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Box 876106 Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 Professor William S. Saric 480-965-2822 FAX: 480-965-1384 E-mail: saric@asu.edu http://wtsun.eas.asu.edu

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Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2003. 35:413–40 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ﬂuid.35.101101.161045 Copyright c 2003 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved

**STABILITY AND TRANSITION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY LAYERS
**

William S. Saric1, Helen L. Reed1, and Edward B. White2

1

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106; email: saric@asu.edu, helen.reed@asu.edu 2 Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222; email: ebw@po.cwru.edu

Key Words roughness, nonlinear, saturation, secondary instabilities, rotating disk, swept wing s Abstract The recent progress in three-dimensional boundary-layer stability and transition is reviewed. The material focuses on the crossﬂow instability that leads to transition on swept wings and rotating disks. Following a brief overview of instability mechanisms and the crossﬂow problem, a summary of the important ﬁndings of the 1990s is given.

1. INTRODUCTION

In low-disturbance environments such as ﬂight, boundary-layer transition to turbulence generally occurs through the uninterrupted growth of linear instabilities. The initial conditions for these instabilities are introduced through the receptivity process, which depends on a variety of factors (Saric et al. 2002). There is no shortage of publications in the ﬁeld of boundary-layer stability and transition. Comprehensive reviews for both two- and three-dimensional (3-D) ﬂows are given by Arnal (1994), Mack (1984), and Reshotko (1994). Reed et al. (1996) give an up-to-date discussion of the effectiveness and limitations of linear theory in describing boundary-layer instabilities. The reader is referred to these reports for overviews of much of the early work in stability and transition. Crouch and coworkers (Crouch 1997, Crouch & Ng 2000, Crouch et al. 2001) and Herbert (1997b) have presented analyses of transition with speciﬁc applications to ﬂight. Reed & Saric (1989) review the early theoretical and experimental work in 3-D boundary layers. Swept wings, rotating disks, axisymmetric bodies (rotating cones and spheres), corner ﬂows, attachment-line instabilities, as well as the stability of ﬂows for other 3-D geometries are covered. This historical account and literature survey of the crossﬂow instability are used for references prior to 1989. During the

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past 12 years, most of the progress has occurred in rotating-disk and swept-wing ﬂows, and this review concentrates on these areas. The study of 3-D boundary layers is motivated by the need to understand the fundamental instability mechanisms that cause transition in swept-wing ﬂows. Research has identiﬁed four types of instabilities for these ﬂows: attachment line, streamwise, centrifugal, and crossﬂow. The attachment-line boundary layer can undergo an instability or be subject to contamination by wing-root turbulence; these phenomena are associated with, in general, swept wings with a large leading-edge radius (Hall et al. 1984, Reed & Saric 1989). The streamwise instability gives the familiar Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave in two-dimensional ﬂows (Reshotko 1976, Mack 1984, Reed et al. 1996). Centrifugal instabilities appear over concave regions on the surface and result in the development of G¨ rtler vortices o (Saric 1994). The crossﬂow instability occurs in regions of pressure gradient on swept surfaces or on rotating disks. In the inviscid region outside the boundary layer, the combined inﬂuences of sweep and pressure gradient produce curved streamlines at the boundary-layer edge. Inside the boundary layer, the streamwise velocity is reduced, but the pressure gradient is unchanged. Thus, the balance between centripetal acceleration and pressure gradient does not exist. This imbalance results in a secondary ﬂow in the boundary layer, called crossﬂow, that is perpendicular to the direction of the inviscid streamline. The 3-D proﬁle and resolved streamwise and crossﬂow boundary-layer proﬁles are shown in Figure 1. Because the crossﬂow velocity must vanish at the wall and at the edge of the boundary layer, an inﬂection point exists and provides a source of an inviscid instability. The instability appears as co-rotating vortices whose axes are aligned to within a few degrees of the local inviscid streamlines. Unlike T-S instabilities, the crossﬂow problem exhibits ampliﬁed disturbances that are stationary as well as traveling. Even though both types of waves are present in typical swept-wing or rotating-disk ﬂows, transition is usually caused by either one, but not both, of these waves. Although linear theory predicts that the traveling disturbances have higher growth rates, transition in many experiments is induced by stationary waves. Whether stationary or traveling waves dominate is related to the receptivity process. Stationary waves are more important in low-turbulence environments characteristic of ﬂight, whereas traveling waves dominate in high-turbulence environments (Bippes 1997, Deyhle & Bippes 1996). Stationary crossﬂow waves (v and w disturbances) are typically very weak; hence, analytical models have been based on linear theory. However, experiments often show evidence of strong nonlinear effects (Dagenhart et al. 1989, 1990; Bippes & Nitschke-Kowsky 1990; Bippes et al. 1991; Deyhle et al. 1993; Reibert et al. 1996). Because the wave fronts are ﬁxed with respect to the model and are nearly aligned with the potential-ﬂow direction (i.e., the wavenumber vector is nearly perpendicular to the local inviscid streamline), the weak (v , w ) motion of the wave convects O(1) streamwise momentum producing a strong u distortion

resulting in a spanwise modulation of the mean streamwise velocity proﬁle. decelerated. 1991.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 415 Figure 1 Swept-wing boundary-layer proﬁles. As the distortions grow. An interesting feature of the stationary crossﬂow waves is the creation of secondary instabilities. Wassermann & Kloker 2002). as such. The u distortions created by the stationary wave are time independent. the boundary layer develops an alternating pattern of accelerated. This integrated effect and the resulting local distortion of the mean boundary layer lead to the modiﬁcation of the basic state and the early development of nonlinear effects. . and doubly inﬂected proﬁles. The inﬂected proﬁles are inviscidly unstable and. are subject to a high-frequency secondary instability (Kohama et al. Malik et al. 1994. in the streamwise boundary-layer proﬁle.

The advantage of the rotating disk is the existence of a well-known similarity solution for the basic ﬂow that features a boundary layer of constant thickness. as such. with emphasis on the experimental work and relevant comparisons with computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD). This review focuses on the latest developments.416 SARIC REED WHITE This secondary instability is highly ampliﬁed and leads to rapid local breakdown. the Reynolds number of the lower minimum decreases while that of the upper minimum increases. traveling waves. stationary modes are much less ampliﬁed than traveling modes. Arnal (1997). Faller (1991) explained that the lower-branch modes are typically not observed in experiments both because they have a lower growth rate than those on the upper branch and because. among the lower-branch modes. Because most experiments are better able to detect stationary waves than traveling waves. Linear stability of traveling waves was addressed by Balakumar & Malik (1991). Because transition develops locally. ROTATING DISK The boundary layer on the surface of a rotating disk has been used as a model problem for swept-wing ﬂow because the velocity proﬁles on the disk provide a basic state and stability behavior very similar to that of the swept-wing boundary layer shown in Figure 1. the transition front is nonuniform in span and characterized by a “saw-tooth” pattern of turbulent wedges. and nonlinear behavior. but much remained to be determined about the lower viscous branch. and Kachanov (1996) review the European contributions to stability and transition in 3-D boundary layers and. especially those connected to the upper inviscid branch of the neutral stability curve. The minimum critical Reynolds number over all frequencies is found to be a lower-branch minimum. Reed & Saric (1989) reviewed in detail the progress on the rotating-disk problem through the 1980s. as the frequency increases. the Reynolds number and wave angle associated with the upper-branch minimum do not change signiﬁcantly. who used a parallel-ﬂow approximation and considered the neutral curves at nonzero frequencies. it is natural that slowly . Faller (1991) considered both the upper and lower branches of the rotating-disk neutral curve and found minimum critical Reynoldsnumber behavior equivalent to that found by Malik (1986) for the stationary upperbranch mode and similar to the results obtained by Balakumar & Malik (1991) for the traveling lower-branch mode. but there are large changes at the lower-branch minimum. Bippes (1999). At the time of that review. are companion papers to this work. They found that. Recently. 2. This is in contrast to the upper branch where the ampliﬁcation of stationary waves is nearly equal to the most ampliﬁed traveling waves. For the frequencies examined. a number of analyses and experiments were beginning to provide a good picture of the linear stability of stationary waves. improvements in both experimental techniques and computational methods have opened the door to a new understanding of transition in 3-D boundary layers. For the linear problem.

(1996a) measured traveling and stationary waves on a rotating disk to conﬁrm linear-stability theory (LST) predictions. so the experiments have a relatively high disturbance level. . This appears to be due to the basic-state circumferential velocity not going to zero above the disk as the similarity solution requires. particularly those concerning traveling waves. Although the streamline-curvature instability is destabilized at a much lower Reynolds number than the crossﬂow instability. (2000) also demonstrated that for point-source forcing early growth of streamline-curvature disturbances can suppress the appearance of crossﬂow disturbances that are observed under zero-forcing conditions. 1998) concluded that the streamlinecurvature instability is the source of the lower branch of the neutral curve discussed above. Itoh (1997) calculated that. Because streamlines are highly curved near the symmetry axis in rotating disk ﬂow. A somewhat different approach to the rotating-disk problem is taken in a series of papers by Itoh (1994. 2000). the growth of streamline-curvature modes is larger than that of crossﬂow modes. Itoh (1996. For crossﬂow. (2000). The streamline-curvature instability is unstable at much lower Reynolds numbers than crossﬂow. who used point-source disturbance generators. To address the growth-rate question. and the range of unstable wave numbers decreases as the Reynolds number grows. The agreement between the measurements and theory for the corresponding wavenumber and the disturbance-mode eigenfunctions (Malik 1986) is not as good. in a region unstable to both instabilities. in most experiments the crossﬂow instability is observed. He found that strongly curved inviscid streamlines produce a centrifugal-type instability similar to the G¨ rtler instability on concave o walls (Saric 1994). Jarre et al. In a subsequent experiment. This discrepancy is likely a result of either smaller growth rates or smaller receptivity of the streamline-curvature instability versus the crossﬂow instability. Buck & Takagi (1997). Itoh (1994) formulated the linearstability problem to explicitly include the curvature of the inviscid streamline at the boundary-layer edge. He found that the linearstability neutral curve has two lobes: one for the crossﬂow instability and the other for the streamline-curvature instability. (2000). Buck et al. Takagi et al. Experimental veriﬁcation is also provided by Buck & Takagi (1997) and Takagi et al. (2000) suggested that the suppression may not prevent or delay transition because the large-amplitude streamline-curvature disturbances may lead to turbulence. 1998) investigated whether the streamlinecurvature instability can occur in these boundary layers.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 417 growing traveling disturbances like the lower-branch modes can easily escape detection. 1998). 1996. the unstable wave-number range increases with increasing Reynolds number past the minimum critical value. Itoh (1996. (1996a) found a minimum critical Reynolds number for stationary waves reasonably close to the theoretical predictions. Jarre et al. Buck et al. (1998) conﬁrmed. The ﬂuctuation intensity measured close to the upper-branch stationary-wave neutral point is 2%. (1998. at least qualitatively. Takagi et al. the predictions by Itoh (1997). However. and Buck et al. 1997.

Wave Interactions. Subsequently. This result seems reasonable in light of the related swept-wing experiments discussed below that show that ﬁnite-amplitude crossﬂow waves undergo amplitude saturation. there have been several analytical and experimental investigations of the nonlinear regime.1. Corke & Knasiak (1998) found signiﬁcant growth of very-low-wave-number stationary waves that are obviously not growing according to linear theory. . This conﬂicts with the earlier ﬁnding by Itoh (1985) stating that the instability is supercritical. In the nonlinear regime. In all of the roughness conﬁgurations tested (including no artiﬁcial roughness). Jarre et al. was considered by Balachandar et al.418 SARIC REED WHITE 2. low circumferential wave numbers were produced by triad resonance and grew to at least as large an amplitude as the most ampliﬁed stationary disturbances. growth rate. (1996b) found that the Landau constant is positive. The experiment features a single. meaning that the instability is supercritical. Various tests showed that stationary modes obeyed linear theory in terms of circumferential wave number. Corke & Knasiak (1998) considered nonlinear wave interactions on a rotating disk.5. breakdown of the laminar boundary layer by means of a secondary instability. Nonlinearities. A mechanism for the ﬁnal stage of the transition process. they conﬁrmed a triad resonance. They developed a Landau-type equation for the wave amplitude and found that the Landau constant is negative such that there is a subcritical instability at R < Rc and that disturbance amplitudes go to inﬁnity (in the weakly nonlinear model) in ﬁnite time for R > Rc. Even though the basic state differs from that of the similarity solution as mentioned above. (1996b) conducted a follow-up experiment to their previous work (Jarre et al. who examined the weakly nonlinear behavior of waves near the minimum critical Reynolds number of the upper-branch neutral point. Using the bicoherence of traveling and stationary wave phases. Traveling waves are also well predicted by linear theory. Below 9% amplitude. (1992) using a Floquet approach that considered a steady basic state in the rotating reference frame consisting of the mean ﬂow plus the most ampliﬁed stationary disturbance predicted by linear theory at amplitudes ranging from 6% to 12%. for upper-branch modes. but above this threshold. and mode shape up to a radius of R/Rc ≈ 1. They used a polished disk with various periodic roughness conﬁgurations located near the minimum critical Reynolds number. Jarre et al. a broad band of secondary modes are destabilized with growth rates as high as four times that of the stationary waves of the primary instability. large-amplitude roughness element that generates ﬁnite-amplitude stationary waves. and Secondary Instabilities When the review by Reed & Saric (1989) was published there was only a limited body of work that considered the nonlinear behavior of ﬁnite-amplitude disturbances in rotating-disk boundary layers. Rc. no secondary modes are destabilized. 1996a) that determined the Landau constant from data. In contrast to the results presented by Vonderwell & Riahi (1993) that indicated a negative Landau constant. One of the analytical works was by Vonderwell & Riahi (1993). the results do seem to support at least a qualitative analysis of the Landau equation coefﬁcients.

then the ﬂow is absolutely unstable.625. which prescribes the means to evaluate the Fourier-Laplace integral that arises from considering an initial-boundary-value problem for impulsive forcing in a developing ﬂow. The leading edge of the wave packet convects in the radial direction at an essentially . the spectra do not appear turbulent. The jump occurs exactly in the region of the absolute instability identiﬁed by Lingwood (1995). (1992) claimed that an amplitude of at least 9% would be required to see such behavior and that Lingwood’s (1996) stationary waves only reach 3% prior to transition. The unexcited ﬂow exhibited stationary waves that grew in a manner consistent with LST and led to transitional behavior by R = 514 with fully turbulent behavior observed by approximately R = 600. so this result is not unexpected. This ﬁnding is in good agreement with various rotating-disk experiments. As R is increased. downstream of the jump. The implication of this ﬁnding is that the steady. Balachandar et al.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 419 2. there is a distinct spectral peak associated with the stationary waves and a lower amplitude peak associated with harmonics of the stationary waves. A more compelling demonstration of the existence of the absolute instability comes from Lingwood’s (1996) experiments that include transient forcing. If the group velocity of a disturbance wave packet goes to zero while the temporal growth rate is positive. Perhaps the most important information from the tests without excitation is that the spectra of the time series do not show any evidence of secondary instabilities prior to breakdown.2. Lingwood (1995) applied Briggs’ method by using a parallel-ﬂow approximation and observed a pinch between two neutral branches of the dispersion relationship that yields a positive temporal growth rate at a Reynolds number R ≥ 510. Lingwood (1995) followed Briggs’ method (see Huerre & Monkewitz 1990). Lingwood (1995) concluded that the absolute instability arises from an inviscid mechanism and that the good correlation between the Reynolds-number limit for absolute instability and the experimental transition Reynolds numbers makes a case for transition being triggered by the absolute instability. laminar basic state cannot exist beyond this Reynolds number regardless of the care taken in preparing and conducting the experiment. Absolute Instabilities Perhaps the most important recent development in the study of the rotating-disk problem is the theory by Lingwood (1995) that rotating-disk boundary layers support an absolute instability at R = 510. most of which do not maintain laminar ﬂow much beyond R = 500. the absolutely unstable wave-number range expands and at large R tends toward the limits found for the inviscid case. Lingwood (1996) then performed an experiment on a rotating disk in which stationary-wave development leading to transition was observed with both an unexcited and an excited ﬂow in which a once-per-revolution transient disturbance was introduced near the center of the disk. The other interesting feature of the spectra is that there is an abrupt jump of approximately a factor of 10 in the ﬂuctuation amplitudes at all frequencies when R is between 497 and 514 that is not preceded by any signiﬁcant signs of imminent breakdown to turbulence. In fact.

stationary waves dominate. In low-turbulence ﬂows. Bippes (1997) put into perspective the importance of traveling modes and their dependence on freestream conditions. SWEPT WING 3. if any. and nonlinear behavior occurs rapidly.. then high-frequency secondary instabilities lead to rapid transition. The improved picture of rotating-disk instabilities includes a number of routes to turbulence.1. Deyhle et al. the experimental evidence convincingly shows that for cases with low-amplitude initial disturbances (i. u 1993. traveling modes dominate and linear theory predicts the behavior of the crossﬂow waves. In a series of experiments on swept ﬂat plates (Nitschke-Kowsky & Bippes 1988. M¨ ller 1990. Swept Flat Plate A prototype of the swept wing is a swept ﬂat plate with a pressure body (Saric & Yeates 1985) that could be used to verify the basic aspects of LST. (1993) and Kachanov (1996) developed techniques to create controlled traveling waves within the boundary layer and observed the growth of them. One important problem that remains is to conclusively identify whether the various branches of the instability are subcritical or supercritical. and transition occurs. Taken together. If the disturbance levels are high. the observed wavelength and growth rate of the crossﬂow wave is in general agreement with linear theory (Orr-Sommerfeld solutions). whereas the propagation rate of the trailing edge decreases dramatically as the packet approaches the critical Reynolds number for the absolute instability. The advantage of the ﬂat plate is that the ﬁrst neutral point can be placed away from the leading edge and thus avoiding nonparallel and curvature effects. under conditions of high freestream turbulence. First. as predicted by Lingwood’s earlier analysis. Another unresolved question is what effect.e. The discovery that an absolute instability exists on rotating disks is important because this places a ﬁrm upper bound on the Reynolds numbers for which laminar ﬂow is possible.420 SARIC REED WHITE constant rate. Linear theory was also veriﬁed in this case. 3. In general. Kachanov & Tararykin 1990. the ﬂow becomes absolutely unstable for Reynolds numbers above 510. At higher Reynolds numbers. much remains to be learned. Deyhle et al. especially in regard to nonlinear behavior. If disturbance levels are low and secondary instabilities do not appear. Kachanov 1996). stationary waves dominate. . Despite a better understanding of this basic scenario. high-amplitude traveling disturbances (if they exist) may be ampliﬁed at very low Reynolds numbers. ﬁnite-amplitude disturbances have on the absolute instability. These can lead to turbulence through two distinct mechanisms. low enough to avoid secondary instabilities) disturbances pass from a convective-instability regime for R < 510 to an absolutely unstable regime for R > 510. the mean ﬂow is distorted. thus obviating the linear analysis beyond initial mode selection.

Radeztsky et al. characteristic of the ﬂight environment) is surface roughness.0020. who u translated a swept-ﬂat-plate model relative to a wind-tunnel test section and found that the recurring stationary transition pattern was ﬁxed to the model. In detailing a list of unanswered questions regarding these variations observed in different facilities.2. Receptivity When the paper by Reed & Saric (1989) was published. The instability features they observed had to be related to model roughness rather than . very little was known regarding receptivity of 3-D boundary layers. Owing to space constraints. ROLE OF FREESTREAM FLUCTUATIONS The effect of freestream turbulence on crossﬂow transition was investigated by Deyhle & Bippes (1996). even at amplitudes greater than 100 dB. They found that for the particular model used in those experiments turbulence intensities above Tu = 0. (1999) found that transition behavior on a swept wing is insensitive to sound. The conclusion is that the variations observed by Deyhle & Bippes (1996) at varying levels of Tu are due primarily to variations in the vortical components of the freestream ﬂuctuations and not to the acoustic component. In another experiment.e. but that for lower turbulence levels stationary waves dominated. It was acknowledged that receptivity must play a major role in determining the details of crossﬂow transition because of the wide range of behaviors observed using different models in various experimental facilities. transition was actually delayed relative to low-turbulence cases at the same Reynolds number. “All of this serves notice that stability and transition phenomena are extremely dependent on initial conditions. theoretical. 0. and computational work has made great progress toward an understanding of the applicable receptivity processes [the reader is referred to the review by Bippes (1999) for additional details].. Reed & Saric (1989) concluded. ROLE OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS The receptivity mechanism for the stationary vortices that are important for transition in environments with very-low-amplitude turbulent ﬂuctuations (i. a signiﬁcant research effort that includes experimental. It is surprising to note that for increased turbulence levels where traveling waves dominate but the turbulence intensity is not too high. This behavior indicates that transition results from many wind tunnels may have no bearing on ﬂight results because quite low levels of turbulence are sufﬁcient to generate traveling-wave-dominated behavior. we focus primarily on the recent efforts in this area. who performed transition measurements on a crossﬂow-dominated swept-plate model in a number of different wind-tunnel facilities with varying freestream-turbulence levels. This was conclusively established by M¨ ller & Bippes (1989).” Since then.0015 produced transition behavior dominated by traveling waves.0015 < Tu < 0.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 421 3. counter to the stationary-wave-dominated behavior observed in ﬂight. The explanation for this is that the traveling waves excited by the increased freestream turbulence were sufﬁciently strong to prevent stationary waves from causing transition but were not strong enough to cause transition as quickly as the stationary waves they replaced.

(1999) showed that the characteristics of isolated 3-D roughness elements whose Rek values fall below the bypass-inducing level play a very important role in transition behavior. Other efforts are by Crouch (1993. 1994. roughness arrays and lattices. Radeztsky et al. that the transition location is quite sensitive to roughness height even for roughness Reynolds numbers as low as Rek = 0. (1996) showed that an artiﬁcial distributed roughness array with an amplitude of 6 µm or greater applied near the leading edge produces transition behavior almost completely insensitive to roughness amplitude in the range of 6–50 µm. Crouch (1994) emphasized a framework equally applicable to T-S and crossﬂow disturbances. Some of the more recent include an adjoint equation approach by Fedorov (1989). nonlinear PSE. 1995) and Choudhari (1994). NPSE) approach by Herbert & Lin (1993).1. and a direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach by Spalart (1993). and these well-deﬁned modes generally lead to nonlinear amplitude saturation of the most ampliﬁed wave. Radeztsky et al. Radeztsky et al. The framework of their approaches allows both surface roughness and freestream acoustic disturbances to be considered as disturbance sources. a parabolized stability equation (PSE. who found that for isolated roughness elements the correlation by von Doenhoff & Braslow (1961) describing the limit for bypass transition is correct. Amplitude saturation renders the initial amplitude nearly unimportant so long as it is above a threshold for which saturation occurs prior to transition. (1999) saw a strong roughness-amplitude effect for roughness conditions that did not lead to saturation.422 SARIC REED WHITE to ﬁxed features of the freestream ﬂow generated by nonuniformities of the screens or other effects.25 µm rms increases the transition Reynolds number by 70%. (1999) found that roughness is most effective at generating crossﬂow disturbances at or just upstream of the ﬁrst neutral point. linear PSE. (1996) did not see a strong roughness-amplitude effect for roughness at or above saturation-producing amplitudes. In addition to isolated 3-D roughness.0 µm rms to 0. In other words. Because traveling-wave receptivity scales with two small . LPSE. RECEPTIVITY COMPUTATIONS A number of theoretical and computational approaches to swept-wing crossﬂow receptivity have been applied. and that the roughness diameter must be greater than 10% of the most ampliﬁed stationary wavelength to be effective. Radeztsky et al. (1996). as well as distributed random roughness. whereas Reibert et al. experiments by Reibert et al. In the experiment by Reibert et al. In contrast to this. natural surface roughness can also play a signiﬁcant role in transition location. both consider the receptivity of Falkner-Skan-Cooke boundary layers as perturbations of a parallel boundary layer. Choudhari (1994) extended his work to include acousticwave-angle effects and a variety of different roughness conﬁgurations including isolated roughness. Detailed roughness studies of isolated 3-D roughness features have been completed by Juillen & Arnal (1990). the periodic roughness arrays concentrate the disturbances in a very narrow band of wavelengths. (1999) found that a decrease in surface-roughness amplitude from 9.

Bertolotti applied the method to both swept Hiemenz ﬂow and the Deutschen Centrum f¨ r u Luft. both authors note that stationary waves should be expected to dominate in low-disturbance environments and that traveling waves should only appear for large freestream ﬂuctuation levels. none consider the receptivity of freestream turbulence interacting with surface . and 18-mm waves to 36-mm-spaced roughness. However. Comparisons between the receptivity predictions and the DLR swept-plate results are quite good. Another recent approach by Collis & Lele (1999) consists of solving the steady Navier-Stokes equations in the leading-edge region of a swept parabolic body and of using that solution as a basic state for a linearized steady-disturbance system that includes surface roughness. 12-. Neglecting nonparallelism causes the local approach to overpredict receptivity by as much as 77% for the most ampliﬁed stationary crossﬂow wave. ROLE OF TURBULENCE/ROUGHNESS INTERACTIONS Although receptivity models have considered the interaction of surface roughness with acoustic ﬂuctuations. Results are not as good for the receptivity of 9-. This result stands somewhat in contradiction to the result by Ng & Crouch (1999) that includes neither surface curvature nor nonparallelism yet shows good agreement with experimental results. the linear theory overpredicts the receptivity of the 48-µm roughness. Comparing the results of this approach to those obtained by Choudhari (1994) and Crouch (1994) shows that receptivity to surface roughness is enhanced by convex surface curvature and suppressed by nonparallelism. (1999) conﬁrm that acoustic forcing is not an effective receptivity source when the surface roughness is low. suggesting the nonlinear effects reduce receptivity effectiveness. whereas the stationary-wave receptivity scales with only one (the surface roughness). The experiments by Radeztsky et al. Bertolotti (2000) presented another Fouriertransform approach that includes the effects of basic ﬂow nonparallelism. 12-mm-spaced roughness arrays is considered. but this problem may be complicated by the nonlinear growth and production of harmonics associated with the stationary crossﬂow waves. The method described by Crouch (1994) is used by Ng & Crouch (1999) to model the artiﬁcial roughness arrays used in the Arizona State University (ASU) swept-wing experiments by Reibert et al. The error introduced by neglecting nonparallelism is most severe for wavelengths in the range most ampliﬁed by the crossﬂow instability and for roughness close to the ﬁrst neutral point. The implication is that amplitude-based transition-prediction methods need to employ a receptivity model that includes nonparallelism because the crossﬂow modes that dominate transition are most strongly affected by this inﬂuence. Ng & Crouch (1999) give results that are in good agreement with the experiments when the receptivity of 12-mm waves (most unstable mode) to low-amplitude (roughness height 6 or 18 µm). Janke (2001) conﬁrmed overprediction of receptivity by local approaches. (1996).und Raumfhahrt (DLR) swept-ﬂat-plate experiment by Bippes and coworkers.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 423 parameters (the freestream velocity-ﬂuctuation amplitude and surface-roughness amplitude).

Full-span arrays of roughness elements were used to preserve the uniform spanwise periodicity of the disturbance as shown in the velocity contour plot of Figure 2. the saw-tooth transition front was replaced by a diffuse spanwise-invariant transition front indicative of travelingwave-dominated transition. The implication is that traveling waves do result from an interaction of freestream velocity ﬂuctuations with surface roughness and not from turbulence intensity alone. The development of crossﬂow occurs in two stages. indicating stationary-wave-dominated transition. increasing the roughness amplitude does not necessarily make stationary waves more likely to be observed than traveling waves.5 µm rms) to an 8-mm-spaced. the experiment by White et al. a sharp saw-tooth transition pattern was observed in a naphthalene ﬂow-visualization experiment.3. In that experiment. but drawing an analogy to the acoustic/roughness interaction results. where the crossﬂow moves from left to right. one should suspect that it is the interaction of freestream turbulence with surface roughness that is the important consideration.424 SARIC REED WHITE roughness. Also. The streamwise-mode shapes had saturation amplitudes of approximately 20%. the amplitude of the traveling waves showed a spanwise modulation indicating nonlinear interactions with the stationary modes. 50-µm-high roughness pattern with 2-mm diameter roughness elements. With a nominally smooth leading edge. A turbulence-generating grid provided a turbulence intensity of Tu = 0. However. Therefore. Reibert et al. Deyhle & Bippes (1996) give a turbulence intensity criterion that selects traveling or stationary modes. With this in mind.025 (near the ﬁrst crossﬂow neutral point) was used to change the roughness conﬁguration during an experiment from nominally smooth (<0. Turbulence level alone may not be sufﬁcient to predict whether traveling or stationary waves will be most important. 3. (2001) examined the interactions of surface roughness and freestream turbulence and conﬁrmed that the selection of traveling-wave or stationary-wave behavior is not as straightforward as the Tu = 0. but when the roughness array was activated. (1999) and Deyhle & Bippes (1996) would suggest however that the turbulent ﬂuctuations play a much more signiﬁcant role in the transition process than acoustic ﬂuctuations. The experiments by Radeztsky et al.003. a swept-wing model outﬁtted with a variable-amplitude roughness insert at x/c = 0.0015 criterion. Nonlinear Behavior NONLINEAR SATURATION In all the experiments by Bippes and coworkers. Instead. the disturbance amplitude saturated owing to nonlinear effects. even though stationary waves are generated by surface roughness. the growth of the stationary and traveling crossﬂow waves showed initial qualitative agreement with linear theory. The ﬁrst stage is linear and is characterized by small vertical v and spanwise w disturbance velocities . both surface roughness and turbulence intensity must be considered together in a more sophisticated manner. (1996) investigated the nonlinear saturation of stationary waves using micron-sized artiﬁcial roughness elements to control the initial conditions.

who show that linear methods do not work in correlating transition for crossﬂow-dominated boundary layers. the amplitude of the fundamental disturbance mode and eight harmonics are successfully extracted from the experimental data. (1998) described a set of experiments in which the stationary crossﬂow disturbance is forced with subcritical roughness spacing. Because of this large gradient. Saric et al. and nonlinear interactions must be included in any calculations. These data indicate that nonlinear interactions among multiple modes are important in determining the details of transition. Transition was observed to occur slightly earlier compared to forcing at the most unstable wavelength. Using a high-resolution traversing mechanism. Under certain conditions. EXCITATION OF SUBCRITICAL MODES Continuing the experiments by Reibert et al. i. the spacing between roughness elements is less than the wavelength of the most unstable mode. MODAL DECOMPOSITION Radeztsky et al. Under these conditions. Reibert et al.e. Reibert et al. thereby delaying transition beyond its . A cascading of energy from the fundamental to higher modes (smaller wavelengths) was observed. nonlinear saturation of the disturbance amplitude is observed well before transition. (1994) described a measurement technique that allows the experimentally obtained stationary crossﬂow structure to be decomposed into its spatial modes. This exchange of momentum occurs in a region very close to the wall where there are large vertical gradients in the basic-state streamwise velocity. By forcing the most unstable mode (according to linear theory). (1996). This is the second stage. the rapid growth of the forced mode completely suppresses the linearly most unstable mode. The presence of a large laminar extent of nonlinear saturation gives rise to a certain difﬁculty in using linear methods (such as e N or LPSE) to predict transition. (1996) used a slightly modiﬁed technique to more objectively determine the modal content. (1996) investigated the effect of roughnessinduced forcing at a wavelength three times that of the most unstable stationary mode (according to linear theory). Data are acquired at numerous spanwise locations.. Although the initial growth rate increases with increasing roughness height. This u component soon becomes too large. (1996). hotwires are carefully moved through the boundary layer along a predetermined path. evidenced by rollover seen in the streamwise-velocity contours. the saturation amplitude remains largely unaffected by changes in the roughness height. the small displacements caused by the v and w disturbance components quickly lead to large disturbances u superposed on the basic state further downstream. The futility of such approaches is expressed by Arnal (1994) and Reed et al.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 425 convecting low-momentum ﬂuid away from the wall and high-momentum ﬂuid toward the wall. from which modal information is extracted using a spatial power spectrum. and the saw-tooth transition front was much more “regular” in span. leading to nonlinear interactions among the fundamental mode and its harmonics. EXCITATION OF LESS UNSTABLE MODES Using the modal decomposition technique described above.

from which the edge boundary conditions were generated for the boundary-layer code. from which an objective transition-detection method is developed using the streamwise spatial POD solutions. With an appropriate u initial disturbance ﬁeld. CFD COMPARISONS (PSE) Combining the ability to include nonparallel and nonlinear effects with computationally efﬁcient parabolic marching algorithms. the PSE developed by Herbert (1997a) have recently been used to successfully model the crossﬂow instability. Detailed measurements are acquired using multielement hotﬁlm. the nonlinear development of stationary and traveling crossﬂow modes is simulated reasonably well up to transition. For swept-wing ﬂows. CFD COMPARISONS (DNS) DNS have historically been constrained by computer resources and algorithmic limitations. These data demonstrate that surface roughness can be used to control the stationary crossﬂow disturbance wave-number spectrum in order to delay transition on swept wings. and crosswire anemometry. Wang et al. The . STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION USING POD Chapman et al. Haynes & Reed (2000) recently validated the NPSE approach for 3-D ﬂows subjected to crossﬂow disturbances. It is suggested that the interaction between the stationary and traveling waves is an important aspect of the transition process.e. Wintergerste & Kleiser (1995) continued this work by using DNS to investigate the breakdown of crossﬂow vortices in the highly nonlinear ﬁnal stages of transition.426 SARIC REED WHITE “natural” location (i. These data allow the POD to objectively determine (based on energy) the modes characteristic of the measured ﬂow. hotwire. Here a detailed comparison of NPSE results with the experimental measurements by Reibert et al.. where transition occurs in the absence of artiﬁcial roughness). some successes have been achieved in relation to the stationary crossﬂow problem. The initial conditions for the NPSE calculation (with curvature) were obtained by solving the local LST equations at 5% chord location for the fundamental stationary mode and adjusting its RMS amplitude such that the total disturbance amplitude matched that of the experiment at 10% chord. NPSE calculations exhibit the disturbance amplitude saturation characteristic of the DLR and ASU experiments. (1994) investigated both stationary and traveling crossﬂow waves for the swept airfoil used in the ASU experiments and predicted nonlinear amplitude saturation for both types of disturbances. however. The results are compared to the experiments by M¨ ller & Bippes (1989). (1996) show remarkably good agreement. Haynes & Reed (2000) independently computed the inviscid ﬂow for the model. (1998) applied linear stochastic estimation and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolution of structures within a swept-wing boundary layer. Meyer & Kleiser (1990) investigated the disturbance interactions between stationary and traveling crossﬂow modes on a swept ﬂat plate using Falkner-Scan-Cooke similarity proﬁles for the basic state. Reed & Lin (1987) and Lin & Reed (1993) performed DNS for stationary waves on an inﬁnite-span swept wing similar to the ASU experiments. Data are acquired through the transition region.

the agreement between the NPSE and the experiments is excellent. For the ASU conﬁguration. the inclusion of curvature has a very small effect on the metric coefﬁcients. It is clear that the linear theories fail to accurately describe saturation for this situation. NPSE (Haynes & Reed 2000). All the computations include curvature. The computations in Figures 3 and 4 use only an initial amplitude. The maximum values of metric coefﬁcients occur at 5% chord where they are of . NPSE was then matched from 5% chord to 45% chord. Transition occurred on the experimental model at 47% chord. There has been much debate about the effects of curvature. An interesting discovery by Haynes & Reed (2000) is that the ﬂow is hypersensitive to seemingly negligible streamline and body curvature and that inclusion of curvature terms is required to adequately match the experimental data.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 427 Figure 3 Disturbance amplitude for Orr-Sommerfeld. This is due to a strong nonlinear interaction among all the modes over a large chordwise distance. Figure 4 shows a comparison of the experimental and computational total streamwise velocity contours at 45% chord. 1996). Figure 3 shows the comparison of the experimental N -factor (log of the amplitude ratio) with LPSE. and LST as the crossﬂow vortex grows and then saturates downstream. The basic state is computed independently from the experimental data. LPSE. and experiments (Reibert et al. NPSE. The primary and higher modes all grow rapidly at ﬁrst and saturate at approximately 30% chord.

the experiments showed that the crossﬂow disturbance is decaying in disagreement with various linear theories (LST. LPSE/without curvature. in fact. For this case. the roughness spacing) to 18 mm. Radeztsky et al. . Moreover (and consistent with all previous results). and pressure gradient (angle-of-attack). The most remarkable result obtained from the subcritical roughness spacing is the dramatic effect on transition location: In the absence of artiﬁcial roughness. 9-. in a case of weak favorable pressure gradient. Adding roughness with a spanwise spacing equal to the wavelength of the linearly most unstable wave moves transition forward to 47% chord. 3k.. Following this lead. This promising technique is currently being evaluated for supersonic ﬂight (Saric & Reed 2002). However. Radeztsky et al. Control with Distributed Roughness Two important observations concerning the distributed roughness results by Reibert et al. which shows that an appropriately designed roughness conﬁguration can. (1996) are (a) unstable waves occur only at integer multiples of the primary disturbance wave number and (b) no subharmonic disturbances are destabilized. Saric et al. transition occurs at 71% chord. . inhibit the growth of the (naturally occurring) most unstable disturbance. . no subharmonic disturbances are observed. (1998) investigated the effects of distributed roughness whose primary disturbance wave number does not contain a harmonic at λs = 12 mm (the most unstable wavelength according to linear theory). nonparallel effects. respectively.4. but the work by Haynes & Reed (2000) demonstrates conclusively that small changes in the metric coefﬁcients can have a signiﬁcant effect on the development of crossﬂow vortices. . . Spacing the roughness elements with wave number k = 2π/λ apart excites harmonic disturbances with spanwise wave numbers of 2k. (1994) studied the effects of angle-of-attack. The disturbance was linear for this case. (1994) concluded that the disagreement was due to nonlinearity. 3. and LST/with curvature) that predicted a growing disturbance.e. Haynes & Reed (2000) found that the LPSE/with curvature and NPSE/with curvature both agreed with the experiment. . the velocity contours clearly showed the presence of the 18-. nk (corresponding to λ/2. . By changing the fundamental disturbance wavelength (i. indicating that. . the crossﬂow disturbance decays and that there is a strong sensitivity to changes in curvature. λ/3. and 6-mm wavelengths. the growth of all disturbances of greater wavelength was suppressed. . They both drop off sharply with increasing chordwise distance. λ/n) but does not produce any unstable waves with “intermediate” wavelengths or with wavelengths greater than λ. subcritical forcing at 8-mm spanwise spacing actually delays transition beyond the pressure minimum and well beyond 80% chord (the actual location was beyond view). Here.428 SARIC REED WHITE the order of 1 × 10−2 and 10−3. When the disturbance wavelength was forced at 8 mm. in fact. the linearly most unstable disturbance (λs = 12 mm) has been completely suppressed. These values may compel the researcher to neglect curvature. However.

Poll (1985) attributed the existence of the high-frequency component to intermittent turbulence. so the high-frequency signal appeared only in a narrow range just prior to transition. there have been a number of investigations. Because of the importance of the secondary instabilities in determining the location of breakdown of the laminar ﬂow. Poll (1985) conducted the ﬁrst crossﬂow experiment for which a high-frequency disturbance was observed prior to transition. in particular. The velocity contours of Figures 2 and 4 show low-momentum ﬂuid above high-momentum ﬂuid. in this area. This experiment combined hotwire measurements and ﬂow visualizations and was intended to determine the location and behavior of the secondary instability mode relative to visualized breakdown patterns. Increasing the chord Reynolds number to 1. However. Secondary Instabilities Once stationary vortices reach saturation amplitude. There is also an inﬂection point in the spanwise proﬁle. Boiko et al. Bippes (1999) included details on the German efforts. (1991) investigated a high-frequency secondary instability specifically as a source of breakdown. The Kohama et al. the NPSE results (Haynes & Reed 2000) conﬁrmed this effect.5 kHz superposed on the underlying traveling crossﬂow waves.5 kHz and also included an intermittent signal at 17. Experiments subsequent to this work used arrays of micron-sized roughness elements near the leading edge that established the spanwise uniformity both of the stationary vortex amplitudes and of the transition location. this state can persist for a signiﬁcant streamwise distance. Without the beneﬁt .2 × 106 increased the traveling crossﬂow frequency to 1.” 3. which produces a double inﬂection point in the wall-normal velocity proﬁle. Poll (1985) noted that increasing the Reynolds number beyond 1. a concern can be raised because the measurements were made without a well-controlled primary disturbance state. Traveling crossﬂow waves were observed with a dominant frequency of 1. and the saturated vortices become unstable to a high-frequency secondary instability that ultimately brings about transition to turbulence. 1999) covered recent efforts involving secondary instabilities in the Russian traveling-wave experiments.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 429 Subsequent to the experiments. (1995. Using the same independent approach in terms of the calculation of the basic state. Kohama et al.1 kHz for Rec = 0. (1991) experiments clearly show that there is a growing highfrequency mode in the region upstream of transition that can be associated with an inviscid instability of the distorted mean ﬂow.2 × 106 resulted in turbulent ﬂow at the measurement location. both experimental and computational. These inﬂection points are high in the boundary layer. Wassermann & Kloker (2002) have shown the same stabilization due to subcritical forcing. In a DNS solution. the work by Lerche (1996) that emphasizes secondary instabilities in ﬂows with higher turbulence levels and traveling crossﬂow waves.5. they demonstrated the stabilization due to subcritical roughness and coined the name transition delay by “upstream ﬂow deformation.9 × 106.

many higher-frequency modes appear within a very short distance downstream.70. (1991) likely spanned a wide range of stability behavior despite having been obtained at a single-chord position. (1999) was conducted to further reﬁne these measurements. At a chord Reynolds number of 4. The lowest-frequency mode is nearly always the highest amplitude of all the secondary instabilities and is always associated with an extremum in the spanwise gradient. In an effort to provide a more concrete experimental database on the behavior of the secondary instability. Without acoustic forcing. the data obtained by Kohama et al. The rapid growth leads very quickly to the breakdown of laminar ﬂow. 1999) refer to as a mode-I or z mode. (1996) provided somewhat more detail than Kohama et al. They found a number of unique secondary instability modes that can occur at different frequency bands and at different locations within the stationary vortex structure.430 SARIC REED WHITE of this technique. In this experiment.5 and 4.50. Improvements in experimental techniques mean that more recent secondary instability experiments have replaced the work by Kohama et al. as many as six distinct modes are observed between 2 and 20 kHz. the secondary instability frequency with the largest growth between x/c = 0. (1991) as the best source for secondary instability data.5 kHz destabilized just downstream of x/c = 0.0 kHz destabilized just upstream of x/c = 0. Higher-frequency modes include both harmonics of the lowest-frequency z mode that appear at the same location within the vortex and distinct mode-II or y modes that form in the ∂U/∂y shear layer in the portion of the vortex farthest from the wall. A subsequent swept-plate experiment by Kawakami et al. Kohama et al. Transition was observed around x/c = 0. two separate high-frequency bands of disturbances were observed to be unstable. ∂U/∂z. a band located between 600 and 2. (1991) by including velocity ﬂuctuation maps that are ﬁltered to give either primary instability or secondary instability ﬂuctuation levels. However. (1996) concluded that a “turbulent wedge starts from the middle height of the boundary layer” and that this behavior is different from the usual picture of a turbulent wedge that originates in the high-shear regions in naphthalene ﬂow-visualization experiments.475 was observed to be 1. Kohama et al.5 kHz.9 × 106.40 and x/c = 0. White & Saric (2003) conducted a very detailed experiment that tracked the development of secondary instabilities on a swept wing throughout their development for various Reynolds numbers and roughness conﬁgurations.35. and a second band located between 2. A consequence of this for transition-prediction methodologies is that adequate engineering predictions of transition location could be obtained from simply identifying where the secondary instabilities are destabilized because they lead to turbulence in such a short distance downstream of their destabilization . This experiment featured a small speaker mounted ﬂush with the surface that permitted tracking of particular secondary instability frequencies. which Malik et al. (1996. All of the secondary instability modes are ampliﬁed at a much greater rate than the primary stationary vortices (even prior to their saturation). The lowest-frequency mode is typically detected upstream of any of the higher-frequency modes. With acoustic forcing applied. within ∼5% chord of where the secondary instability is ﬁrst detected.

2-kHz mode compared to Poll’s high-frequency signal. with such a highly distorted 3-D boundary layer. The most unstable frequency is approximately one order of magnitude greater than the most unstable primary traveling wave. Malik et al. This energy-production behavior suggests that the mode-I instability is generated primarily by inﬂection points in the spanwise direction and that the mode-II instability is generated by inﬂection points in the wall-normal direction. and the peak mode amplitude is “on top” of the stationary crossﬂow vortex structure. where the subscript 2 refers to a primary-vortex-oriented coordinate system. (1996) concluded. in contrast to what Kohama et al. This ﬁnding supports the notion of a turbulent wedge originating near the wall. (1991). (1999) applied the same approach to the swept-wing experiments by Reibert et al. (1996) revealed that the energy production for a mode-I instability is dominated by the term u2w2 ∂U2/∂z2 and the mode-II instability is dominated by u2v2 ∂U2/∂y2. but the spectral data presented by Kohama et al. temporal stability of the stationary crossﬂow vortices that are established by the primary instability and found that better transition correlation . the NPSE approach successfully captures the nonlinear effects including amplitude saturation. (1996) used parameters designed to match the conditions found for the sweptcylinder experiment by Poll (1985) and the swept-wing experiment by Kohama et al. A successful computational approach to the secondary instability was presented by Malik et al. Based on the shape of this disturbance. (1999) again applied a local. The distorted meanﬂow provides a basic state for a local. (1991) are mode-II instabilities. Malik et al. Malik et al. Other points in the structure remain essentially laminar for some distance downstream of the initial breakdown location. As described previously. who used an NPSE code to calculate the primary instability behavior of stationary disturbances of a swept Hiemenz ﬂow. ﬂat velocity-ﬂuctuation spectrum characteristic of turbulence is very close to the wall in the region of highest wall shear. (1996) claimed o that the ﬂuctuations observed by Kohama et al. similar to the results by Kohama et al. all possible instabilities must be evaluated. Malik et al. Malik et al. Malik et al. (1996). (1996) (see below) referred to as the mode-II secondary instability. (1996) also computed the secondary instability behavior observed by Poll (1985) and predicted a 17.5 kHz. which occurred at 17. The calculations by Malik et al. (1996) claimed that this is a type-II mode. it is too simplistic to assume that only the spanwise or wall-normal inﬂection points are responsible for the appearance of a particular mode. Spectra obtained by White & Saric (2003) at various points within the structure indicate that the ﬁrst point to feature a broad. temporal secondary instability calculation.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 431 location. Although one or the other production mechanism may dominate for a particular mode. (1994). An interesting feature of the breakdown of the stationary vortex structure is that it is highly localized. In order to obtain a more direct comparison to experimental data. (1991). This situation is analogous to the secondary instabilities of G¨ rtler vortices (Saric 1994). (1991) likely includes contributions of both the type-I and type-II modes. This location corresponds to what Malik et al.

H¨ gberg & Henningson (1998) pursued a DNS approach to the problem of the o stationary-vortex saturation and the ensuing secondary instability. their secondary instabilities. 1996. when the forcing that initiates the high-frequency secondary instability in their simulation is removed. These authors imposed an artiﬁcial random disturbance at a point where the stationary vortices are saturated. Koch et al. Wassermann & Kloker (2002) also found that. (1999) found that a type-II mode becomes unstable uptream of any type-I mode. This is not what was observed in the experiment by White & Saric (2003) in which type-I modes always appeared upstream of type-II modes. with the high-frequency disturbance located in the upper part of the boundary layer and the low-frequency disturbance located in the lower part. (2000) used the nonlinear equilibrium solution as a receptivity-independent basic state for a Floquet analysis of secondary instabilities of the saturated vortices. This apparent difference is likely due to the fact that freestream disturbance levels in the experiment are stronger at frequencies near 3 kHz that correspond to the type-I modes than at the higher frequencies near 6 kHz that correspond to the type-II modes. Spectral analysis of the resulting disturbance ﬁeld shows that the most ampliﬁed high frequency is somewhat more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than the most ampliﬁed traveling primary disturbance. and each frequency band has a distinct spatial location. This indicates that the secondary instability is convective and that the explosiveness of the growth of the secondary instability is . The theory considers only growth rates and does not account for initial disturbance levels. Malik et al. Another high-frequency peak at approximately twice this frequency is also evident in the spectra. who used an NPSE for the base ﬂow and a Floquet analysis for the secondary instabilities. out of the computational domain. Wassermann & Klocker (2002) present another highly resolved DNS study of nonlinear interactions of primary crossﬂow modes. the secondary instability disturbances are convected downstream. A method based on the primary instability alone cannot adequately predict transition location. One of the most important ﬁndings obtained from the wave-packet approach is that unevenly spaced primary vortices of differing strengths can interact in such a way as to bring about an earlier onset of secondary instabilities and breakdown than would be found from a single-mode disturbance. An alternative to the approach used by Malik et al. 1999) is presented by Koch et al. This peak likely corresponds to a type-II mode. Yet another approach is by Janke & Balakumar (2000). and eventual breakdown to turbulence. They emphasize disturbance wave packets that may be more realistic than single-mode disturbances. These disturbances enhance both the low. 1996. (2000) and Janke & Balakumar (2000) are in general agreement with the various computations by Malik et al. (1994. (1994. (2000).and high-frequency disturbances downstream. who found the nonlinear equilibrium solution of the primary ﬂow. although this feature is not described by the authors. 1999).432 SARIC REED WHITE results can be obtained by following the growth of the secondary instability in an N-factor calculation than by simply basing a prediction on the location at which the secondary instability destabilizes. Both Koch et al.

and streamline curvature that exist near the leading edge. Reed et al. (1996) and Theoﬁlis (1998) discuss recent work concerning attachment-line issues. The swept-cylinder ﬂow near the leading edge is distinct from the ﬂow along the attachment line. starting somewhat downstream of the leading edge). it may exhibit a streamline-curvature instability similar to that observed at small Reynolds numbers on rotating disks. mode shapes. SWEPT CYLINDER The discussion of the crossﬂow instability in the preceding section pertains to boundary layers with characteristics typical of large portions of swept wings over which boundary layers develop in response to weakly favorable pressure gradient and low wall and streamline curvature. For swept-cylinder ﬂows. Flow along the attachment line has stability characteristics different from swept-cylinder ﬂow because of the various roles of surface and streamline curvature in the two conﬁgurations. To date. one of the principal recent ﬁndings is the discovery by Itoh (1994) that highly curved inviscid streamlines produce a centrifugal-type boundary-layer instability that is unique from the other 3-D boundary-layer instabilities that had been identiﬁed at the time of an earlier review by Reed & Saric (1989). In contrast. A comparison of three of the most recent efforts is shown in Figure 5. These ﬂows are referred to as swept-cylinder ﬂows to distinguish them from both swept-wing and attachment-line ﬂows. and growth rates. 4.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 433 not associated with an absolute instability. for intermediate values of the inclination of the inviscid streamline to the chord direction (i. The key ﬁndings are that. wall curvature. Although it has yet to be demonstrated to have ﬂight applicability. unstable frequencies. Attachment-line stability and contamination are discussed at length by Reed & Saric (1989) but are outside of the scope of this review. the streamline-curvature instability has the lowest critical Reynolds numbers of all instability modes and that the disturbances produced . the streamline-curvature instability may play an important role under some set of conditions. Because the ﬂow near the leading edge of swept cylinders features strongly curved streamlines. NPSE.e. the various approaches to the secondary instability problem (experimental. This comparison shows agreement on the location of the breakdown and indicates that it is associated with an inﬂection point in the spanwise direction (an extremum in ∂U/∂z).. and DNS) have achieved rather remarkable agreement in terms of identifying the basic mechanisms of the secondary instability. their work is one of the foundation contributions. boundary layers in the leadingedge region of swept wings can exhibit different stability characteristics than those observed farther downstream owing to the much stronger pressure gradient. Itoh (1996) speciﬁcally examined the ﬂow in the leading-edge region of swept cylinders. The advantage of the DNS solution by Wassermann & Kloker (2002) is its ability to reveal the rather intimate details of the breakdown process. As such.

. (b) Figure 20b from Wassermann & Kloker (2002).434 SARIC REED WHITE Figure 5 Mode-I velocity ﬂuctuation contours: (a) Figure 7 from Malik et al. (1999). and (c) Figure 11 from White & Saric (2003).

crossﬂow waves are expected to be the most unstable disturbances. Controlled pointsource disturbances are introduced. More recently. and a developing disturbance wedge provides a means of separating crossﬂow-related and streamline-curvature-related disturbances.3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS 435 by the streamline-curvature instability take the form of streamwise vortices. Yet signiﬁcant progress has recently been made toward understanding the instability and transition characteristics of 3-D ﬂows. such as . and Yokokawa et al. As the sweep is increased the minimum critical Reynolds number for the streamline curvature instability is unchanged. the past decade has produced several important discoveries that include tools. However. similar to what is observed for rotating-disk boundary layers. 5. The DNS results show that disturbances that propagate in the direction associated with the streamline-curvature instability are characterized by vorticity oriented primarily in the wall-normal direction in contrast with the previous analyses by Itoh (1995. (1999) observed that. providing conﬁrmation of the general ﬁndings by Itoh (1996). so the results should not be taken to suggest that the streamline-curvature instability dominates farther downstream where the basic state deviates from a leading-edge-type ﬂow. and this means that in the cases of high sweep. CONCLUSIONS Boundary-layer transition in 3-D ﬂows is a complicated process involving complex geometries. and nonlinear interactions. streamline curvature effects will be observed over a larger region than is typical of lower-sweep conﬁgurations. Itoh (1996) showed that the dynamics of this competition depend on sweep angle. In terms of the crossﬂow problem. Itoh (1996) pointed out that this result is only valid close to the leading edge. This discrepancy has not been resolved. Itoh (2000) included nonparallel effects. and that these vorices are even more closely aligned with the inviscid stream than are crossﬂow vortices. Very close to the leading edge where the streamline inclination is large. Takagi & Itoh (1998) and Tokugawa et al. 1996) that showed streamline-curvature disturbance modes are vortices oriented in the streamwise and not the wall-normal direction. (1999) performed swept-cylinder experiments to verify the theoretical predictions by Itoh (1996) regarding the behavior of the streamline-curvature instability in the leading-edge region. inside the disturbance wedge. multiple instability mechanisms. and Tokugawa et al. For a ﬁxed value of the streamline inclination. (2000) used a DNS model. but the point at which the critical Reynolds number of the streamline-curvature instability is less than that of the crossﬂow instability moves farther downstream. disturbances with phase-distributions characteristic of the crossﬂow and streamline-curvature instabilities dominate in two separate disturbance-amplitude maxima that exist on either side of the wedge. Itoh (1966) predicted that crossﬂow and streamline-curvature instabilities propagate in opposite directions. linear-stability neutral curves for the swept cylinder exhibit a two-lobed structure that suggests competition between crossﬂow and streamline-curvature instabilities.

LaminarTurbulent Transition. Progress in transition modeling. eds. 2000. Waves produced from a harmonic point source in a supersonic boundary layer.org LITERATURE CITED Arnal D. 1991. these advances have led to the promising application of artiﬁcial roughness at the leading edge to control the crossﬂow instability and delay transition on swept wings in ﬂight. 1990.annualreviews. III. The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is online at http://ﬂuid. AIAA Pap. Predictions based on linear theory. under grant number F49620-97-1-0520. Malik MR. Streett CL. nonlinear effects and modal interaction. 710 pp. Yet in spite of this. 97-1905 Arnal D. United States Air Force. extreme sensitivity of stationary-wave growth to very weak convex curvature. extreme sensitivity of the stationary disturbance to leading-edge. AIAA Pap. Several important factors have also been identiﬁed: s s s s s environmental conditions on the appearance of stationary and traveling waves. Vol. POD methods to interpret wind-tunnel and ﬂight-test transition data. New York: Springer. 1992. 709 Arnal D. No. surface roughness. J. No. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored (in part) by the Air Force Ofﬁce of Scientiﬁc Research.436 SARIC s s s REED WHITE instrumentation that can be applied to the ﬂight-test environment. very small. Reneaux J. The study of 3-D boundary-layer instability still offers challenges to the ﬂuidmechanics community. Michel R. No. In addition. AGARD Rep. Casalis G. by carefully studying the basic physics. 1994. Secondary instability in rotatingdisk ﬂow. Malik MR. 911646 Bertolotti FP. Laminar-turbulent transition: research and applications in France. 1997. 242:323– 47 Balakumar P. Coustieux J. Important factors such as receptivity—the process by which external disturbances enter the boundary layer and create the initial conditions for an instability—are still not completely understood. careful experiments and companion accurate computations have resulted in significant progress toward understanding a difﬁcult problem and offer promise of even further advances in the future. Fluid Mech. Receptivity of threedimensional boundary layers to localized . Balachandar S. validation with careful experiments of NPSE codes to predict all aspects of stationary disturbance growth. One result has been a better understanding of rotating-disk behavior. secondary instability causing local transition in stationary-crossﬂow-dominated ﬂows.

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(1996).Figure 2 Velocity contours from Reibert et al. .

.Figure 4 Velocity contour comparisons.

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