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Efforts by: Rahul Kumar Gupta A3923009033 BBA+MBA(Dual) Ist Year

Amity School of Business, Noida, U.P
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CERTIFICATE

This is to Certify that Rahul Kumar Gupta bearing Enrollment no. A3923009033 has successfully completed the Project on ³Green Marketing of I.T Products´ under the guidance of Ms. Apeksha Ahooda.

This Project is submitted to Amity University in complete fulfillment of the requirement.

Signature

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
On the Successful Completion of this Project I would like to express my gratitude to everybody who assisted and guided me in completing this Project and making my Project a memorable and successful one.

I wish to extend my deep and sincere thanks to Ms. Apeksha Ahooda (My Mentor) whose Constant Motivation, Constructive Ideas, Inspiration to work hard and set high targets actuated me to learn a lot by going through this Project.

I am extremely grateful to her who rendered her valuable advice and kind assistance at every step and helped me in accomplishing this Project successfully.

I extend my thanks to Mrs. Alka Munjal (Director, A.S.B) the Inspiration provided by her before, after and during the Project.

I am beholden to my Family and Friends for their blessings and encouragement.

By:- Rahul Kumar Gupta

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ABSTRACT
In today's Business world environmental issues plays an important role in Marketing. All most all the Governments around the world have concerned about Green Marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. The terms and concepts of Green Marketing, briefly discuss why going Green is important and also examine some of the reason that Organizations are adopting a Green Marketing philosophy.

It also tells about Why Firms are Opting Green Marketing:  Organizations perceive environmental marketing to be an opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives.  Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more Socially responsible.  Governmental bodies are forcing Firms to become more responsible.  Cost factors associated with waste disposal or reductions in material usage forces firms to modify their behavior.  Competitive environmental Marketing activities. This Project also stresses upon the effect of Green Marketing on the consumers. Green Marketing of I.T Products isn't a catchphrase ´Changing Concept in Changing times´. Its a Marketing Strategy that can help you get more Customers and make more money.

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Table of Contents

1. Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8 3. Importance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 4. Green Marketing Adoption by I.T Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20 5. Green Marketing of I.T Products a Corporate Initiative. . . 21-41 6. 10 ways given by I.T Companies to promote Green Marketing for Consumers to turn their Computer Green. . . . . . . . . . . . . .42-50 7. Survey of Green Marketing of I.T Products . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-56 8. SWOT Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-58 9. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59-60 10. Recommendations & Future Prospects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-62 11. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
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PREFACE

Terms like Green Marketing of I.T Products appear frequently in the popular Press. Many Governments around the World have become so concerned about Green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. Green Marketing is the marketing of Products or Services based on their environmental benefits. Such Product or Sevice may be environment friendly in itself and Produced or Packaged in a environment friendly way. Thus Green Marketing of I.T Products incorporates a broad range of activities including:      Product Modification, Product Recycling, Product Packaging, Product Awareness, Product Marketing Strategies.

To succeed, any Green Strategy must fulfill three criteria:  Firstly, it must be Sustainable which brings benefits to the environment.  Secondly, it must deliver sound economic ROI and Competitive advantage to the business.  Thirdly, it must be supported by relevant Green messages to customers. Basically the main aim of Project is to: Improved environmental quality and Customer Satisfaction. To know how I.T companies drive to customer awareness. To know how to create Green Market of I.T Products. Recycling of I.T Products.  Promotion of Green Products and Green Marketing.
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INTRODUCTION

According to the Indian Marketing Association, Green Marketing is the Marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus Green Marketing of I.T Products incorporates a broad range of activities, including:  Product Modification,  Product Recycling,  Product Packaging,  Product Awareness,  Product Marketing Strategies.

Yet defining Green Marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other. An example of this will be the existence of varying social,environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are: - Environmental Marketing of I.T Products and - Ecological Marketing of I.T Products.

The definition also includes the protection of natural environment by attempting to minimize the detrimental impact, this exchange has on the environment. To be more accurate I.T Products making Greenclaims should state they are µ less environmentally harmful¶ rather than µenvironmental friendly¶. Thus green marketing should look at minimizing environmental harm, not necessarily eliminating it. The term Green Marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975. The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing".
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The first wave of Green Marketing occurred in the 1980s. Two tangible milestones for wave of green marketing came in the form of publishedbooks, both of which were called Green Marketing. They were by Ken Peattie (1992) in the United Kingdom and by Jacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the United States of America. In the years after 2000 a second wave of Green marketing emerged. By now Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR) and the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) were widespread to brought scientific environmental arguments to a wide public in an easy to understand way. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of Green Marketing can be divided into three phases:  First phase was termed as "Ecological" green marketing, to help solve environment problems through remedies.  Second phase was "Environmental" green marketing with focus on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues.  Third phase was "Sustainable" green marketing came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000 where it becomes necessary for companies to produce environment friendly products as the awareness for such products is on the rise as customers are demanding eco-friendly products and technologies. My definition which encompasses all major components of other definitions is: "Green Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment." This definition incorporates much of the traditional components of the marketing definition ie. "All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants".

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So, in simple words Green marketing refers to the process of selling Products or Services based on their environmental benefits. Such a Product or Service may be environmentally friendly in itself or produced or packaged in an environmentally friendly way.

According to Polonsky (1994) Green Marketing consists of all activities, designed to generate and facilitate any exchange indented to satisfy human needs and wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occur with minimumdetrimental impact on the natural environment.

Mintu and Lozada (1993) defined Green Marketing as the application of marketing tools to facilitate exchanges that satisfy organizational and individual goals in such a way that the preservation, protection and conservation of the physical environment is upheld.

According to Stanton and Futrell (1987) Green Marketing ensures that the interest of the organization and all it consumers are protected, as voluntary exchange will not take place unless the buyers and sellers are mutually benefited.

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IMPORTANCE

Man has limited resources on the earth, with which she/he must attempt to provide for the worlds' unlimited wants. There is extensive debate as to whether the earth is a resource at man's disposal. In Market societies where there is "freedom of choice", it has generally been accepted that individuals and organizations have the right to attempt to have their wants satisfied. As firms face limited natural resources, they must develop new or alternative ways of satisfying these unlimited wants. Ultimately Green Marketing looks at how marketing activities utilize these limited resources, while satisfying consumers wants, both of individuals and industry, as well as achieving the selling organization's objectives. 

I.T Industry perceive Green Marketing to be an opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives.  Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more Socially responsible.  Governmental bodies are forcing Firms to become more responsible towards the Environment.  Cost factors associated with waste disposal, or reductions in material usage forces firms to modify their behavior. 

Green Marketing imparts a Proactive Strategy to I.T companies to cater the market by imparting naturefriendly products and services which otherwise reduce or minimize any detrimental impacton environment.
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Green Marketing approach to I.T Companies promotes the integration of environmental issues into all aspects of the Corporate activities from Strategy formulation, Planning,Re-engineering in production process and dealing with consumers. So to remain competitive within the challenge thrown by the environment protectionists, the I.T companies will have to find answer through their Marketing strategies Product&Service redesign, Customer handling etc. For thisendeavour the companies may go for new technologies forhandling waste, sewage and air pollution. It can go for ProductStandardization to ensure environmentally safe products by providing truly natural products.  I.T companies introduce the concepts of reuse and recyclability, in addition to the concept of waste reduction. Thus the challenge of I.T companies by Green Marketing is to meet the unlimited wants of consumers within the constraint of limited resources by introducing modern management tools like:

y TQM (Total Quality Management), y 6-Sigma, y 4Rs(Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recovery) Principles in production y Process.

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GOALS OF GREEN MARKETING OF I.T PRODUCTS

· Eliminate the concept of waste. · Reinvent the concept of product. · Make prices reflect actual and environmental costs. · Make environmentalism profitable. · Bringing out product modifications. · Changing in production processes. · Packaging changes. · Modifying advertising.

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BENEFITS OF GREEN MARKETING OF I.T PRODUCTS
Today¶s consumers are becoming more and more conscious about the environment and are also becoming socially responsible. Therefore, more I.T Companies are responsible to consumersaspirations for environmentally less damaging or neutral products. Many I.T Companies want to have an early mover advantage as they have to eventually move towards becoming green.

Some of the advantages to I.T Companies by Green Marketing are: · It ensures sustained long term growth along with profitability. · It saves money in the long run, though initially the cost is more. · It helps the I.T Companies to market their products and services keeping the environment aspects in mind. . It helps in accessing the new markets and enjoying the competitive advantage. · Most of the employees also feel proud and responsible to be working for an environmentally responsible company.

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GREEN MARKETING ± ADOPTION BY I.T FIRMS
Green Marketing has been widely adopted by the I.T firms worldwide and the following are the possible reasons cited for this wide adoption:

i)

OPPORTUNITIES: As demands change, many I.T firms see these
changes as an opportunity to be exploited and have a competitive advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. Some examples of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs are: y HCL launched India's first eco-friendly notebook, It¶s aPolyvinyl Chloride (PVC) free notebook and this product is highly recyclable. y Xerox introduced a "high quality" recycled photocopier paper in a attempt to satisfy the demands of firms for less environmentally harmful products. y HP introduced a new Eco highlights labeling system which helps easy to accesss environmental product attributes energy efficiency and recycling information.

ii)

GOVERNMENTAL PRESSURE: As with all marketing related
activities, governments want to protect consumers and society, this protection has significant Green Marketing I.T implications. Governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing are designed to protect consumers in several ways-

y

Reduce production of harmful products or by-products.
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y

Modify consumer and industry's use of harmful products .

y Ensure that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of products.

iii)

COMPETITIVE PRESSURE: Another major force in the
environmental I.T Marketing area has been firms' desire to maintain their competitive position. In many cases I.T firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to emulate this behavior. In some instances this competitive pressure has caused an entire industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior.

For example- It could be argued that Xerox's "Revive 100% Recycled paper" was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introduction of recycled photocopier by other manufacturers.

iv)

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: Many I.T firms are beginning to
realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion. This translates into firms that believe they must achieve environmental objectives as well as profitrelated objectives. This results in environmental issues being integrated into the firm's corporate culture.

v)

COST OR PROFIT ISSUES: I.T Firms may also use Green
Marketing in an attempt to address cost or profit related issues. When attempting to minimize waste, in these cases I.T firms often develop more effective production processes that not only reduce waste, but reduce the need for some raw materials. This serves as a double cost savings, since both waste and raw material are reduced.
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GREEN CODE

G:Generalizes with care. Consumer behavior will not necessarily be consistent
across different product types, and particular market segments may respond to certain issues on the green agenda but not others.

R:Remembers, the validity of a piece of market research is not related to the
degree to which it supports your preferred option.

E:Explores the context from which market research data comes. Be clear on the
nature of the sample used, the questions asked, the way in which responses were recorded and the time and place from which the responses come.

E:Ensures that where market research is crossing international borderlines, that the
terminology and interpretation remains consistent. Terms like µenvironment¶, µgreen¶ and µconservation¶ donot always translate precisely between languages.

N:Neutrality is important. Ensure that when you pose questions to consumers, that
they can make any response without being made to feel guilty or uncomfortable, and ensure that your own preconceptions about the green agenda (such as an assumption that green products will cost extra) are not encoded within the questions.

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GREEN MARKETING MIX
PRODUCT
I.T Entrepreneurs wanting to exploit emerging Green Markets either: Identify customers¶ environmental needs and develop products to address these needs or will develop environmentally responsible products to have less impact than competitors. The increasingly wide variety of I.T products on the market that support sustainable developments are: Products made from recycled goods. Products that can be recycled or reused. Efficient products which save water, energy or gasoline, save money and reduce environmental impact. Products with environmentally responsible packaging. Products with Green labels, as long as they offer substantiation. Certified products, which meet or exceed environmentally responsible criteria. A service that rents or loans products-toy libraries. Whatever the product or service, it is vital to ensure that products meet or exceed the quality expectation of customers and is thoroughly tested.

PRICE
Pricing is the critical element of the marketing mix. Most customers will only be prepared to paya premium if there is a perception of additional product value. This value may be improvedperformance, function, design, visual appeal or taste. Environmental benefits will be often be thedeciding factor between products of equal value or quality.Environmentally responsible products, however are often less expensive when product life cycle coast are taken into consideration.

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PLACE
The choice of where and when to make I.T products available will have significant impact on the customers you attract. Very few customers go out of their way to buy Green I.T Products merely for the sake of it. Marketers looking to successfully introduce new Green I.T Products should position them broadly in the market place so they are not just appealing to a small Green niche market. The location must also be consistent with the image you want to project and allow you to project your own image rather than being dominated or compromised by the image of venue. The location must differentiate you from the competitors. This can be achieved by in-store promotions and visually appealing displays or using recycled materials to emphasize the environmental andother benefits.

PROMOTION
Promoting products and services to target I.T markets include paid advertising, public relations, sales promotions, direct marketing andon-site promotions. Smart Green I.T Marketers will be able toreinforce environmental credibility by using sustainable marketing and communication tools and practices. For example, many companies in the I.T industry are providing electronic statements by email. e-marketing is rapidly replacing more traditional marketing methods and printed materials can be produced using recycled materials and efficient processes such as waterless printing.

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SHIFTING TO A GREEN ERA

The color GREEN, until recently was associated all over the world with emerald. In the modern age however, GREEN is getting associated with sustainable development. Being green is no longer a matter of choice its marketing is a must, or else enterprise may run the risk of losingcustomers, employees and shareholders. It has become almost a necessity to maintain a greenlifestyle. The possibility of oceans rising and claiming coastal lives, climate change, and polluted air andwater are beginning to gain momentum towards the GREEN movement. Today there is an increasing concern among the I.T business houses towards the challenges poisedby the environment. Green consumerism is playing a catalytic role to bring in environmentalismand make business Green oriented. Also it has been noticed that there has been an increasing trend of consumers demanding for a ³Green Image´ of an enterprise. The most feasible option available for the business houses is to put into practice the process of ³Green Manufacturing´. It involves product recovery activities as well as reverses logistics. Product recovery concept is applied on the returned product so as to translate it to a usable one, for example remanufacturing, refurbishing or even recycling. Whereas reverse logistics focuses on inbound supply and distribution of used goods and inventory. Companies like HCL, hp, Compaq, DELL and many more have taken up green projects. They sponsor huge amount and in return earn a lot of goodwill, low cost publicity, and an environment conscious image. Scores of such enterprises have responded to environmental concerns with several strategic versions of green business, which are enumerated below: Adopting products/packages to make them environmentally sound. Making realistic environmental claims about existing products through the advertisements.
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Linking brands with environmental causes to create goodwill. Introducing entirely new range of products explicitly designed to appeal environmentally conscious consumers.

For I.T business houses seeking environmental sustainability, Green supply chain management (GSCM) has emerged as a vital tool. Green supply is attracting a particular interest amongresearchers and practitioners in operations and supply chain management. It integrates environmental thinking into traditional supply chain management that includes product design,material sourcing as well as selection, process of manufacturing, delivery of final products to thecustomers and most importantly end of life product management after its proper usage. The major areas addressed by GSCM are: The upstream activities of an organization that comprises evaluation of supplier¶senvironmental performance. Downstream actions that include activities related to the disposal of surfeit stock,particularly the recovery and recycling opportunities. Within the organization, GSCM might include design for the environment with the suppliers. While in the logistics, JIT or Quality Management conjoins with environmental criterion.

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The I.T business enterprises can have several benefits by Greening their supply chain. Some of them are:

Risk Reduction and Adapting of Regulation: I.T Enterprises with
green practices of SCM can keep themselves free of being prosecuted due to unethical and anti-environmental practices.

Sustainability of Resources: The greening of SCM helps in effective
utilization of enterprise resources. The I.T enterprises shall purchase green input resources for environment friendly production process to produce eco friendly outputs.

Production Process and Competitive Advantage: GSCM helps the I.T
business houses in positioning the products differently in the minds of the target set of buyers. It will not only attract profitable customers for the organizations, but also bestow competitive edge over its rivals, thereby strengthening brand image.

Cost Reduction and Increased Efficiency: Effective utilization of
GSCM may fetch reduction of transaction cost as well as promote recycling of raw materials. Moreover the production of hazardous substances can be engraved, which may avert enterprises frombeing penalized for violating environmental clauses.

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GREEN MARKETING of I.T PRODUCTS: A CORPORATE INITIATIVE
It is important in today¶s world because mankind has limited resources on the earth and if we want long term sustainability of human life on this earth¶s surface, then I.T Companies has to learn to conserve these scarce natural resources and create products that have less environmental damage. Otherwise the very existence of humankind will be under question mark. Corporate are going green from the grassroots level to sustain and win the customers¶ expectations. The environment is becoming increasingly important part of the corporate reputations and they are actively participating in greening the corporate strategy. I.T Companies have converted almost all the products to make them eco-friendly products. India is a world leader in Green I.T potential, according to a recently released global enterprise survey. Indian respondents scored over respondents from 10 other countries in expecting to pay 5% or more for Green technology if its benefits for the environment and return on investment (ROI) are proven in a survey conducted by Green factor, which researches and highlights Green Marketing opportunities. Among the companies that have succeeded thus far in their Green marketing strategies are Apple, HP, Microsoft, IBM, Intel, Sony and Dell. HCL has a comprehensive policy designed to drive its environment management program ensuring sustainable development. HCL is duty bound to manufacture environmentally responsible products and comply with environment management processes right from the time products are sourced, manufactured, bought by customers, recovered at their end-of-life and recycled.

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Following are the recent environment friendly initiatives taken by the I.T Companies:

HCL

In building a system to identify, develop and sustain the maintenance of an environment management system at corporate level HCL have formulated a program that they proudly refer as HCL's ecosafe. Their aim is to encapsulate knowledge, awareness, and key developments on all environmental issues faced by today's world and to incorporate these in HCL's operations assuring their commitment in delivering quality products, solutions and services. The key objective under HCL ecosafe is targeted at integrating environmental management procedures into its business processes thereby protecting the environment, health, and safety of all its stakeholders. The journey towards becoming a sustainable business starts with the product development activities. When any new product is developed, from the conceptual stage itself the product engineering team starts working on its environmental aspects in keeping with life cycle considerations at design stage for electronic products. Key environmental design considerations integrated in product development process include the below activities:

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a. b. c. d. e.

All the sub assemblies need to comply with HCL's chemical policy Product design to support minimal power consumption Product design to support easy dismantling, recycling and reuse Products should have the capability to be upgraded Extended product life time .

Environment related activities undertaken by HCL
1) HCL¶s E-Waste Policy a) HCL has made concerted effort in WEEE management enshrined in its chemical policy. b) Under HCL's GREEN BAG CAMPAIGN, HCL extends its in-house recycling arrangement to all its customers regardless of when and where the product was purchased. c) Inculcating consumer awareness to promote separate collection and recycling of all WEEE through education.

2) HCL's energy conservation Goal a) All HCL products have Green PC features and ACPI mode for power saving. b) Augmenting employee awareness by conducting awareness training on energy saving practices such as switching OFF computer systems monitors etc when not in use, usage of stationery and paper to a minimum and encouraging employees to reuse paper. c) Use of E-mail and Intranet to reduce paper use and save printing energy.

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3) HCL's Natural Resources Conservation Goal a) HCL practices stringent measures to recycle/reuse packaging material. Reusable packaging material received at the plant from suppliers is sent to the regional TRC (Test and Repair Center) to reuse in packaging material. b) Protection of the Ozone layer - HCL in its manufacturing facilities uses electronic durables that are CFC free.

4) Phasing out Toxic Chemicals. a) Phasing out of PVC and BFR components from product manufacturing. b) Monitoring international trends and working towards elimination of other substances of concern worldwide.

5) EMS related Activities a) No usage of polythene less than 20 microns. b) Effectively reusing packing material.

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MICROSOFT

Microsoft is committed to developing technology that helps consumers and businesses reduce their environmental footprints. Microsoft believes in using technology and event sponsorship to minimize environmental impact and in helping people around the world to develop green software solutions.

Environment related activities undertaken by Microsoft i) Microsoft has built-in power management features in new Windows Vista operating system that can reduce a company¶s energy use by as much as 30%. With Windows 7 organizations can take advantage of additional efficiencies that reduce power consumption and can help lower energy costs. Microsoft Virtualization enables multiple operating systems to run on a single server, potentially reducing energy use by up to 90%. Microsoft Dynamics AX can help you reduce risk and liability associated with corporate governance by delivering capabilities that reduce manufacturing waste and promote environmental sustainability. Microsoft Unified Communications includes products like Exchange Server and Office Communications Server that enable collaboration and limit the need for expensive travel. Microsoft has currently launched two Energy saving calculators- Desktop and Sever Energy saving calculators that can estimate your company's carbon footprint and see the savings you can achieve through enlightened IT implementation.

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

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IBM

IBM has a long history of Green Marketing. The company¶s corporate policy on environmental protection, is supported by a comprehensive global environmental management system that governs IBM¶s operations worldwide. IBM¶s long-standing recognition of the importance of Green Marketing arises from two key aspects of its business. The first is the intersection of the company¶s operations and products with the environment. The second is the enabling aspects of IBM¶s innovation, technology and expertise.

Environment related activities undertaken by IBM ±
i) IBM has currently launched a program focused on the environmental attributes of its Product Packaging. Under this program, IBM packaging engineers develop solutions that minimize packaging waste by keeping packaging to a minimum and, whenever feasible, composed of recyclable and/or reusable materials. The company is applying IT and supercomputing capabilities to the intelligent energy grid, smart transportation systems, biofuel development, energy and material use optimization in manufacturing processes, logistics planning and other applications. IBM announced enhancements to Tivoli software designed to help customers address the growing need to maximize energy efficiency and reduce costs associated with power and cooling.

ii)

iii)

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Hp
HP is committed to providing customers with inventive, high-quality products and services that are environmentally sound, and to conduct our operations in an environmentally responsible manner.

Environment related activities undertaken by Hp ±
a) Hp is committed to environmentally efficient packaging ± Protecting the products by minimising waste. for example: Shrinking the size of the product boxes, using post-consumer recycled materials and plastic pallets instead of heavier wooden ones. b) Hp has launched notebooks that can enable environmentally beneficial changes to working practices. It offers better battery life, reduced energy bills and a smaller carbon footprint. for example: The latest HP Business Notebook line-up is ENERGY STAR® 4.0 compliant which uses 50 percent less power than other notebooks. c) Hp Business Desktops offer a range of features to reduce energy consumption dramatically. It is designed to last longer and minimise the use of hazardous materials. For example: HP Power Manager allows users to refine their own power policies and see how they affect energy consumption. d) HP Client Virtualisation uses less energy than a conventional PC architecture.Thin clients last longer than PCs, cutting replacement costs and waste.Thin clients have fewer environmental impacts than conventional PCs.

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Sony

Sony has recently developed and launched a range of innovative products named as ³ODO´ line products also called as Eco-chic. These products do not require AC adapter as they were powered by kinetic or solar energy. Sony has used simplified Packaging and Recycled plastic in the manufacturing of ODO products as a ³Sustainable Product´ initiative. The ODO line products comprise of five products:

1. Spin N Snap: The Spin and Snap is a Digital camera. It has two holes which
are used as view finder and chargers. On spinning the camera on ones fingers generates kinetic energy and charges the device. 2. Push Power Play: Push power play is a display device with a roller on the base. The rollers are used to charge the device by the friction of the device with hard surface. 3. Crank N¶ Capture: Crank and Capture is a digital video camera with a crank used to operate and generate power. 4. Pull and Play: The pull and play is a stereo headphone with a cord to simply pull and use. 5. Juice Box: The juice box is a credit card sized object used to recharge the other ODO products.

Sony has recently started Green fill e-Recycle Drop Box at Retail Locations. Consumers can bring unwanted small electronics of any brand to a participating retail location and recycle it for free. Sony says ³we love maths´, especially simple equations ± like less in, more out. That¶s why the company redesign the products to optimise energy efficiency whilst reducing waste.

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GOLDEN RULES USED BY I.T COMPANIES TO PROMOTE GREEN MARKETING

i)

Know Your Customer: Make sure that the consumer is aware of and
concerned about the issues that your product attempts to address.

ii)

Empower Consumers: Make sure that consumer feel. By themselves
or in concert with all the other users of your product, that they can make a difference. This is called ³empowerment´ and due to this main reason consumers will buy Greener products.

iii)

Be Transparent: Consumers must believe in the legitimacy of the
product and the specific claims made in regard.

iv)

Reassure the Buyer: Consumers must be made to believe that the
product performs the job it¶s supposed to do. They won¶t forego product quality in the name of the environment.

v)

Thus leading brands should recognize that consumer expectations have changed: It is not enough for a I.T Company to
Green its products. Consumers expect the products that they purchase pocket friendly and also to help reduce the environmental impact in their own lives too.

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PRESENT TRENDS IN GREEN MARKETING OF I.T PRODUCTS IN INDIA I.TOrganizations perceive Environmental marketing to be an Opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives:
I.T Firms have realized that consumers prefer products that do not harm the natural environment as also the human health. I.T Firms marketing such Green products are preferred over the others not doing so and thus develop a competitive advantage, simultaneously meeting their business objectives.

I.T Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible:
This is in keeping with the philosophy of CSR which has been successfully adopted by many I.T business houses to improve their corporate image. I.T Firms in this situation can take two approaches: · Use the fact that they are environmentally responsible as a marketing tool. · Become responsible without prompting this fact.

Governmental Bodies are forcing I.T Firms to become more responsible:
In most cases the government forces the I.T firm to adopt policy which protects the interests of the consumers. It does so in following ways: · Reduce production of harmful goods or by ±products, · Modify consumer and industry¶s use and /or consumption of harmful goods or, · Ensure that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods.

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Competitors¶ environmental activities Pressure I.T Firms to change their environmental marketing activities:
In order to get even with competitors claim to being environmentally friendly, I.T firms changeover to green marketing. Result is green marketing percolates entire industry.

Cost factors associated with Waste Disposal or Reductions in material usage forces I.T Firms to modify their Behavior:
With cost cutting becoming part of the strategy of the I.T firms it adopts green marketing inrelation to these activities. It may pursue these as follows: · I.T Firm develops a technology for reducing waste and sells it to other firms. · A waste recycling or removal industry develops.

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In Search of Market Segments for Green I.T Products
The µGREEN¶ issue, more than any other, will affect most I.T companies prospects in 2010 and beyond. Responding to the growing interest in the environment companies such as HCL, Hp, Compaq, DELL have utilized the sentiment of environmental consciousness as a means to promote their product and market their services. Consequently, claims of environment friendly products have become important selling points. More and more, consumers are looking for goods and services that supposedly reduce waste and protect the Green environment. Currently, I.T companies involved in µGreen¶ marketing have targeted much of their attention towards the general consuming public. This is primarily because the general consumer, as a market segment for green goods and services, is a particularly large and profitable market. In India, for example, 1 to 3 million potential Green I.T consumers can be expected. While Indians have been slow in responding to the green movement, a survey by TERI found that 48% agreed that consumers are willing to accept price increase for environment friendly products. Undoubtedly, the consuming public is an important and large target segment for green I.T Products. However, we contented that this segment is not the only avenue for green products.Businesses are fiercely competing for this one segment to gain an environmental lead (e.g. HCL introduced first eco-friendly notebook and this product is highly recyclable). Meanwhile, other I.T companies havesuccessfully carved a traditional market segments (e.g.Hp). Therefore, for I.T companies to have a competitive advantageregarding the environment, they need to know their target markets are and/or who their targetmarkets ought to be.

There are two overriding reasons why identifying these markets are important. First, the proper identification of these markets is important if managers are to adapt competitive strategies. These strategies facilitate the initiation of the new marketing programs that address the environmental issue. Second, a holistic perspective may be necessary to address the environment issue. That is, since a symbolic relationship exists between these markets, a collective effort (among the
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segments) may be necessary in order to effectively solve the ³environmental´ dilemma. The four market segments are discussed below.

Four Potential I.T market Segments
Choosing a target for I.T market is not an easy task. It requires an in-depth understanding of the totalmarket and its trends,companies distinctive competencies and critical external factors such asthe competitive and regulatory environments among others.

Segment 1: General Public or I.T Consumer Market It¶s a familiar story by now. Over a year ago, marketers started capitalization on the green euphoria by touting their products as safe for the environment, degradable, environmentally-friendly and so on. Green I.T products are gaining visibility in Indian market. This demonstrates that the green issue has become an important consumer concern. It has also provided marketers with opportunities for product improvement and differentiation. Because of these, market opportunities, many I.T companies aim to convince the public that their products are environmentally friendly and not as harmful as they may seem. At present, the window of opportunity for these companies is promising. Hence, I.T companies like Hp consider proper leverage of environmental issues a µSustainable competitive advantage¶.

Segment 2: Government and its I.T Agencies Market Continued exploitation of natural resources for increasing economic growth brought with it associated environmental and social problems. However, these problems were not addressed by the government until 1971, when the Planning Commission wrote a report on state of India¶s environment in preparation for a 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. It was only after India signed the resulting declaration from this U.N conference the government took any serious action in addressing environmental issues in developmental planning.
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Subsequently, a National Committee on Environmental planning and Coordination (NCEPC) was formed in 1972 to act as an apex advisory body in all the matters relating to environmental protection and improvement. For protection and improvement of environment and security of future generation the government organizations and financial institutions need to use their resources effectively to improve their performance and to set up their cooperation, working as one to overcome hunger and to consolidate the primary role of sustainable agriculture and rural development in food and environmental security. Indian legislatures should rise to occasion and act in a manner that fundamentally changes the lives of the poor and instill confidence by implementation of laws and policies to usher a humane, equitable and environment friendly society.

Segment 3: For Profit or Private I.T Organizations I.T Business Week (2004) predicts that one of the major business trends of the coming years will be investments into India¶s landscape, i.e. improving and preserving the environment. According to I.T managers, as long as corporate India exists, a potential or ready market can be found. With all the new governmental regulations, private industry can be expected to spend considerable resources for environmental control.

Segment 4: Non-Profit Organizations
Non-Profit organizations such as charitable institutions are also viable alternatives for I.T companies that offer green products. However, many non-profit organizations operate under very limited budgets and are closely monitored by other regulatory agencies.

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Choosing the ³Right´ Market and Strategy Formulation

Choosing the ³right´ market is the foundation for sound strategy. Based on a I.T company¶s target market, recommendations can be made on Product, Price, Promotion and Distribution policies. Effectively tapping into a specific market, offers a marketers a leading edge. Likewise, if the segment is satisfied with the company¶s offerings, it may become a niche for the company¶s products. Here, we have identified four portable segments for Green goods and services. Regardless of choice, each segment provides challenging pursuits for any company. With high barriers to entry, large capital expenditures, changing technology, and strong competition, the choice of the ³right´ target market is crucial. While identifying the proper market is one step towards finding a niche, we also need to properly position and differentiate our products. Should we emphasize the company¶s use of recycled material? Or, should the label on our packaging highlight that it is made from the recycled material? Or, should our advertising focus on being environmentally friendly? Based on the current trends the environmentally friendly features of goods and services are perceived to offer unique benefits to users or buyers. This is critical in product positioning. These positive perceptions can serve as competitive advantages in gaining an environmental lead. Therefore, as a (strong) competitive advantage it becomes an important selling point in product differentiation and positioning.

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Role of Information Technology in Green Marketing

I.T departments are under increasing scrutiny and pressure to deliver environmentally sound solutions. Large data centers are one of the most significant energy consumers in an organizations IT infrastructure, so any measures that the organization can take to reduce this consumption (and therefore also carbon dioxide emissions) will have a positive impact on the organization¶s environmental footprint. Gartner reveals that during the last five years, the power demands of equipments have grown by five or more times. Additionally, a report issued by the environmental Protection Agency in U.S indicates that environmental issues have placed IT departments under pressure to develop µGreen¶ data centers. A Green data centre is defined as one in which the mechanical, lighting, electrical and computer systems are designed for maximum energy efficiency and minimum environmental impact. The construction and operation of a green data centre involved in advanced technologies and strategies.

Some examples include: Reducing the power consumption of the data centre. Minimizing the footprints of the buildings. Maximizing cooling efficiency. Using Low-emission building materials, carpets and paints. Installing catalytic converters on backup generators. Using alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaic electrical heat pumps and evaporating cooling. Focus on ³How a Green Data Centre can be a Great Marketing Tool´.

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SEGMENTATION OF GREEN I.T CONSUMERS

True-Blue Greens- The most environmentally active segment of the society. Greenback Greens- Those most willing to pay the highest premium for
green products.

Spouts- Fence-sitters who have embraced environmentalism more slowly. Grousers- Uninvolved or disinterested in environmental issues, who feel the
issues are too big for them to solve.

Apathetic- The least engaged group who believe that the environmental
indifference is main stream.

Apart from this Natural Marketing Institute(NMI) divides the market into following categories: Lohas- Very progressive on environment and society, looking for ways to do
more not too concerned about price. Naturalites- Primarily concerned about personal health and wellness, and use many natural products; would like to do more to protect the environment. Conventional- Practical, like to see the results of what they do; interested in green products that make sense in the long run. Drifters- Not too concerned about the environment, figuring we¶ve got time to fix the environmental problems; don¶t necessarily buy a lot of green products. Unconcerned- Have other priorities, they buy products strictly on price, value, quality and convenience.

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Consumer Information and Education

If managers believe that consumers view Greenness as a motivating variable, they should investin conveying information through advertising, direct mailing, brand labels, in-store displays andpamphlets. The important points to be noted here are: a) I.T firms willing to provide clear, comprehensive and credible information must ensure thatconsumers have low cost to access it. b) Governmental policies and stakeholder initiatives can be important in reducing consumers search, information or transaction costs. c) Regulators can publish and disseminate it to the media by press releases and post it on theinternet. d) Stakeholders can use the media as well as use their organization-specific vehicles such asnewsletters.

Green marketing of I.T Products can be successfully implemented by use of ICT in cost effective way:
· By developing compelling, concise messages, plan innovative ways to repeatedly deliver, identify appropriate links within network of political, legislative, nonprofit organization and media, develop concept based programs and events. . Utilize extensive relationship with local and national media to get a client¶s message to the right media targets. · Identify venues, plan tours, identify audiences, and organize meals, speakers and press.
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· Strategies and plan joint PR initiatives as well as joint advertising campaigns and events to cross-promote companies and organization campaigns. · Help develop identify and branding for print, broadcast and digital mediums. · Consulting and creation of a corporate design, brochures, leaflets, info materials. · Develop web sites, e-mail campaigns, and banner advertising. · Develop creative print, broadcast and digital advertising, identify advertising targets and purchase appropriate media slots.

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STRATEGIES TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN GREENMARKETING OF I.T PRODUCTS

1) PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION
I.T Organizations should put continuous efforts to differentiate their products and services using Green Marketing practice. Products with poor eco performance can become targets for new substitution, as a result of this I.T Organizations must come up with Greener ideas to differentiate their products from its competitors. CONSUMER VALUE POSITIONING:I.T Organizations can design environmental products to perform as well as provide alternatives. In addition to this promoting and delivering the consumer desired value of environmental products and target relevant consumer market segments can help the organization to differentiate. CALIBERATION OF CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE: Educates customers with marketing messages that connect environmental product attributes with desired consumer value.

2) PRODUCT STRATEGY
In this strategy marketers can identify customer¶s environmental needs and develop products to address this issue, produce more environmentally responsible packages and insure that products meet or exceed the quality expectation of customers. In addition to that marketer can charge higher price with highlighting eco-friendliness of the products.

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3) DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY
In case of this strategy obtaining dealer support to Green Marketing practice is essential.The location must differentiate from competitors and it can be achieved by in-storepromotions and displays by using recycle materials to emphasize the environmental andother benefits.Even though distribution has no big involvement in green marketing, few consumers arewilling to get the services from places and distribution channels which are not cause toenvironmental pollution.

4) LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS
Brands which aspire to be sustainable must ³get their house in order´ before they start planning any green marketing initiatives. The best brands are performing life cycle analysis- complex assessments which provide critical data on social, environmental and economic impact of products through the supply chain production process and after thepurchase. Life cycle analysis tells a brand just how far it needs to go before it claims to be sustainable. Consumers don¶t expect perfection when it comes to sustainability but they want to see that brands understand the scale of the problem, have a plan and are in the process of implementing it.

5) INCENTIVES AND STRUCTURAL FACTORS
Commercialization programs and incentives help get new technologies introduced.Consumers can be motivated by incentives and awards to: Curtail± Reduce the impact on the environment by modifying extant living patterns. Maintain± Keep equipment in good working order. Be efficient± Undertake structural changes such as buying environmental friendly equipment.
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10 Ways given by I.T Companies to Promote Green Marketing for Consumers to turn their Computer Green

The fast-moving pace of technology is good news for I.T lovers, but not such good news for the environment. As we acquire more and more I.T products, an explosion in e-waste (electronic scrap) containing toxic chemicals that cannot be disposed of safely is a growing concern. To make environmental matters worse, devices are burning up more energy than they need to through being left on while not in use. The blame lies with both PC users and manufacturers. Last year saw campaign group Greenpeace take on Apple, slamming its lack of environmental policies and non-existent plan to reduce its eco-impact. Apple CEO Steve Jobs rectified this in May, when he posted environmental targets online. Other PC makers have been making a lot of noise about their energy efficiency, reducing carbon footprints and cutting non-renewable or toxic components. PC World¶s carbon-neutral PC has been picking up a lot of press attention, while Intel has been working on energy-efficient Santa Rosa and Centrino processors and rolling them out into various laptops.

1. Set Sleep Time for your PC:If you don¶t tap your keyboard for 10
minutes, your PC will often go to sleep. Your PC¶s screen is probably set to go into power-saving mode after a preset period. Although they¶re not as power-hungry as old-style CRT displays, you can still save a great deal by having your flat-panel power off in this manner. To adjust the setting for your PC or laptop, go to Control Panel, Power Options and select a screen power-off schedule to suit. Note that screensavers don¶t reduce energy consumption. You can also enable PC hibernation but, as with standby mode for other devices, this doesn¶t completely power down your PC. It¶s all too easy to assume you¶re keeping costs and power consumption down, even though the current is still flowing.
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You¶ll see different power scheme options for desktop and laptop PCs. Your laptop can automatically adjust its power options depending on whether you¶re running it from batteries or mains power. You¶ll find a range of energy-use calculators online, such as Energy Star¶s (euenergystar.org). The savings you can make depend on how much you use your PC and the size of your screen, but could be £50 a year or more.

2. Turn it all off:According to a study by Fujitsu, the UK wastes powering PCs
left on out of hours. That¶s not only a lot of wasted energy - it¶s a lot of money too. An individual computer left on all the time costs about a year to run. Switch it off at night and weekends and this figure can be reduced to just £10 a year. The energy saved could make almost 35,000 cups of coffee, according to the Carbon Trust. Some argue that a PC should be left on all the time because turning it on and off causes stress to the computer¶s components. But if this were the case, the vast majority of PCs would suffer from such damage. They don¶t. Another argument against turning off a computer is the energy required to start it up again. To be as green as can be, consider turning off your PC if it¶s going to be inactive for more than 16 minutes. Beyond this time, the energy needed to run it outweighs the energy required at startup. If you leave your PC on overnight because you don¶t like waiting for it to start up first thing each day, set it to turn on automatically a few minutes before you arrive at the office. Restart your PC, hitting the Setup menu key before Windows loads. Tab to the Power Management Options and enable the alarm and select a suitable time for your PC to restart. You can also schedule your computer to shut down - a good option if you like to leave it on for your backup program to run after you leave the office.

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Turn on the printer only when you are ready to print. Printers consume energy even when idle. Similarly, a scanner sucks power in ready mode. Photocopiers are energy guzzlers too. Even when your PC is turned off, a phone charger plugged into your USB port will continue to draw energy.

3. Stop leaking power:It¶s not enough to just switch off the computer. If you
really want to make sure that the machine isn¶t drawing power from the mains, you need to physically unplug the computer or get out of your seat and switch it off at the wall. When you shut off your computer and the monitor goes black, your display is actually in standby mode and waiting for the PC to switch back on. Digital cameras, mobile phones and iPod power adaptors that are left plugged in all the time also suck power from the outlet, even after you¶ve disconnected the devices you were charging. When you leave the adaptor plugged in, you¶re losing an average of 2W. The simplest way of ensuring that all your computer¶s peripherals are completely turned off is to connect them to a power strip that you can simply switch off. Several companies have caught on to the publicity surrounding standby energy wastage and offer timer and standby switches. For home or office use, Micromark¶s timer plug will soon pay for itself in energy savings, while Bye Bye Standby lets you turn off several devices around the home from a central point.

4. Be an Energy Star:Energy Star stickers used to be seen plastered all over
CRT screens that were unusual in having standby modes. Flat-panels use far less energy than CRTs, but buying an LCD monitor isn¶t the only way to conserve power. Look for the Energy Star logo when buying printers, fax machines, scanners and other products. Energy Star to find products which meet strict green standards, look for the Energy Star logo.
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Energy Star is an initiative that promotes energy-efficient hardware.To get the stamp of approval, products must meet guidelines such as having a low-power sleep mode. At the Energy Star site (energy-star.org) it¶s easy to find products that meet the guidelines. It lets you search by category, brand and feature.

5. Use a flat-panel display:Next time you¶re looking to replace your PC
monitor you should at least ensure that it¶s a TFT model. Old-style CRT displays typically use 75W of power, while 25W is more typical of a flat-panel¶s lighter footprint. As well as drawing three times as much power so they can illuminate the phosphors that make up the display, CRTs contain a vast amount more lead than flat-panel displays. A typical CRT contains approximately 1.36kg of lead, while some LCDs contain only a few grammes. Philips has gone so far as to eliminate the lead content of some of its screens, such as the 19in 190C8FS. Thankfully, CRTs are on their way out, while pressure from campaigners mean more and more products will attain certification for the responsible way they have been manufactured and their low impact on the environment.

6. Know your RoHS:
The European Union implemented RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive) in July 2006. The directive restricts the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominateddiphenyl ether in the manufacture of electronics.

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Anything that¶s available for sale or import within the EU should now comply with RoHS. However, it¶s not a foolproof piece of legislation. Apple¶s Steve Jobs claims some companies are using loopholes in the RoHS directive to continue to use toxic chemicals in their products. These companies claim their products meet requirements "because of certain little-known exemptions granted by the EU", he says.

7. Go paper-free:Another way to do your bit for the environment, as well as
save time and money, is by going digital. We waste more paper than we do anything else. The average office employee uses up to 50 sheets of A4 every day, according to Envirowise. Much of this paper is thrown away - the group estimates that UK businesses throw away five million tonnes of printing and writing paper each year. If you can¶t stop printing altogether, set your device to print double-sided by default or create your own writing pad from discarded printouts. Learn to resist the urge to print out emails and other documents for filing. Instead, read them onscreen and store them on your hard drive. If you need a record, create a PDF file. If you don¶t already have a PDF creation package, try Backup4all novaPDF Lite 5.1, which can create PDFs of documents from within any Windows application.

8. Don¶t dump I.T Products:
Dispose of your old hardware responsibly. Consumer electronics and computers contain toxic materials, such as lead, that can seep into the ground if dumped improperly. British Computer Society president Nigel Shadbolt explains: "PCs contain many toxic components, so if they end up in a landfill we are creating a real problem for the future.´
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This is bad news, according to energy minister Malcolm Wicks. "Electrical and electronic equipment is the fastest-growing category of waste across the EU, with an estimated 17-20kg per person produced every year. The UK alone generated about one million tonnes of waste equipment last year," he says. An older PC may no longer meet your requirements, but there are plenty of people who¶d love to use it. Many charities will take an old PC and peripherals off your hands, or you can get in touch with Computer Aid, which refurbishes machines for use by schools and in the developing world. You could even sell it on eBay or give it away through Freecycle. Failing that, recycle it. According to the WEEE directive, electrical and electronic waste has to be dealt with separately from other rubbish so that hazardous elements can be stripped out. Electronics manufacturers and vendors cover the cost of this; your task is to get them to collect it, return it to them or take it to your council¶s recycling centre. If you can¶t transport it, arrange for the council to pick it up. Many electrical retailers run take-back schemes - check your PC vendor for details about how it is dealing with WEEE compliance. Note that you shouldn¶t have to pay to return end-of-life goods. But, you can¶t be too careful where stored personal details are concerned.

9. The sunny side: If you¶re seeking clean power for energy-hungry gadgets,
consider looking to the sun. Solar power is renewable and free - although sunshine can be limited here in the UK. Be aware that you need direct sunlight to get a good charge with these products. Cloudy skies and reflections on windows can cause problems. Voltaic¶s Solar Back Pack consists of three solar panels embedded in the outside of the bag that generate up to 4W of power. The bags have 11 adaptors for mobile phones and other devices, but are not designed to charge laptops.
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If a solar-powered bag isn¶t for you, choose a less expensive charger that fits in your hand. The Solio charger from Better Energy Systems gives about one hour of playtime or 10 minutes¶ talk time from one hour of sunshine, according to the maker. Whether you¶ll find a whole hour¶s worth of sunshine within the British Isles is another matter. Other solar chargers include the Freeloader from Firebox. If you¶ve got your PC or laptop switched on and have a couple of ports free, you could do worse than power up a pair of USB Cell batteries for future use. Laptop PCs require a little more power: unlimited-power.co.uk stocks Uni-solar Portable Solar Electric Panels that can be used for this purpose. The marketing material states that they can provide power even with bullet holes or in partial shade, which suggests that these are really designed with the army in mind, but they are worth investigating. Wind-up chargers are also available, although their efficiency is somewhat limited. For example, the Multi Mobile Charger from iwoot.com gives you eight minutes¶ talk time on your mobile if you wind it up for three minutes. But why stop at your gadgets? If you install a renewable energy source - such as solar panels, wind turbines or biomass heaters - in your home, you may be eligible for a grant.

10. Give it away:

For all our talk about the digital, paperless office, we¶ve yet to hear of anyone achieving it. As well as saving on ink costs by printing at small point sizes and in draft or economy mode, you can minimise waste by recycling cartridges via organisations such as laserxchange.co.uk. If your office doesn¶t have a dedicated charity it supports, Oxfam, Childline and Action Aid and a number of smaller charities can benefit from your thoughtfulness.

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Similarly, hand back your old and unloved mobile phone handsets. T-Mobile is offering cashback, while Carphone Warehouse tempts you with a more modest. If you want to avoid the smooth sales talk, the charities we¶ve outlined can also earn revenue from your philanthropy.

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GREEN MARKETING OF I.T PRODUCTS SURVEY

The principles behind 2009 survey were the same as 2008: leading manufacturers were directly invited to submit their GreenestProducts via an assessment form that was sent to them. In addition, the forms were published on the Greenpeace website and other forumsto enable smaller manufacturers to participate as well. Each companywas allowed to submit three products per product category, whichwe then assessed and scored against our criteria. To make certainthat the survey was as up-to-date as possible upon its publication, we also offered companies the opportunity to submit products that, whileunreleased at the time we contacted them, would be on the market by1 January 2009. If a company submitted more than one product in acategory we chose the highestscoring device for inclusion in the report.Once assessments were completed, companies were invited to reviewthem to ensure accurate product information.

The products submitted were assessed against four broad groupsof criteria:
‡ Use of hazardous chemical substances, including Polyvinylchloride
(PVC), Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), Antimony,Phthalates, Beryllium and a number of other chemicals.

‡ Power consumption of the products, assessed by comparing them with
the Energy Star standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Points were also given for a number of other areas such as providing detailed power consumption data to consumers.

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‡ Product lifecycle, including criteria such as recyclability rate anduse of
recycled plastic in the product. Long warranty periods andgood take-back programmes were also rewarded.

‡ Availability of data, that enables assessment of the energy takento
manufacture the products as well as special innovations thathelp to reduce the total burden on the environment.

Main Findings of the Survey
The I.T Industry continues to make progress in putting products on the market with reduced environmental impacts, and this is confirmed by the results of Greenpeace¶s 2009 Green Electronics Survey. In addition to the overall improvement in the year since the first Greenpeace survey, the product scores are increasingly closer together, suggesting a more competitive environment in a µrace to the top¶ to produce truly Green Products. There are a number of findings that underline this trend, but also significant shortcomings in certain practices.

Progress continues with regards to phasing out the use ofhazardous chemicals. More products are PVC-free than in theprevious year¶s survey and fewer RoHS (Restriction of HazardousSubstances) exemptions are being used by the manufacturers. For larger products such as TVs and monitors, significant amountsof postconsumer recycled plastic are being used, while mobilephones and - with some exceptions - Desktop and Notebook Computers are lagging behind in this respect. As producersestablish more comprehensive voluntary take-back and recyclingprogrammes, to increase the demand for recycled plastics.
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Companies have adapted quickly to new Energy Star requirements,however a small number of products submitted for the survey didnot yet meet the latest of these requirements. While more companies now track the energy used to produce theirproducts, there is no international standard that allows for a goodcomparison of energy embodied in the product to be made. Even though computer manufacturers are generally good atproviding in-use energy data and comparisons for their products,monitor and television producers need to make this a higher priority. While some companies now have sections on their website thatlist green products, these are still usually not prominent enough to promote Green Products as a major purchasing decision.More work needs to be done by companies to integrate theenvironmental attributes of their products into their marketing efforts.

Despite the fact that there are major differences between thevarious product categories and although the survey does not makecomparisons between the product categories, one product performedexceptionally well - the Lenovo L244 0x wide monitor. It is far aheadof the competition by being PVC and BFR-free (albeit allowing anunacceptably high limit of 900 ppm bromine and chlorine) and also freeof phthalates, antimony and beryllium. Furthermore, it uses postconsumer recycled plastic for nearly 30% of its plastic parts andhas a LED backlit display, which negates the use of mercury andimproves energy efficiency.

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Summary of Survey results

Desktop Computers
Lenovo takes first place with its ThinkCentre 58/58p model last year, The Fujitsu Siemens Esprimo E7935 E-Star 4 is only one-tenth of a point behind in second place. The products submitted by Dell and Hewlett Packard did not reach the 5 points half-way mark, and Acer, who did not take part in the survey last year, scored well below 4 points and finds itself in last place. Unfortunately, no desktop (or notebook) computer submitted is entirely PVC or BFR-free, which means that computers still lag behind other product categories when it comes to the use of hazardous chemicals.

Rank
1 2 3 4 5

Model Lenovo ThinkCentre 58/M58p
Fujitsu Siemens Esprimo E7935 E-Star 4

Points 5.88 5.73 4.86 4.73 3.31

Dell Studio Hybrid Hewlett Packard dc7900e USDT Acer Veriton M678G

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Notebook computers
Toshiba takes the top spot with its Portege R600, beatingHewlett Packard¶s Elitebook 2530p by a narrow margin. Whilethe Hewlett Packard product scores much higher in the lifecyclecategory, Toshiba is ahead of everyone else when it comes to theelimination of toxic chemicals. These are the only products that scoreabove 5 points out of a maximum possible 10. The Lenovo X300 isin third place, followed by the Apple MacBook Pro. Sony, which lastyear had the highestscoring product in this category, is ranked fifth.Neither Panasonic¶s or Acer¶s reached the 4 points mark.

Rank 1
2 3 4 5 6

Model Toshiba Portege R600 Hewlett Packard Elitebook 2530p Lenovo X300 Apple Mac book Sony VGN-Z11WN/B Acer TravelMate 6293

Points 5.57 5.48 4.68 4.41 4.20 3.44

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Mobile Phones
All the mobile phones submitted to the survey score within onepoint of each other, but the lead goes to the Samsung Blue Earth is one of the best Solar Powered mobile phones available in the market. The Sony Ericsson C901 GreenHeart and LG Pop GD510 Evolve are ranked second andthird respectively, with only onetenth of a point separating them,while the Motorolla W233 Renew and Sony VGNZ11WN/B stay just short ofthe half-way 5 points mark ± this is still less than one point behindthe leader. A major step has been made in the use of chemicals,with all but the LG phone claiming to be PVC-free and Samsung¶s phone being free of BFRs, well below the commonly used socalledµhalogen-free¶ industry limit of 900ppm bromine.

Rank 1
2 3 4 5

Model Samsung Blue Earth Sony Ericsson C901 GreenHeart LG Pop GD510 Motorolla W233 Renew Sony VGN-Z11WN/B

Points 5.45 5.20 5.00 4.88 4.61

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Smart phones/PDAs
Nokia¶s 6210 Navigator secures first place in this category, ahead of the Sony Ericsson G900. Both models are PVC-free, but Nokia gets more points due to better energy efficiency and the product¶s lifecycle. Hewlett Packard¶s iPAQ is third, ahead of the Blackberry Pearl, which lost a lot of points in the lifecycle criteria and for poor energy efficiency, and did not even meet the Energy Star standard. Hewlett Packard¶s PDA lagged in the area of hazardous chemicals phase out.

Rank 1
2 3 4

Model Nokia 6210 Navigator Sony Ericsson G900 Hewlett Packard iPAQ 910 RIM Blackberry Pearl 8130

Points 5.20 4.80 4.20 3.50

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Computer Monitor
The clear winner and the highest-scoring overall product is the Lenovo L2440x widescreen monitor, being free of PVC and BFRs as well as other chemicals such as beryllium and antimony. No other monitor submitted has eliminated the use of PVC and BFRs, although Lenovo¶s definition of µfree¶ allows use of BFRs and PVC up to a limit of 900ppm bromine or chlorine. The Fujitsu Siemens SCENICVIEW P22W-5 ECO gets second place and has eliminated the use of beryllium and also uses zero watts of energy in sleep and stand-by modes. Third and fourth places are taken by Samsung¶s and LG Electronics¶ products, which scored highly in energy efficiency. The products submitted by Hewlett Packard and Dell also scored more than 5 points, but Acer¶s fell short,particularly in the lifecycle criteria.

Rank 1
2 3 4 5 6 7

Model Lenovo L2440x wide
Fujitsu Siemens SCENICVIEW P22W-5 ECO

Points 6.90 6.33 5.89 5.74 5.48 5.13 4.29

Samsung 2443BW LG Electronics W2252TE Hewlett Packard L1950g Dell E2009W Acer V194HQ

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SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS
1. I.T Marketers get access to new markets and gain an advantage over competitors that are not focusing on ³Greenness.´ 2. Marketers can charge a premium on I.T Products that are seen as more ecoresponsible. 3. I.T Organizations that adopt Green Marketing are perceived to be more socially responsible. 4. Green marketing builds brand equity and wins brand loyalty among I.T Customers.

WEAKNESS
1. Most I.T Customers choose to satisfy their personal needs before caring for
environment. 2. Over emphasizing Greenness rather than customer needs can prove devastating for any I.T Product. 3. Many I.T Customers keep away from products labeled ³Green´ because they see suchlabeling as a marketing gimmick, and they may lose trust in an organization that suddenly claims to be Green.
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OPPORTUNITIES
1. Marketing to segment which are becoming more environmentally aware and concerned. These consumers are demanding products that conform to these new attitudes. 2. I.T Organizations perceive Green Marketing to be a competitive advantage, relative to the competitors. Firms, therefore, strive to improve upon their societal awareness. This complements the increase in consumers¶ socially conscious behavior and will therefore give them an advantage over competitors who do not address these issues.

THREATS
1. Uncertainty as to the environmental impact of present activities, including that is perceived to be less environmentally harmful. 2. Uncertainty as to which Green Marketing of I.T Products activities are acceptable from a government perspective. 3. The possibility of a backlash from consumers or government based on existing I.T Product Green Marketing claims, threat one and two above may cause backlash to arise.

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CONCLUSION
Green Marketing of I.T Products do not strengthen company¶s image in the mind of respondents that is very much clear from trustworthiness of green claims and certainly it do not have positive image of the organization in the minds of the respondents. It was observed that the respondents who were more proactive with the environmental behavior have positive attitude towards Green Advertisements. It means green advertisements have positive impact on only those who are already practicing it. Rest of the respondents who were passive had very less impact on their buying behavior. This is the crucial aspect that needs to be changed so that they can have positive impact on all the target market which will have an effect on their buying behavior. The result of the study indicate that the advertisements not reflected the companies level of greenness and the proposition that green advertising reflects environmentally sound strategic and structural level decisions. Green Marketing of I.T Products covers more than a firm's marketing claims. While firms must bear much of the responsibility for environmental degradation, the responsibility should not be theirs alone. Ultimately Green Marketing requires that consumers want a cleaner environment and are willing to "pay" for it, possibly through higher priced goods, modified individual lifestyles, or evengovernmental intervention. Until this occurs it will be difficult for firms alone to lead the green marketing revolution. Having said this, it must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed I.T Organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their detrimental impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a moreenvironmentally "responsible" fashion. Final consumers and industrial buyers also have the ability to pressure organizations to integrate the environment into their corporate culture and thus ensure all organizations minimize the detrimental environmental impact of their activities. Thus Green Marketing should look at minimizing environmental harm, not necessarily eliminating it.

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Green Marketing of I.T Products should not neglect the economic aspect of marketing. Marketers need to understand the implications of green marketing. If you think customers are not concerned about environmental issues or will not pay a premium for products that are more eco-responsible, think again. You must find an opportunity to enhance you product's performance and strengthen your customer's loyalty and command a higher price. Green marketing is still in its infancy and a lot of research is to be done on I.T Green marketing to fully explore its potential.

So, if today's successful I.T Marketing is about appealing to personal values and delivering consumer empowerment, then surely the time is right to inject sustainable development into the marketing mix to help address some of the gritty issues presently faced by our planet.Green marketing of I.T Products methods may produce highly effective results if used cautiously and with integrity.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Finite resources will become scarcer and more expensive ifI.T businesses do not become more efficient in using resources it will have ahuge impact on the bottom line. Investing in Green Products thus changes from µbeyond doinggood¶ to ultimately µgood business sense¶.Thus they should: Invest in Research and create clean and environment friendly I.T Products. Recycle at every level. Move towards Paper less office. Pioneering Technology Innovations. Educate masses of the environment issues because they are going to be the bulkconsumers. Socially responsible investing in environment driven projects. Plant more and more Trees.

The I.T Corporations must rethink:
Their raw material and procurement strategies. They should develop new products They should redesign existing products and service. They should realize that pollution prevention can be a cost saving activity. They should steer their product and packaging designs to use less material.

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FUTURE PROSPECTS
As 21st century belongs to Computers, Gizmos and Electronic items, energy issues will get a serious ring in the coming days, as the public debate on carbon emissions, global warming and climate change gets hotter. If we think computers are nonpolluting and consume very little energy we need to think again. It is estimated that out of $250 billion per year spent on powering computers worldwide only about 15% of that power is spent computing- the rest is wasted idling. Thus, energy saved on computer hardware and computing will equate tonnes of carbon emissions saved per year. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. Opportunities lie in Green Technology like never before in history and organizations are seeing it as a way to create new profit centers while trying to help the environmental cause. The plan towards green IT should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings. Faster processors historically use more power. Inefficient CPU's are a double hit because they both use too much power themselves and their waste heat increases air conditioning needs, especially in server farms--between the computers and the HVAC. The waste heat also causes reliability problems, as CPU's crash much more often at higher temperatures. Many people have been working for years to slice this inefficiency out of computers. Similarly, power supplies are notoriously bad, generally as little as 47% efficient. And since everything in a computer runs off the power supply, nothing can be efficient without a good power supply.

Thus Green Marketing of I.T Products will get a serious ring in the coming days.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_marketing http://www.greenproducts.net/ http://marketinggreen.wordpress.com/category/eco-friendly-products/ http://www.sustainablemarketing.com/ http://www.destinationcrm.com/6-Ways-to-Promote-GreenMarketing-66136.aspx http://blog.lohas.com/blog/green-marketing-strategy http://www.hclinfosystems.in/hclesafe_ipr.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/environment/index.html http://www.lenovo.com/social_responsibility/greenproducts.html http://green.sel.sony.com/pages/recycle-2.html http://www.dell.com/content/topics/global.aspx/vectors/en/2007_go_ green_with_dell?c=us&l=en&cs=555 http://www.apple.com/agreenerapple/ http://www.nokia.com/corporate-responsibility/environment/casestudies/green-products http://www.samsung.com/us/business/semiconductor/corporate_info/ CorporateInfo_Green.html http://www.lg.com/global/sustainability/environment/greenproducts/environmental-label.jsp http://lifehacker.com/382319/easy-ways-to-go-green-with-yourcomputer

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Questionnaire for Green Marketing of I.T Products
Name: _____________________________ Age: _____________________________ Occupation: ____________________________ Phone: _____________________________

1. What comes to your mind when you hear the word ³Green´?

2. Have you heard of any campaign related to Green Marketing of I.T Products? a) Yes b) No

3. Have you been part of any such campaign? a) Yes b) No

4. Do you consider the environmental aspects of the I.T Products before buying them? a) Yes b) No

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5. Do you think that Green Marketing and advertising are good sources of information about I.T Green products and services? a) Yes b) No

6. Do you think that Green Marketing activities are good at addressing environmental issues? a) Yes b) No

7. Do you think Green Marketing activities results in better I.T Products? a) Yes b) No

8. Do you think that Green Marketing strengthen I.T Company¶s image in the mind of consumers? a) Yes b) No

9. Do you think that I.T companies that focus on environmental concernspersuade consumers to buy products? a) Yes b) No

10. Are you aware of the newly launched I.T products by various companies? a) Yes b) No

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