You are on page 1of 9

Motivation with respect to Performance Appraisal

Prateek Bhatnagar Roll No. R740210033 Sap Id.500011835 Ph : 07895179160 Email-id : prateekbhatnagar28@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Performance Appraisal is the process of evaluating the performance of employees, sharing that information with them and searching for ways to improve their performance . The purpose of this study is to examine the statement ³To what extent do performance appraisals motivate individuals in the workplace´. The findings will be attained from the prominent theories in motivation. The study will try to find which of the theories from Mayo, Hertzberg and Taylor are evident from the findings. The reason that research is being conducted is because motivation is a broad subject and can be interpreted into many different functions. Also, it plays a pivotal role within different departments of organizations and it is attributed to the success of an organization. Motivation is seen as a very important aspect of an organization as it contributes to how well it performs. This ultimately has an effect on the organizations corporate objectives. This includes attainment of higher market share and profit maximization as a result of an individual¶s performance. Processes that are used to motivate employees have an effect on their willingness to stay with the organization. Appraisals are prevalent in many companies and are seen as a crucial ingredient in motivating employees; therefore, it increases the importance of carrying out this study. Performance appraisals provide employees with recognition for their work efforts. The appraisal system provides the supervisor with an opportunity to indicate to employees that the organization is interested in their performance and development. This recognition can have a positive motivational influence on the individual's sense of worth, commitment and belonging.

INTRODUCTION
A performance appraisal is the process of assessing workers performance in comparison to certain predetermined organizational standards. Appraisals not only help employees understand how they are doing but they also help the worker's supervisor along with the organization as a whole. Performance appraisal is one way of giving employees feedback about their performance at work. According to ACAS (1997) appraisals regularly record an assessment of an employee¶s performance, potential and development needs. Performance appraisal a formal system of measuring,evaluating,and influencing an employee¶s job-related attributes, behaviours and outcomes. In some organisation¶s appraisal results may be used to determine relative rewards in the firm -- who should get

the extent to which one engages in a task depends upon beliefs about one's own competence or self-efficacy. There have been many theories on the aspect of motivation. That is. in press). The reason that research is being conducted is because motivation and the fact that it is a broad subject and can be interpreted into many different functions. demotion. there are advocates of performance appraisal who claim that it may well be the most critical of all Performance Appraisal and Motivation. On the other hand. values. 1992). 1992). 1992. The purpose of this study is to examine the statement ³To what extent do performance appraisals motivate individuals in the workplace´. the extent to which one values a given task. dismissal or decreases in pay. This recognition can have a positive motivational influence on the individual's sense of worth. This ultimately has an effect on the organisations corporate objectives. Motivation researchers see these individual beliefs.merit pay increases. or promotions. Motivational research conducted by many theorists including Elton Mayo Frederick Taylor. Motivation is seen as a very important aspect of an organisation as it contributes to how well it performs. LITERATURE REVIEW Theories of motivation In general. Some researchers have expressed doubts about the validity and reliability of the process. performance appraisal is a very controversial managerial issue. and goals for achievement as critical determinants of achievement-related behavior (Weiner. 1985). Cognitive theorists of motivation propose a clear relation between beliefs. The appraisal system provides the supervisor with an opportunity to indicate to employees that the organization is interested in their performance and development. The findings will be attained from the prominent theories in motivation. Krietner (1995) defined motivation as a psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction. Wigfield. appraisal results can be used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counselling. Wigfield & Eccles. Performance appraisals provide employees with recognition for their work efforts. bonuses. Appraisals are prevalent in many companies and are seen as a crucial ingredient in motivating employees. Also it plays a pivotal role within different departments of organisations and it is attributed to the success of an organisation. attitudes. therefore it increases the importance of carrying out this study.Interestingly. This includes attainment of higher market share and profit maximisation as a result of an individual¶s performance. Many contemporary authors have defined the concept of motivation. commitment and belonging. The study will try to find which of the theories from Mayo. who have recognized the power of recognition as an incentive (Maslow and the Expectancy Theory of Motivation). These constructs can be conceptualised as a series of questions an individual asks themselves with respect to a given activity or task (Wigfield. Processes that are used to motivate employees have an effect on their willingness to stay with the organisation. including . and whether that value is intrinsic or extrinsic in origin (Deci & Ryan. Similarly. and values as mediators of task engagement (Eccles. 1997). Hertzberg and Taylor are evident from the findings. motivation theorists focus their work on the "whys" of human behaviour (Weiner. & Schiefele.

Can I succeed? q. hierarchy of needs] Elton Mayo [Hawthorne Experiments] Chris Argyris Rensis Likert and David McCelland [achievement motivation] But within this Literature review the prominence and analysis will be concentrated solely on the three theorists:. Introduction to Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow¶s Hierarchy Needs Maslow's theory consisted of two parts: q The classification of human needs.] Abraham Maslow [theory z. A promotion at work might achieve this. 1992. food.Elton Mayo (Hawthorne Experiments) . 1992). Wigfield & Eccles. Patrick. and achievement attributions (Rigby. & Ryan. What do I need to do to succeed? Researchers in this area have developed a number of motivational constructs to describe how they relate to various achievement behaviors. Research that has been undertaken in this field notably by Douglas McGregor [theory y]. Many theorists on practical aspects of motivation in the workplace have conducted motivational research. they are no longer a motivator.A person starts at the bottom of the hierarchy (pyramid) and will initially seek to satisfy basic needs (e.g.Frederick Herzberg (two factor motivation hygiene theory) The most important issue that will be evaluated while analysing the affects of the above theorist and their views will be their significance to the overall selected research topic in addition to their individual failings in their theory¶s and research.Once these physiological needs have been satisfied. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Deci.Douglas McGregor (theory Y) .Abraham Maslow ( hierarchy of needs) . The individual moves up to the next level . Frederick Herzberg [two factor motivation hygiene theory. control beliefs.q. These include perceptions of ability and self-efficacy. and q Consideration of how the classes are related to each other Maslow summarized the hierarchies of needs relevant to the chosen research topic as follows: . . They reflect the fact that many people seek the esteem and respect of others. shelter) . Do I want to succeed and why? and q. task values. achievement goals.Esteem needs are about being given recognition for a job well done.

Problems with the Maslow¶s Model The problem with the above study is although Maslow's model has great potential appeal in the business world. selfactualization. When they exist. esteem needs) act as a motivator. opportunity for advancement.Individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs . challenging/stimulating work. as a number of people may believe without appraisal in a workplace they may not be with the organization for a long period of time. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed. There are several problems with the Maslow model when a real-life working practice is considered: .There is little empirical evidence to support the model. then they can decide on suitable rewards so therefore only then can they increase motivation.Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible . Therefore linking this to the research proposal question in Maslow¶s analysis appraisal will come below the fourth level of the hierarchy this can be criticized. They both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. The message is barely clear if management can find out which level each employee has reached. MOTIVATOR FACTORS Motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. Motivator factors include status. gaining recognition. There are several similarities between Herzberg's and Maslow's models. he saw the two theories as two extremes . If they are effective. then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort.not just one .g. responsibility.g. motivator factors actively create job satisfaction.with a whole spectrum of possible behaviors in between. Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e.There is a problem in deciding when a level has actually been "satisfied" . the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behaviour in different individuals .The model ignores the often-observed behaviour of individuals who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits .The same need (e. sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job. Rather. MCGREGOR¶S THEORY X AND THEORY Y McGregor developed two theories of human behaviour at work: Theory and X and Theory Y.. However. Theory X workers could be described as follows: .

Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as: The management implications for Theory X workers are that.P will be given as to what their views and feelings are on performance appraisals.P will be investigated. supervisors and team leaders. dislike responsibility and prefer to be led .P). This leaves a margin of error of 5 percent. a business would need to impose a management system of coercion. A record of all employees on different shift patterns will be attained from the human resource branch by request. the other stratum consisting of the telesales staff. How the Study was conducted? METHODOLOGY The proposed research will be conducted on a market research company called National Opinion Poll (N. to achieve organisational objectives. The sampling fraction formula that was used to attain the fraction for telesales staff sample selection is 322/750=1/3 . 1992) theses responses rates will be taken into consideration when carrying out the research.O. The workforce will be divided into two separate strata. This company was chosen as performance appraisals are very prevailing in this business and are undertaken a number of times each year. management. Furthermore. 1pm-5pm. to achieve organisational objectives. The recommended sample size is 254 with a 95 percent level of certainty.O. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment (or culture) where workers can show and develop their creativity. After carrying out the calculation it was found that 1 in every 3 cases needs to be selected from the sampling frame to represent the telesales staff. which consists of 750 employees together with.Individuals who desire security The management implications for Theory X workers were that.Individuals who lack ambition. A reasonable response rate for interviews (kervin. The most important factor that will be looked into while analysing the affects of appraisals will be if they have a considerable impact on motivation with regards to the employees within N.O.P. the views of employees of N.. and team leaders across three different shift-patterns (9am-1pm. which is based in Luton. 5pm-9pm). The sampling techniques that will be as a rule suitable in this organisation are systematic and stratified random sampling. One stratum being management consisting of managers. In this study the effects of appraisals within the organisation N. POPULATION AND SAMPLE I have chosen the complete workforce of my organisation as the population.O. supervisors. control and punishment. rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator.

was calculated to get an idea of how well the researchers' and managers' rankings correlated. and it ranges between 0 and 1 for positive correlations. then. with a rank of 1 going to the factor with the highest average.. .Do performance appraisals motivate in the workplace? .To what extent do performance appraisals motivate the workforce? . But the interview method was chosen because it allows flexibility to get full range and in-depth information from the participants. Spearman's rank coefficient is a measure of correlation between two sets of ranked data. Spearman's rank coefficient. Then a statistical test was performed to test the conclusions drawn by observation of the data. Consequently the data will be used to understand the relationships between the variables. This.Which other factors other than performance appraisals affect motivation of the workforce? PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The results of the first two questions were analyzed in a similar fashion. p. This may give an overview on the extent to which appraisals motivate and will exemplify the relationship between appraisals and motivation whilst moving along the hierarchy. It would behoove management to make a greater effort to understand what the specific dissatisfiers for the researchers are. would aid both management and the researchers in planning and prioritizing efforts. The influence ratings for each factor were totaled and averaged for each group-researcher and managers-separately.RESEARCH QUESTION To answer the research question and meet the objectives a multi-method approach will be taken. interview method will take more time in gathering information. some information gathered from interviews might be bias. Each factor was assigned a rank. The second method that will be used will be in the form of questionnaires. this method was chosen as questionnaires are a less expensive way to reach more people. RESULTS: y The results show that dissatisfiers can erect barriers to motivation and good performance even if motivators are well in hand. Response rate very high use of panel is easy. data analysis can begin right away. which will be handed out. The interviews will be conducted on a one-to-one basis and voice recorded. A coefficient of 1 denotes perfect correlation. . The first method that will be used to collect data is through the use of semi-structured interviews. however. Interviews will be conducted with the staff in various departments to fully understand their experiences and views on performance appraisals as a motivator. The interviews will be carried out randomly on a few people from each department. or identically ranked sets of data. Furthermore.

in which participants were asked if they felt happy and motivated or dissatisfied in their jobs. Some written answers used the terms "motivated" or "dissatisfied. Further research could determine if this result applies solely to this particular FFRDC. ranked right up with the motivators might also be an artifact peculiar to R&D. Answers such as "neither" or "sometimes one. The dead-last ranking of company policy and administration by both researchers and managers. for instance. A one sided 2-by-2 contingency chart analysis of a subset of the data was performed." but others were less direct or hard to interpret. whether they are happy and motivated or dissatisfied with their job. considered a hygiene factor by Herzberg. y ." or "motivated y Almost 37% of the respondents' answers were categorized as either neutral or dissatisfied. there is fairly good agreement between the study results and Herzberg's theory. Of particular interest might be the anomaly with regard to two factors-company policy and administration and interpersonal relations. Further. By and large. Thus. The agreement would have been even better if two factors-company policy and administration and interpersonal relations-were not misplaced by several ranks from Herzberg's order. This research could be generalized to see if it applies to all R&D environments. might relate to the attitudes and tendencies of those who chose the R&D environment. Herzberg hygiene. which seems inconsistent with both the excellent record of accomplishment by this FFRDC and its intent to continue and improve as a worldclass leader in its core competencies. Herzberg motivators were motivators for the R&D personnel. Similarly. y y y RECOMMENDATIONS y The application of Herzberg's theory to this R&D environment is generally validated. for both groups. These differences in ranking might be due to the R&D environment in general. or low for R&D environments in general. typical. Further research would be necessary to clarify the situation for each factor In order to prevent any biasing of the results. eliminating the neutral responses. Another issue relates to the third question. and likewise. This will eliminate subjectivity and will make the data more amenable to statistical analysis. using a continuum from dissatisfied to neutral to motivated. to government or other highly regulated R&D environments. or to the R&D environment in general. It would be useful to know if the level of dissatisfaction evident from the third question is high." "neutral.y Feelings about job. or they may be due to the circumstances of this particular FFRDC. and this should be of concern. to determine if the probability of a greater proportion of researchers being dissatisfied could be detected So. sometimes the other" were classified as neutral. The researchers' and managers' responses were categorized as either "dissatisfied. or job satisfaction. study participants received no orientation about Herzberg's theory or his factors prior to or during the study. Perhaps the problems and differences in emphasis associated with the second question are contributing factors here. this question will be presented on a numerical scale. Further research could answer this question as well as profile specific R&D environments. the fact that interpersonal relations. it appears that more researchers than managers are dissatisfied. factors were job satisfaction factors for the R&D personnel. So it was impressive that the results of the first two questions matched Herzberg's rankings fairly well. In future surveys. some subjectivity entered into their classification.

as stated before. Another set of administrative. in this particular government arena. there are specific situations. schedule and dollars. y y y y CONCLUSION Recognition is. tied up with the other two motivators. Sometimes the details of these requirements are formulated by the company. Even where it appears that management and researchers agree.This knowledge would aid in determining the urgency and importance that should be placed on following up on the specific results for this FFRDC. but in response to generic DOE requirements. Again.In general. It also means the right balance between work in direct support of plant activities and interesting work available from other government agencies that not only keeps the scientists challenged but enhances the core competencies needed to support the site. mission. of course. It means ensuring that there is an active intellectual property program and that researchers have ample opportunity and funds to travel to conferences so that they can present papers. and some are just the company's idea of good business practice. and by the DOE. in Pareto fashion.Three common threads among the efforts to minimize dissatisfiers and enhance motivators are management endorsement and support. and standards. articulation of the problem and education of both site customers and the DOE customer about the need to invest in the infrastructure. funding priorities are involved. The reason for addressing these hygiene factors with high priority is that. Another is that requirements are imposed internally. The first is a focused effort to deal with the two most aggravating hygiene factors. To address the infrastructure item. it is also important to present the issues in the language of decision makers. e. More specific recommendations for the FFRDC involve a two-pronged effort. and otherwise get recognized for their achievements. with both parts being equally important. they can act as barriers to motivated performance even if there isn't a problem with the motivation factors. operating.. infrastructure (working conditions) and company policy and administration. . while it is important to attempt to describe what is necessary to operate a leading R&D center. and human resources policies is imposed by the company. network with their peers. aggravating. and follow-through. then. and impacting problems. and future. This balance ensures. It is also important that this effort receive continuing attention and follow-up and not just be a complaint du jour Company policy and administration also needs a small manager/researcher onetime team effort. programs. a management/researcher team is recommended to identify. financial. It will be necessary to frame the argument and proposals not only in terms of an intangible like motivating the scientists. Thus. teamwork. The situation is complicated by several factors in this environment. externally by operating customers. the most important. The rest of the effort involves. y The study FFRDC's management should investigate the difference between their rankings of dissatisfiers and those of the researchers so that management can plan and prioritize their efforts at amelioration. For each factor. etc. Looking at the specifics is especially important in evaluating the areas of disagreement. that quality researchers are on staff and available when the plant needs them. regulations. facts. but also in the more concrete terms of actual impact on site support. evaluating the specifics could prevent overlooking an incipient problem or misunderstanding. this study should be considered a first step for the FFRDC management. One is that this FFRDC does work for different customers who are required to meet various national codes. and maintenance backgrounds. The milieu of this FFRDC is such that high-level decisions are made by people with primarily engineering.g.

Snyderman. John Wiley & Sons (1959). Work and the Nature of Man. Wikipedia. World Publishing (1966).com . Bernard Mausner. The Motivation to Work..com Google. Frederick. REFERENCES y y y y Herzberg. Herzberg. and Barbara B. Frederick.