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(Region II) is located in the northeast portion of the main island and also covers the Batanes and Babuyan islands to the north. The valley is surrounded by the Cordillera Central and Sierra Madre mountain ranges. Running through its center is the country's longest river, Cagayan River. Its provinces are Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino. The region's administrative center is Tuguegarao City. ISNEG HOUSE-Cordillera, Apayao y In the rugged landscape of the Cordillera, Apayao is the only region that has a navigable river, the Apayao, after which the region is named. Thus, among the Cordillera people, only the Isneg are boatmen and boat builders. The Isneg boat, barana y or bank l, consists mainly of three planks; a bottom plank, which tapers at both ends, and two side planks, which are curved to receive the bottom plank y The posts, girders, joists and walls are of wood; the roof is of thatch or bamboo. Most Cordillera houses have pyramidal or hip roofs; the Isneg house, like the Lower Kalinga house, has a gable roof. Some Isneg houses have annexes at both ends. y A ladder leads to a door on one end of the side wall, actually the front. In some houses the entrance opens at the gable and under the protection of a lean-to roof. y Along the gable edges thick boards are mortised on to the beam and purlin ends. Where the atobtobo post stands, two beams are attached to these gable boards: one at the bottom, the other halfway to the roof ridge. Both beams are rabbeted to receive wall boards, but the space above the upper gable beam is left open. y At the other end of the house, where the annex is attached, cogon grass pressed between a pair of frames made of reeds covers the gable s upper half. The annex s lean-to roof covers the lower half. In some areas, the roof covering consists of half-sections of bamboo laid on like shingles. The roof is quite thick, having as many as 15 to 20 rows of bamboo sections with wide overlaps. A narrow, flat roof of bamboo covers the roof ridge y Inside the house the space expands because the walls slant outward. No ceiling hides the roof s woodwork. The space immediately visible within corresponds completely with the external form of the house. The floor, made of reeds, seems transparent, as light filters through, suffusing the house with a gentle glow. The floor is a space surrounded by space. The main section, datag orxassaran, is surrounded on three sides by narrow, slightly raised platform, tamuyon, and at the remaining end by the slightly raised floor of the annex. y Of the 15 posts of the Isneg house, eight sinit or inner posts support the floor six inner posts for the main section of the house, and two additional ones for the annex. Six other posts, the adixi, carry the roof and one, the atobtobo, supports one end of the ridge pole. y The six inner sinit posts, there on each side, support the girders running lengthwise. Laths are mortised onto 11 floor joists which run crosswise across the girders. As among the Kalinga, mats made of reeds form the floor and can be rolled up and washed. The floor frame is so constructed that it accommodates the lateral platform and allows wallboards to be removed
Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos, Chan, Javier, Libiran, Tapdasan |1
falig.00 m. however. Tapdasan |2 .50 m. Houses are generally located near the river. It has been suggested that the octagonal houses were houses of the rich. the four diagonal walls being shorter than the front. a ladder connects it to the ground. Javier. hipped roof is not high and steep. It projects about 1. which marks the axis of the house. In front and at the back. in order to prevent misfortune. since its features are not strongly defined.50 m. the wooden walls end at height of about 2.75 m. This. like a dam. above ground level. As in the Ifugao house. Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos. BONTOC HOUSE y The Bontoc house. 5. in settlements along the Chico River. y The roof. and the eaves form a rough edged circle. and from there on to the roof ridge horizontally laid bamboo slats cover the gables. The floor is divided into three parallel sections running front to back. The octagonal form is not clearly pronounced in the wooden and bamboo walls.00 m. At one side of the entrance a large portion of the floor is eliminated to provide a working space that reaches from ground level to roof height. the only house type in the region. and from floor to eaves level are of vertically set wooden boards. y The traditional house in Lower Kalinga is about 6. may be disputed. y The basic form is like that of the Ifugao house. the roof is hipped with the ridge parallel to the front. is about 3. y The interior of the octagonal house is remarkable for its spatial concept and organization. beyond the sidings of the ground floor that ends at 1. however. as it were. above the ground and about 2.20 m. wide and 5. fayu. the central portion being lower than the sides. since the corners are not all floored over. The floor is not a perfect octagon. which suggests expansion rather than enclosure y The exterior of the octagonal house does not have the architectural impact of other Cordillera houses. above the ground.20 m.50 m. of moderate pitch. It has also been suggested that the octagonal house is the older type. in frontage and 4. Chan. As one sits inside the Kalinga binayon the walls and roof seems to form a dome-like and even spherical space. and the living quarters are on ground level.. and the roof ridge.PH 423: Written Report | NORTH LUZON HOUSES | KALINGA HOUSE y The octagonal house called binayon or finaryon is found in Upper Kalinga. wide. The octagonal house is about 6. Libiran. The eight sides are more clearly defined inside the house than outside because of the exposed structural frame of walls and roof. long and 5. square. y The roof is gabled and its ridge is parallel to the sides of the house.20 m. does not follow the downstream flow of the river. The height from the ground to the roof ridge is about 4. may be of thatch or bamboo. except that the house cage serves as a granary. The walls from ground to floor level are of horizontally laid bamboo poles. The floor rises about 1.00 m. the walls of the house cage support the roof. The thatched.50 m. Rectangular houses are just as common.50 m. if not more common.50 m. crossing it. high from ground to roof ridge. back and side walls. The granary.00 m.20 to 1. but rather lies crosswise. The roof s inner configuration dominates the interior space. is about 1. resting on threejoists-on-two girders-on-four-posts. It is not. above the ground. The floor of the living quarters is 1. long.50 m. y The Kalinga house is not an equilateral octagon.
carrying two transverse girders (kuling) which support three floor joists into which the floor-boards (dotal) are fitted and wallboards (gaob and pamadingan) and studs (bagad) are mortised. sophisticated in its deceptive simplicity. "center". y The second level is the house cage. The four studs.30 m. Beyond this area. and may well serve as the prototype of the Southern Strain. and the outer two are mundilig. between the two left posts of the granary and bounded at the rear by a low interior wall. if fitted on each post a few centimeters below the girder. it is elevated to about shoulder height by four posts (tukud). These queenposts terminate in a small square (ambubulan) which supports the Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos. halipan. The first level of structure consists of a stone pavement. It is typical of the exactness of Ifugao construction that the three floor joists are designated by different terms indicative of their purpose-the center one is the gawaan.60 m. Chan. is an area containing a fireplace and a shelf along the outer wall for jars. y Although the upper frame of the house cage is above head level. the roof slopes downward beyond the upper frame of the cage to floor level and the section from head to level to waist height serves as the upper complement of the wall boards. underneath are chicken cages y y IFUGAO HOUSE y The Ifugao house may be visualized as a three-level structure. y In contrast. and at the rear by a stone wall of the same height. lashed to the outer posts. that is. extends outwards from the top of the wall boards to the underside of the roof and forms a recess that circumscribes the interior y The Ifugao house (Fig. the wall boards rise from the floor to chest or waist height. high and 3. a verb meaning the patting motion made with opposed hands to pack something together. roof frame. On the right side of the entrance. four posts and girders. Thus the house is a cage resting on stilts and a roof resting on the cage. whose perimeter coincides with the edge of the eaves. long and 1. placed at the corners of the house. Libiran. an opening well protected by eaves. leaving a continuous opening from waist to head level.PH 423: Written Report | NORTH LUZON HOUSES | y y The extent of the roof necessitates additional posts. a platform about . which serves as a rat guard. around which are fitted cylindrical wooden rat-guards (halipan). are mortised at their upper end into four tie-beams or purlins (wanan) which form a square to carry much of the weight of the roof as well as a central cross-beam (pumpitolan) on which stand two queenposts (taknang). y A wooden disk. wide extends from the front wall to the rear interior wall. On this platform sit baskets and implements. Javier. The third level comprises the roof. The ground floor is enclosed at the front and sides by horizontal wooden boards up to waist height. Tapdasan |3 . y Square in floor plan. patie. one at each corner to receive the end of each diagonal rafter. A shelf. 2) is compact.20 m. Through the doorway one enters the ground floor called cha-la-nan which includes the space under the granary. walls and floor. they do not frame the house cage nor directly support the roof. y Since the posts of the Ifugao house rise to about shoulder height from ground to girders.
some houses in use today have been occupied for five or six generations.50 m. The grass tied to the very apex of the roof is intended to accomplish this purpose. thereby concealing the house cage. Javier.woven bamboo walls. and in some places an old pot is turned upside-down over the loose thatch at that point. hippef roof with the ridge parallel to the front. The pitch of the roof is the only noteworthy variation from one locality to another. is of little concern. Another obvious disadvantage is the limitation in size attendant upon the traditional architecture. Libiran. above the ground. make a similar house with splitand. and the plank floor. especially the four posts. with periodic reroofing. The Ifugao house is not without its disadvantages.or chest-height. those of Mayaoyao being steepest and those of Kiangan being most shallow. but the storage space above and the working space below are inconveniently cramped. steep.50 m. for a roof thatched tightly enough to keep out to the rain but loosely enough to let smoke escape is an impossible compromise. Tapdasan |4 . and entrance is gained by means of a ladder which is removed at night. and even the swidden-farming Kadasans of the Benguetbordering western mountains. where cooking and sleeping occur. at which point a shelf (patie) is fitted between them and the roof. and the house cage in turn rests on a three joists-on-two girders-on-four posts structure. however. but the same basic building with a few modifications-the wall-boards extend up to the roof. preferably hardwood. These disadvantages have to some extentbeen alleviated in the houses of Bontoc and Lepanto y y y y y y KANKANAI y The Kankanai house has a high. Above the tiebeams a reed floor or platform is often fitted to make an attic-like storage space (palan) for unthreshed rice. his family will live in the same restricted space in each of them. Wooden panels close doorways on two opposite sides of the house.000 by 4. for in the Mountain Province generally parents do not share the same bedchamber as members of the next generation beyond the age of earliest innocence. to about 1. and the whole thing is smallerserves as a rat-proof granary (alang). the whole house is made of heavy hand-hewn timber. The house cage measures about 4. y Around the lower floor is a rough stone pavement. The wall-boards are rabbeted into a transverse beam (huklub) at waist. the roof being a true pyramid in form with four triangular sides and thus rising to an apex without any ridgepole. broad planks laid slightly above ground level form a spacious platform that extends to the line of the eaves. y The roof drops. about 7.00 by 7. Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos.PH 423: Written Report | NORTH LUZON HOUSES | upper ends of the rafters (bughol). Chan. Poorer Ifugaos. With the exception of the reed and grass roofing. y The roof rests on the upper frame of the house cage. for although a wealthy man may build several houses. there is only one door.50 m. and can be expected to last a considerable period of time. This type of house is called bale (or fale). whose eaves descend as low as the level of the floor. y Under the house cage. and one of these is the often eye-smarting smokiness which results from cooking in a fireplace with no chimney. The actual floor space.
These are limited to single story structures. The low roof and small opening serve to keep the house warm and comfortable. the working materials in another and so forth. They are referred to in this paper as: the wood-and-thatch (WT) structures. reeds.Batanes y The composition of the Ivatan heritage house is not just a single structure. They look like the houses of the other mountain ethnic groups. along coastline villages. In addition. They are wider at the ceiling than at the floor area. y The completed house is called dema. y The door is a small round opening. Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos. It is made of a lowhanging heavy thatch of cogon grass. wood studs.00 m. y The structure is made of pine wood laboriously split and cleaned of its trunk.PH 423: Written Report | NORTH LUZON HOUSES | y The height of the house from ground level to roof ridge is slightly over 6. but the Ibaloi house has a longer ridge pole to support the four-sided roof. or a discussion room. y WT (wood-and-thatch) . y Some bigger houses are provided with a wooden platform about two feet high outside the house but close to the wall. A dema usually has two doors and a window and it is a multipurpose structure. As one ascends the teytey (staircase) and enters a house. It is made up of at least two separate buildings: the main house and the kitchen. six or more posts depending on the size of the house. These processed woods are called sinapsapan and the process of building the house is called pinadek (nailed with woods and every part of it filtered to each other). a third structure serving as storage or shed may also exist. The Kankanai house is made of narra or pine IBALOI HOUSE y A typical house of the poorest Ibaloi class is built squat on the ground. Chan. or a combination of these. IVATAN HOUSE. The houses are usually clustered on mountain ridfes or knolls commanding the approaches. Such a structure is a practical necessity in a cold region that lies on the path of typhoons and rains. y Ibalois with exposure to the way of life of the lowlanders have adopted a modified house design. However.These structures use thatch. y The larger houses are for the affluent. Most WT structures are used as storage or kitchen areas. It serves as a storage for valuables. In other cases. Libiran. a bedroom. two major archetypes can be easily identified. and the lime-stone-wood-and-thatch (LSWT) structures. Javier. a dining room. Tapdasan |5 . the WT structures may serve as temporary dwellings during harvest season for fishing and other agricultural activities. a kitchen. wood planks. he will find the weapons in one corner. y The house is generally raised on the ground on four. their buttocks resting on the platform and their backs leaning against the wall of the house. y There are several variations of the Ivatan heritage houses. They are usually smaller and built with less height compared to those made of stone walls. the dresses and blankets in another corner. so small that one has literally to crawl to get in or out. y Members of the family and neighbors sit on the platform with raised folded legs.
16 kilometers west of Bontoc. But a frame consisting of rafters and king posts holds up the roof ridge. the multi-leveled ground floor. the granary has its own wooden gable roof as a protection against rats. and polished to a glossy sheen with a rough hairy leaf called appas which is irritating to the naked skin. high. With or without this additional roof. from ground to eaves and the steep. Stones are piled and bound together by applying lime mortar. yet has its living quarters on ground level. the sleeping area. stone-lined pigpen. moved. the lower level is usually used as storage for food and as shelter for animals. sweet potato. Immediately visible are the wooden walls about 1. Since the granary. the cold wet climate has produced a house that is completely enclosed. A wood floor separates the two levels The LSWT structures are commonly used as the main house and the WT types as the kitchen or the storage and on certain occasions as temporary dwelling during harvest season y y MAYAYAO HOUSE Sagada y The houses of the wealthy in Mayaoyao are made of narra. The whole construction is accomplished by clever mortising without nails or hardware. To the right is a slightly higher wooden platform. a hardwood esteemed in the modern Mountain Province for cabinetmaking. The main roof s king posts rest on the ridge of this wooden roof. and the complete house can be knocked down. extends along the wall from the front wall to the left rear posts of the granary. Chan. support the roof. it is used for storage of agricultural products such as yam. and the like. Tapdasan |6 . as one approaches the entrance. and raised again on a new site within a single day Sagada. thatched. agamang.50 m. wood and charcoal while the upper level is used as the main living quarters. with its work and sleeping areas. The granary s walls.30 m. and its temperatures range from 5°C to 32°C. During the rainy season. During summer. Different stones are used including volcanic. To the left a wooden platform. this type of house is called inagamang. hipped roof. which are about 1.PH 423: Written Report | NORTH LUZON HOUSES | y LSWT (lime-stone-wood-and-thatch) These structures use stones of varying sizes from gravel to boulders. the granary does not have rat guards underneath the girders. is about 1.100 millimeters. metamorphic. Upon entering the house. The Sagada house has a frontage of about 4. basalt. The two major sections are first. the storage area.80 m. is the heart of the structure. Javier.00 m. the upper level granary and second.500 meters above sea level. In some inagamang. part of which is under the house. in turn the rafters are attached to small posts. interlocking edifice. above the ground. The building system allows for a larger floor area and a two-storey frame. is a sunken. To the right.50 m. Libiran. with the ridge parallel to the front and 6. above the floor. the visitor notices a row platforms defined by the posts supporting the granary.10 m. Coral stones are also commonly used particularly in areas close to the sea. Its average annual rainfall is 3. and a depth of 5. forming a strong. about . A wooden plank floor y y y y y Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos.
One enters the house through the main door that is wide enough to accommodate the width of a horsedrawn carriage and the height of carroza (religious icon on a decorated carriage brought out during religious processions) into a zagnan or hall on the ground floor . Light filters in from the slits between the horizontal planks of the exterior wall. the extensive span of clay-tiled roofs and eaves that developed in response to climactic local conditions. Even in the dim interior one can notice and appreciate the sheen and fineness of the wood. The ground floor is characterized by symmetry of space as well as an atmosphere of intimacy. To one side of the kitchen is the bathroom and toilet. which led to thecocina or kitchen. y The rest of the ground floor are used to be rented as shops or used as storage areas . Beyond the platforms and the wooden floor. ending instead in calados or cut-work friezes that enabled breeze to waft through. the Sagada house may be described as a house within a house y VIGAN HOUSES Ancestral Houses y The partitioning of a typical Vigan house is designed for specific purposes. y From the outside. Horses for carriages were housed in stables called caballorezas. y A typical Vigan house has only two to three bedrooms where families slept together as in the pre-colonial wood-and-bamboo bahay kubo. y Partitions between rooms did not reach the ceiling. which in many a Sagada house is not less than narra or pine. Like the Bontoc house whose granary forms the core structure and the living quarters on ground level. y At one end of the living room is the comedor or dining room. was reserved for special functions. often the largest room in the house. Libiran. y The azotea. a long flight of stairs lead to the second floor of the house Bulacan State University|CAFA| Benedictos. the fireplace and work area cover the entire rear section of the ground floor. an extension at the back of the second floor is an outdoor terrace where the residents and their guests repaired to during cool clear nights. Chan. The grand staircase is of two sections: a few steps from the ground floor is a landing where ordinary visitors were received. The sala. a large room where informal entertaining took place. as its visual weight is reduced by the play of girders and joists.ventanillas or smaller windows protected by wooden balusters. y The more important visitors used to be received at the caida or antesala. The granary hangs prominently over the living area without being oppressive. the unique features include the windows made of capiz shells (a type of translucent seashell). Javier.PH 423: Written Report | NORTH LUZON HOUSES | connects the entrance to the rear posts of the granary. Tapdasan |7 .