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The challenge: organization, innovation, technology

Effy & Sosik: Why information systems are abandoned Why IS projects fail: 1. Lack of corporate leadership 2. Poorly communicated goals 3. Inadequate skills and means 4. Poor project management 5. Deviation from timetable/budget Things that are connected to leadership, clear goals and clear communication are more associated with failure of IS than hardware/software.

Brynjolfsson & Lorin: Beyond computation How investments in information technology are linked to higher productivity and organizational transformation. IT owns the ability to enable complementary organizational investments (ex: business processes). These investments, in turn, lead to productivity increases by reducing cost. It is also enabling increase output quality in the form of new products etc. Investments in IT have more effect in the long term than th e short term. It takes multiple years of adaption and investment before the influence is maximized.

for example from the interaction of two or more first-level issues) Technical choices and a clash of cultures Paradoxes of infrastructure . Problems with infrastructure should not be seen as user resistance or success/failure . 2. Second level issues: (issues which result from unforeseen or unknowable contextual effects. Users are sources of requirements. and eventually become the systems receivers. Rather. This shows that no artifact is a standalone thing. Hermeneutics (= interpretation. they are organizational and learning challenges. All work can be observed and routinized. Baseline skills and Computing expertise: skill-related issues can be cast as an access issue just as much as space or location. never a thing. Bateson s levels of learning and communication: 1. Issues of physical access: physical access is a critical issue. Concepts of organization and technology Star & Ruhleder: Steps toward an ecology of infrastructure Infrastructure is fundamentally and always a RELATION.First level issues: (issues which may be solved with a redistribution or increase of existing resources. Choices and politics are embedded in organization systems which becomes expressed components. Hermeneutic circle = the whole text and the individual part cannot be understood without reference to one another) plays an important role in organizational communication.2. ( Project artifact. and need to determine the requirements for its installation and use. including information). Informational issues: Potential users need to find out about the system. Its development and use are defined by complex relationships. documented outputs and work products specific to a project implementation).

Neglected 2) as not enough training was provided for the end user the driver). and at the same time be able to coordinate and integrate their distributed activities in an efficient and effective way modern work organizations need support from advanced information systems that is capable of helping horizontal coordination of distributed decision making. wanted to improve efficiency and customer service through developing the DIAD. people and tasks all contribute to messages effectiveness. Transaction cost = the most central issue is the relationship between organization and market. Meta-message) Triangulation and definition of objects Multiple meanings and data interpretation Network externalities and electronic participation Tool building and the reward structure Infrastructure IS context for both communication and learning regarding computing (the using and development of computer technology) computers.Tensions between a discipline in flux and constraints as resources 3. they involve problems whose resolution is dependent upon social or cultural norms . Third level issues: (these issues are essentially political. Need to consider two aspects: 1) The relationship between technology and work 2) The relationship between the tool and user (UPS considered 1). Modern work organizations must be able to adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions and demands. . Schmidt: The organization of cooperative work Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) = how collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by means of computer systems.

as for example. . Williamson view: cooperative work arrangements and transactions are complementary units of analysis.In the transaction cost world. or at least order. Critique towards the Transaction Cost Approach: . .Neglecting the fact that cooperative work arrangements are constituted by interdependencies of different natures.Common s concept of cooperation : Cooperation does not arise from a presupposed harmony of interest it arises from the necessity of creating a NEW harmony of interests. The general conception of organization developed by the Transaction Cost Approach is: ORGANIZATIONS ARE ENTITIES OF COMMON OWNERSHIP. employees regard their desks as their OWN.Because of the actors interdependence. as it is overcoming the limitations of the . individuals only interact as opportunistic actors trying to maximize their own individual gains.It is difficult to view an organization with the common ownership aspect.Cooperation justifies itself. . when han ded a complex task. The cooperative work arrang ements are joined under common ownership . . Common the transaction is the unit of economic activity. COOPERATIVE WORK 4 main perspectives: 1) The cooperative work arrangement: . . Coase s point: Firms exist where the cost of conducting a transaction within the firm is less than the cost of conducting the same transaction in the market.Constituted by the fact that multiple actors are transforming or controlling complex objects or processes. they must coordinate/schedule their respective activities.Cooperative work relations are formed because of the limited capabilities of single human individual.

who is going to do 3) The formal organization .In a formal organization. the arrangements can be forced through legal and administrative means. . . 2) The work organization . the network . motivated by individual interests and aspirations and pursuing individual goals. Multiple perspectives helps problem -solving. Everyone wants to know What s in it for me? .Cooperative work arrangements are dynamic networks.Cooperative work is normally organized. 4) The firm. .The legal sense of an entity of ownership within which resources are common property. hence a more objective decision is provided in the end. .Cooperative work arrangements involves multiple individuals . . .Combination of specialties: a mix of people provides a wide range of specialties.Need for identifying likely and skilled partners what with what responsibility? .The FORMAL organization is therefore.Cooperative work arrangements may facilitate mul tiple problem-solving tactics and interpretations of problems.individual s capability. essentially a gov ernance structure influencing the behaviors of individuals in accordance to both internal and external stakeholders.

3. it is only necessary to consider the data flows and files in that organization. Information technology is used as a means to lower transaction costs. uncertainty and organization in an original way. Managers facing complex tasks and environments use information in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with decision making. . Ignores economic and social nature. the hierarchical firm and the gro up are the most efficient organizational mechanisms for solving the fundamental problems of organizing. The decision approach = information technology is support to decision making. The data approach = when implementing an information technology. Resistance to change and retention of information is seen as factors and behaviors which can be rationally understood and carefully anticipated. The costs of organizing are decreased by information technology which can streamline all or part of the information processing required in carrying out an exchange. The market. E-government Ciborra: Reframing the role of computers in organizations The transaction cost approach = links the notions of information. A) E-business.

Tan & Trimi: Current practices of leading e-government countries E-government practices mirror each country s information communication technology diffusion and government efforts toward political reform. good administrative processes. .Lee. quality information. engaged public employees. An effective e-government program requires successful and seamless integration of appropriate ICT. E-government should be implemented because advanced ICT provides enormous new opportunities to improve public services for citizens and to enhance the efficiency of government operations. and government leadership.

When users are not sufficiently involved in the design process. workflow management Berg: Implementing information systems in health care organizations Inadequate design of an information system (ex: inadequate user interface) or its poor performance (ex: slow response time) will reduce its chances of being implemented successfully. electronic patient records. Crucially.appreciation of the users (UPS failure) Success of a system becomes the question of success FOR WHOM success is a dynamic concept. BPR states that managers should be willing to radically redesign business processes to optimize the processes effectiveness and efficiency. User involvement should be taken much more extensively under consideration (ex: let them try out the system in their work setting). Organizational issues are key because technical difficulties can be the result of poorly managed development processes.system is up and running on time (UPS failure) . both representatives from future users and representative from top level management should be involved in the implementation process.B) Document management. .economically (UPS success) . Information system implementation should not be run as mere technical project. Business process redesign or reengineering (BPR) the sure route to competitive advantages and organizational survival. The question whether an implementation has been a success /failure is socially negotiated (meaning it is not a technical matter). Success factors: . (THE SOCIO-TECHNICAL APPROACH). It should be managed as a process of organizational development. the user-interface may become illogical from the users point of view.

but the AMBITION of integration remains. otherwise it will not be able to carry out all of its capabilities). it is necessary for it to have become fully integrated. but is dependent on design in other settings. This implies that truly user-led development is impossible to achieve in large-scale integration projects. The article implies that a local setting is no longer local. Integration of information systems could be acknowledged as a socio -technical issue. Ellingsen & Monteiro: Seamless integration The force for organizational integration translates into an issue of technical information system integration. (To make an implementation successful. Problems with implementation processes for example: insufficient user involvement. (ARGUMENT FÖR DETTA!?) Grinter: Workflow systems Workflow systems have emerged as one solution to the problem of coordinating events. Lacking integration presently established may be acknowledged. artifacts and people. There is a rich repertoire of proposed technical mechanisms for achieving tight or seamless integration but few socio-technical analysis s. . Attempts to reduce the complexity of coordination.The most successful implementation processes appear to be those in which an obsession for control and planning is replaced by an obsession for experimentation and mutual learning.

2) The categorization breaks up work into elements such as activities.a map guiding its user towards a potential outcome . that helps individuals orient themselves to actions. relations among the different components can be properly defined. Critique: Workflow systems are a resource. he argues that this is especially true when the group working on the activity increases in size.plans that serve as scripts. Software engineering = understanding and improving development. Workflow systems have been suggested as one way of managing these challenges. through the use of information technology such as workflow systems. Workflow management remains a seductive technology for many corporations. Furthermore. documents and roles. Workflow systems have a challenge: to find ways to support the works of individuals in a useful manner. Many companies are continually looking for ways to reduce the time and cost associated with their products and services. but they cannot predict or protect those engaged in the actual work from emergencies that arise. The power behind this process is that the formalization of the categorization can be programmed into a computer = au tomation. Software crisis = the enormous complexities of developing large systems. guiding the actions of individuals much m ore directly He argues that these kinds of plans (standardization) is required when developing projects. 3) Once categorized.Three basic steps of workflow management: 1) The work to be done is reduced to a basic form through a process of categorization. Configuration Management (CM) = organizing hardware (now also software) . Schmidt: Two different uses of plans . It is also used to support work processes.

.projects. Process Management = providing the same functionality for all the entities in the system (ex: documents. It is a way of tracking all the pieces of the products during development. Problem Management = development of solutions to specific problems that need fixing. Modern CM systems also manage the relationships among components and support the development of multiple product variants. libraries etc).

Cultural aspects and values is an important aspect of knowledge sharing. People learn by doing. results in a continuously improving set of capabilities specialized ways of using resources for given purposes. routinizes work practices while using resources. Knowledge management Ciborra & Andreu: Sharing knowledge across boundaries The learning ladder: a model for the single firm internal learning processes. . It determines to what extent possibility can become reality. A firm s competitive strength is a process that develops core capabilities. Interorganizational learning ladders knowledge becomes shared across separate organizations and new knowledge is developed in the process. Knowledge management should be used for creating occasions for the effective mixing of inside and outside knowledge.4. Markus: Toward a theory of knowledge reuse One of the key themes in knowledge management is the role of information technology (IT) in the transfer of knowledge between those who have it and those who don t. 3) Strategic loop gives meaning to capabilities in the context of the firm s competitive environment and business mission. Knowledge management at this level. 3 learning loops on the ladder: 1) Routinization learning loop basic. thus allowing the selection of core capabilities. 2) Capability learning loop combines work practices and organizational routines in order to form capabilities.

documented (the only knowledge that is province of IT). the records they create will be quite different from the ones they create for themselves. Basic concepts in knowledge reuse: Knowledge reuse process: .Knowledge producer = originator and documenter of knowledge .Explicit knowledge captured knowledge. Tacit knowledge knowledge that resides in people s heads. Orlikowski: Learning from NOTES Because people act towards technology on the basis of their understanding of it. people s technological frames often need to be changed to accommodate a new technology.Knowledge consumer = the knowledge reuser who retrieves the content and applies it in some way. When people knowingly create records for the use of others who are quite dissimilar.Distributing knowledge . Knowledge reuse sharing best practices or helping others solve common technical problems.Knowledge intermediary = prepares knowledge for reuse by indexing/summarizing it . When people don t appreciate the purposes of a new technology they may use it in less effective ways.Packaging knowledge for reuse .Capturing and documenting knowledge .Reusing knowledge Roles: . This suggests that a crucial aspect of implementing new groupware is ensuring that future users have an appropriate understanding of the technology the new technology is embraced as a .

cognitive and structural elements play an important role in influencing how people think about and assess the value of the technology.collective rather than a personal tool. Learning groupware collectively may foster joint understanding and expectations. Knowledge hoarding is a common problem in many organizations) . Bansler & Havn: Knowledge sharing in heterogeneous groups Reasons for the risk of a implementation of knowledge sharing to fa ilure: .Pressure of time (heavy burden of communication already) .Motivation (if people are going to spend time on something they need a motivation to do it. And these significantly influence how they choose to use the technology. This article implies that in the early adaption of a new technology.

workplace organisation or external relations. or process. by unpredictability which no method will manage to master entirely. Cost/profitability in case of innovation this is nothing more than argument for some stakeholders. An innovation in the making re veals a multiplicity of confused decisions made by a large number of different (and sometimes conflicting) groups. Callon & Latour: The key to success in innovation Part I Innovations are more and more the result of a collective activity rather than one inspired and dedicated individual. . a new marketing method. Doing innovation "An 'innovation' is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service). intuition. The decisions involved in an innovation process are m ade in the middle of uncertainties amongst which it is practically impossible for a sure case to be guaranteed.5. Innovation resembles a union process but it is of a particular nature since the two elements brought together market and technology evolve in an unpredictable way. The innovation is a course which. MUST ALL be reinvente d and reformulated in the language of the organization. The individual qualities of insight. Innovation is created by instability. skillfulness etc. from decision to decision. This constant pressure is necessary for the innovation process." Akrich. or a new organisational method in business practices. (Stakeholders who want to have their say in the matter?). will lead you to the right market with the right product at the right time.

If an innovation succeeds. Either resistance or embrace of the new innovation. in general (Meaning: give a proposal. it is because it satisfies a demand. The innovation must integrate itself into a network of actors who take it up. Model of interessement: sets out all of the actors who embrace the object (innovation) or turn away from it. in order to discuss problems which they encounter. Model of diffusion: spreading of innovation. The innovator is perfectly free to believe in his product. The whirlwind model: The innovation transforms itself in every loop redefining its properties and its public. Hence. but then he must be able to show that he is capable of turning the resistance w hile finding new allies importance of being able to master a socio -economic context. To adopt an innovation is to adapt it a collective elaboration and the key for a growing interessement. support it. Several passes are necessary. propose again . Callon & Latour: The key to success in innovation Part II The diffusion model the innovation becomes widespread due to its fundamental properties. restructure. diffuse it all of this depends on the technical choices made. Both failure and success depends on the mutual adaption of a well defined product and a clearly identified public. One way of securing successful innovation is to have a good relationship with customer. this is not enough to settle all problems. The model of interessement the fate of the innovation depends on the active participation of all those who have decided to develop it. Of course. Innovation NEEDS space of uncertainty to trigger beneficial reorganizations. Akrich. market research or contact with users is a necessary hunt . their projects and their expectations. get turned down.

or implement. but it is also to choose what is to be innovated and the problems which will need to be resolved. The fate of the innovation depends on the spokespersons constant negotiations. of whom he never completely knows who or what they are representing. Doubt. rest entirely on the choice of representatives or spokespersons who will interact. The innovator constantly assesses the people he meets or works with. negotiate to give shape to the project and to transform it until a market is built. The fate of innovation. To choose a spokesperson is to define. The innovator can only put himself in the hands of some rare speakers. The innovation which succeeds is the one which comes to master it by choosing good speakers. its content but also its chances of success.etc.). etc. strategic direction. then gratitude and admiration are at the heart of innovation. Establishes the art of compromise and the capacity of adaption. . trust.

Akhrich suggests that innovation is made from a collective point of view. instead of ensuring that the complex human beings (the drivers) were fully integrated with the project. It is not able to resolve the problematic nature of unpredictability etc.POINTS FOR ORAL EXAM: . (Doing innovation) .Was it really a FAILURE for the drivers? They were still able to do their jobs. (Concepts of Organizational Technology) . UPS management might have assumed that drivers were used to the technology (since the previous versions) therefore did not see reason for extensive training of drivers. . Was this the case with UPS? Or was it more a top decision. Technology can only do so much.Critique towards Workflow management. however they found the DIAD IV irritating. .As this was the fourth version of the DIAD. UPS might have relied too much on the DIAD.