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the “buying – formula” theory of selling. is buyer oriented. Howard of Columbia Graduate School of Business was in the forefront of those who adapted the findings of behavioral science to analysis of buying behavior. The fourth. The first approach distilled the experiences of successful salespeople and to a lesser extent. These theories. The second approach borrowed findings from the behavioral sciences. the first two. . based on experiential knowledge accumulated from years of “living in the market” rather than on a systematic.4gen Bottom of Form Share & Embed Add to Collections Auto-hide: on Download this Document for Free THEORIES OF SELLING: Selling is considered an art by some and a science by others and has produced two contrasting approaches to the theory of selling. the behavioral equation. or learned through experience psychology and their ability to apply it in sales situations. Many such persons succeeded because of their grasp of practical. the “AIDAS” theory and the “right set of circumstances” theory. These selling theories emphasize the “what to do” and “how to do” rather than the “why”. are seller oriented. The third. There are four theories. fundamental body of knowledge. John A. advertising professionals. his “behavioral equation” attempts to develop a unified theory of buying and selling.

Skill sales personnel often decide up on conversation openness so that those remarks are about the prospects if they are favorable comments about the prospect's business. and satisfaction so the sales presentation must lead the prospect through them in the right sequence if a sale is to result. amid a genuine smile just before the interview. the sales person must establish good support at once. desire.popularly known as the AIDAS theory. . and be a skilled conversationalist. Its construct is based upon experimental knowledge. after initials of the five words express it (attention. (i) Securing attention: In order to put the prospect into a receptive state of mind. According to this theory during the successful selling interview the prospect's mind consciously passes through five successive mental states : attention. though experienced sales personnel say that even with an appointment. the first few minutes of the interview are crucial. The sales presentation must lead the prospect through steps in the right sequence if a sale is to result. interest. desire. the prospect’s mind passes through five successive mental states: attention. favorable first impressions are assured proper attire. friendliness. Sales portfolios. (ii) Gaining Interest: Many techniques are used to intensify the prospect's attention so that it evolves into strong interest. As the prospect realizes the caller is bent on selling something. this phase presents no problem. interest. Some sales people develop contagious enthusiasm for the product or a sample. The psychological writings of William James support this theory. Among other things. If he has previously made an appointment. or an excuse for conducting the interview. or other visual aids serve the same purpose when the product is bulky or technical. to survive the start of the interview. (1) AIDAS Theory of Selling The theory. action and satisfaction. A good conversation opens causes the prospect to relax and sets the stage for total presentation. a sales person must possess considerable mental alertness. He needs an ample supply of "Conversation Openness". action. According to the theory. flip charts. It was in existence as early as 1898. The sales person has to have a reason. neatness. action and satisfaction) is the basis for many sales training programs are organized.emphasizes the buyer’s decision process but also takes the salesperson’s influence process into account. interest. desire.

". Objections need answering to the prospects satisfaction. However. Experienced sales personnel do not close until the prospect is fully convinced of the merits of the proposition. But it is better to ask for the order straight forwardly. but sometimes distractingdepr ession is best handled bluntly for example " well: that's all very interesting but to get back to the subject. For fear of getting "No" from which they think there is no retreat some sales personnel never ask for definite "yes" or "No”. and digressive remarks may sidetrack the presentation during this phase. Some sales person stratagems to elicit revealing questions to encourage hints by the prospects. buying must be induced. The development of sales obstacles the prospects objections.. (iv) Inducting Action: If the presentation has been perfect. Obstacles must be faced and ways found to get around them. with finesse. which the sales person then uses in selecting the best approach. Bug before identifying the strongest appeal even experienced sale person do considerable probing. Building satisfaction means thanking the customer for the order. its timeliness. Good sales people summarize what has been said earlier before continuing. Sometimes the prospect drops hints. and following upon promises made. external interruptions. and the trick close are used to test the prospect's free action.buy point. The order is the climax of the selling situation. the close on a minor point.and .answer variety.One should search out the selling appeal that is most likely to be effective. usually of the question . (v) Building Satisfaction: The sales person should reassure the customer that his buying decision is correct and that sales person merely helped in deciding. and their receptive.to . The trial close.. Time is saved. Digressive should be disposed of fact fully. and attending to such matter as making certain that the order is filled as written. the prospect is ready to buy. skeptical or hostile mood. Others are the prospect question designed to clarify attitudes and feelings towards the product. and the chance of making a sale improved if objections are anticipated and answered before the prospects raises them. (iii) Kindling Desire: The sales person must keep the conversation running along the main line toward the sale to kindle the prospect's desire to ready . The prospect's interests are affected by basic motivations. In selecting the appeal to emphasize the sales person must take all these into account. closeness of the interview subject to the current problems. .

the more predictable is the response. They seek selling appeals that evoke desired responses. had its psychological origin in experiments with animals and holds that the particular circumstances prevailing in a given selling situation cause the prospect to respond in a predictable way. Kindling Desire – to make them use the RO water purifier for their use Induction – consumer purchase the product due to its effectiveness in providing pure and germ free water Building Satisfaction – appreciate the customer by saying that he has made the good purchase by relating its health factor . If the sales person succeeds in securing the attention and gaining the interest of the prospect. But at least 4 factors internal to the prospect affect the response. The salesperson and the remarks are the external factors. and if the salesperson presents the proper stimuli or appeals. These are the presence or the absence of desires (1) First to go out for lunch (2) To have it now (3) To go out (4) To go out with salesperson Proponents of this theory tend to stress external factors and at the expense of internal factors. and fails to assign appropriate weight to the response side of the situation response interaction. . does not handle the problem of influencing the factors internal to the prospect. To use a simplified example. Furthermore the more skilled the salesperson is in handling the set of circumstances. the desired response will result. but the internal factors are not readily manipulated. Sales personnel who try to apply the theory experience difficulty traceable to internal factors in many selling situations. The set of circumstances includes factors external and internal to the prospect. presentations and brochures and also focusing on purity and health of the family members. “Let’s go out for lunch”. This is a seller oriented theory: it stresses the importance of the salesperson controlling the situation. For example Suppose you provide a Paying guest accommodation as well as provide Tiffin services to those living in PG as well as to others and charge for it. (2)RIGHT SET OF CIRCUMSTANCES THEORY: This theory sometimes is also called “Situation Response theory”. Suppose a salesperson sales to the prospect.For exampleSecuring attention –Telling about RO water purifier and its quality to purify water Gaining Interest – by showing flipcharts.

The mental involved in the purchase are Need solution purchase .The formula theory emphasizes the prospects responses and deemphasizes the external factors . This theory purports: what thinking process goes on mind that causes the decision to buy or not to buy? The buying formula is a schematic representation of a group of responses arranged in a psychological sequence . The buyers need or problem receives major attention and the sales person role is to help buyer find solutions.(3) “Buying Formula” theory of selling : This theory emphasizes the buyer’s side of the buyer’s seller dyad. being naturally conscious of the external factors will not overlook them.on the assumption that the salesperson.

Because the outcome of the purchase affects the chance that a continuing relation will develop between the buyer and the seller and because nearly all sales organizations are interested in continuing relationship. When definite buying habit has been established the buying formula is Need product service and or trade name purchase . It is necessary to add a fourth element the fourth elements then are Need solution purchase satisfaction Whenever a need is felt or problem recognized. the individual is conscious of a deficiency of satisfaction.

others are adequate but not liked. an item viewed as adequate is also liked. Some products and services that are quite adequate are not liked and bought that are admittedly not as good as competing items. please follow these directions to submit a copyright infringement notice. and vice versa. and still others are liked but patronized even though they are inadequate to competing sources. . Some sources of supply are both adequate and liked. In many cases. the buying formula becomes Adequacy Adequacy Need product and/ or trade name purchase satisfaction Service Pleasant feelings Pleasant feelings When a buying habit is being established. and the buyer must experience a feeling of anticipated satisfaction when thinking of the product and service and the trade name. but this is not always so. the buyer should know why product or service is an adequate solution to the need or problem.satisfaction/ dissatisfaction To ensure purchase the product or service and the trade name must be considered adequate. and why trade name is the Theories of Selling: Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document Report this document? Please tell us reason(s) for reporting this document Top of Form 3ccf5daf8109496 doc Spam or junk Porn adult content Hateful or offensive If you are the copyright owner of this document and want to report it. With adequacy and pleasant feelings included. Similar reasoning applies to trade names.

Rated: 0 5 false false 0 science use answer support desire right circumstances formular model art thoeries help explain whether science use answer support desire right circumstances formular model art thoeries help explain whether (fewer) Follow luckyrajeshwari Share & Embed Related Documents PreviousNext 1. Info and Rating Reads: 5. .677 Uploaded: 02/14/2010 Category: Uncategorized.Report Cancel Bottom of Form This is a private document.

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