: (in Taka)


(a) Less than 50,000 (d) 1,50,001 – 2,00,000
(b) 50,001 – 1,00,000 (e) More than 2,00,000
(c) 1,00,001 – 1,50,000

C. Study information:

For each of the statements below, please indicate the extent of your agreement or
disagreement by placing a tick in the appropriate box.

The response scale is as follows:


1. Strongly Disagree
2. Disagree
3. Undecided or Neutral
4. Agree
5. Strongly Agree

SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

1 A more recognized brand in real estate business in


Bangladesh is Bashundhara.
2 Bashundhara has achieved greater market share.

3 The rivals of Bashundhara are relatively large


firms.
4 Bashundhara initiates its business for High
income group people.
5 Bashundhara initiates its business for middle
income group people.
Bashundhara offers a variety of product targeting
6 both household and corporate clients which shows
its vast scope and capabilities.
7 ‘Perceived higher resale value’ in the market is one
of the key advantages of Bashundhara.

51
SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

8 ‘Better communication with target customers’ is one


of the key advantages of Bashundhara.
9 ‘Project Location’ is one of the key advantages of
Bashundhara.
Bashundhara reshapes its offerings by assessing
10 past, existing and potential customer’s desire that
have similar needs and wants.
Bashundhara is one of the companies in
Bangladesh which has entered into all aspects of
11 our expectations. (such as building school,
university, Hospital, shopping mall, community
center, apartment, industrial complex, park, gym
etc.)
12 Bashundhara enables to serve people in the target
groups who reside outside of the greater Dhaka.
13 Bashundhara is more reliable to customers in
terms of project completion in due time.
Bashundhara is more credible to customers in
14 terms of commitment execution within the stated
time duration.
15 Bashundhara offers its products with new ideas.

16 Bashundhara offers its products at a lower possible


price.
17 Bashundhara offers its products with better
quality.

Have a wonderful day, and thanks again for your time.

52
APPENDIX II:
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AMIN MOHAMMAD FOUNDATION LTD.

An Analysis of Competitive Positioning of


East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(Bashundhara)

QUESTIONNAIRE
(Set-2)

May 2010

(For research use only)

ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)


ASA Tower, 23/3 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka1207 Phone: 8122555, 8114831,
Fax: 880-2-8111175, 9121861 Web: //www.asaub.edu.bd

53
Dear Respondent
As part of my MBA program at ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB), I am
conducting a survey that investigates the competitive positioning of a real estate
firm in the industry. Results of the study will be made available to ASA
university. I will appreciate it if you could complete the following questionnaire.
Any information obtained in connection with this study that can be identified
with you will remain confidential. It is assured that -
a) This research is conducting only for academic purpose.

b) All the collected information will be destroyed after completion


of the study.

c) The collected information will be kept secret and must not be


delivered to out side of the ASA University.

You are free to withdraw your participation at any time. If you have any
questions about the research, please contact to email: rashed449@gmail.com

Thanks in advance for your cooperation.

Sincerely,

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097
ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)

A. Information of interviewer ( To be filled by the interviewer)

Interviewer’s name: _____________________________________________________


Date of interview: ______/_____/ 2010
Place of interview: _____________________________________________________

B. Personal Information:

I. Name of the respondent: _____________________________________________________


II. Address: ____________________________________________________________________
III. Profession: _________________________________
IV. Gender: (a) Male (b) Female
V. Age: (a) Under 30 (c) 41 - 50
(b) 31 - 40 (d) Over 50

54
VI. Education:
(a) No education (d) HSC to graduate
(b) Class one to class five (e) Masters and above
(c) Class six to SSC

VII. Average monthly income: (in Taka)


(a) Less than 50,000 (d) 1,50,001 – 2,00,000
(b) 50,001 – 1,00,000 (e) More than 2,00,000
(c) 1,00,001 – 1,50,000

C. Study information:

For each of the statements below, please indicate the extent of your agreement or
disagreement by placing a tick in the appropriate box.

The response scale is as follows:


1. Strongly Disagree
2. Disagree
3. Undecided or Neutral
4. Agree
5. Strongly Agree

SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

1 A more recognized brand in real estate business in


Bangladesh is ‘Amin Mohammad’.
2 Amin Mohammad Foundation has achieved greater
market share.
3 The rivals of Amin Mohammad Foundation are
relatively large firms.
4 Amin Mohammad Foundation initiates its business
for High income group people.
5 Amin Mohammad Foundation initiates its business
for middle income group people.
Amin Mohammad Foundation offers a variety of
6 product targeting both household and corporate
clients which shows its vast scope and capabilities.
‘Perceived higher resale value’ in the market is one
7 of the key advantages of Amin Mohammad
Foundation.

55
SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5
‘Better communication with target customers’ is one
8 of the key advantages of Amin Mohammad
Foundation.
9 ‘Project Location’ is one of the key advantages of
Amin Mohammad Foundation.
Amin Mohammad Foundation reshapes its offerings
10 by assessing past, existing and potential customer’s
desire that have similar needs and wants.
Amin Mohammad Foundation is one of the
companies in Bangladesh which has entered into
11 all aspects of our expectations. (such as building
school, university, Hospital, shopping mall,
community center, apartment, industrial complex,
park, gym etc.)
Amin Mohammad Foundation enables to serve
12 people in the target groups who reside outside of
the greater Dhaka.
Amin Mohammad Foundation is more reliable to
13 customers in terms of project completion in due
time.
Amin Mohammad Foundation is more credible to
14 customers in terms of commitment execution
within the stated time duration.
15 Amin Mohammad Foundation offers its products
with new ideas.
16 Amin Mohammad Foundation offers its products at
a lower possible price.
17 Amin Mohammad Foundation offers its products
with better quality.

Have a wonderful day, and thanks again for your time.

56
APPENDIX III:
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ASSET DEVELOPMENT AND HOLDINGS LTD.

An Analysis of Competitive Positioning of


East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(Bashundhara)

QUESTIONNAIRE
(Set-3)

May 2010

(For research use only)

ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)


ASA Tower, 23/3 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka1207 Phone: 8122555, 8114831,
Fax: 880-2-8111175, 9121861 Web: //www.asaub.edu.bd
57
Dear Respondent
As part of my MBA program at ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB), I am
conducting a survey that investigates the competitive positioning of a real estate
firm in the industry. Results of the study will be made available to ASA
university. I will appreciate it if you could complete the following questionnaire.
Any information obtained in connection with this study that can be identified
with you will remain confidential. It is assured that -
a) This research is conducting only for academic purpose.

b) All the collected information will be destroyed after completion


of the study.

c) The collected information will be kept secret and must not be


delivered to out side of the ASA University.

You are free to withdraw your participation at any time. If you have any
questions about the research, please contact to email: rashed449@gmail.com

Thanks in advance for your cooperation.

Sincerely,

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097
ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)

A. Information of interviewer ( To be filled by the interviewer)

Interviewer’s name: _____________________________________________________


Date of interview: ______/_____/ 2010
Place of interview: _____________________________________________________

B. Personal Information:

I. Name of the respondent: _____________________________________________________


II. Address: ____________________________________________________________________
III. Profession: _________________________________
IV. Gender: (a) Male (b) Female
V. Age: (a) Under 30 (c) 41 - 50
(b) 31 - 40 (d) Over 50

58
VI. Education:
(a) No education (d) HSC to graduate
(b) Class one to class five (e) Masters and above
(c) Class six to SSC

VII. Average monthly income: (in Taka)


(a) Less than 50,000 (d) 1,50,001 – 2,00,000
(b) 50,001 – 1,00,000 (e) More than 2,00,000
(c) 1,00,001 – 1,50,000

C. Study information:

For each of the statements below, please indicate the extent of your agreement or
disagreement by placing a tick in the appropriate box.

The response scale is as follows:


1. Strongly Disagree
2. Disagree
3. Undecided or Neutral
4. Agree
5. Strongly Agree

SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

1 A more recognized brand in real estate business in


Bangladesh is ‘Asset’.
2 ‘Asset Development’ has achieved greater market
share.
3 The rivals of ‘Asset Development’ are relatively large
firms.
4 ‘Asset’ initiates its business for High income group
people.
5 ‘Asset’ initiates its business for middle income group
people.
‘Asset’ offers a variety of product targeting both
6 household and corporate clients which shows its
vast scope and capabilities.
7 ‘Perceived higher resale value’ in the market is one
of the key advantages of ‘Asset’.

59
SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

8 ‘Better communication with target customers’ is one


of the key advantages of ‘Asset’.
9 ‘Project Location’ is one of the key advantages of
‘Asset’.
‘Asset’ reshapes its offerings by assessing past,
10 existing and potential customer’s desire that have
similar needs and wants.
‘Asset’ is one of the companies in Bangladesh which
has entered into all aspects of our expectations.
11 (such as building school, university, Hospital,
shopping mall, community center, apartment,
industrial complex, park, gym etc.)
12 ‘Asset’ enables to serve people in the target groups
who reside outside of the greater Dhaka.
13 ‘Asset’ is more reliable to customers in terms of
project completion in due time.
‘Asset’ is more credible to customers in terms of
14 commitment execution within the stated time
duration.
15 ‘Asset’ offers its products with new ideas.

16 ‘Asset’ offers its products at a lower possible price.

17 ‘Asset’ offers its products with better quality.

Have a wonderful day, and thanks again for your time.

60
APPENDIX IV:
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RUPAYAN HOUSING ESTATE LTD.

An Analysis of Competitive Positioning of


East West Property Development (Pvt.) Ltd.
(Bashundhara)

QUESTIONNAIRE
(Set-4)

May 2010

(For research use only)

ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)


ASA Tower, 23/3 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka1207 Phone: 8122555, 8114831,
Fax: 880-2-8111175, 9121861 Web: //www.asaub.edu.bd
61
Dear Respondent
As part of my MBA program at ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB), I am
conducting a survey that investigates the competitive positioning of a real estate
firm in the industry. Results of the study will be made available to ASA
university. I will appreciate it if you could complete the following questionnaire.
Any information obtained in connection with this study that can be identified
with you will remain confidential. It is assured that -
a) This research is conducting only for academic purpose.

b) All the collected information will be destroyed after completion


of the study.

c) The collected information will be kept secret and must not be


delivered to out side of the ASA University.

You are free to withdraw your participation at any time. If you have any
questions about the research, please contact to email: rashed449@gmail.com

Thanks in advance for your cooperation.

Sincerely,

Rashedul Hasan
ID: 081-14-0097
ASA University Bangladesh (ASAUB)

A. Information of interviewer ( To be filled by the interviewer)

Interviewer’s name: _____________________________________________________


Date of interview: ______/_____/ 2010
Place of interview: _____________________________________________________

B. Personal Information:

I. Name of the respondent: _____________________________________________________


II. Address: ____________________________________________________________________
III. Profession: _________________________________
IV. Gender: (a) Male (b) Female
V. Age: (a) Under 30 (c) 41 - 50
(b) 31 - 40 (d) Over 50

62
VI. Education:
(a) No education (d) HSC to graduate
(b) Class one to class five (e) Masters and above
(c) Class six to SSC

VII. Average monthly income: (in Taka)


(a) Less than 50,000 (d) 1,50,001 – 2,00,000
(b) 50,001 – 1,00,000 (e) More than 2,00,000
(c) 1,00,001 – 1,50,000

C. Study information:

For each of the statements below, please indicate the extent of your agreement or
disagreement by placing a tick in the appropriate box.

The response scale is as follows:


1. Strongly Disagree
2. Disagree
3. Undecided or Neutral
4. Agree
5. Strongly Agree

SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

1 A more recognized brand in real estate business in


Bangladesh is Rupayan.
2 Rupayan has achieved greater market share.

3 The rivals of Rupayan are relatively large firms.

4 Rupayan initiates its business for High income


group people.
5 Rupayan initiates its business for middle income
group people.
Rupayan offers a variety of product targeting both
6 household and corporate clients which shows its
vast scope and capabilities.
7 ‘Perceived higher resale value’ in the market is one
of the key advantages of Rupayan.
8 ‘Better communication with target customers’ is one
of the key advantages of Rupayan .

63
SL. SCALE
STATEMENTS
NO. 1 2 3 4 5

9 ‘Project Location’ is one of the key advantages of


Rupayan .
Rupayan reshapes its offerings by assessing past,
10 existing and potential customer’s desire that have
similar needs and wants.
Rupayan is one of the companies in Bangladesh
which has entered into all aspects of our
11 expectations. (such as building school, university,
Hospital, shopping mall, community center,
apartment, industrial complex, park, gym etc.)
12 Rupayan enables to serve people in the target
groups who reside outside of the greater Dhaka.
13 Rupayan is more reliable to customers in terms of
project completion in due time.
Rupayan is more credible to customers in terms of
14 commitment execution within the stated time
duration.
15 Rupayan offers its products with new ideas.

16 Rupayan offers its products at a lower possible


price.
17 Rupayan offers its products with better quality.

Have a wonderful day, and thanks again for your time.

64
APPENDIX V:
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

T1: Distribution of Respondents by Type of Organization

Name of Organization Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

30 25.0 25.0 25.0


Bashundhara (EWPD)

Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. 30 25.0 25.0 50.0

Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. 30 25.0 25.0 75.0

Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. 30 25.0 25.0 100.0

120 100.0 100.0


Total

65
T2: Housing Type Wise Distribution of Respondents by Occupation

Name of organization
Bashundhara Amin Mohammad Asset Development Rupayan Housing Total
Occupation
(EWPD) Foundation Ltd. and Holding Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Govt. Service 2 6.7 2 6.7 2 6.7 2 6.7 8 6.7
Pvt. Service 10 33.3 9 30.0 11 36.7 9 30.0 39 32.5
Business 6 20.0 7 23.3 5 16.7 7 23.3 25 20.8
Teaching 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3
Doctor/ Physician 2 6.7 3 10.0 3 10.0 3 10.0 11 9.2
Lawyer 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3
Interior Designer 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3
Banker 2 6.7 2 6.7 2 6.7 2 6.7 8 6.7
IT Professional 2 6.7 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 5 4.2
Retired 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3
Engineer 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3
Marine Officer 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 120 100.0

66
T3: Housing Type Wise Distribution of Respondents by Gender

% of respondents Total
Name of organization
Male Female Row %

Bashundhara (EWPD) 76.7 23.3 100.0


(23) (7) (30)

Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. 80.0 20.0 100.0


(24) (6) (30)

Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. 76.7 23.3 100.0


(23) (7) (30)

Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. 83.3 16.7 100.0


(25) (5) (30)

Total 79.2 20.8 100.0


(95) (25) (120)

* Parenthesis indicates number of sample.

T4: Housing Type Wise Distribution of Respondents by Age

% of respondents Total
Name of organization
Under 30 31 - 40 41 - 50 Over 50 Row %

Bashundhara (EWPD) 10.0 36.7 40.0 13.3 100.0


(3) (11) (12) (4) (30)

Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. 6.7 30.0 50.0 13.3 100.0


(2) (9) (15) (4) (30)

Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. 6.7 36.7 46.7 10.0 100.0
(2) (11) (14) (3) (30)

Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. 6.7 33.3 46.7 13.3 100.0


(2) (10) (14) (4) (30)

Total 7.5 34.2 45.8 12.5 100.0


(9) (41) (55) (15) (120)

* Parenthesis indicates number of sample.

67
T5: Housing Type Wise Distribution of Respondents by Education

% of respondents Total
Name of organization
HSC to graduate Masters and above Row %

Bashundhara (EWPD) 33.3 66.7 100.0


(10) (20) (30)

Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. 33.3 66.7 100.0


(10) (20) (30)

Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. 33.3 66.7 100.0


(10) (20) (30)

Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. 33.3 66.7 100.0


(10) (20) (30)

Total 33.3 66.7 100.0


(40) (80) (120)

* Parenthesis indicates number of sample.

68
T6: Housing Type Wise Distribution of Respondents by Monthly Income

Name of organization Total


Average Monthly Income Amin Mohammad Asset Development Rupayan Housing
(in taka) Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. and Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd. Count Col %
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %

Less than 50000 10 33.3 9 30.0 9 30.0 11 36.7 39 32.5

50001 - 100000 10 33.3 10 33.3 10 33.3 8 26.7 38 31.7

100000 - 150000 6 20.0 7 23.3 7 23.3 7 23.3 27 22.5

150000 - 200000 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3 4 3.3

More than 200000 3 10.0 3 10.0 3 10.0 3 10.0 12 10.0

Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 120 100.0

69
APPENDIX VI: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY VARIABLES
T7: Distribution of Respondents by Brand Recognition

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 1 3.3 2 6.7
Disagree 3 10.0 6 20.0 14 46.7
Undecided or neutral 3 10.0 5 16.7 9 30.0 11 36.7
Agree 12 40.0 18 60.0 11 36.7 3 10.0
15 50.0 3 10.0 3 10.0
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T8: Distribution of Respondents by Market Share

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 4 13.3
Disagree 5 16.7 4 13.3 14 46.7 20 66.7
Undecided or neutral 2 6.7 13 43.3 9 30.0 5 16.7
Agree 16 53.3 11 36.7 5 16.7 1 3.3
7 23.3 2 6.7
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

70
T9: Distribution of Respondents by Size of Competition

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 4 13.3 2 6.7 6 20.0 10 33.3
Disagree 6 20.0 7 23.3 15 50.0 15 50.0
Undecided or neutral 15 50.0 15 50.0 7 23.3 4 13.3
Agree 5 16.7 6 20.0 2 6.7 1 3.3
30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0
Strongly agree
Total 4 13.3 2 6.7 6 20.0 10 33.3

T10: Distribution of Respondents by Targeting High income Group

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 2 6.7 5 16.7
Disagree 5 16.7 5 16.7 1 3.3 21 70.0
Undecided or neutral 8 26.7 10 33.3 7 23.3 4 13.3
Agree 11 36.7 12 40.0 13 43.3
4 13.3 1 3.3 9 30.0
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

71
T11: Distribution of Respondents by Targeting Middle Income Group

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 4 13.3 11 36.7
Disagree 8 26.7 4 13.3 9 30.0 1 3.3
Undecided or neutral 10 33.3 12 40.0 8 26.7 5 16.7
Agree 7 23.3 13 43.3 2 6.7 21 70.0
1 3.3 1 3.3 3 10.0
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T12: Distribution of Respondents by Targeting Household & Corporate Clients

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 1 3.3 2 6.7
Disagree 2 6.7 3 10.0 4 13.3 8 26.7
Undecided or neutral 4 13.3 4 13.3 17 56.7 13 43.3
Agree 16 53.3 16 53.3 7 23.3 7 23.3
7 23.3 7 23.3 1 3.3
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

72
T13: Distribution of respondents by Key Advantage - Perceived Resale Value

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3
Disagree 2 6.7 2 6.7 9 30.0
Undecided or neutral 5 16.7 8 26.7 14 46.7 13 43.3
Agree 16 53.3 16 53.3 11 36.7 7 23.3
8 26.7 3 10.0 3 10.0
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T14: Distribution of Respondents by Key Advantage - Communication with Target Customers

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 2 6.7
Disagree 6 20.0 8 26.7 2 6.7 8 26.7
Undecided or neutral 8 26.7 5 16.7 11 36.7 13 43.3
Agree 10 33.3 12 40.0 12 40.0 5 16.7
6 20.0 5 16.7 4 13.3 2 6.7
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

73
T15: Distribution of Respondents by Key Advantage - Project Location

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 1 3.3 1 3.3
Disagree 4 13.3 5 16.7 3 10.0 16 53.3
Undecided or neutral 4 13.3 13 43.3 13 43.3 9 30.0
Agree 16 53.3 9 30.0 12 40.0 3 10.0
4 13.3 2 6.7 2 6.7 1 3.3
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T16: Distribution of Respondents by Product Reshaping on Customer’s Desire

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 2 6.7 1 3.3 2 6.7
Disagree 2 6.7 1 3.3 1 3.3 8 26.7
Undecided or neutral 16 53.3 12 40.0 17 56.7 13 43.3
Agree 9 30.0 14 46.7 11 36.7 7 23.3
2 6.7 1 3.3
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

74
T17: Distribution of Respondents by Scope of Firm Operations

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 4 13.3 4 13.3 11 36.7
Disagree 1 3.3 8 26.7 14 46.7 12 40.0
Undecided or neutral 9 30.0 10 33.3 11 36.7 6 20.0
Agree 13 43.3 8 26.7 1 3.3 1 3.3
6 20.0
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T18: Distribution of Respondents by Firm’s Ability of Serving the Whole Target Groups

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 3 10.0 3 10.0 5 16.7 4 13.3
Disagree 12 40.0 5 16.7 14 46.7 16 53.3
Undecided or neutral 5 16.7 13 43.3 8 26.7 7 23.3
Agree 8 26.7 6 20.0 3 10.0 2 6.7
2 6.7 3 10.0 1 3.3
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

75
T19: Distribution of Respondents by Customer perception in terms of Reliability on Completing the Project in Due Time

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 3 10.0 3 10.0 1 3.3
Disagree 8 26.7 10 33.3 2 6.7 11 36.7
Undecided or neutral 13 43.3 11 36.7 15 50.0 13 43.3
Agree 2 6.7 4 13.3 13 43.3 5 16.7
4 13.3 2 6.7
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T20: Distribution of Respondents by Customer Perception in terms of Credibility on Firm’s Commitment

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 2 6.7 1 3.3
Disagree 9 30.0 11 36.7 2 6.7 8 26.7
Undecided or neutral 14 46.7 8 26.7 15 50.0 20 66.7
Agree 4 13.3 8 26.7 13 43.3
1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

76
T21: Distribution of Respondents by Customer Perception in terms of Innovation

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 1 3.3 1 3.3 1 3.3
Disagree 5 16.7 4 13.3 1 3.3 14 46.7
Undecided or neutral 5 16.7 13 43.3 9 30.0 10 33.3
Agree 16 53.3 11 36.7 16 53.3 5 16.7
2 6.7 1 3.3 3 10.0
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

T22: Distribution of Respondents by Price Leadership

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 6 20.0 3 10.0 9 30.0
Disagree 9 30.0 10 33.3 11 36.7 2 6.7
Undecided or neutral 9 30.0 11 36.7 8 26.7 8 26.7
Agree 5 16.7 6 20.0 2 6.7 16 53.3
1 3.3 4 13.3
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

77
T23: Distribution of Respondents by Product Quality

Name of organization
Response Amin Mohammad Asset Development and Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Col % Count Col % Count Col % Count Col %
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 1 3.3 2 6.7
Disagree 1 3.3 2 6.7 1 3.3 9 30.0
Undecided or neutral 12 40.0 14 46.7 9 30.0 17 56.7
Agree 14 46.7 12 40.0 12 40.0 2 6.7
1 3.3 1 3.3 8 26.7
Strongly agree
Total 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0 30 100.0

78
T24: Mean & Standard Deviation of Key Variables

Name of organization
Variables Amin Mohammad Asset Development Rupayan Housing
Bashundhara (EWPD) Foundation Ltd. and Holdings Ltd. Estate Ltd.
Count Mean SD Count Mean SD Count Mean SD Count Mean SD
Brand Recognition 30 4.40 .67 30 3.63 .93 30 3.30 1.02 30 2.50 .78
Market Share 30 3.83 .99 30 3.37 .81 30 2.57 .86 30 2.10 .66
Size of Competition 30 3.70 .92 30 3.83 .83 30 3.17 .83 30 2.87 .78
Target Group - High Income People 30 3.33 1.12 30 3.17 .99 30 4.00 .83 30 1.97 .56
Target Group - Middle Income People 30 2.77 1.07 30 3.37 .76 30 2.03 .96 30 3.87 .63
Target Group - Household and Corporate
30 3.87 .97 30 3.90 .88 30 3.10 .80 30 2.83 .87
Clients
Key Advantage - Perceived Resale Value 30 4.00 .87 30 3.60 .89 30 3.50 .78 30 2.87 .82
Key Advantage- Communication with Target
Customers 30 3.53 1.04 30 3.47 1.07 30 3.53 .94 30 2.90 .99

Key Advantage- Project Location 30 3.53 1.11 30 3.20 .92 30 3.43 .77 30 2.57 .86
Product Reshaping on Customer’s Desire 30 3.30 .84 30 3.37 .89 30 3.27 .69 30 2.83 .87
Scope of firm operations 30 3.73 .94 30 2.73 1.01 30 2.30 .75 30 1.90 .84
Firm’s Ability of Serving the whole Target
Groups 30 2.80 1.16 30 3.03 1.10 30 2.30 .88 30 2.33 .92

Customer Perception in terms of Reliability


on Completing the Project in Due Time 30 2.87 1.14 30 2.73 1.05 30 3.37 .61 30 2.73 .78

Customer Perception in terms of Credibility


on Firm’s Commitment 30 2.77 .90 30 2.83 1.02 30 3.37 .61 30 2.73 .69

Customer Perception in terms of Innovation 30 3.37 1.07 30 3.23 .86 30 3.63 .85 30 2.63 .81
Price Leadership 30 2.53 1.11 30 2.67 .92 30 2.10 .92 30 3.73 .78
Product Quality 30 3.37 .89 30 3.33 .80 30 3.90 .84 30 2.63 .72

79
T25: Coefficient of Variation of Key Variables

Name of organization
Asset
Amin Rupayan
Variables Bashundhara
Mohammad
Development
Housing
(EWPD) and Holding
Foundation Estate Ltd.
Ltd.
Brand Recognition 15.23 25.62 30.91 31.20
Market Share 25.85 24.04 33.46 31.43
Size of Competition 24.86 21.67 26.18 27.18
Target Group - High Income People 33.63 31.23 20.75 28.43
Target Group - Middle Income People 38.63 22.55 47.29 16.28
Target Group - Household and Corporate
25.06 22.56 25.81 30.74
Clients
Key Advantage - Perceived Resale Value 21.75 24.72 22.29 28.57
Key Advantage- Communication with
29.46 30.84 26.63 34.14
Target Customers
Key Advantage- Project Location 31.44 28.75 22.45 33.46
Product Reshaping on Customer’s Desire 25.45 26.41 21.10 30.74
Scope of firm operations 25.20 37.00 32.61 44.21
Firm’s Ability of Serving the whole Target
41.43 36.30 38.26 39.48
Groups
Customer Perception in terms of Reliability
39.72 38.46 18.10 28.57
on Completing the Project in Due Time
Customer Perception in terms of Credibility
32.49 36.04 18.10 25.27
on Firm’s Commitment
Customer Perception in terms of
31.75 26.63 23.42 30.80
Innovation
Price Leadership 43.87 34.46 43.81 20.91
Product Quality 26.41 24.02 21.54 27.38

80
T26: Competitive Position on Score Obtained

Score % of Mean
Name of organization Count SD ( s ) CV
Obtained Score (x)
Bashundhara (EWPD) 30 1731 67.88 57.70 8.34 14.46
Amin Mohammad Foundation Ltd. 30 1664 65.25 55.47 8.58 15.47
Asset Development and Holdings Ltd. 30 1586 62.20 52.87 5.70 10.78
Rupayan Housing Estate Ltd. 30 1380 54.12 46.00 5.74 12.47
Group Total
120

81