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1. (Tanenbaum, 4.3) Consider the delay of pure ALOHA versus slotted ALOHA at low load. Which one is less? Explain your answer. 1. At low load, no collisions are likely. In slotted ALOHA we still need to wait for the next slot beginning time to transmit, so delay is higher. 2. (Tanenbaum, 4.4) Ten thousand airline reservation stations are competing for the use of a single slotted ALOHA channel. The average station makes 18 requests/hour. A slot is 125 µs. What is the approximate total channel load? 2. Each terminal makes one request every 200 seconds, for a total load of 50 requests/second. This allows us to find the attempt rate, which is the quantity that determines channel load (not just original transmissions but the retransmissions as well). Thus G = 50/8000 = 1/160 is the answer. 3. (Tanenbaum, 4.5) A large population of ALOHA users manages to generate 50 requests/second, including both originals and retransmissions. Time is slotted in units of 40 ms. (a) What is the chance of success on the first attempt? (b) What is the probability of exactly k collisions and then a success? (c) What is the expected number of transmission attempts needed? 3. 50 requests per second boils down to (50 * 40/1000) = 2 requests per 40 msec (timeslot). Thus G = 2. This is slotted ALOHA (as per the reference to the timeslot). Therefore: (a) Chance of success on first try = α = e-G = 1/e 2 = 0.135 . (b) From the geometric argument, (1- e-G)k e-G. (c) Again from the geometric argument, expected number of transmissions until success = 1/α = eG = 7.39. 4. (Tanenbaum, 4.6) Measurements of a slotted ALOHA channel with an infinite number of users show that 10 percent of the slots are idle. (a) What is the channel load G ? (b) What is the throughput? (c) Is the channel underloaded or overloaded? 4. We are given that 10% of the slots are idle, that is the probability of an idle slot is 0.1 . We can only have an idle slot if the number of packet arrivals at the different stations during the last slot time was exactly zero. From the Poisson model, as given in the “ALOHA Throughput Study” slide of the lecture or Eq. 4-2 of Tanenbaum, the probability of zero arrivals during one timeslot is G0 e-G/0! = e-G .

But exactly one out of the 5 backlogged nodes must choose to transmit. all unbacklogged stations must have no new arrivals. but the MACs of backlogged nodes do not accept any new arrivals. according to our assumptions. and is unaffected by the backlogged state of the stations or the buffer capacity. this comes out to nearly 0. In keeping with this. that is. What is the probability that the next slot will see a single successful retransmission? 5. the probability for this happening is (1 – 0. Consider the following numerical values for the slotted ALOHA system. so the probability is 0. the backlogged stations will not be able to accept new arrivals because the stations have no buffers.05 (arrivals/slot time). a function of the traffic process(es) which cause packets to arrive at the stations.23 packets per slot time.02)4 = 0. (a) In this question. 5. the probability of a new arrival at the MAC layer of an unbacklogged station is the same as the probability that at least one external arrival occurs at the station. (c) Since G > 1. (c) Clearly. the external arrivals are at the same rate for all stations. or using the Poisson distribution to obtain the probability of “NOT zero frames arrive during the next one frame time”. The arrival process at each station is an independent Poisson process. This can be seen to be 1 – e-λ/m either by using the CDF of the exponential distribution (see Homework 3) to obtain the probability of “the next frame to arrive does so within the next one frame time”. we have G = 2.02) (1-0. We use the model given for the rigorous analysis of slotted ALOHA. 0. with all the assumptions listed there. Since there are 5 ways to choose 1 node out of 5.3 . the channel is by definition overloaded.05 takes the place of λ/m.02 in each frame slot. The overall probability of a single . (a) What is the numerical probability of the arrival of a new frame at the MAC layer of an unbacklogged station? (b) What is the numerical probability of the arrival of a new frame at a backlogged station.092 . the probability of this is 5 * (0.05)(20-5) = 0. (b) Throughput S = G e-G = 0. the Poisson arrival rate at each station. This is an external arrival rate. again at the MAC layer? (c) Assume that there are 20 stations on the medium. Provide numerical answers for the questions below. (b) As already explained above. Backlogged stations attempt re-transmission with a probability of 0. with rate 0. (5C1 = 5). Numerically.1. Of course. and unbacklogged stations will be able to only accept the first arrival (if there is one or more arrivals). 5 of them are backlogged.05. and at a given time.(a) Equating this to 0.472 .

we multiply with a probability of 1). (a) The Poisson rate of arrival of new packets to all the stations are assumed to be λ. In other words. using the event descriptions provided on the slide. Thus the arrival rates at individual stations are of interest. The only way a station can transmit a new packet at a slot is if it was unbacklogged at the last slot. (a) We assume the original packet arrival rate at the medium to be λ . arriving on the average at a rate of λ/m packets per time unit. the probability of zero arrivals during one slot time is ((λ/m)0/0!) e-λ/m . and one or more packets arrived during the last slot time. packets arrive at each station randomly with an exponential inter-arrival time. with rate λ/m. as we saw in class. You should satisfy yourself first that the events in fact lead to the corresponding transitions.n) and Qr (i. thus the probability that some number other than zero of packets will arrive is the probability of the complementary event and is e-λ/m . Consider a given unbacklogged station. As before. 6. and this rate to be divided equally among the m stations on the medium. Express qa in terms of λ . We know that the Poisson rate is distributed evenly between the different stations. so we need not multiply further by a probability. Thus the probability we denoted by qa is given by qa = 1 – e-λ/m . and the rates are nicely obtained as simple sums and differences of rates.) We also denoted the probability that a single unbacklogged station transmits a packet in a given slot by qa . it is certain that the station will attempt to transmit the newly arrived packet at the next slot. 6. and backlogged stations will not be able to accept new arrivals because the stations have no buffers. .043 . (Equivalently.n) are as defined on slide 22 of the MAC lecture. Again.n+i for the Markov Chain on slide 23 for the four value ranges of i given on that slide. From the definition of the Poisson distribution. (b) We denoted the probability that a backlogged station retransmits a packet in a given slot by qr . Thus the arrival process at each (unbacklogged) station is also a Poisson process. Once this event has been satisfied. Consider the more rigorous analysis of slotted ALOHA we performed in class. Thus the effective arrival rate at the medium will decrease as the number of backlogged stations increase. this is an external arrival rate. I Write down the transition probabilities Pn. (Note: This is different from denoting the arrival rate at each station by λ. a split or join of independent Poisson processes leads to more Poisson processes. The probabilities Qa (i. As we saw in class in our discussion on renewal processes. Express these quantities in terms of qa and qr . we want the probability that more than zero packets arrived during the last slot time.successful retransmission is thus around 0. leading to an overall arrival rate of λ packets per time unit.

n) (1 . have to wait in the worst case before it can start transmitting its frame over a LAN that uses (a) the basic bit-map protocol? (b) Mok and Ward’s protocol with virtual station numbers? 7.n) (1 . (Tanenbaum. s. natural language) so that the clauses connected by a logical OR are disjoint (hence their probabilities can be simply added together). will transit to the state n+i at the next event that occurs. 4. while at state n. .n+i = Pn.n+i = Pn. Keeping in mind the fact that the behavior of each station is independent from the others. i = 0.n) = probability of i unbacklogged stations transmit packet at the next slot = (ways of choosing i nodes out of (m-n) unbacklogged ones) × (probability that each of i nodes transmits a new arrival with probability qa) × (probability that each of (m-n)-i nodes does not transmit a new arrival) = Cim-n × qai × (1 – qa)m-n-i Qr(i.Qr(0.8) How long does a station. that is. and (N-1)*d bit (transmission of frames by all the other stations).n) . The worst case is: all stations want to send and s is the highest numbered station. Now.(b) These are simple exercises in combination. i = -1.n+i = Qa(i.n) Qr(0. Consider the events listed for the various cases of i on slide 19 of the first LAN lecture. Pn.n) Qr(1. Accordingly. the probability that an event occurs which causes the number of backlogged stations to change from n to n+i .n) Qr(0.n+i = Pn.Qr(0.n)) Qa(1. but which are independent (hence their probabilities may be multiplied together). Convince yourself that the events as listed there will lead to the corresponding transitions.n) = probability that i backlogged nodes transmit packets at next slot = (ways of choosing i nodes out of n backlogged ones) × (probability that each of i nodes retransmits a packet with probability qr) × (probability that each of n-i nodes does not retransmit a packet) = Cin × qri × (1 – qr)n-i (c) Pn.n) 7. the events have been written down (though in imprecise.n)) + Qa(0. This is a normal form for writing down events. i = 1. and the clauses themselves consist of subclauses which must be satisfied simultaneously. (a) Assume each frame is d bits long. in exact correspondence with the events: 2 ≤ i ≤ (m-n).n) Qa(1.Qr(1.n) + Qa(0.n+i is the probability that the system.n) Qa(0. Wait time is N + (N-1)*d bit times as follows: N bit contention period. we can write down the following transition probabilities. Qa(i.

4. 8. 1. 9 and 0. the ten stations have the virtual station numbers 8. so the total probability of collision at the i-th round is 1/2i-1 . it becomes 0. it becomes 0 and all the other stations are incremented by 1. each of the two stations attempt to transmit in the immediately following slot (no backoff). in that order. When station 3 sends. At round 2. A “round” is each calculation of the backoff period followed by transmission attempt. Diagrammatically: 8 8 8 9 2 3 0 1 4 0 1 2 5 5 5 6 1 2 3 4 7 7 7 8 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 9 9 9 0 0 1 2 3 9. 6. 2. round 2. Number rounds starting with 1 – at round 1. it becomes 0. 2 and 3 are increased by 1. 7. What is the probability that the contention ends on round k. This answer is also valid. In this case. 7. and what is the mean number of rounds per contention period? 9. and the stations numbered (at that time) 1. the first station might pick the slot 0 with probability 1/2i-1. 0 and 3. this is true not only of slot 0. After each frame is sent. Clearly the probability of having exactly k rounds is the multiplication of the probabilities of collision at round 1. Similarly the contention at round i is over 2i-1 slots. 6. 1. (Tanenbaum. (b) The worst case is: all stations have frames to transmit and s has the lowest virtual station number at the time the frame arrives. plus the above answer. The second part of the question is a little difficult to interpret. (Tanenbaum. The result is 9. but every slot from 0 to 2i-1. Consequently. 5. they contend for the channel. 2. and N contention periods of size log2N each. and 0. 3. thus collision is inevitable. round 3. When station 4 sends. and the probability of not having a collision at round k. What are the new station numbers after all three have finished their transmissions? 8. … round k -1. 8. A logical interpretation is that in the first part you found out the probability Pk of having exactly k backoff rounds . Wait time is thus (N-1)*d + N* log2 N bit times. it has to wait (N-1)d bit times for the current sequence of frames (every other station has frame to send).You might also validly consider that the worst case is when the frame arrives at the MAC layer of station s just after its contention slot passed. 4. The next three stations to send are 4. s will get its turn to transmit after the other N-1 stations have transmitted one frame each. At round i.9) A LAN uses Mok and Ward’s version of binary countdown. Finally. so might the second station. when station 9 sends. At a certain instant. 4.20) Two CSMA/CD stations are each trying to transmit long (multiframe) files. 1. 3 and 9. there are two slots at which each station might try – after waiting 0 slots (no wait) and after waiting 1 slot. using the binary exponential backoff algorithm. However. 4. Therefore the probability of a collision by both stations picking this slot is 1/22(i-1) . 5. and 2 are increased by 1. The “contention period” is the entire period between two successful frame transmissions.

and the summation carried out only to k = 16. according to the details of the standard. in this part you are being asked to find the expectation of the same quantity.between two successful frame transmissions. If you took any other reasonable definition of the second part of the problem. . that is also acceptable. the probability Pk should be “frozen” after the k = 10. Realistically. The answer is then simply Σ k Pk .

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