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1. Describe the 5 ranks hierarchy for identifying the units being studied in English grammar.

The 5 ranks hierarchy to identify units in study of grammar is: morpheme ↔ word ↔ phrase ↔ clause ↔ sentence Eg: The girl whom you have seen is one of the best Vietnamese pianists. + ist, ese: morpheme + pianist, girl...: word + one of the best Vietnamese best pianists: phrase + whom you have seen: clause 2. What is a verb? What kinds can verb be divided into? The verb is part of speech usually denoting actions, process, experiences or state of being. There are 7 types of verb: - Notional verbs. Eg: to know, to go, to give… - Stative verbs. Eg: The garden is large - Intransitive verbs. Eg: I run to work this morning. - Link verbs. Eg: It’s getting cold. - Phrasal verbs. Eg: I got up at 7 o’clock. - Literal phrasal verbs. Eg: I hung up the picture on the wall. 3. What are modal auxiliaries? Give example of different use. Modal auxiliaries are used with other verbs to express (one of the modalities) : possibility, ability, likehood, certainty, obligation… of the action. - Can: + Ability: I can speak English. + Permission: Can I smoke in here? + Theoretical possibility: Anybody can make mistakes. - Could: + Past ability: I never could play the piano. + Present or future permission: Could I sit here? + Present possibility: We could go to the concert. + Unreal conditions: If I had money, I could buy a car. - May: + Permission: You may borrow my car if you like. + Possibility: The road may be blocked. - Might: + Permission: Might I smoke in here? + Possibility: What you said may be true. - Shall: + Willingness: He shall get his money. + Intention: We shall overcome. • Insistence: You shall do as I say. • Legical & quasi-legal injunction: The vendor shall maintain the equipment in good repair. - Should: + Obligation $ logical necessity: You should do as he says.

+ ‘Putative’ use: I’m sorry that this should have happened. +Contingent use: We should love to go abroad if we had the chance. + In rather formal real conditions: If you should change your mind, please let us know. - Will: + Willingness: Will you please open the door? + Intention: I’ll write as soon as I can. + Insistence: I’ll do it, whatever you say. + Prediction: The game will be finish by now. - Would: + Willingness: Would you excuse me? + Insistence: I would go by bus. + Characteristic activity in the past: Every morning he would go for a long walk. + Contingent use: He would smoke too much if I didn’t stop him. + Probability: That would be his mother. - Must: + Obligation or compulsion: You must be back by 10 o’clock. There are 2 negatives: • Not be obliged to: needn’t, don’t have to. • Be obligated not to: mustn’t. - Ought to : + Obligation: They ought to be here by now. 4. What is the complement and attribute in E? - Compliment is a part of sentence which gives further additional meaning to complete the subject or object of the sentence. Compliment is usually introduced by the link verb or the belike verb. So there are 2 types of complement: - Subject complement can be expressed by a word, a phrase or a clause. Eg: He is the chairman. - Object complement can be expressed by a word, a phrase or a clause. Eg: We found her in tears. All the plans have gone bankrupt. I saw her crying in her room - Attribute is a part of sentence which gives further information and adds meaning to a noun or noun phrase. The girl with a long black hair is my friend. 5. What is the difference between lexical and grammatical morpheme? - Lexical morphemes express meanings that can be relatively easily specified by using dictionary terms or by pointing out example of things, actions, events, states, properties... Eg: tree, above, red, honest… - Grammatical morphemes: They express common meanings and referring to grammatical relationship within and between sentences. Eg: works, worked, working; hot, hotter, hottest 6. When is the passive voice used in English language? - When the agent is redundant. (khi tác nhân không cần biết) Eg: Only dragon fruit can be grown on this soil.

- To emphasize the receiver or result of action. Eg: Six people were killed by the tornado. - To make a sentence sound more objective without revealing the source of information. Eg: It is reported that he embezzled VND 10 billion. - To be tactful or evasive by not mentioning the agent or when the agent cannot be identified. Eg: It appears that some errors were made in this report. - To retain the same grammatical subject in the successive clauses. Eg: When I arrived at the company, I was interviewed by the director. - When the passive is more appropriate than the active (usually in complex sentences) Eg: The initiative which had been proposed by labour leaders was warmly welcome. - When the theme is given information and the agent is new information. Eg: How beautiful the poem is! It was composed by a very young poet. 7. What does the term "verb form" refer to? Make the list of verb forms. Verb form refers to different forms of verb used in the sentence. They include finite and non-finite forms: - Finites are verb forms with a tense (tensed verb).They usually have the subject and a tense. - Non-finites are those verb forms without a tense (non-tensed verb). They include infinitive, gerund, present participle, past participle. Eg: The non-finites of the verb "do" are: to do, doing, done, having done, to have done. 8. What is the difference between coordinator and subordinator? - Coordinator connects words, group of words and independent clauses. They can be used to express the meaning of addition (and, both), the opposite meaning (but, still, yet), the meaning of choices (or, otherwise), result or consequences (so, thus, therefore). Eg: To be or not to be is a big question. - Subordinator connects subordinate clauses with the dependent clause. They can be used to introduce adverbial clauses of time, place, reason, concession... Eg: Whenever you are not near me, my heart feels empty. 9. State the use of reciprocal pronoun? Reciprocal pronoun "each other", "one another" are used to indicate the relationship of neutrality: people do the same thing, feel the same way or have the same relationship. Traditionally, "each other" refers to 2 people or things, "one another" refers to more than two. Eg: We help each other a lot. They didn’t say any thing to one another. 10. What situation are conditional sentences used to talk about? Basically, conditional sentences are used to talk about: - A situation which sometimes exists or existed. Eg: If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterward. - A situation which you know does not exist. Eg: If there were no water, there would not be life on Earth. - A situation when you don't know whether it exists or not. Eg: If he is right it would be possible once more to manage the economy in the old way. - A situation which may exist in the future.

Eg: If I have enough money I will by a TV.

11. What is free morpheme?
Some morphemes can stand alone as independent words since they carry full semantic weight. These are called free morphemes. Eg: care in careful, happy in unhappiness, order in disoder, hope in hopeful, discourage…

12. Give the description of the preparatory subject.
It is possible to begin such sentences with an infinitive or gerund, but we generally prefer “it”. The true subject is the infinitive, gerund or noun clause. Eg: It’s pleasant to lie in the sun. It’s pleasant lying in the sun.

13. State the uses of the past progressive.
1. An action in the progress at a specific point of time in the past: He was walking to the school at 8:30 this morning. 2. Past action (simultaneous with some other event): (xảy ra hoặc được làm cùng một lúc (với cái gì); đồng thời) I was listening to the radio when the phone rang. 3. Repetition or iteration in some ongoing past action: (tiep dien nhieu lan trong qk) Jake was coughing all night long.

14. List the ways of forming compound adjectives?
Compound adjectives are the adjectives formed by combining two or more free morphemes together and are often written wit hyphens. There are many ways of forming compound adjectives: N+Adj : tax free, waterproof N+Past participle: home-made, candle-lit Adj.+Adj: dark blue, light-brown Adj.+N+ed: open-minded, warm-hearted Adj.+N: round-table, square-yard Adj.+Present participle: good-looking, easy going Adv.+Present prarticiple:long-playing, far-seeing N+Present participle: time-consuming, labour-saving Adv.+Past participle: well-done, fully-furnished Preposition+N: over-age, off-hand

15. State the uses of the simple present?
a. Habitual actions in the present: He walks to school everyday; We often have breakfast at 7am. b. General timeless truths: Water freezes at 00C; The earth goes around the sun. c. With Be and other ststive verbs in the present tense: * Sensory perception (e.g., see, hear, taste,…): I see a large house in the corner. *Mental perception and emotions (e.g., know, doubt, love, hate…): I know she is a doctor. *Relationships(e.g., have, own, owe, belong to…): He owns me a lot of money.

d. In the subordinate clause with verbs in the future time: After I finish my homework, I’ll call you. e. In the subordinate clause of future conditional sentences: If he pass his exam, he’ll receive a good chance. f. Expresses future: I have a meeting next Friday at that time. g. Present event/action or speech act: h. Conversational historical present: ( used to refer to past events in narration): ‘So he stands up in the boat and waves his arms to catch our attention’