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Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement of Minority Students: A Comparison Among Asian American, African American, and

Hispanic Students in Large Urban School Districts

A Dissertation by Grace Thomas Nickerson

Submitted to the Graduate School Prairie View A & M University in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

December 2008

Major Subject: Educational Leadership

Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement of Minority Students: A Comparison Among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students in Large Urban School Districts A Dissertation by Grace Thomas Nickerson

Approved as to style and content by:

_____________________________ Dr. William Allan Kritsonis (Dissertation Chair)

___________________________ Dr. Douglas Hermond (Member)

____________________________ Dr. David Herrington (Member)

______________________________ Dr. Camille Gibson (Member)

____________________________ Dr. Lucian Yates, III Dean, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education

_________________________________ Dr. William H. Parker Dean, Graduate School

Abstract Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement of Minority Students: A Comparison Among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students in Large Urban School Districts (December 2008)

Grace Thomas Nickerson: B.A. University of Texas at Austin

M.Ed. Prairie View A & M University

Dissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences among Asian American, African American and Hispanic students with respect to parental involvement, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on homework. The study aimed to answer the following research questions: 1. How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to self-reported frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement? 2. What are the differences when studying English, Math, Science and Social Studies among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework? i

The study examined the factors that may have contributed to the academic achievement of minority students in large urban school districts. The factors included are parental involvement, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, and time spent on homework. Data for the study were collected by using a questionnaire instrument to gain insight into how the above factors may contribute to minority students’ academic success. The participants of the study were Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students at five high schools located in southeast Texas. The sample for this study was approximately 713 male and female high school seniors of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic origin. The results of the questionnaire were compared with the data from the students’ Exit-Level TAKS passing rates. To determine which factors may contribute to or hinder the academic achievement of each minority group. The statistical analysis method of One-Way ANOVA was applied to examine the factors that may be associated with academic achievement among minority students. The results in the study determined that there are no statistically significant differences in the parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes among the minority groups, except in the parental involvement and time spent on homework of Hispanic and African American students. According to the results of the study, educational leaders can modify policies and standards that are created and implemented on the state and district levels to accommodate all students. Also, standardized tests that are used to measure academic achievement can be modified to adequately test all students of every race and background. Lastly, educational leaders should restructure standardized tests to

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prevent educators and districts from teaching students how to take a standardized test, and instead, allow students to gain an in depth knowledge of all subject areas.

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Dedication I would like to dedicate my research to all students that are struggling to obtain a fruitful life by way of a sometimes unyielding educational system. There are educators that are discovering and fighting for ways to enhance the academic achievement among all students to ensure that the dreams and goals of all children are realized. I would also like to dedicate my research to all educators that fight for the rights of all students and their academic achievement. I want to encourage them to continue to fight for academic achievement for all students, and remember the true reason for education—the students.

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Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge the hard work and endless support of my dissertation chair, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. You were always there when I needed you and provided avenues for me to travel to reach my goals. I am eternally grateful. In addition, I would like to acknowledge Dr. David Herrington and Dr. Douglas Hermond for sharing their expertise in statistics. Without the two of you, my study would be incomplete. Thanks Dr. Camille Gibson for serving on my committee as outside member from the College of Juvenile Justice and Psychology at PV. A special thanks Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis for your professional expertise. To my parents, Dr. and Mrs. Carrol and Linda Thomas, your unwavering love and support guided me to reach this level in my life and career. I will forever admire, love, and appreciate all that you are, what you have made me, and the legacy that you have begun. The inspiration that I received throughout my life has come from my sister, Dr. Carol Thomas. I have always looked up to you and aspired to be as great as you. You have never let me down—Thank you! My God-send, my husband, Jeff Nickerson. You have been with me throughout this entire doctoral journey. Your patience, assistance, humor and unconditional love have kept me focused and emotionally balanced. I am so blessed to have you in my life. Lastly, my motivation towards my research and completion is Lyndon Carol Jeannie Nickerson. The love I have for you, the life and dreams that I want for you to have and accomplish has been a driving force in my life and studies. Lyndon, I hope that this journey that I have endured enhances and impacts your life and your thirst for knowledge in a profound manner. v

Table of Contents Page Abstract.............................................................................................................................................i Dedication.......................................................................................................................................iv Acknowledgements..........................................................................................................................v Table of Contents............................................................................................................................vi List of Tables..................................................................................................................................ix Chapter I. Introduction ....................................................................................................................1 Background of the Problem.................................................................................................3 Statement of the Problem.....................................................................................................4 Research Questions .............................................................................................................4 Null Hypotheses ..................................................................................................................5 Purpose of the Study ...........................................................................................................6 Significance of the Study.....................................................................................................6 Assumptions ........................................................................................................................7 Limitations of the Study ......................................................................................................8 Definition of Terms .............................................................................................................8 Organization of Study........................................................................................................10 Chapter II. Review of Literature ...................................................................................................11 The Asian Migration .........................................................................................................15 The Model Minority...........................................................................................................16

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The Social Factors that Impact Academic Achievement of African American Students ........................................................................................................................20 The Social Factors that Impact Academic Achievement of Hispanic Students ........................................................................................................................22 American Education vs. Asian Education.........................................................................24 Parental Involvement.........................................................................................................28 Time Spent on Homework.................................................................................................34 Frequency of Individual Study Modes and Frequency of Group Study Modes. ...............38 Summary.......................................................................................................................40 Chapter III. Methodology..............................................................................................................42 Research Questions............................................................................................................43 Hypotheses.........................................................................................................................43 Research Methodology......................................................................................................44 Research Design.................................................................................................................45 Subjects of the Study.........................................................................................................46 Instrumentation .................................................................................................................47 Validity..............................................................................................................................48 Reliability………………………………………………………………….......................48 Procedure...........................................................................................................................49 Data Collection and Recording .........................................................................................50 Data Analysis.....................................................................................................................50 Summary…………………………………………………………………........................51 vii

Chapter IV. Analysis of Data………………………………………….........................................52 Findings..............................................................................................................................55 Summary............................................................................................................................67 Chapter V. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations ........................................................71 Summary…………………………………………………………………........................71 Summary of Findings...………………………………………………..............................72 Discussion………………………………………………………………..........................75 Recommendations………………………………………………………..........................76 Recommendations for Further Study...…...…...…………………....................................77 Conclusion……………………………………………………………….........................78 References......................................................................................................................................80 Appendix A School District Permission Letters............................................................................88 Appendix B IRB Approval Letter .................................................................................................90 Appendix C Questionnaire Questions............................................................................................93 Appendix D Human Participant Protections Education for Research Completion Certificate...................................................................................................................98 Vita...............................................................................................................................................100

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List of Tables Table...........................................................................................................................................Page 4.0 2006 – 2007 Demographics Percentages of the Campuses Involved in the Study.........................................................................................................52 4.1 2007 Exit-Level TAKS Passing Percentages for Each Campus Involved in the Study .........................................................................................56 4.2 Descriptive Statistics (Compare Means) on Parental Involvement, Time Spent on Homework, Frequency of Individual Study Modes, and Frequency of Group Study Modes based Ethnicity and Gender..................57 4.3 One-Way ANOVA On Parental Involvement, Time Spent on Homework, Frequency of Individual Study Modes, and Frequency Group Study Modes based on Ethnicity and Gender..........................................58 4.4 One-Way ANOVA (Mean Difference) on Parental Involvement and Time Spent on Homework based on Ethnicity ..................................................59 4.5 One-Way ANOVA and Compare Means of Parental Involvement among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire..................................................................60 4.6 One-ANOVA and Compare Means of Time Spent on Homework among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire .................................................................63 4.7 One-ANOVA and Compare Means of Frequency of Individual Study Modes among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire .....................................................65 4.8 One-ANOVA and Compare Means of Frequency of Group Study Modes among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire.....................................................66 ix

Chapter I Introduction The educational gap of minorities has been one of the major causes of educational reform in the United States. Minorities immigrating to the United States come from all areas of the world, especially from those countries in close proximity or that have historical ties such as Africa, Mexico, and Asia. A common challenge among these minority groups has been the struggle to have equal access to educational opportunities in a desegregated environment. From those experiences, these minorities have deemed getting an education of paramount importance (Le, 2001). There continues to be a disparity among these minority groups and their White counterparts causing education to be in constant change and in search for methods of improvement. Environmental factors play a big part in closing the gap among minorities in education. There has been a shift in the attitude of both children and parents. Parental involvement has also decreased, and schools have lost a lot of control in discipline and instruction to name a few (Wu, 2005). Asian American students tend to out perform other minorities. The factors that contribute to this occurrence are debatable. The cultural diversity in American education contributes to the academic performance of minority students (Chubb, 2002). This occurs because of the various traditions, values and belief systems that are present in each minority group. Currently in schools, there are racial separation patterns that seem to reinforce the perception that racial identity and student performance are linked. This pattern sends a message that because of their race, they can or cannot do certain things within the school (Noguera, 1999). The study sought to determine the differences among the Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students 1

2 with respect to self-reported parental involvement, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, and time spent on homework. By looking at these factors, educational leaders may gain insight on the variance in the academic achievement among those minority groups. The study focused on Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students because they are the most prominent minority groups in the American educational system. Although, there are many subgroups within each minority group, the study focuses on each minority group as a whole because the measure of success used in the study focuses on the minority groups as whole groups. Parental involvement is important to study as an effect on achievement. Students whose parents were involved in their educational career noted they knew what courses to take to become eligible for any college. However, students that were unaware of what courses to take to be eligible for college had very little to no parental involvement (Norguera, 1999). Blacks and Hispanics are much less likely than Whites to graduate from high school, or acquire a college or advanced degree (Chubb, 2002). This may due to the lack to parental involvement in the students’ educational career. Time spent on homework is another factor investigated in the study. Time spent on homework is related to academic achievement (Yan, 2005). Minority students and students of low-economic subgroups have been found to put little effort into schoolwork compared to other groups (Farkas, 2003). Some minority students, such as Asian American, endure parentalimposed curfews in terms of time spent on the telephone and going out on the weekends. These curfews are in place to allow time for academics (Elmasry, 2005). Frequency of study modes (individual study and group study) are factors of academic

3 achievement because it describes how the student studied and prepared for their academic pursuits. The study modes used by students may reflect the students’ culture. If one culture believes in a single person making way for the family, then that person may study by him/herself. If the culture perpetuates family togetherness and encouragement, then group study is more likely. This is typical of the Asian culture. Although students may study in groups, not all groups are productive. Ability grouping, which can be proposed by the teacher, disproportionately and unfairly places ethnic groups at a disadvantage by reducing their opportunities to learn. The best study mode used is when students study in groups. Grouping based on ability is not productive for ethnic cultures (Farkas, 2003). To bridge the academic gap among minorities, it is important to note the differences among the minority groups with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. However, understanding the culture of the minority groups is the key to understanding what needs to be done to make students successful. Background of the Problem Performance levels among minority groups in the United States are in sharp contrast across all academic subjects. Asian Americans perform higher than any other minority group and sometimes above their White counterparts (Malone, 2004). Bridging the achievement gap among the minority groups and the majority is of great concern in the United States. Determining the differences among the minority groups is a step toward understanding possible attributes of disparities in performance levels by ethnicity.

4 Statement of the Problem Becoming a second-rate economic power house will be the destiny of America unless it can match the educational performance of its rivals abroad in Asia (Staples, 2005). UNICEF conducted a study on the effectiveness of educational systems in the world. The United States ranked 18 out of 24 nations evaluated, with Asian nations ranking in the top three (Wu, 2005). Asian American students partake in the same American education as their African American and Hispanic counterparts. There is an achievement gap between Asian Americans, African Americans, Hispanics and their White counterparts. Discovering the differences among the minority groups with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and the frequency of group study modes will give educational leaders insight on how to decrease the academic achievement gap. Therefore, the study describes regional differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency group study modes. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study have shown that there are vast differences in these areas by ethnicity (Wu, 2005). Discovering the differences among the minority groups with respect to the factors will give educational leaders in the United States insight on how to solve American educational problems in particular, closing the achievement gap. Research Questions The study answers the following questions: 1. How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on

5 homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes? 2. What are the differences when studying English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes? Null Hypotheses The Null Hypotheses in the study refer to Research questions 1 and 2. Ho1 – There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on English homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) Ho2 - There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on Mathematics homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) Ho3 - There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on Science homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes.

6 (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) Ho4 - There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency group study modes. Discovering what may contribute to the disparities in performance between Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students may assist educational leaders in finding ways to improve their educational performance. Until a solution has been found to close the achievement gap on a macro level between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students, the gap will continue to exist. Significance of the Study Bridging the achievement gap between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students has been a well discussed topic within America. Knowledge gained in the study will identify factors that must be considered in order to effectively bridge the achievement gap between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students; thus allowing all students to adopt the most helpful strategies for studying to result in optimal levels of learning. Students learning at successful, comparable levels will improve America’s output of productive,

7 marketable individuals. The most important educational challenge for the U.S. is closing the achievement gaps among the nation’s racial and ethnic groups (Crawford, 2002). The differences found in the study are important for educational leaders to be knowledgeable of to better serve all students. Being aware of student behaviors with regard to studying and parental involvement will enhance educational leaders’ ability to educate minority students and to close the existing academic achievement gap despite macro influences. Assumptions The following assumptions were made: 1. 2. Academic success among minority students is related parental involvement. The frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, and time spent on homework will not be as salient as parental involvement. 3. Asian Americans spend more time studying in groups than African American and Hispanic students. 4. Parental involvement in educational matters is lacking in the African American and Hispanic communities. 5. The culture and social beliefs of Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics, gives insight into the educational performance levels of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. 6. Students’ self-reports of Asian American, African American and Hispanic students are fairly accurate. 7. The method of study performed by students occurs in study groups.

8 Limitations of the Study 1. A possible limitation may exist in the difference of cultures and traditions within each minority group. 2. Socio-economic status may also be a factor among minority groups regarding education. 3. Racially and culturally diverse schools may yield different results than predominately Asian American, African American, and Hispanic schools. 4. 5. The study is limited to urban school districts in Texas. The size of the ethnic groups present in the participating high schools may give disproportionate results. 6. There may be a difference in academic achievement in minority students in rural school districts. 7. There may be a difference in the academic achievement in the subgroups of each minority group involved in the study. Definition of Terms For the purposes of the study, the key terms to be used are defined as follows: Frequency of study modes (group study and individual study) According to Yan, frequency of study modes explains how often and what methods are used by students to study. This can include study groups and individual studying (Yan, 2005). Parental involvement Parental involvement is the amount of interaction and involvement the parent has in their children’s education. This ranges from attending school functions, reading to their child, helping

9 with the child’s homework, calling teachers and providing curfews for the children’s academics. This is a broad area because it can also include talking to other parents about education which does not involve the student (Yan, 2005). Time spent on homework Time on homework is the amount of time spent studying, doing school work, and/or anything dealing with the student’s education and academic success ( Yan, 2005). In this study, it is a self-reported measure. Asian- American Asian, Asian American or Pacific Islander is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa (The Fort Gordon Equal Opportunity Office, 2007). In the schools represented, most of the Asian student are Vietnamese, Korean, Indian, Japanese, and Chinese. African American Students are referred to as African American when they are of African descent, but are not Latino or Caucasian (Miranda, 2007). Hispanic Students are referred to as Hispanic when they are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American (Miranda, 2007). In Texas, there are primarily Hispanics from Mexico, Central America and South America.

10 Success Success is measured by students’ mastery on the Exit-Level TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) test. Organization of the Study The study contains five chapters. Included in Chapter 1 is the introduction, statement of the problem, research questions, purpose of study, significance of the study, assumptions, limitations of the study, and the definition of terms. Chapter 2 contains the review of literature. The methodology is found in Chapter 3. The results are located in Chapter 4. Finally, Chapter 5 has recommendations for further study and a conclusion.

Chapter II Review of Literature Before conducting research, it is important to be thoroughly grounded in regional and ethnic issues related to the education of Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics. This was achieved through extensive reading and review of minority students in large urban school districts, their country of origin and cultural history. Being able to demonstrate some knowledge of reasons that play a role in the success of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students assisted in communicating with the participants. Having knowledge of what may contribute to their success made the questionnaire run smoothly and assisted the respondent in remembering what truly helped them succeed (Herrington, 1993). The United States has traditionally been a multicultural society with numerous ethnic groups and racial minorities (Bhattacharyya, 2000). Known as the land of opportunity, the United States has become home to many immigrants from different areas of the globe. The definition of “minority” has expanded to other minority groups besides African American (Asian, Middle Eastern, South American, etc.) that have immigrated to the United States. Most of these ethnic groups have one thing in common – they have experienced some sort of struggle to advance in the world around them. Success in America can be measured in many different ways; however, for this study, success is measured by students’ Exit-Level TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. In the educational arena, Asian Americans have emerged as the most successful minority in America. Bhattacharyya (2000) also noted: The emergence of Asian Americans as an ethnic minority group in the U. S., especially in education, has been a phenomenal one. Researchers have been perplexed at the academic 11

12 and professional success of Asian Americans as compared to other ethnic minority groups (2000, p. 2). Other minority groups have experienced similar struggles and oppression as Asian Americans. In the Hispanic and African American cultures, hard work and achievement is stressed somewhat differently from the Asian American culture. The results from the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) consistently show a gap between the basic skills of the average African American or Latino student and those of the typical White or Asian American. By the twelfth grade, on average, Black students are four years behind those who are White or Asian. Hispanics do not do much better (Thernstrom, 2003). It is important to remember that in every group, some students do well in school while others flounder. There are plenty of White students who are low-performing. In fact, those White students outnumber African American, and Hispanics. Whites are still 60 % of the nation’s school children, while Blacks and Latinos combined are less than one-third of school-age children. Nevertheless, it is important to look at group averages, not simply absolute numbers (Thernstom, 2003). All Asians, Hispanics and African Americans have immigrated to the United States whether they voluntarily immigrated or involuntarily immigrated (Ogbu, 1998). While residing in the United States, all three minority groups experienced some of the same prejudice and racism. It is a great phenomenon that a minority group has emerged as a high achieving group that has surpassed a racial group that once oppressed them (1998). Researchers, Laurence Steinberg and Pedro Noguera (EdSource Online, 1999) have noted what schools can do to enhance the educational performance of minority students. They recommended the following: 1. Student achievement should be used in constructive ways, not to blame.

13 2. Educators promote a candid discussion about the high rate of parental irresponsibility in this country and the toll it is taking on our youngster’s lives. 3. Getting the parents of low performing students involved will make a difference. 4. Carefully guide and monitor the course selection of minority students so that they do not end up with remedial courses that will damage their chances of gaining college admittance. 5. Having teachers who are particularly skilled in cross-cultural teaching strategies work with other faculty members. 6. Transforming the debate so that it is less about reforming schools and more about changing students’ and parents’ attitudes toward school achievement. 7. Insisting that schools expand their efforts to actively draw parents into school and school programs. 8. Never forgetting that it is student outcomes that matter most if more kids don’t graduate from high school and go on to college then the school is not really improving (p. 6). Asian Americans have succeeded with and without the reforms mentioned above, and many schools have implemented these suggestions of Steinberg and Noguera. To little avail, the minorities that attend these reformed schools continue to be low performing. The inconsistencies in American education are present each school year. The academic achievement gap among the noted minority groups is an educational crisis. The gap in academic achievement that is seen today is actually worse than it was 15 years ago. In some minority groups, family messages do not always match the objectives of the schools. When Black and

14 Hispanics students leave high school barely knowing how to read, their future, and that of the nation is in jeopardy. Black and Hispanic students are typically academically underachievers, but innate intelligence is not the explanation. In other places in the country, Hispanic and Asian students are doing equally well, even though Asian American children are usually the academic stars (Thernstrom, 2003). Another generation of Black children is drifting through school without acquiring essential skills and knowledge. Hispanic children are not faring much better. According to Thernstrom (2003), as these children fare, so fares our nation. When Asian American students are compared with Black and Hispanic students, the outcome is poor for the latter. Asian American students fare well when the comparison is made. In most subjects, Hispanic students at the end of high school do somewhat better than their Black classmates, but they, too are far behind their White and Asian peers (Therstrom, 2003). Curtis Crawford (2000) reveals: Academic disparities among racial groups are unacceptable. The most important educational challenge for the United States ... is eliminating, once and for all, the still large educational achievement gaps among the nation’s racial and ethnic groups. This is a moral and pragmatic imperative, which must be accomplished as quickly as possible (p. 37). The National Task Force On Minority High Achievement (1999) extends this outlook. It adds a right to academic equality among racial groups, which if secured, would facilitate racial equality in earnings and influence. After noting the existence of large racial performance gaps throughout students’ school careers, the Report, “Reaching the Top” by the College Board (1999), adds the following points:

15 1. Racial inequalities in academic achievement contribute to racial inequalities in occupational opportunities and achievements. 2. Black, Latino and Native Americans now are nearly one-third and by 2030 will be over two-fifths of the U.S. population under age 18. 3. Racial differences in academic achievement can become an increasing source of social conflict. 4. Without great Black, Latino and Native American academic progress, the institutions of our society and their leadership cannot be fully integrated. 5. Nor can we draw on the full range of talents in our population. 6. Therefore, the elimination of racial inequalities in academic achievement is a moral and pragmatic imperative (pp. 1-2). Nonetheless, eliminating academic disparities in education will afford minority students greater opportunities to achieve and become successful. The Asian Migration Asian Americans first began their journey to the United States in the mid 1800’s. The Gold rush was beginning in California, and Asians came to America to participate in the gold rush in hopes of better economic attainment. Many congressional acts, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), and the Immigration and Naturalization Act (1952), were put in place by the national government to control the flow of Asian immigrants. During the 1960s, the only Asians that were allowed into the United States were those that possessed a professional skill (Wrigley, 2000). Asians were perceived as a threat to the success of White Americans in the labor force, and often faced violent antagonism from Whites, because of the professional skill

16 they were expected to have. It is expected that many immigrants from other nations will be coming to the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that the United States does something to improve its educational system to accommodate the many nationalities arriving. The Model Minority Asian American students have been known as the model minority because of the successes they have acquired in education. Often, Asian Americans are switched back and forth from White to minority in statistics due to their achievement (Crawford, 2000). At the advanced reading level, Whites and Asians were ahead of Hispanics and Blacks. In proficient reading, Whites led the minority groups. However, at the advanced math level, Asians were ahead of Whites (Crawford, 2000, p.38). Not only are the academic achievement levels higher than other minorities, but Asians out perform their peers in almost every arena. Lucien Ellington (2001) notes: Recent statistics indicate that well over 95% of Japanese are literate. Currently, over 95% of Japanese high school students graduate compared to the 89% of American students (p. 1). Asian Americans use a lot of what they are taught from their parents and what they inherit from their culture in their educational endeavors. They are taught to be hard working and to value education. Asian Americans have distinct cultural values, such as conformity to authority, respect for elders, taciturnity, strong social hierarchy, male dominance, and a high emphasis on learning which are deeply rooted in the Confucian tradition. Asian American parents encourage their children to be reserved rather than expressive and tend to be more

17 permissive to boys than to girls. They also tend to hold higher educational and occupational aspirations. Asian American students tend to be passive and nonverbal and rarely initiate class discussions until they are called on. It is because reticence and humility are highly valued Asian cultural traits rooted in the Confucian tradition (Park, 2006, p. 78). In the classroom, Asian American students exhibit what they have learned at home. To their advantage, the practices that they learn at home are of great use to them. Asian students usually listen to a teacher’s lecture, take notes copiously, and answer teachers’ questions. Chinese and Korean students tend to be highly competitive and individualistic. The Confucian philosophy is very much alive and sets a powerful interpersonal norm for daily behaviors, attitudes, and practices that demand reflection, moderation, persistence, humility, obedience to superiors, and stoic response to pain (Park, 2006, p. 79). Confucianism is the backbone of the upbringing of Asian American students. Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and ethical teacher (Kritsonis, 2002). Confucius had a golden rule of treat others as you would have them treat you. He condemned warfare and the lack of moral standards. Confucius’s aim in teaching was to nurture and develop a person so that he might become someone who would be useful to his state, rather than to produce a scholar belonging to any one philosophical school. Hence, he taught his pupils to read and to study a wide variety of books and subjects. Rote memorization was regarded as inadequate form of learning. His philosophy can be traced through a sequence of actions; the principles of

18 higher education consist in preserving man’s clear character, in giving new life to the people and in dwelling in perfection or the ultimate good (Kritsonis, 2002, p. 152). Even though education is supposed to be consistent across the nation, it is not because states live up to national standards through their own interpretation. This study goes beyond the educational variance among the states and seeks to find factors that make students from ethnic groups successful in education. Minorities and Whites approach their education in different ways because of their upbringing and the other countries in which they were citizens. Douglas Foley (as cited in Shimahara, 2001) explains: Voluntary minorities, such as Asian Americans, see the United States as a land of opportunity compared to their situation back home. They are generally optimistic and trusting of US society, and work hard in school and in their jobs to succeed. Consequently, the parents of voluntary immigrants generally hold their youth, not the schools accountable for school success and failures (Shimahara, 2001, p. 21). There are opponents of adopting the practices of the “model minority.” Although Asian American students are successful, Deanna Kuhn (2006) notes that, there are some drawbacks from mimicking the educational routines in the Asian American culture. Asian parents instill in their children the belief that academic success leads to family pride, material wealth and social status, and academic leads to the opposite—shame and disgrace. The disadvantage, however, is that the relationship is an instrumental one: There is a small connection between the amount of effort invested in an activity and the outcome of the activity. There is no existence of an inherent relationship between the two factors stated above. However, there is an inherent relationship and value within the activity itself. The value found in the activities students engage in will not be

19 realized until students discover the meaning of participating in the activity (Kuhn, 2006). In addition to the strict parental influence that Asian Americans parents have on their children, Asian American children also display behaviors that are unfavorable. Overshadowed by the popular model minority image of Asian American students and high levels of academic achievement among a portion of this group, their problem behaviors have often been overlooked in educational as well as research communities (Shrake, 2004). Educators cannot rely on the model minority stereotypes about Asian Americans. Asian families can only be learned by getting to know individual Asian parents and families. Educators that do rely on the model minority stereotype risk doing very little to help those Asian American students that do not excel in academics (Lee, 2001). The stereotype of being the model minority hurts at-risk Asian American students. Contrary to popular belief, the at-risk label is not only used to characterize African American and Hispanic students. Although Asian-American students make up a small segment of the overall population, these students continue to be ignored or underserved because of the success of the entire group. When success of the Asian American group is highlighted, educators and the general public direct their attention to at-risk students of other ethnicities, forgetting that Asian American students can also be at-risk (Doan, 2006). Finding meaning and value in activities in which one is involved is important because that is when true learning takes place. However, when educating the mass is of primary concern, adopting the best practices available are more important. Educators should understand that many Asian parents highly respect teachers and administrators. Therefore, they believe their role is to follow and listen to the judgments of educators. This can serve as a barrier because these parents

20 may feel that communicating with teachers may be perceived as disrespectful. While Asian parents emphasize academic content much earlier than in most other American homes, all Asian children do not do well in academic areas (Lee, 2001). Jane Kim, author of Top of the Class: Asian Parents Raise High Achievers and How You Can Too, (as cited in Elsmary, 2005) explains what Asian parents teach their children to enhance their educational success, and highlights the differences between Asian and American families. Asian parents have the tendency to place pressure or force their children in one direction. Asian parents can learn something from nonAsian parents by expressing that their child’s happiness does mean as much as any educational achievements (Elsmary, 2005). The Social Factors that Impact Academic Achievement of African American Students Throughout history, African Americans have endured many years of struggle and oppression. African Americans in the United States interpret their oppression as methodical and enduring due to the historical and contemporary experiences with institutionalized discrimination (slavery, job discrimination, structural disadvantages, and racial discrimination in school) they have experienced. Consequently, African Americans tend to participate in activities that challenge common practices of accomplishment and they dismiss the value of obtaining an education. As a result, they begin to trust their practices of “making it” instead of the construct and purpose of school and its agents. The theory of “making it” and the distrust of the purpose of school, stifle their commitment to school and societal norms (Hovart, 2006). Although some African Americans equate academic success with “acting White,” social scientists confidently predicted that after the Supreme Court decision, Brown v. Board of Education, 1954, that the academic gap among minorities would soon be eliminated; however, this did not occur.

21 Academic success of African Americans went from abysmal to merely terrible (Chubb, 2002). The academic gains in the 1960s, 1970s, and the 1980s have slowed. Educators and the African American community have not been able to eliminate or significantly reduce the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino(a), and students that identify themselves as Asian Americans (Edmund, 2006). African Americans are much more likely to suffer the social problems that often accompany low income (Chubb, 2002). Over the years, researchers have debated the causes of the academic achievement of the African American student. Such causes that have been cited are family, peer groups, culture, discrimination, heredity, and schooling. Involuntary minorities, those minorities that did not choose to come to the United States, adopt low school performance as a form of adaptation to their limited social and economic opportunity in adult life. Another cause that may contribute to the academic achievement of African Americans, is John Ogbu’s theory of the “burden of acting white.” Involuntary minorities who were forcefully incorporated into the U. S. tend to attribute academic success with “whiteness” and thus may reject school success with their own ethnic and racial identities (Lew, 2006). Currently, schools and school reforms are boosting the achievement of African American students to levels nearing those of Whites (Chubb, 2002). Therefore, there are some improvements, but not enough to close the achievement gap among American students. The threat of stereotypes plays a major role in the academic achievement of African American students. Stereotype threat is the knowledge that others may judge one’s performance in terms of one’s racial background, rather than in terms of one’s individual background. Minority students may be vulnerable to stereotypes in the domain of academics, because the stereotype surrounding

22 these students concerns a generalized suspicion about their intelligence. The effects of stereotypes can occur without the stereotyped individual himself or herself believing the stereotype—he or she simply has to have the knowledge of the stereotype and the knowledge that others may view him or her through that stereotype. African American students in particular are likely to experience doubts about their acceptance in educational institutions and such concerns are likely to be accentuated in academic environments to which high achieving minority students strive (Bennett, 2004). If the achievement gap could be reduced, the fortunes of African Americans would not only be raised, but the social and economic differences that intensify the country’s racial tensions would also be ameliorated (Chubb, 2002). The Social Factors that Impact Academic Achievement of Hispanic Students Hispanic students often experience the same obstacles as African Americans. Typically, Hispanic students tend to be poorer, attend more segregated schools and live in urban areas. These students account for the largest population of students served in programs of Englishlanguage acquisition. It would be an error to assume that all Hispanic students have similar needs or require the same type of education. However, current guidelines and educational practices mandated for Hispanic students are built on such assumptions and have had the unintended consequence of damaging the students’ futures, education and otherwise. When lawmakers and educational leaders remain oblivious to these false assumptions, misinterpretations occur, and stereotypical thinking prevails (Ramirez, 2005). Frequent in Hispanic families is the need to support the family. Barabra Sparks (2002) mentions: Economic necessity of holding down multiple jobs in order to care for one’s family

23 makes it virtually impossible to add educational classes to daily life. Often, no matter how much one may desire to do so (p. 9). Other barriers that seem to affect the education of Hispanics include cultural difference from the dominate society, discrimination, and racism. These factors define the social context of daily life for the majority of the population who do not belong to the middle class (Sparks, 2002). According to some Hispanic youth, the assumption of their intellectual inferiority is the most significant obstacle in their academic pursuits (Cammarota, 2006). Abigail Thernstrom (2003) further explains the academic success of Hispanic students. It is alarming that Hispanic students that have had at least 12 years of schooling without developing even the most fundamental skills is alarming. The research conducted by NAEP’s experts find that between subject to subject comparison (reading, mathematics, or science), Asian and White students’ differences are on one hand, and Black and Hispanic student differences are on the other hand. Nearly 40% of Asians in the twelfth grade rank in the top two categories in reading, while a quarter of Hispanics achieve that level. In math and science, little more than 3% of Hispanics displayed more than a “partial mastery” of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental for proficient work (pp. 16-17). Another issue that compounds the academic achievement of Hispanic students is the language barrier. A component of the achievement gap between Hispanic and White students is certainly limited English proficiency among a significant minority of Hispanic students, especially those in the first generation. However, studies have shown lower academic attainment for second- and third- generation Hispanic students, so recent immigration or limited English

24 language proficiency cannot be responsible for the entire gap (Sparks, 2002). Among Hispanics between the ages of 18 and 25, 48% hold less than a high school credentials (Clark, 2006). The academic achievement gap among minority students is enhanced by the various obstacles that African-American and Hispanic students have had to endure. Though educational leaders may not be able to control external factors that impact the academic achievement of minority students, the knowledge that they gain about the external factors may assist educational leaders in improving internal factors (school controlled) based on their knowledge of the internal factors. American Education versus Asian Education In Asian countries, education is a national product. Teachers create the textbooks and every student takes the same test for achievement levels. All Japanese texts are written and produced in the private sector; however, the Ministry of Education approves the texts that are produced. Japanese and American textbooks differ in the areas of textbook content, length, and classroom utilization. Another way textbooks differ is the content of Japanese textbooks that are based upon the national curriculum, while most American texts tend to cover a wider array of topics. The number of pages in the textbooks differ as well. Japanese textbooks typically contain about half the pages of their American counterparts. Consequently, unlike many American teachers, almost all Japanese teachers finish their textbooks in an academic year. (Ellington, 2005). Another difference in education between the U. S. and Asian countries is the schooling track that students follow. Between 75% and 80% of all Japanese students enroll in university preparation tracks. Most university-bound students attend separate academic high schools while

25 students who definitely do not plan on higher education attend separate commercial or industrial high schools. In the United States, students enter secondary schools based on either school district assignment or personal choice. In Japan, almost all students are admitted to high school based upon entrance examination performance (Ellington, 2005). Although Asian students out perform American students, when Chinese students were asked about their education in China, almost all students involved in a study conducted by Yali Zhao (2008), resented the exam-oriented system, and they tended to idealize American education because of the academic pressure and frustration that they experienced in Chinese schools. Because these students have had to deal with exams and teacher-centered, book-oriented lectures throughout their school years, these students were longing for the American way of education, which they believed to be creative, student centered, and full of fun and meaningful hands-on activities (Zhao, 2008). In the United States, decisions about education are left to the states; however, the national government does place standards on education that states must adhere. Brent Staples (2005) of the New York Times mentions that four years ago, The No Child Left Behind Act was enacted to put the problem of closing the achievement gap on the national agenda. However, the country has gotten involved in a dispute about a segment of the law that requires annual testing in the early grades to ensure that the states are closing the achievement gap. The testing debate intensified when national math and reading scores showed dismal performance across the board (2005). Elaine Wu (2005) further examined the educational ranking of the United States in relation to Asian nations. She attributes U. S. ranking to the way educational material is

26 delivered to the students. The U. S. accommodates students’ needs and wants. Students in the United States learn to pass a test, but they do not learn the concepts. Therefore, the only way we measure how well students do is through testing. Teachers end up teaching how to take the test and not necessarily the subject matter (2005). Many research reports such as A Nation At Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) have been utilized to find the fallacy in American education. They have found that reform is needed in math and science. If mediocre educational performance was an intended weapon of an opposing force to be used on America, America would have considered this an act of war. The United States has allowed poor academic performance to happen despite the gains in achievement made in the wake of the Sputnik challenge and the Cold War. Over the years, we have unassembled fundamental support systems which assisted in making those gains possible. America, in effect, has been committing an act of thoughtless, one-dimensional educational disarmament (T. H. Bell, Secretary of Education, National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983). When American students are compared to their peers around the world, American students continuously are out performed by their peers. Teaching methods also contribute to success in the educational systems of other countries, and the failure of the United States’ educational system. Over 15,000 school districts make curricular decisions that align with their state’s guidelines. Many Americans have begun to question the curricular diversity of their own system and to consider national standards as a means of improving U. S. education because they are amazed by Japan’s performance in mathematics and science. America has tried to imitate the Japanese systems by overemphasizing its uniformity and equating national curriculum guidelines with national standards (Decoker,

27 2002). As mentioned before, the curriculum and textbooks used by the nations are vastly different. This difference is one of the components that is responsible for the lack of achievement in American schools as far as minorities are concerned. Standards developed by the Mathematics Achievement Partnership under Achieve Inc. (2001) rely almost entirely on the notion that curricula in the countries that are outperforming the U. S. cover more complicated material earlier. It is necessary to consider these curricula and associated textbooks. Many studies have specifically undertaken international comparisons of these items. The study of A Splintered Vision (Schmidt, 1997) discovered that the U.S. curriculum is broad but shallow, that we touch on topics again and again, but never deeply. Germany and Japan, most often cited in this study, are able to move to more complicated material earlier, because they approach the curriculum in a narrower, but deeper way. The basic idea is that students are able to gain mastery by concentrating on a smaller number of topics and then moving on to the next lesson. In addition, the performance expectations implied in U. S. curricula and textbooks centers on routine procedures and discrete knowledge, which hampers conceptual understanding (Schweingruber, 2002). The United Stated focuses on procedure, and we try to teach many topics fast. Other countries tend to break up and go much more in-depth. They work on the concept, not just the procedure. Countries that did well in rankings focused on teaching the ideas and taught a few topics a year. Students will learn what a fraction really is, not just how to add or subtract them (Wu, 2005). Another difference is in a particular content area studied in both countries. Diana Lindman and Kyle Ward express an isolationist tendency within the American social studies

28 curriculum. The U. S. educational system, commonly deal with national and world history from a political and patriotic perspective, and American students are rarely exposed to various perspectives in the classroom. Therefore, it is critical that American teachers move students beyond judgment and toward understanding and that they help them consider other perspectives (Lindaman, 2004). On the other hand, Chinese students have been greatly exposed to the outside world, especially to information about the United States. They have gained this exposure through social studies courses, English courses, media, and personal contact with Americans (Zhao, 2008). When comparing the countries’ educational systems, it is apparent that the Asian educational system aims to cultivate students with a patriotic and collective spirit, and it encourages students to work hard to achieve their goals in life. The American educational system tends to emphasize the development of students’ creativity, competitive spirit, and life skills (Zhao, 2008). The way material is taught in America is apparently making a difference in the academic achievement in America. Parental Involvement Parents of Asian American students believe that it is their responsibility to direct their children on the path of success. This is their primary concern. They believe that their role in the education of their children is supplemental to what the school teaches. Asian American parents view their role as supplementing what the school is doing and filling in the gaps because they are concerned about the American public school’s general laxness. They understand their responsibility—to teach the child the skills they believe are needed for the child to successfully compete and come out ahead. The parents view their responsibility as one of guiding the child

29 through a path that leads to greater chances for success. This guiding reveals itself in a number of ways—teaching the child to hold a pencil before he entered kindergarten and choosing his activities carefully. The parents focus the child’s attention on this path, which they refer to as kwai doe (Siu, 2001). Kevin Marjoribanks (2005) explains that for elementary students, families that are academically-oriented have parents that possess high expectations for their children, provide stimulating educational experiences for their children, understand the importance of school and are knowledgeable about their child’s school assignments. For high school students, Marjoribanks mentions that parents that provide a family setting conducive to learning, such as one that includes conversations about staying in school, praise for academic success, interest in student academic performance and activities, and high expectations about school achievement. These elements can promote high student academic achievement. Research has found the reason why schools are reluctant to involve and reach out to parents. Some educators believe that minority communities have very little to offer and that parents only added to the problems already present (Guerra, 2008). According to Donna Mahler, (as cited in Gregory, 2000) the benefits of involving all parents in meaningful home-school partnerships is a well-needed and well-understood; however, teachers remain ill-prepared for involving parents, particularly those who are parents of minority children. Teacher preparation programs often neglect parent involvement practices producing teachers who lack appropriate strategies for involving parents in the educational process. One result of this lack of teacher preparation can be seen in the drop in teacher efforts to involve parents which begin as early as the second or third grade (Gregory, 2000).

30 The home environment may influence the extent of persistence and achievement of an individual in any particular endeavor. Parents can promote children’s cognitive development and academic achievement directly by becoming involved in their children’s educational activities. Parents not only effect what the child brings to the school setting when he or she begins school but also can influence how well the child acquires school-related skills throughout the school years and can influence other behaviors, such as study habits, that are likely to afford the child’s achievement and attainment (Stewart, 2007). Strong academic outcomes among middle level and high school students were associated with communication between parents and school personnel about the child’s schooling and future plans (Epstein, 2002). Parental involvement is beneficial to students of all ethnic groups and socio-economic levels. When parents are regularly informed and consulted about important school issues, they will begin to feel genuinely involved. When parents are asked to participate in the decision making process about important school policies and procedures, they will more readily answer the call to be involved. The more involved parents are in their children’s education, at home and at school, the more successful children will be academically and socially. It must be understood that these benefits will not just be recognized and appreciated by parents and students, teachers will also benefit from genuine parent involvement. Teachers report more positive feelings about their teaching and schools when there is a greater degree of parent involvement (Gregory, 2000). Schools have to go above and beyond to regain the participation and involvement of parents and guardians. It is no longer enough to pass out newsletters to take home, post messages of involvement on the school’s marquee, or hope for a parent conference. If the schools want

31 improved parental involvement, they have to enact more initiatives to improve parental involvement. Schools can assist parents in becoming more involved. According to Joyce Epstein (2002), there are six types of involvement that schools can enact to enhance parental involvement. The Six Types of Involvement Model include: • Parenting. Assisting families with parenting skill, family support, understanding child and adolescent development and setting home conditions to support learning at each age and grade level. Assist schools in understanding families’ background, cultures, and goals for children. • Communicating. Communicate with families about school programs and student progress. Create two-way communication channels between school and home. • Volunteering. Improve recruitment, training, activities and schedules to involve families as volunteers and as audiences at the school or in other locations. Enable educators to work with volunteers who support students and the school. • Learning at Home. Involve families with their children in academic learning at home, including homework, goal-setting, and other curriculum-related activities. Encourage teachers to design homework that enables students to share and discuss interesting tasks. • Decision Making. Include families as participants in school decisions, governance and advocacy activities through school councils or improvement teams, committees and parent organizations. • Collaborating with Community. Coordinate resources and services for families,

32 students and the school with community groups including businesses, agencies, cultural and civic organizations and colleges or universities. Enable all to contribute service to the community (Epstein, 2002, p.14). This problem is not solved by the school alone. Edmund Gordon (2006) gives some suggestions to minority parents to improve their child’s academic success. 1. Read to your children or grandchildren everyday 2. Create clean, quiet spaces for your children to do homework; check to make sure assignments are completed. 3. Get library cards for each member of the family. 4. Arrange enriching family and neighborhood activities for children of all ages: museums, educational games, spelling bees, and science fairs. 5. Become involved in your children’s school-PTA, school committees; attend back-toschool events; if you do not have children in the school, consider becoming a volunteer (p. 34). The National Center for Education Statistics has noted instances of parental involvement for these minority groups. The percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported taking them to a public library in the past month was higher for Asian American students (65%) than for White (41%), Black (49%) and Hispanic (44%) students (Vaden-Kierman, 2003, p. 82). Soo Kim (as cited in Elsmary, 2005) remembers how she grew up in an Asian household: “When we were younger, I mean in elementary and middle school, our parents were very involved. They

33 gladly assumed the role of teacher after the school day ended” (Elsmary, 2005). Having the parents involved shows the student that the parent cares about the educational endeavors of their children and it communicates that parents contribute to the success of their children (Yan, 2005). Parental involvement has conceptualized as a form of social capital. Social capital is created from the strength of relationships between adults and children. These relationships may be especially important to adolescents who often require adult guidance and assistance to perform important developmental tasks (2005). Family obligation is a form of parental involvement that includes participating in parent-teacher organizations, attending school programs, and discussing school topics. This family obligation is related to parents’ intensive investment in the well-being of the school outcome in particular and the value of education in general (2005). Educators in America have begun pointing their fingers at parents for the low achievement of American students. The trend 20 to 30 years ago that advocated students learning by themselves is long gone. Debra Saunders (1995) discloses: The newest trend in education “reform” is the inclusion of parental-education programs involvement in student activities. President Clinton’s Goals 2000 includes an entire section on “parental assistance.” The movement seeks a new curriculum that urges parents to be nurturing and uncritical (p. 68). Good work ethic, dedication, and determination are skills that can be taught by parents. Parents are the first teachers that a child has, and wealth of knowledge can be gained from parents. Students may strive to make their parents proud as well as themselves. However, the ingredients to gain success must be taught, nurtured and refined with growth. Clara C. Parks (2006) recognizes:

34 In the Hmong culture [largely southeast Asians], parents appear to hold even higher educational aspirations for their children than the children themselves. Therefore, Hmong students’ high aspirations appear to come from their parents’ unusually high aspirations for them which apparently are internalized by the children (p. 13). In summary, if schools want more parental involvement, they have to be more creative in getting the attention of parents in order for them to participate. Time Spent on Homework Time spent on homework is another component that may explain the academic achievement and failure of minority groups (Yan, 2005). Time spent on homework may include reading a book, participating in a project assignment, being involved in school-related activities or completing class assignments. Research by Steven Ingles (2002) acknowledges that Asians spend more time on homework outside of school than Blacks, Hispanics and Whites. Black students study alone for 8 to 10 hours a week. Chinese students study for 14 hours a week. They tend to work 8 to 10 hours alone and about 4 hours with other students, checking each other’s answers and their English. Their family members quiz them regularly and they work on problems kept in a public file in the library. Unlike Black students, they know exactly where they stand relative to the rest of their classmates (Ingles, 2002). The amount of time dedicated to school and school work makes a tremendous amount of difference in the success of American students. Time spent on homework also includes time spent off task such as watching television and talking on the telephone. Jayne Freeman (1995) states that the amount of school hours differs between the United States and Asian nations. Japanese students, for example, spend more days in

35 school and study more hours studying after school. Thus, having more hours of instruction and practice in a given subject than American students of the same age, the Japanese students naturally tend to score higher (Freeman, 1995). Academic achievement obtained by Americans can be a result of the amount of time students dedicate to their education. According to Morrison Wong and Charles Hirschman (1986), the comparatively larger number of Asian students receiving high grades may be partially accounted for by the fact that they report spending a greater number of hours on homework per week. Asian Americans were more likely to spend 5-10 hours per week on homework. An interesting, and for some a discouraging feature of contemporary high school education, is the finding that more Hispanic and African American students and between 1 to 8 % of the Asian students report not doing any homework or spending less than one hour per week on it (1986). Homework is used as a tool to continue education in the home. Due to the large amount of time in the home environment, it appears that small disparities in efficiencies of parental support of academic progress or the direct teaching and simulation in the “curriculum of the home” can have large effects not only on verbal subjects such as reading but science and mathematics as well. Homework brings learning to students’ daily lives, and students are asked to assume more responsibility in arranging their learning environment and in monitoring their homework activities (Xu, 2004). Children continue to struggle with distraction in home. Students reported doing homework with the television on (49%) and even more frequently with a radio or stereo on (58%). These students feel that the radio or stereo sound enhanced their study experience. However, they admitted that television was somewhat bothersome. Television and telephone

36 were the two most troublesome homework distractions, mentioned by more half of the students. Thirty-six to 40% listed additional distractions, including parents siblings coming into and out the room and teasing and asking questions; noise from vacuum cleaners, washing machines, or doorbells; and disturbance from radios or stereos. Other distractions include internal distractions such as mood swings (Xu, 2004). Doing homework often can create a foundation for developing desirable work habits since “regardless of the homework’s intellectual content, there is a need to deal with distractions, and a role for emotional coping, task force, and persistence.” Adolescents still can benefit from assistance from parents of all socioeconomic backgrounds to help them deal with external and internal distractions while doing homework (2004). Measures of curriculum of the home account for as much as 50% of the variance in school achievement; and school-based home-enrichment programs that encourage parents to stimulate their children raise achievement as much as a standard deviation, say, from the 50th to 84th percentile (Paschal, 1984). Paschal also asserts that academic achievement depends greatly on time spent on homework. When time is spent on educational-related material, success is the greatest among students. Other activities, such as television viewing, talking on the telephone do not yield success in education. Extensive classroom research on “time on homework” and international comparisons of year-round time for study suggest that additional homework might promote U. S. students’ achievement. Homework represents another area in which schools can intervene in an effort to raise achievement. Though homework is given in the United States, American students continue to score lower than students in other countries because they

37 spend less time studying within and outside their school classes. Homework may chiefly displace discretionary leisure-time television viewing that appears excessive as far as the promotion of school learning is concerned (Paschel, 1984, p. 97). With the advancement of technology, it has become more and more difficult for the attention of students to be focused on achieving. Media reports tell of individuals that have gained success through entertainment and sports. It is true that one can be successful without the assistance of school, but only a few are successful without school. Therefore, it is important for schools to engage students in a way that stresses the importance of education. Engaging students in the classroom in ways that interests them may assist educators in capturing the attention of students in their school. Schools have even included these media forms into their classrooms by making relationships between education and topics in the media. The problem that exists is how students spend their time when they are out of school. Time is such an important factor in this equation because if an individual runs out of it, there is nothing left. John Lofty (1995) explained how students get confused about time and how it can work against them. Students need to be aware of the time values and practices of academic life, and that their difficulties accommodating the timescapes of the academy can become good reason for their failure. Such moves assume political and historic significance as the academy assess underrepresented student populations segregated along lines of class, ethnicity, and gender. Less apparent though, is the role of time in constructing these lines. Ordinary identities become visible typically when students transgress our time codes, for example, by talking during instructional time or by handing in late work. Less visible to teachers is the source of such transgressions in students’ ordinary identities, which encompass behaviors relative to how time is used and valued

38 (Lofty, 1995). It is important for educators and families to engrain in the students’ psyche the importance of education, and how it is the key to success. The time that is invested on academics will garner significant returns on students’ academic success. Frequency of Individual Study Modes and Frequency of Group Study Modes Study modes are also components that may improve success. Many American students in higher education meet in groups to study and continue to employ education in their conversation with their peers. In these groups, students will meet with other students that speak a similar language and discuss their viewpoints on how to complete an assignment. According to Monica Lambert (2006), study modes are an important component to investigate because, with the passage of the No Child Left behind Act, academic standards for students have significantly increased. Never before has it been more important for learners to maximize the time they spend studying. Although secondary level teachers often assume that all students have acquired sufficient study skills by the time they reach high school, many have not (p. 241). The study practices adopted by learners impacts their achievement in their academics. The way a student studies determines what knowledge is retained and learned, what concepts are understood and how a student can apply what is learned. This concept begins at home, and it continues until the goal is obtained. However, students lack proper, effective study skills that causes them to fall short of mastery. Schools have begun incorporating study skills lessons into their curriculum. Study skills are an essential part of independent learning. It is important that teachers incorporate study skills in their instruction so that all students with or without learning disabilities acquire these necessary skills (Lambert, 2006).

39 Since study habits, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes are an important part of academic achievement, it is helpful to know what yields the best results so that students will get the most out of studying. Study habits, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes are needed in the equation of improving the academic achievement of minority groups. Robert Slavin (1980) has investigated the types of study modes that yield results of high academic achievement. He used the study modes of student teams, peer tutoring, and individual study. Team techniques that involve learning have generally had positive effects on such student outcomes as academic achievement, mutual attraction among students, and race relations in desegregated schools (Slavin, 1980). Slavin divided the students in his study into four groups. Team reward, Group Task focused on 4 to 5 students working together and sat together at all times. Team Reward, Individual Task focused on team members sitting together, but working individually; Individual reward, Team Task groups sat by themselves, and came together to work on assignments. Lastly, Individual Reward, Individual Task, students worked and sat by themselves. On each of these experimental groups, Slavin employed STAD (Student TeamsAchievement Divisions) and TGT (Teams-Games Tournament) In his study Slavin found that group forms of study habits increase academic achievement (1980). Asian students practice peer tutoring and voluntary homework. The study modes as described by Gary Decoker (2002) explains the differences study modes of American and Asian students. He also explains that in addition to in-class instruction, rapid learners can assist those who are slower or who do not understand the lesson. The fast learners, in turn, benefit from being placed in the position of clarifying their understanding as they explain and expand the

40 discussion along the lines of the questions raised by the slower students. Homework that is assigned in the West is not commonly assigned in Japan. In Japan, students are expected to study independently or to solve practice problems. Rather than follow a teacher-assigned sets of problems or tasks like what is practiced in the West, it is assumed that students will review the day’s lesson and anticipate the lesson that will be studied during the next meeting of the class. Although Japanese students are expected to engage in study after school, many teachers assume that homework is not an especially effective means for improving students’ academic achievement (Decoker, 2002). Similar to studying modes, doing homework is not the most ideal way to spend one’s time, however, in order to improve academic achievement, this is a must. Not only is it important to do homework because the teacher required the completion of it, but it is equally important to spend time studying in various modes to review and practice the content taught in class. Mastering a lesson in class requires that work is completed outside of class and a sufficient amount of time is spent on study modes preferred by the student. How a student studies determines the how much information is retained that will contribute to the students’ academic achievement. Summary The purpose of the study is to determine the difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. There are many other factors that contribute to the academic success of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students; however this study is focusing on the three components mentioned above.

41 In conclusion, by determining the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes, educational leaders in this country will have a perspective on how to address certain academic problems in American education. The educational/learning gap continues to increase between the students of America. Elaine Wu (2005) explains: Since education is available to everyone, there’s not a lot of competition in our schools. Other countries force kids to focus at an earlier age, and there’s more competition to deal with. It’s basically the teaching system, the values and cultures of a country that underlie its education system (p. 3). The United States is a powerful force in the world. However, it will lose its force in the world if it does not improve its educational ranking in the world. What is more important, U. S. students will continue to be disadvantaged and outperformed by their peers in other countries until U.S. educational leaders find a remedy to the variance in academic achievement among minority groups.

Chapter III Methodology Statistics gathered by NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2003) suggest that some Asian American students are more academically successful than any other minority group in America. There exists a significant gap between the academic achievement levels of African American and Hispanic students and the achievement levels of Asian American students (Gordon, 2006). Some factors that may influence the success or lack thereof of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students are frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework and parental involvement. Gary Decoker (2004) notes that Chinese students also reported liking school more than their Western counterparts and perceived education as their most pressing task. Test scores continuously show a gap in the achievement of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students. The problem is that if Asian American, African American, and Hispanic groups have endured the same type of struggle in their past, what contributes to the difference in achievement levels and what can be done to close the achievement gap among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. This study describes differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes; thus, giving educational leaders insight on what can be done to raise the achievement level of their minority students. Identifying the factors that may contribute to the achievement gap in minority students and closing it will allow educators to better serve students needs without resorting to other options that may not 42

43 benefit minority students. Research Questions The study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes? 2. What are the differences when studying English, Math, Science, and Social Studies among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes and time spent doing homework? Hypotheses H1 – There are statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on English homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) H2 - There are statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Math homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) H3 - There are statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Science homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes.

44 (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) H4 - There are statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to Research Question 1 and 2) The independent variables in research questions 1 and 2 in the study are parental involvement, time spent on English, Math, Science and Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. The dependent variables are academic achievement of Asian American, African American and Hispanic students. For the study, the students of the different minority groups were asked about their personal engagement with each factor tested. Once those responses were collected, they were also compared to note the differences among Asian American, African American and Hispanic students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on English Math, Science, and Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. For research question 2, the independent variables are Asian American, African American and Hispanic students, and the dependent variables are time and frequency of study modes when studying English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. Students were asked about the time they spent studying and how they studied each subject area in order to test the hypotheses and answer the research question. Research Methodology A quantitative design was used to determine the difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement, time spent on

45 homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. High school students that were 18 years old and of all ethnic groups completed the questionnaire of the study; however, the research focused only on those students that are Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. Research Design The population for the study consisted of 713, 18- year old, high school senior students of Asian American/ Pacific Islander (N = 20), African American (N = 347), Hispanic (N = 233), White (N = 105), and Native American (N = 8) decent from five high schools. These schools were chosen due to their minority population, Texas accountability rating, and proximity. The students involved in the study completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to prompt the respondent to remember the amount of parental involvement, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, and the time spent on homework they experienced during their schooling as well as other factors that encouraged them to be academically successful. Twelfth grade senior students that were involved in the study were students in Advanced Placement, Honors, and Regular social studies classes. Closed ended questions on a Likert-type scale questionnaire were used so that the respondents could reflect upon their past experiences in education, growing up and relating those experiences to their educational success. The questionnaire took approximately 20 minutes to complete. Inferential statistics, utilizing a One-Way ANOVA, was used to note differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement,

46 time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. Finding the differences of the factors among the three minority groups may indicate what accounts for their academic achievement. Information from the participants’ Exit – Level TAKS scores was used to determine possible relationships between the factors that may or may not indicate success of the minority groups. Subjects of the Study The five high schools involved in the study were located in southeast Texas in two large urban school districts. Each high school had between 260-850 seniors. The Executive Director of Research in the participating school districts gave permission to the researcher to conduct the questionnaire with the student participants. Principals of the participating high schools decided how the questionnaire would be conducted at their schools. Some principals gathered all 18 year old, senior students in one location to complete the questionnaire, while others preferred the questionnaire be given in their senior English or Social Studies classes. The students were given an Adolescent Assent form and the questionnaire. The participants were also told that their participation was voluntary and their identities would remain unknown. The contents of the Adolescent Assent form was explained to the participants, they were told that if they would like to participate in the study, they needed to sign and date the assent form. The target population was Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students that were high school seniors in five, large urban school districts in a southeastern city in Texas. Parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes were factors investigated for the minority groups of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic. The comparison of the

47 two sets of data (responses from the questionnaire and the TAKS scores) determined if students’ academic achievement were related to the factors. By looking at the minority groups’ Exit- Level TAKS scores and the responses on the questionnaire, the investigator looked for differences and correlates between variables and successful TAKS scores. Instrumentation The instrument that was used is a Likert-style questionnaire. The questions were generated based on the four factors of the study. They were centered on parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (APPENDIX C) The questionnaire took into consideration the following in order to become knowledge about the subjects. To determine the difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes, the answers from the questionnaire on parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes were ranked from 1-6 (6: having the most influence and 1: having the least influence). The answers from the questionnaire were then divided based on the minority groups involved in the study. Once the answers were ranked and divided among the minority groups studied, that information was placed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 version, and the inferential statistical method of one-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences of among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental

48 involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. Those outcomes were then compared to the minority groups’ TAKS scores to determine possible relationships between their academic achievement and the factors being tested. Validity A researcher must ensure that his or her research is researching what they intended to research in order to establish validity. In the current study, validity was obtained by having four students of different races, Asian American, two African American and Hispanic students in one of the school districts involved in the study. The questionnaire was piloted to students that are high school seniors to ensure that the meanings of the questions on the questionnaire are clear and pertinent to the study, and the answers given by the respondents are the answers needed by the investigator. The students that participated in the pilot engaged in a conversation with the researcher about the questionnaire. The terminology used in each question was discussed and adjusted to the students’ input. Reliability The questionnaire used was re-tested once input from the students involved in the pilot study were incorporated into the questionnaire. When the questionnaire was re-tested with the input, the students were asked again about the clarity and structure of the questionnaire, to which they agreed was clear and easily understood due to the layout of the questionnaire and the terminology used. To begin, the high school student respondents were asked the same questions on the questionnaire during one of their school days. The questionnaire was completed on paper to be

49 inputted into SPSS. The students were instructed not to place their name on the questionnaire to ensure anonymity. Students completed the questionnaire, turned it in, and were not allowed to complete it again if they had completed it once before. By doing this, all 18 year old, senior students had the opportunity to be involved in the study because all seniors were required to take social studies or English class or report to the location specified by their principal. In addition, the Exit-Level TAKS test is a state-sponsored test that all students have to take in order to move to the next grade or graduate from high school. The test is a standardized, achievement test that measures what the student has learned. Procedure Investigation on the topic began by doing research on the minority groups involved in the study. Historical events that took place in each minority group, family upbringing, educational success, and the factors of educational success were researched. After reviewing the appropriate and relevant literature, research continued to explore the educational gap among the minority groups. Various websites were visited and reviewed. A questionnaire and an Adolescent Assent form were created, and the questionnaire was piloted to a sample of four Asian American, African American, and Hispanic high school seniors, corrected and tested again by the sample to ensure validity and reliability. The valid and reliable questionnaire questions were asked to high school, 18 year old, seniors of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic cultures. These individuals attend a high school in a large urban school district in Texas involved in the study. The result of the pilot noted terminology issues that were resolved with discussion and input from the student participants to ensure clarity and understanding of the questions. Once the

50 questionnaires were completed, the answers were placed in SPSS to note the differences among the students. Once the differences were noted, this datum was used to compare minority groups’ passing rate on their Exit-Level TAKS test to determine possible relationships between the factors being tested and their academic achievement. By doing this, it was apparent what factors may contribute to or hinder the academic success of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. These factors became the prescriptions for the other minority groups in order to gain educational excellence. Data Collection and Recording To assure confidentiality, the student completing the questionnaire did not have to log-on to the computer to complete the questionnaire. They were given a paper questionnaire and asked not to place their names on the document. If the student placed their name on the document, then those questionnaires were thrown out and not used in the research. The results from the demographic section of the questionnaire were used to correlate the TAKS scores based on demographics. For example, African-American students’ answers to the questionnaire were correlated with African-American students’ Exit-Level TAKS scores. The preface of the questionnaire included a brief discussion of what the research is about, what the findings are intended to do and grant confidentiality of the respondent. After the data were collected they were stored in a secure location in a bank safe deposit box for 7 years. After 7 years, the data will be destroyed by way of incineration. Data Analysis The statistical analysis method of One-Way ANOVA was used to analyze the information gathered from the respondents’ answers to the questionnaire that dealt with the

51 factors of parental involvement, time spent on homework frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes to discover what may determine academic success of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. Each answer was coded with a particular number (1: Never, 2: Rarely, 3: Sometimes, 4: Often, 5: Very Often, 6: Always) to be entered into SPSS to determine which factor occurs most often among the minority groups. The ExitLevel TAKS scores were used to measure and connect success to the respondents’ answers on the questionnaire. Summary The procedure detailed in this chapter establishes differences among Asian American, African American, Hispanic students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. By determining which factors have the greatest impact for each minority group will establish guidelines for educational leaders to follow to produce academically successful students.

Chapter IV Analysis of Data The purpose of the study was to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. Through the use of a questionnaire given to 18 year old, high school seniors, data was collected to determine which factor, occurred most frequently among the minority groups to determine which factors are related to the academic achievement among the minority groups. The results of the questionnaire given to the respondents acknowledged which factors were practiced most frequently which may explain what impacts the academic achievement of minority students. The five high schools involved in the study were located in southeast Texas in two large urban school districts. Each high school had between 260-850 seniors. The results of Asian American students involved in the study must be viewed in light of the small numbers. Demographics from campus are detailed in Table 4.0 Table 4.0 2006 – 2007 Campus Demographics Percentages for the Campuses involved in the Study. (TEA 2006 – 2007 AEIS Report) Campus Campus 1 Campus 2 Campus 3 Campus 4 Campus 5 Asian American 0.2% 6.0% 1.5% 2.1% 0.2% African American 82.7% 35.8% 90.8% 32.2% 7.3% Hispanic 14.5% 11.5% 5.5% 54.1% 87.1%

52

53 Quantitative data obtained from questionnaire given to 18-year old high school seniors were used to find if there are differences among the minority groups (Asian American, African American, and Hispanic) on the basis of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. Students were asked to rank (1: Never, 2: Rarely, 3: Sometimes, 4: Often, 5: Very Often, 6: Always) the influences of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. In order to determine which factors among the minority groups that may have had an impact on their academic achievement, standard deviation, mean, and significance level of p ≤ 0.05 were used to determine if differences existed among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students for parental involvement, time pent of homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. A One-Way ANOVA was utilized to determine if differences existed among the minority groups regarding the factors being compared. A comparison was done among the minority groups based on the outcomes of their responses on the questionnaire. Another comparison was done with the students’ TAKS scores and the results from the questionnaire to note possible connections between the factors tested and the student academic achievement as measured by the TAKS Exit-Level test. The significance level used in this study was p ≤ 0.05. The students’ responses to the questions that pertained to each of the factors were compiled. Standard deviation was viewed for each question to determine how the responses to the questions deviated among the minority groups with respect to the factors being tested. The mean was viewed to see how often students of the ethnic groups chose a particular response to answer the questionnaire questions. Finally, the significance level was used to determine the

54 statistical significance of the differences among the minority groups with respect to each factor. The following research questions were generated to determine if the factors being investigated have any bearing on the academic achievement of Asian American, African American and Hispanic students by using the students’ state standardized, achievement test scores (TAKS scores) as a measure of academic achievement. 1. How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement? 2. What are the differences when studying English, Math, Science and Social Studies among Asian American, Hispanic, and African students with respect to frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework? The respondents from the selected urban high schools rated the influence of each questionnaire question that pertained to the factors of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. The self-reported information is valid due to source from which it comes. Since the answers were taken from the students first-hand, the responses to the questionnaire are valid and reliable. To analyze the quantitative data, the following weights were given to the ratings of each question on the questionnaire that the student respondents answered: 6 for “always”, 5 for “very often”, 4 for “often”, 3 for “sometimes”, 2 for “rarely”, 1 for “never”. Computations for the means were based on these assigned values. The impact of the factors on the students’ academic achievement was determined by the

55 results from the responses to the questionnaire questions by the student respondents. A frequency table displayed how many students from each ethnic group participated in the study, and how often the ratings occurred for each question that pertained to each factor. Findings The ratings given by the student respondents for each factor, parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes, were inputted into SPSS version 13.0, and the mean, standard deviation and significant levels were computed for each question by ethnic groups, Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, Hispanic, and Native American. A one-way ANOVA was used to compute the difference among the ethnic groups with respect to the factors being tested. An analysis was conducted and decisions were made whether to not reject or reject the null hypothesis for each comparison of the significance levels. The questions on the questionnaire that pertained to parental involvement, time spent on homework, individual study modes and group study modes were created based on the research in Chapter II. Students were asked eight parental involvement questions, six time on task questions, four individual study modes and four group study modes questions that may have influenced their academic achievement based on the student respondents’ ratings. The ratings were compiled and the results of the subsequent computations for the mean, standard deviations and one-way ANOVA are located in Tables 4.2 – 4.8. The TAKS scores used in the study are the 2007 Exit-Level TAKS scores. The participants in the study took this test their junior year of high school. Therefore, the scores used in the study, are the scores of the participants in the study. The minority groups (Asian American, Hispanic and African American) and the campus score are focused on in the

56 following table (Table 4.1). The TAKS scores indicate the different success levels among the minority groups and campus involved in the study. This is displayed in Table 4.1. Table 4.1 2007 Exit-Level TAKS passing percentages for each campus involved in the study. (TEA AEIS Report, 2006 - 2007) Campus Campus Score Asian American Hispanic African American

Campus 1 Campus 2 Campus 3 Campus 4 Campus 5

44% 73% 56% 62% 57%

* 90% * 84% *

34% 63% 22% 59% 59%

46% 57% 57% 59% 35%

* Indicates results are masked due to small numbers to protect student confidentiality The campus scores for each campus of predominately minority students, range from 40% to 70%. Depending on the campus, each minority group performed differently. However, Asian Americans outperformed both Hispanic and African American students. Those campuses that have reported scores for Asian Americans, have more than a 25% difference between Asian American, Hispanic and African American student TAKS scores. Those campuses (Campus 2 and Campus 4) that had reported Asian American TAKS scores had highest campus scores among the five campuses, and the highest Hispanic and African American passing rates. The total mean for the ratings of the minority groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics and African Americans) with respect to parental involvement is 25.29, time spent on homework is 9.63, individual study modes is 11.14 and group study mode is 8.22. In Table 4.2, the means among gender, minority group and the factors tested are shown.

57 Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics (Compare Means) on Parental involvement, Time Spent on Homework, Frequency of Individual Study Modes, and Frequency Group Study Modes based on Ethnicity and Gender _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Factors Parental Involvement Time Spent on Homework (Hours per week) Frequency of Individual Study Modes Gender Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Asian American 27.70 (N=10) 20.67 (N=9) 24.37 (N=19) 9.55 (N=11) 10.33 (N=9) 9.90 (N=20) 12.64 (N=11) 11.89 (N=9) 12.30 (N=20) Hispanic 23.62 (N=122) 24.06 (N=101) 23.82 (N=223) 9.02 (N=124) 9.38 (N=100) 9.18 (N=224) 10.24 (N=129) 11.24 (N=103) 10.76 (N=232) African American 25.65 (N=146) 26.42 (N=177) 26.08 (N=323) 10.14 (N=148) 9.63 (N=189) 9.86 (N= 337) 10.86 (N=152) 11.74 (N=193) 11.36 (N=345)

Frequency of Male 8.00 (N=11) 8.05 (N=129) 7.88 (N=152) Groups Study Female 12.89 (N=9) 8.73 (N=103) 8.34 (N=193) Modes Total 10.20 (N=20) 8.35 (N=232) 8.12 (N=345) _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Asian American males and African American females tend to have more parental involvement than any other gender and minority group pairing. In the area of time spent on homework, African American males and Asian American females tend to spend more time on their homework. When the students from the minority groups study, Asian American males and females study individually most often than any other pairings, even though Asian American females study most often in groups than individually. Hispanic males study in groups more than

58 any other male groups studied. When looking at the minority groups with the genders combined, African American (26.08) students tend to have more parental involvement than Asian American (24.37) and Hispanic (23.82) students. Asian American (9.90) students also spend more time studying than any other minority group. When modes of study are considered, Asian Americans tend to study most often in groups (10.20) and individually (12.30) than Hispanic and African American students. Although there are differences in the means of the minority groups, gender and the factors being tested, it is important to investigate the statistical significance of the factors among the groups. This statistical significance between groups is detailed in Table 4.3. Table 4.3 One-Way ANOVA on Parental Involvement, Times Spent on Homework, Frequency of Individual Study Modes, and Frequency of Group Study Modes Factors Parental Involvement df 2 563 565 2 579 581 2 595 597 2 595 597 Sig. 0.005*

Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups

Time Spent on Homework Frequency of Individual Study Modes Frequency of Group Study Modes

0.041*

0.336

Total Between Groups Within Groups Total *P is significant at the .05 level

0.102

59 The statistical significance of the differences were located between Hispanic and African Americans regarding parental involvement and time spent on homework. The statistical significance among Asian American, African American and Hispanic students is revealed in Table 4.4. Table 4.4 One-Way ANOVA (Mean Difference) on Parental Involvement and Time Spent on Homework based on Ethnicity Factors Parental Involvement Ethnicity Asian American Hispanic African American Hispanic Asian American African American Time Spent on Homework Asian American Hispanic African American Hispanic Asian American African American *The mean difference is significant at the .05 level. 0.72 0.05 -0.72 -0.67* 0.31 0.70 0.31 0.01* Mean Difference Sig.

.55 -1.72 -0.55 -2.26*

0.78 0.37 .78 .001*

Among the three minority groups, there are no statistically significant differences with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, individual study modes and group study modes. However, there is a statistically significant difference between Hispanic and African American students with respect to parental involvement and time spent on homework. The differences that do exist are very small, and may not have any impact on the academic achievement of the low performing students. Although there are differences among the factors and the minority groups

60 studied, the amount of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes that the students endure are low. Not one minority group has a significant amount of difference of each factor. Instead, the amount of each factor, with respect to each minority group, covers the low end of the questionnaire responses. Tables 4.5 – 4.8 detail this phenomenon. Table 4.5 details the individual questions and the mean, standard deviation and the significant levels of the students’ responses in the parental involvement section of the questionnaire by comparing means and using a one-way ANOVA. Table 4.5 One-Way ANOVA and Comparing Means of Parental Involvement Among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire (N=566) Parental Involvement Questions Ethnicity Mean 3.10 3.04 3.24 2.75 3.23 3.38 2.55 1.83 2.15 Std. Deviation 1.29 1.35 1.52 1.33 1.57 1.60 1.82 1.21 1.42 .011* 0.178 Sig. 0.001 *

How often did your Asian/Pacific Islander parents/guardians read to you when you were a child? Hispanic African American In elementary, how often did your parents/guardians visit the school to assist teachers and other educators with schoolrelated activities? How often did your parents/guardians select your teachers? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American

61 Table 4.5 continuation One-Way ANOVA and Comparing Means of Parental Involvement Among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire (N=566) Parental Involvement Questions How often did your parents/guardians attend parent conferences concerning you with teachers and other school officials about something negative? How often did your parents/guardians attend parent conferences concerning you with teachers and/or other school officials about something positive? How often did your parent/ guardians attend academic or extra-curricular events in which you were involved? Ethnicity Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How often did your parents/guardians impose time limits on activities that did not deal with school assignments or activities? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American Mean 2.70 2.74 3.00 Std. Deviation 1.72 1.58 1.65 Sig. .000

3.11 3.21 3.64

1.37 1.56 1.64

.000

3.75 3.49 3.90 2.75 2.82 2.87

1.83 1.73 1.73 1.55 1.46 1.55

.000

.422

*P is significant at the 0.05 level In the parental involvement section on the questionnaire, the responses of the Asian Americans,

62 Hispanics, and African American respondents had a mean that was centered around the responses of “3: sometimes” and “2: rarely.” With this in mind, the parental involvement among the Asian Americans, Hispanic, and African American students varied slightly. However, there is a statistically significant difference between Hispanic and African American students with respect to parental involvement. For some questions, each minority group reported more parental involvement in some questions more frequently than the others. Nonetheless, parental involvement among minority groups does not differ by much. In Table 4.6, Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students reported not having spent much time studying homework in their core subject areas of English, Math, Science, and Social Studies. There are statistically significant differences between in the area of time spent on homework; specifically between Hispanic and African American students. All responses to studying homework had a combined mean that centered around the response of “1: 0-4 hours.” The students also reported not having a specified time study or complete work. Another, element of this area is that the respondents spend more time participating in activities that are not school related. These activities could include, watching television or talking on the telephone. For this question, the mean of the responses by the Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students was “4: often and 3: sometimes.” In Table 4.6, the mean, standard deviation and the significance level of the respondents’ answers to the Time Spent on Homework section of the questionnaire are exhibited. There are small variations in the amount of time minority students spend on homework. Most of the time they have outside of school is spent doing activities that are non-school related.

63 Table 4.6 One-Way ANOVA and Compare Means of Time Spent on Homework Among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire (N=582) Time Spent on Homework Questions Ethnicity Mean 1.65 1.63 1.70 African American How many hours per week do you presently spend doing English homework? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic 1.40 African American How many hours per week do you presently spend doing Math homework? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic 1.43 African American How many hours per week do you presently spend doing Science homework? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic 1.37 African American 0.87 1.30 1.33 0.65 0.74 0.170 0.92 1.40 1.45 0.75 0.83 0.014* 0.83 1.50 1.31 0.68 0.67 0.078* Std. Deviation 0.48 0.48 0.45 Sig. 0.034*

Did you have a specified time Asian/Pacific to study or complete Islander homework? Hispanic

64 Table 4.6 continuation One-Way ANOVA and Compare Means of Time Spent on Homework Among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire (N=582) Time Spent on Homework Questions How many hours per week do you presently spend doing Social Studies homework? Ethnicity Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How often did you participate Asian/Pacific in activities that were not Islander school related? Hispanic African American *P is significant at the 0.05 level Considering the fact that Asian American, Hispanic and African American students spent between 0-4 hours studying English, Math, Science and Social Studies, it is important to know how they study. Table 4.7 and 4.8 explain how frequently Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students study individually or in groups for each core subject area—English, Math, Science and Social Studies. Mean 1.55 1.37 1.48 4.15 3.78 4.17 Std, Deviation 0.94 0.85 1.02 1.42 1.55 1.58 .000* Sig. 0.210

65 Table 4.7 One-Way ANOVA and Compare Means of Frequency of Individual Study Modes Among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire (N=598) Frequency of Individual Study Modes Questions How frequently do you study English alone? Ethnicity Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How frequently do you study Math alone? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How frequently do you study Science alone? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How often to do you study Social Studies alone? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American *P is significant at the 0.05 level Mean 2.90 2.77 2.99 3.40 2.78 2.77 3.15 2.56 2.69 2.85 2.67 2.90 Std. Deviation 1.48 1.52 1.75 1.56 1.60 1.69 1.46 1.60 1.64 1.49 1.63 1.76 0.638 0.346 0.580 Sig. 0.304

When studying each core subject area alone, each minority group reported to studying alone, “2:

66 rarely and 3: sometimes.” There are small differences in what subject the minority groups study alone. For example, Asian American students study Science and Math alone more often than English and Social Studies; whereas African Americans study English and Social Studies alone more often than Science and Math. Hispanic students tend to study English and Math alone more often than Science and Social Studies. Like the other factors, there may be some differences in how frequently the minority students study each core subject alone, but the differences continue to be slight. Table 4.8 One-Way ANOVA and Compare Means of Frequency of Group Study Modes Among Ethnic Groups Questionnaire (N=598) Frequency of Group Study Mode Questions How often do you study English in a group? Ethnicity Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How often do you study Math in a group? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American How often do you study Social Studies in a group? Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic African American *P is significant at the 0.05 Level. Mean 2.30 2.11 2.03 3.00 2.24 2.06 2.35 1.96 2.02 Std. Deviation 1.21 1.24 1.22 1.94 1.39 1.30 1.30 1.18 1.33 0.428 0.022* Sig. 0.555

67 When Asian American, Hispanic and African Americans study each core subject area in groups, the frequency is similar to the frequency of studying the core subject areas alone. The respondents mean for each frequency of group study mode question was centered on the responses of “2: rarely and 3: sometimes.” According to the mean in Tables 4.6 and 4.7, it is important to note that most minority students prefer studying alone than in groups. However, when they do study in groups, Asian Americans tend to study the subjects of Math and Science more often in groups than English and Social Studies, Hispanic students study Math and English in groups more often than Science and Social Studies, and African Americans study English and Math in groups more often than Science and Social Studies. Summary The study utilized a quantitative design to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to the factors of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. It also sought to acknowledge their academic success on the Texas state standardize, achievement test (TAKS test) to compare the factors to the academic achievement among minority groups. A Likert-type questionnaire that contained 26 questions divided unequally among five sections, Demographics (4 questions), Parental Involvement (8 questions), Time Spent on Homework (6 questions), Frequency of Individual Study Modes (4 questions) and Frequency of Group Study Modes (4 questions). Each question, with the exception of four questions, was weighted on a 6 point scale: 1: never, 2: rarely, 3: sometimes, 4: often, 5: very often, and 6: very often. The respondents of the questionnaire consisted of Asian American, Hispanic, African

68 American, White, and Native American 18-year old high school seniors from 5 different urban high school campuses in the state of Texas. However, the questionnaires of the Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students were used. The responses from the 713 questionnaires were inputted SPSS and descriptive statistics and One-way ANOVAs for each factor and minority group were calculated. The descriptive statistics identified the differences in means and standard deviation for each factor and minority group. The one-way ANOVA identified the level of differences that existed among the minority groups with respect to the factors of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes with the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. The analysis in the study resulted in not-rejecting the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis regarding the parental involvement and time spent on homework of Hispanic and African American students were rejected. Ho1 – There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on English homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Reject—Parental Involvement and Time Spent on English Homework between Hispanic and African American Students. Not Reject—Frequency of Individual and Group Study Modes) Ho2 - There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on Mathematics homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Reject—Parental Involvement and Time Spent on Mathematics Homework

69 between Hispanic and African American Students. Not Reject—Frequency of Individual and Group Study Modes) Ho3 - There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on Science homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Reject—Parental Involvement and Time Spent on Science Homework between Hispanic and African American Students. Not Reject—Frequency of Individual and Group Study Modes) Ho4 - There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to self-reported parental involvement, time spent on Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Reject—Parental Involvement and Time Spent on Social Studies Homework between Hispanic and African American Students. Not Reject—Frequency of Individual and Group Study Modes) In conclusion, there are no statistically significant differences among Asian American and Hispanic students as well as Asian American and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. There is, however, a statistically significant difference among Hispanics and African Americans with regard to parental involvement and time spent on homework. Although there are no statistically significant differences; slight differences exist among the minority students with respect to the factors tested. For example, according to Table 4.2, African American students have more parental involvement than Hispanic and Asian

70 Americans, but the difference was not significant, Asian Americans tend to study more than Hispanics and African Americans and each group prefers to study individually; however, the minority students study each core subject area differently with respect to frequency and modes. If the minority students’ responses to the questionnaire have any bearing on their academic success, then the factors tested in the study, parental involvement, time spent on homework, individual study modes and group study modes, may impact the academic achievement of Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students.

Chapter V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summary The study aimed to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. Literature suggested that some Asian American students enjoy academic achievement due to the amount of parental involvement included their educational career. African Americans and Hispanics, on the other hand, did not have as much parental involvement; therefore, they suffered academically. Other factors that the literature explained as having an impact on the academic achievement of Asian American students were time spent on homework and the frequency in the mode of study. All three out of the four areas were performed more often by Asian Americans than Hispanics and African Americans. However, the data showed no statistically significant difference among the minority with respect to the factors tested; except in the areas of parental involvement and time spent on homework between Hispanic and African American students. The research questions that guided this study are: 1. How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes? 2. What are the differences when studying English, Math, Science, and Social Studies among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes and time 71

72 spent doing homework? Based on the research questions, the following Null Hypotheses were formed: Ho1 – There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on English homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to research question 1 and 2) Ho2 - There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Math homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to research question 1 and 2) Ho3 - There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Science homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to research question 1 and 2) Ho4 - There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. (Refers to research question 1 and 2) Summary of Findings The purpose of the study was to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with regard to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. It is

73 possible that subgroups that exist within each minority group had influence on the outcome of the study. However, the study focused only on the broad minority groups. In the region of Texas where this study was conducted, the prominent subgroups are Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean Japanese, Mexicans, Latin and South Americans, Haitians and Nigerians. The students’ scores on the TAKS test were used to acknowledge the differences in academic success among the minority groups. The factors tested in the study may have bearing on the students’ academic success as shown by the students’ TAKS test scores. Quantitative data was collected by way of a questionnaire and analyzed using one-way ANOVA to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. The results obtained from the questionnaire and completed by the student respondents indicated that though there are no statistically significant differences in the parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes among the minority groups, there are a statistically significant differences in the parental involvement and time spent on homework of Hispanic and African American students once a one-way ANOVA was administered on the data. The students’ TAKS scores indicated a significant difference in passing rates among the minority groups. Therefore, the results from the questionnaire may explain the variance in the TAKS scores among the races. Although the study found that there were no statistically significant difference among the minority groups with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes, there some slight differences as

74 noted in Chapter IV Findings. Due to the findings in Chapter IV, the researcher made the following conclusions: 1. Asian American students reportedly study Science and Math alone more often than English and Social Studies; whereas African Americans reportedly study English and Social Studies alone more often than Science and Math. Hispanic students reportedly tend to study English and Math alone more often than Science and Social Studies. 2. When studying in groups, Asian Americans reportedly tend to study the subjects of Math and Science more often than English and Social Studies, Hispanic students reportedly study Math and English in groups more often than Science and Social Studies, and African Americans reportedly study English and Math in groups more often than Science and Social Studies. 3. Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students reported not having spent much time studying homework in their core subject areas of English, Math, Science, and Social Studies. However, most of the time they have outside of school is spent doing activities that are non-school related. 4. The parental involvement among the Asian Americans, Hispanic, and African American students varied slightly. However, there is a statistically significant difference between Hispanic and African American students with respect to parental involvement. 5. Asian American males and African American females reportedly tend to have more parental involvement than any other gender and ethnic group relationships.

75 Although as a group, African Americans reportedly have more parental involvement. 6. Asian American males and females reportedly study individually most often than any other groupings even though Asian American females study most often in groups than individually. Hispanic males reportedly study in groups more than any other male group studied. Discussion Based on the research that was conducted, the small differences that do exist among the minority groups with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes, are not enough to determine which factor impacts the academic achievement of Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students. The results of the study may be a result of the like socio-economic statuses among the minority groups. The TAKS passing rates among the minority groups have great variance, and to determine which factor could have impacted those scores the most would be reduced only to a guess because the small variance among those factors. The difference in cultural and social beliefs and values may contribute to or hinder the academic achievement of the minority groups. The literature mentioned that the Confucianism belief and values that are strong in the Asian American community may have a strong impact on their drive to succeed. What is unfortunate is the fact that African American males study more than any other group; however, they continue to be low-performing. Therefore, other factors may be responsible for the academic success of the minority groups.

76 Recommendations The research gathered in this study indicated that there was no statistically significant difference among Asian American and Hispanic students as well as Asian American and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. There was, however, a statistically significant differences between Hispanic and African American students with respect to parental involvement and time spent on homework. It is evident that minority students have similar influence from the factors. The following are recommendations for individuals involved in the field of education, such as principals, superintendents, legislators, commissioners, parents, and foundations that donate money to educational needs: 1. Many students do not know how to study effectively, therefore they do not study. Teachers may need to implement the use of effective study habits in order for students to learn content at their optimal level. 2. Even though parents may feel uncomfortable or apprehensive about getting involved in their child’s school and education, parents need to take an active, participatory role in the education of their child. When schools attempt to reach out to parents, parents need to be willing to meet schools half way. A good way for parents to help out with their child’s education is for them to ask their child to explain their homework or daily activities at school to them to evaluate their child’s understanding of what they are learning. Parents also need to keep in mind that it is their job to raise their children and the school’s job to educate their children. 3. Policies and standards that are created and implemented on the state and district

77 levels need to always accommodate the students and not the interest or agenda of lobbyists, bureaucrats, or unions. Also when creating state test, the understanding that not all students are the same need to be taken into account. For example, not every student comes from homes that are highly educated, two-parent, uppermiddle to upper class that expose their children to items outside their neighborhoods. 4. When donating money, educational foundations that award grants need to ensure that the programs that a district is implementing serves an intricate detail in the education of all students. For example, grants to enhance the teaching and understanding of a core subject area, attract minorities to core subject areas that otherwise they would knot approach, such as calculus or anatomy. Districts and schools need to search and apply for grants that cater to the intricate issues that affect all of their students. 5. The standardized tests that are used in education need to be modified to adequately test students of every race, ethnicity and background. The standardized tests should not be so demanding that educators and districts only teach students how to take that particular test, and spend money to improve teachers’ ability to teach how to take a test and students’ ability to take a test. Recommendations for Further Study In accordance with the results on the study, the researcher recommends the following for further study: 1. A study should be conducted to investigate individual test scores to be compared

78 to the impact of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes on individual students. 2. The study should also include a qualitative component such as interviews to introduce the importance of cultural and social beliefs and values on minority students’ education. 3. A study should also be conducted to investigate a difference among minority groups in urban and rural school districts with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes with a comparison of cultural and social beliefs and values between the students enrolled in the urban and suburban school districts. 4. A study should also be conducted to include a qualitative component of parents and their children and their insight on what impacts the academic achievement of their child based on parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, cultural and social beliefs and values. Conclusion In conclusion, according the data, there are no statistically significant differences among Asian American and Hispanic students as well as Asian American and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes. There are statistically significant differences between Hispanic and African American students with respect to parental involvement and time spent on homework. Although there are no statistically significant differences among Asian

79 American and Hispanic students as well as Asian American and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes, Asian American students continue to outperform Hispanic and African American students academically, according to the TAKS test.

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81 Decoker, G. (2002). National standards and school reform in Japan and the United States. Williston, VT: Teachers College Press. Doan, K. (2006, Summer). A Sociocultural perspective on at-risk Asian-American students. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(3), 157-167. EdSource Online. (1999). Peers, parents and schools: How they affect school achievement. Retrieved February 2, 2006, from EdSource Online Website: http://www.edsource.org/pub_edfct_peers.cfm Ellington, L. (2001). Japanese Education in Grades K-12. ERIC Digest. Retrieved January 22, 2006, from ERIC Educational Database. Elmasry, Faiza (2005, December 28). Why do Asian American students excel in school?. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from IMDiversity.com website: http://www.imdiversity.com/villages/asian/education_academia_study/voa_asian_achieve Epstein, J. et al. (2002). School, family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Epstein, J. L., & Sanders, M. G. (2002). Family, school, and community partnerships: Vol. 5. Handbook of parenting: Practical issues in parenting (M. H. Bornstein ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Farkas, G. (2002). Racial disparities and discrimination: what do we know, how do we know we know it and what do we need to know. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 1119 - 1146. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from ERIC Educational database.

82 Flaxman, E. (2003). Closing the achievement gap: two views from current research. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, 3, 1-5. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from, ERIC Educational database. Freeman, J. (1995). What's right with schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, 93, 1-5. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from, ERIC Educational database. Gordon, E. & Smiley, T. (2006). The Covenant. Chicago, IL: Third World Press. Gregory, S. (2000). The academic achievement of minority students. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Herrington, D. (1993). Barriers, influences and leadership of selected Mexican American administrators in south Texas education from 1970-1990. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from, Proquest database. Hawkins, J., & Cummings, W. (2000). Transnational competence. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Hirschman, C. & Wong, M. (1986). The extraordinary attainment of Asian Americans: a search for historical evidence & explanations. Social Forces, 65(1), 1-27. Retrieved January 28, 2006, from, ERIC Educational database. Hollinger, D. (2006, March). Race, politics, and the census. The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. B6. Horvat, E. & O’Conner, C. (2006). Beyond acting white: Reframing the debate on black student achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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88 Appendix A

89

90 Appendix B

91

92

93 APPENDIX C

94 What Influenced Your Academic Achievement? The purpose of this survey is to look at the factors that have influenced your academic achievement. It will take a few minutes to complete and will be completely confidential. Results will be compiled and available upon request. 1. What race do you identify? A. White B. Hispanic C. African American D. Asian/Pacific Islander E. Native American 2. What grade are you currently enrolled? A. 12th grade B. 11th grade – early graduate C. 11th grade D. 10th grade What is your gender? A. Male B. Female What class are you completing this questionnaire? A. Government B. Government Honors C. Government Advanced Placement D. Economics E. Economics - Honors F. Economics - Advanced Placement

3.

4.

95 Section II. Parental Involvement: Please circle the response that most closely describes your parents’/guardians’ involvement in your educational career. (1: Never, 2: Rarely, 3: Sometimes, 4: Often, 5: Very Often, 6: Always)

96 Sometimes Very Often

Never 1. How often did your parents/guardians read to you when you were a child? 2. In elementary, how often did your parents/guardians visit the school to assist teachers and other educators with school-related activities? 3. How often did your parents/guardians select your teachers? 4. How often did your parents/guardians assist you with your homework and other school –related activities? 5. How often did your parents/guardians attend parent conferences concerning you with teachers and other school officials about something negative? 6. How often did your parents/guardians attend parent conferences concerning you with teachers and/or other school officials about something positive? 7. How often did your parent/ guardians attend academic or extracurricular events in which you were involved? 8. How often did your parents/guardians impose time limits on activities that did not deal with school assignments or activities?

Rarely

Often

Always

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

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6

1

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6

1

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4

5

6

Additional Comments about your Parent's Involvement in your Education Part III. Time Spent on Task: Please circle the response that most closely describes the time you spent on task that impacted your educational career. (1: 0-4 hours 2: 5-9 hours 3: 10-14 hours 4: 15-19 hours 5: 20-24 hours, 6: 25 +)

97 1. Did you have a specified time to study or complete homework? A. Yes B. No 0-4 Hours 2. How many hours per week do you presently spend doing English homework? 3. How many hours per week do you presently spend doing Math homework? 4. How many hours per week do you presently spend doing Science homework? 5. How many hours per week do you presently spend doing Social Studies homework? 6. How often did you participate in activities that were not school related? 1 1 1 1 1: Never 6-9 Hours 2 2 2 2 2: Rarely 10-14 Hours 3 3 3 3 3:Som etimes 15-19 Hours 4 4 4 4 4: Often 20-24 Hours 5 5 5 25 + Hours 6 6 6

5 6 5:Very 6: Often Always

Part IV. Frequency of Individual Study Modes: Please circle the response that most closely describes the study modes you used most often that impacted your educational career. (1: Never, 2: Rarely, 3: Sometimes, 4: Often, 5: Very Often, 6: Always) Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very Often Always

1. How frequently do you study English alone? 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. How frequently do you study Math alone? 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. How frequently do you study Science alone? 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. How often to do you study Social Studies alone? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Part V. Frequency of Group Study Modes: Please circle the response that most closely describes the study modes you used most often that impacted your educational career. (1: Never, 2: Rarely, 3: Sometimes, 4: Often, 5: Very Often, 6: Always)

98 Sometimes 3 3 3 3 Very Often 5 5 5 5

Never 5. How often do you study English in a group? 6. How often do you study Math in a group? 7. How often do you study Science in a group? 8. How often do you study Social Studies in a group? 1 1 1 1

Rarely 2 2 2 2

Often 4 4 4 4

Always 6 6 6 6

99 Appendix D

100

101 Vita