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org/wiki/Falklands_War#Argentina Public Relations Argentina Selected war correspondents were regularly flown to Port Stanley in military aircraft to report on the war. Back in Buenos Aires newspapers and magazines faithfully reported on "the heroic actions of the largely conscript army and its successes". Officers from the intelligence services were attached to the newspapers and 'leaked' information confirming the official communiqués from the government. The glossy magazines Gente and Siete Días swelled to sixty pages with colour photographs of British warships in flames - many of them faked - and bogus eyewitness reports of the Argentine commandos' guerrilla war on South Georgia (6 May) and an already dead Pucará pilot's attack on HMS Hermes (Lt. Daniel Antonio Jukic had been killed at Goose Green during a British air strike on 1 May). Most of the faked photos actually came from the tabloid press. One of the best remembered headlines was "Estamos ganando" ("We're winning") from the magazine Gente, that would later use variations of it. The Argentine troops on the Falkland Islands could read Gaceta Argentina—a newspaper intended to boost morale among the servicemen. Some of its untruths could easily be unveiled by the soldiers who recovered corpses. The Malvinas course united the Argentines in a patriotic atmosphere that protected the junta from critics, and even opponents of the military government supported Galtieri; Ernesto Sabato said: "Don't be mistaken, Europe; it is not a dictatorship who is fighting for the Malvinas, it is the whole Nation. Opponents of the military dictatorship, like me, are fighting to extirpate the last trace of colonialism." The Madres de Plaza de Mayo were even exposed to death threats from ordinary people. HMS Invincible was repeatedly sunk in the Argentine press, and on 30 April 1982 the Argentine magazine Tal Cual showed UK's PM Thatcher with an eyepatch and the text: Pirate, witch and assassin. Guilty! Three British reporters sent to Argentina to cover the war from the 'other side' were jailed until the end of the war Invasion by Argentina Main articles: 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands and Invasion of South Georgia On 2 April 1982, Argentine forces mounted amphibious landings of the Falkland Islands, following the civilian occupation of South Georgia on 19 March, before the Falklands War began. The invasion met a nominal defence organised by the Falkland Islands' Governor Sir Rex Hunt giving command to Major Mike Norman of the Royal Marines, the landing of Lieutenant Commander Guillermo Sanchez-Sabarots' Amphibious Commandos Group, the attack on Moody Brook barracks, the engagement between the troops of Hugo Santillan and Bill Trollope at Stanley, and the final engagement and surrender at Government House. The ARA General Belgrano, sinking. Two separate British naval task forces (surface vessels and submarines) and the Argentine fleet were operating in the neighbourhood of the Falklands, and soon came into conflict. The first naval loss was the World War II vintage Argentine light cruiser ARA General Belgrano. The nuclearpowered submarine HMS Conqueror sank the Belgrano on 2 May. Three hundred and twentythree members of Belgrano's crew died in the incident. Over 700 men were rescued from the open ocean despite cold seas and stormy weather. The losses from Belgrano totalled just over half of the Argentine deaths in the Falklands conflict and the loss of the ARA General Belgrano hardened the stance of the Argentine government. Regardless of controversies over the sinking, it had a crucial strategic effect: the elimination of the Argentine naval threat. After her loss, the entire Argentine fleet, with the exception of the

asp?ParagraphID=ntw Videla and Galtieri: AD 1976-1982 Isabel Perón remains in power for two years. where a bridgehead is established by May 21.conventional submarine ARA San Luis. By the end of April the first units of the British task force reach the scene. In Britain the prime minister. Leopoldo Galtieri. The first British landing is on East Falkland. Surrender of Corbeta Uruguay On 20 June the British retook the South Sandwich Islands. Margaret Thatcher. An exclusion zone of 200 miles is declared around the region. in 1976. bombed while unloading supplies . presiding over a decrepit economy with inflation running at an annual rate of 600%. The following day the British destroyer HMS Sheffield is hit by an Exocet missile. In a separate incident later that night. but the Canberra's crew were never found. On May 3 the Argentinian cruiser General Belgrano is torpedoed and sinks with heavy casualties (368 dead). In the purges known as the 'disappearances' thousands of left-wing opponents are murdered (some of them by being thrown alive from aircraft into the sea). The two escorting destroyers and the battle group centred on the aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo both withdrew from the area. Two Royal Navy Lynx helicopters fired four Sea Skua missiles against her. claiming sovereign rights over them as the Islas Malvinas. On June 14 it is announced that British troops are in Port Stanley and the Argentinians have surrendered. immediately mobilizes a fleet to recover the islands. At the time. returned to port and did not leave again for the duration of hostilities. The events of 1976 bring to power General Jorge Videla and the most oppressive regime in Argentina's history. but prior to 1982 the United Kingdom had contested the existence of the Argentine base only through diplomatic channels.historyworld. with the loss of twenty the islands' capital. ending the direct threat to the British fleet that their pincer movement had represented. because of allegations that the ship was outside the exclusion zone and was heading away from it. But it is incompetence rather than brutality which finally topples the junta. The casualties in the war number 655 Argentinian dead and 255 British (the majority of the British deaths occur on the landing ships Sir Galahad and Sir Tristram. General Galtieri pays a triumphal visit to Port Stanley. By the end of 1981 the leader is another general. the ARA Alferez Sobral. The outcome. He embarks in 1982 on an adventure which he hopes will add lustre to the regime's tarnished image. British forces engaged an Argentine patrol gunboat. The Falklands War: AD 1982 On 2 April 1982 a force of 5000 Argentinian troops lands in the Falklands. Within the following week Port Darwin and the nearby Goose Green airstrip are captured. with the warning that any ship or aircraft found within this zone will be assumed to be hostile. the Alferez Sobral was searching for the crew of the Argentine Air Force English Electric Canberra light bomber shot down on 1 May. the Sobral managed to return to Puerto Deseado two days later. --------------------------------------http://www. Argentina had established Corbeta Uruguay in 1976. Badly damaged and with eight crew dead. (which involved accepting the surrender of the Southern Thule Garrison at the Corbeta Uruguay base) and declared hostilities to be over. is another military coup. This becomes the most controversial event of the war. The defending British garrison of eighty-one marines is easily overwhelmed.

but also some international attention for the widespread human rights abuse. In Argentina the war has considerably more dramatic results.a selfinflicted one in the sense that the junta initiated the In Britain the victory does wonders for the political fortunes of Margaret Thatcher (somewhat in the doldrums before these events). badly trained and equipped. tortured and killed by security forces. claimed by Argentina since independence from Spain. The presidential election is won by a civilian lawyer. financial speculation and ruins the national industry. When he dies in succeeds him. to occupy the Falklands Islands/Malvinas. A stabilization program briefly improves economic conditions. Economic reform program by José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz causes masive foreign indebtment. Galtieri is acquitted in that trial but is convicted in 1986 of incompetence during the Falklands campaign. Over the next three years several members of the junta and hundreds of their henchmen are Videla is sentenced in 1985 to life imprisonment for human rights abuses (he is released in 1989). Galtieri resigns three days after the surrender." The government borrows heavily and shifts the economic emphasis to .html Overview 1973-1976: Perón returns to the presidency. The military regime. A military coup removes her from office. Between 9. Human rights abuses escalate as thousands "disappear. Political turmoil and divisions within the Peronist party undermine Isabel's administration. Isabel. --------------------------------http://www. "Dirty war" is launched to suppress opposition. already unpopular. even during the tournament. his second wife. Argentina surrenders with the loss of 600 soldiers. 1980-81> General Videla steps down and is replaced by General Viola. Raúl Alfonsín. 1978> Argentina wins the soccer worldcup in their own country.000 Argentines are abducted.spanishsinfronteras. is totally discredited by the embarrassing defeat . but is soon removed by General Galtieri. 1977-1983: A military junta wages a "dirty war" against the left. but only after a decree in August granting the police and the military immunity from prosecution for their actions since 1976. The military junta retains a temporary hold on power. In October 1983 elections are held. "Process of National Reorganization" begun under leadership of General Jorge Videla. ----------------------------------http://www. Heavy overspending by the military and obvious propaganda use of the event.000 and 30.pbs.near the Fitzroy settlement). standing for the Radical Civic Union.html THE DIRTY WAR: 1976-1982 1976> Military junta overthrows Isabel Peron on March 24. the army com-mander-in-chief. but this is only the beginning of the Falklands repercussions in Argentina. but they deteriorate quickly as a result of international shocks. 1982> General Galtieri sends troops. He sets aside the junta's self-awarded amnesty.

Rule of Law: 1977-1983: The armed forces restore basic order through harsh measures. the junta allows national elections. and an economic crisis develops. orders the invasion of the Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands) over which Britain has sovereignty. unemployment soars as many factories close. primarily for Europe and the United States. too. Money: 1982-1984: Mexico's suspension of debt payments stalls Argentina's borrowing spree as many developing countries are barred from international capital markets. The policy proves devastating: Many factories close. become prohibitively expensive. and intellectuals flee the repressive dictatorship. and inflation remains unchecked. By then. In 1983 President Alfonsín asks the IMF for help after his improvised efforts to stabilize the economy fail. seeking popular support and wishing to distract attention from the deteriorating economy. By 1982. and inflation. and leaks are rarely cleaned up. Trade flows dwindle. Argentina witnesses a "brain drain" as scientists. Under public pressure. and the industrial sector is hard hit by the recession. Thousands of people "disappear. but it remains largely ineffective as its provincial representatives rarely succeed in reaching a consensus. capital flight. The Latin American Integration Association replaces LAFTA with the limited goal of encouraging free trade in the region. further discrediting the regime Trade Policy: 1978-1984: High and rising inflation affects production costs. The costs of the "dirty war" are massive in terms of lives lost and basic human rights violated. The government creates the Federal Environment Council (COFEMA)." Charges of corruption among government officials multiply. exports fall to 2 percent of their record level. Argentina's international debt has reached unprecedented proportions. Argentina's humiliating defeat discredits the military regime. Enviromental: 1981-1989: The oil and gas industry becomes a major polluter. . professors. Raúl Alfonsín of the Radical Civic Union wins the presidency. Argentina declares a moratorium on its debt principal and refinances its interest payments through a package deal involving several Latin American governments. while imports also decline." Argentina is robbed of a potential centrist competition. Among the urban working class. Thousands who do not escape in time "disappear. Oil wells are not shut down properly. Enonomic: 1982-1989: Loss of access to external borrowing due to Mexico's debt crisis leads to hasty economic policies. The loss of the Falklands Islands war against the British and charges of corruption further discredit the government. Agricultural exports. Political: 1982-1983: General Galtieri. Social: 1976-1982: Tens of thousands of Argentines leave the country. gas flaring is common. however.