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A Seminar Report on

VERY SMALL APERTURE TERMINALS
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in

Electronics and Communication
by

Neeraj Negi
Submitted to

Dr. A. K. Gautam Mr. M.Kumar

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

GOVIND BALLABH PANT ENGINEERING COLLEGE PAURI GARHWAL (UTTARAKHAND) ± 246194

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PREFACE
Satellites for communication services have evolved quite significantly in size and power since the launch of the first commercial satellites in 1965 . This has permitted a consequent reduction in the size of earth stations, and hence their cost, with a consequent increase in number. Small stations, with antennas in the order of 1.2±1.8 rn, have become very popular under the acronym VSAT, which stands for ¶Very Small Aperture Terminals. Such stations can easily be installed at the customer¶s premises and, considering the inherent capability of a satellite to collect and broadcast signals over large areas, are being widely used to support a large range of services. Examples are broadcast and distribution services for data, image, audio and video, collection and monitoring for data, image and video, two-way interactive services for computer transactions, data base inquiry, internet access and voice communications. The trend towards deregulation, which started in the United States, and progressed in other regions of the world, has triggered the success of VSAT networks for corporate applications. This illustrates that technology is not the only key to success. Indeed, VSAT networks have been installed and operated only in those regions of the world where demand existed for the kind of services that VSAT technology could support in a cost effective way, and also where the regulatory framework was supportive.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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..6 1..«.26 Page | 4 ..1 DVB Technology««««««««««««««««.2 iDirect Technology ««««««««««««««««««««.23 4.2 Star Topology««««««««««««««««««««.....5 Interfacility Link Cable (IFL)««««««««««««««««««.... Features of VSAT Networks««««««««««««««««..22 Chapter 4.«««««««««««..3 VOIP over VSAT««««««««««««««««««««««......20 3.....«.22 3.4 Orthomode Transducer (OMT)««««««««««««««««.«««««««««......11 2. Constituent Part of VSAT Configuration«««««««.24 Chapter 5..........14 3.....««««««««....3 Low-Noise Block Converter (LNB)««««««««««««««...1 Meshed Topology««««««««««««««««««««...23 4...16 3.1 Antenna««««««««««««««««.«««««.CONTENTS Chapter 1.13 Chapter 3. History«««««««««««««««.1 Local Control of Remote Network Equipment««««««««««...25 5.......... Automatic VSAT Network Management using Uplogix««««..25 5...2 Key Technical Benefit««««««««««««««««««««.2 Block Up Converter (BUC)««««««««««««««««««....«««.....««««««. Introduction«««««««««««««.6 Indoor Unit (IDU)«««««««««««««««««««««..........14 3..«««««««««««..2 VSAT Network Definition««««««««««««««««««..6 Chapter 2....«.1..17 3..23 4. VSAT Network Configuration«««««««...11 2..6 1.

«. VSAT Network Configuration«««««««««««««««««..1 Civilian Service««««««««««««««««««««««..3 Private VSAT Network««««««««««««««««««««.««««««««.27 6......Chapter 6.27 6..«««.30 References««««««««««««««««««««««««««««......27 6.29 Conclusion«««««««««««««««««««««..31 Page | 5 ..2 Military Service««««««««««««««««««.

now a well established acronym for Very Small Aperture Terminal. 1.1 HISTORY The first commercial VSATs were C band (6 GHz) receive-only systems by Equatorial Communications using spread spectrum technology.000 sites) was deployed by Spacenet and MCI for the US Postal Service.5 m antennas and sold about 10. VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations). 1. was initially a trademark for a small earth station marketed in the 1980s by Telcom General in the Page | 6 .2 VSAT NETWORK DEFINITION VSAT. The majority of VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1. VoIP or video). VSATs are also used for transportable. is a two-way satellite ground station or a stabilized maritime Vsat antenna with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters. More than 30.000 60 cm antenna systems were sold in the early 1980s. on-the-move (utilising phased array antennas) or mobile maritime communications. 1 INTRODUCTION A Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT). Equatorial later developed a C band (4/6 GHz) 2 way system using 1 m x 0. or SCADA). or broadband data (for the provision of Satellite Internet access to remote locations.000 units in 1984-85. Ku Band VSATs make up the vast majorty of sites in use today for data or telephony applications. In 1985. Data rates typically range from 56 Kbit/s up to 4 Mbit/s. Schlumberger Oilfield Research co-developed the world's first Ku band (12±14 GHz) VSATs with Hughes Aerospace to provide portable network connectivity for oil field drilling and exploration units.CHAPTER.2 m. VSATs are most commonly used to transmit narrowband data (point of sale transactions such as credit card. polling or RFID data. The largest VSAT network (more than 12.

They are owned and operated by national telecom operators. possibly on different continents. The word terminal will be used to designate the end user equipment (telephone set. with costs in the range of $10 million. computer. VSATs are one of the intermediary steps of the general trend in earth station size Reduction that has been observed in satellite communications since the launch of the first communication satellites in the mid 1960s. Therefore. such as computers. where for instance equipment generating data traffic. are named µData Terminal Equipment¶ (DTE). facsimile machine. such as those of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). to today¶s receive-only stations with antennas as small as 60 cm for direct reception of television transmitted by broadcasting satellites. such as the PTTs. earth stations have evolved from the large INTELSAT Standard A earth stations equipped with antennas 30 m wide. Present day hand held satellite phones (IRIDIUM.USA. or station for short. Figure 1. These stations are quite expensive. VSATs are at the lower end of a product line which offers a large variety of communication services. Its success as a generic name probably comes from the appealing association of its first letter V. at the upper end are large stations (often called trunking stations) which support large capacity satellite links. and require important civil works for their installation. etc.) which generates or accepts the traffic that is conveyed within VSAT networks. This complies with regulatory texts. which establishes a µvictorious¶ context. or may be perceived as a friendly sign of participation. GLOBALSTAR) are pocket size.1 illustrates how such stations collect traffic from end users via terrestrial links that are part of the public switched network of a given country. or hand held terminals for radiolocation such as the Global Postioning System (GPS) receivers. Link capacities are in the range of a few thousand telephone channels. which is the more common designation in the field of satellite communications for the equipment assembly allowing reception from or transmission to a satellite. or large private telecom companies. or equivalently about one hundred Mbsí1. They are mainly used within international switching networks to support trunk telephony services between countries. television set. Indeed. The use of the word µterminal¶ which appears in the clarification of the acronym will be replaced by µearth station¶. and SAT which definitely establishes some reference to satellite communications. Page | 7 .

possibly on different continents.1 Trunking stations Therefore.Figure 1. VSATs are at the lower end of a product line which offers a large variety of communication services. at the upper end are large stations(often called trunking stations) which support large capacity satellite links.1 illustrates how such stations collect traffic from end users via terrestrial links that are part of the public switched network of a given country. These Page | 8 . They are mainly used within international switching networks to support trunk telephony services between countries. Figure 1.

2 From trunking station to VSATs At the lower end are VSATs. hence the name µsmall aperture¶ which refers to the area of the antenna. These are small stations with antenna diameters less than 2. with costs in the range of $10 million. Figure 1. and require important civil works for their installation.stations are quite expensive. Such Page | 9 .4 m.

VSATs are for information transport. etc.2 illustrates this aspect by emphasising the positioning of VSATs near the user compared to trunking stations. and particularly in Europe. In some regions of the world. Figure 1. this has been a strong restraint to the development of VSAT networks. which are located at the top level of the switching hierarchy of a switched public network. but they are cheap. while the large earth stations mentioned earlier are like public buses or trains.stations cannot support satellite links with large capacities. Therefore. This avoids the need for using any public network links to access the earth station. Referring to transportation. the user can directly plug into the VSAT equipment his own communication terminals such as a telephone or video set. for instance between the different sites of a company. They are flexible tools for establishing private networks. and easy to install anywhere. personal computer. on the roof of a building or on a parking lot. Page | 10 . the equivalent of personal cars for human transport. as a result of business traffic being diverted from the public network. This has initiated conservative policies by national telecom operators opposing the deregulation of the communications sector. VSATs appear as natural means to bypass public network operators by directly accessing satellite capacity. The bypass opportunity offered by VSAT networks has not always been well accepted by national telecom operators as it could mean loss of revenue. Indeed. printer.

sometimes called hop.CHAPTER. amplifies those carriers. Page | 11 . carriers can be relayed by the satellite from any VSAT to any other VSAT in the network. as illustrated by Figure 1. Basically the satellite receives the uplinked carriers from the transmitting earth stations within the field of view of its receiving antenna. The overall link from station to station. A radio frequency link is a modulated carrier conveying information. As all VSATs are visible from the satellite.1 MESHED TOPOLOGY Mesh networking is a type of networking wherein each node in the network may act as an independent router. that the orbit period at this altitude is equal to that of the rotation of the earth. the satellite appears from any station on the ground as a fixed relay in the sky. A mesh network whose nodes are all connected to each other is a fully connected network. As the satellite moves in its circular orbit in the same direction as the earth rotates. and transmits the amplified carriers to the stations located within the field of view of its transmitting antenna. with a so-called uplink from the station to the satellite and a so-called downlink from the satellite to the station.786 km. Present VSAT networks use geostationary satellites. which are satellites orbiting in the equatorial plane of the earth at an altitude above the earth surface of 35. consists of an uplink and a downlink. 2 VSAT NETWORK CONFIGURATION VSATs are connected by radio frequency (RF) links via a satellite. Mesh networks differ from other networks in that the component parts can all connect to each other via multiple hops. 2. regardless of whether it is connected to another network or not. It allows for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths by ³hopping´ from node to node until the destination is reached. translates their frequency to a lower band in order to avoid possible output/input interference. and they generally are not mobile.3.

and to convey the desired information to all VSATs by means of its own transmitted carriers.Figure 2. Those from the VSAT to the hub are named inbound links. and is equipped with a more powerful transmitter. ± small size of the VSAT. which limits its transmitted power and its receiving sensitivity. The solution then is to install in the network a station larger than a VSAT. called the hub. As a result of its improved capability.1 Meshed VSAT network Regarding meshed VSAT networks. Page | 12 . typically a few tens of watts. ± limited satellite transponder radio frequency power. resulting in a higher gain than that of a typical VSAT antenna. one must take into account the following limitations: ± typically 200 dB carrier power attenuation on the uplink and the downlink as a result of the distance to and from a geostationary satellite. as shown in Figure 1.3. the hub station is able to receive adequately all carriers transmitted by the VSATs. The links from the hub to the VSAT are named outbound links. The hub station has a larger antenna size than that of a VSAT. Therefore direct links from VSAT to VSAT may not be acceptable. say 4 m to 11 m.

which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. sometimes including the originating node. Figure 2. but the rest of the systems will be unaffected. If the central node is passive. Thus.2 Two-way star-shaped VSAT network Page | 13 .e. the originating node must be able to tolerate the reception of an echo of its own transmission. An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems. When applied to a bus-based network. a star network consists of one central switch. delayed by the two-way transmission time (i.2.2 STAR TOPOLOGY Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral node from all others. hub or computer. the hub and leaf nodes. and the transmission lines between them. and receiving from. this central hub rebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network. In its simplest form. All peripheral nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to. form a graph with the topology of a star. The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of the systems to a central node. the central node only. to and from the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node.

usually called elements in this context. Page | 14 . Antennas are most commonly employed in air or outer space.1 ANTENNA An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves.CHAPTER. radar. Physically. the inverse occurs: an electromagnetic field from another source induces an alternating current in the elements and a corresponding voltage at the antenna's terminals. point-to-point radio communication. Antennas are used in systems such as radio and television broadcasting. causing the elements to radiate an electromagnetic field. In transmission. an antenna is an arrangement of one or more conductors. In other words. cell phones. In reception. but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. and are a necessary part of all radio equipment. 3 CONSTITUENT PART OF VSAT CONFIGURATION The different parts used in a VSAT canfiguration are ± * Antenna * Block Up Converter (BUC) * Low-Noise Block Converter (LNB) * Orthomode Transducer (OMT) * Interfacility Link Cable (IFL) * Indoor Unit (IDU) 3. and spacecraft communication. antennas convert electromagnetic radiation into electric current. or vice versa. an alternating current is created in the elements by applying a voltage at the antenna terminals. Antennas generally deal in the transmission and reception of radio waves. wireless LAN.

to direct the radio waves. Parabolic antennas have some of the highest gains. on the UHF and microwave (SHF) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.1 Parabolic antenna Page | 15 .The antenna used in VSAT are parabolic antennas or dish antenna. it is able to direct the radio waves in a narrow beam (like a searchlight). or receive radio waves from one particular direction only. The main advantage of a parabolic antenna is that it is highly directive. The most common form is shaped like a dish and is popularly called a dish antenna or parabolic dish. a surface with the shape of a parabola. The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic radiation at these frequencies allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the desired highly directional response for both receiving and transmitting. of any antenna type. and also for radiolocation (radar). They are used as high-gain antennas for point-to-point radio. that is they can produce the narrowest beamwidth. television and data communications. Figure 3. A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector.

Older BUCs convert from a 70 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) to Ku band or C band. Modern BUCs convert from the L band to Ku band. Most BUCs use phase-locked loop local oscillators and require an external 10 MHz frequency reference to maintain the correct transmit frequency. C band and Ka band.2 BLOCK UP CONVERTER A block upconverter (BUC) is used in the transmission (uplink) of satellite signals. It converts a band (or "block") of frequencies from a lower frequency to a higher frequency. Page | 16 .Figure 3.2 Main types of parabolic antennas 3.

Many smaller BUCs also get their direct current (DC) over the feedline. used for bidirectional Internet access via satellite. Whereas the dipole antenna is unable to adapt itself to various polarization planes without being rotated. or downlink) antenna of what is commonly called the parabolic satellite dish commonly used for satellite TV reception. being an up-converting device. Figure 3. for low-noise converter. makes up the "transmit" side of the system. The 10 MHz reference frequency is usually sent on the same feedline as the main carrier.3 LOW NOISE BLOCK CONVERTER A low-noise block converter (LNB.3 Block up converter. The block upconverter is assembled with the LNB in association with an OMT. ku band 3. orthogonal mode transducer to the feed-horn that faces the reflector parabolic dish. BUCs are generally used in conjunction with low-noise block converters (LNB). while the LNB is the down-converting device and makes up the "receive" side. An example of a system utilizing both a BUC and an LNB is a VSAT system. LND for low-noise downconverter) is the (receiving. It is functionally equivalent to the dipole antenna used for most other TV reception purposes. or.BUCs used in remote locations are often 2 or 4 W in the Ku band and 5 W in the C band. sometimes LNC. The BUC. using an internal DC block. the Page | 17 . although it is actually waveguide based. rarely. for low-noise block.

The purpose of the LNB is to use the superheterodyne principle to take a wide block (or band) of relatively high frequencies. For the reception of wideband satellite television carriers. For the reception of narrow bandwidth carriers or ones using advanced modulation techniques. that the amplification and mixing takes place before cable attenuation and that the block is free of additional electronics like a power supply or a digital receiver. It is also much easier and cheaper to design electronic circuits to operate at these lower frequencies. which integrates the antenna feedhorn with the low noise block converter (LNB). the higher the frequencies with which an electronic component has to operate. typically 27 MHz wide. If low-noise engineering techniques were not used. The corresponding component in the uplink transmit link is called a Block upconverter (BUC). amplify and convert them to similar signals carried at a much lower frequency (called intermediate frequency or IF). the accuracy of the frequency of the LNB local oscillator need only be in the order of 500 kHz. The LNB is usually fixed on or in the satellite dish. rather than the very high frequencies of satellite transmission. so there is much more signal left on the satellite receiver end of the cable. Generally speaking. highly stable and low phase noise LNB local oscillators are required. the sound and picture of satellite TV would be of very low quality. LNBF : Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) dishes use an LNBF (LNB with feedhorn). The low-noise part means that special electronic engineering techniques are used. if it could even be received at all without a much larger dish reflector. The low-noise quality of an LNB is expressed as the noise figure or noise temperature. These use an internal crystal oscillator or an external 10 MHz reference from the indoor unit and a phase-locked loop (PLL) oscillator. Small diplexers are often used to distribute the resulting IF signal (usually 950 to 1450 MHz) Page | 18 . This all leads to a signal which has less noise (unwanted signals) on the output than would be possible with less stringent engineering. These lower frequencies travel through cables with much less attenuation of the signal. for the reasons outlined below. the more critical it is that noise be controlled. such as 16QAM.LNB can be switched electronically between horizontal and vertical polarization reception. so low cost dielectric oscillators (DRO) may be used.

and it's also not part of the Universal LNB specification). The amplifier then passes the proper signal to each box according to what voltage each has selected. which acts as a distribution amplifier. Universal LNB : A universal LNB can receive both polarisations (Vertical and Horizontal) and the full range of frequencies in the satellite Ku band. the voltage supplied by the set-top box to the LNB determines the polarization setting. and others are switchable (using 13 volt for Vertical and 17 or 18 volt for Horizontal) or fully adjustable in their polarisation (this is relatively rare as this requires a separate polarisor. Low/Ver. In the case of DBS. Newer Ka band systems use additional IF blocks from the LNBF. The newest systems may select polarization and which LNBF to use by sending DiSEqC codes instead. Another diplexer then separates the signals to the receiver of the TV set. Figure 3.4 LNBF disassembled Page | 19 . at a time when there was typically only one LNB or LNA. precluding the use of diplexers. and the integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) of the DBS set-top box.piggybacked in the same coaxial cable jacket which carries lower-frequency terrestrial television from an outdoor antenna. High/Hor. The oldest satellite systems actually powered a rotating antenna on the feedhorn. Some models can receive both polarisations simultaneously (known as a quattro LNB and used with a multiswitch) through four different connectors Low/Hor. a dual LNB allows both to be selected at once by a switch. With multi-TV systems. one of which will cause interference to UHF and cable TV frequencies above 250 MHz. High/Ver.

6 Ku band linear polarised LNBF 3. Page | 20 . It is commonly referred to as an OMT. Such device may be part of a VSAT antenna feed Orthomode transducers serve either to combine or to separate two microwave signal paths. One of the paths forms the uplink. the signals are orthogonally polarised with respect to each other. which is transmitted over the same waveguide as the received signal path.5 Ku band LNB with both sides uncovered Figure 3. For VSAT modems the transmission and reception paths are at 90° to each other. and commonly referred as a polarisation duplexer.4 ORTHOGONAL TRANSDUCER An orthomode transducer is a microwave duct component of the class of microwave circulators. or in other words.Figure 3. or downlink path. This orthogonal shift between the two signal paths provides approximately an isolation of 40dB in the Ku band and Ka band radio frequency bands.

They are usually connected to the antenna's down converter or LNB and to the High Power Amplifier (HPA) attached to a transmitting antenna. is known as an Orthogonal Mode Transducer OMT. LNB) from burn-out by the power of the output signal generated by the block up converter (BUC). in sparsely populated areas. of relatively high power (1. radiometers. Page | 21 . 2. are both coupled together at the feed-horn focal-point of the Parabolic antenna. The OMT device is used to separate two equal frequency signals. which are at 90° to each other. Protective separation is essential as the transmitter unit would seriously damage the very sensitive low ( V) micro-voltage. a typical OMT Orthomode Transducer provides a 40dB isolation between each of the connected radio ports to the feed horn that faces the parabolic dish reflector (40dB means that only 0. Wherever there are two polarisations of radio signals (Horizontal and Vertical). This means that the modulation planes of the two radio signal waves are at 90 degrees angles to each other.or 5 watts for common VSAT equipment) originating from BUC. Orthomode transducers are used in dual-polarised Very small aperture terminals VSAT. of high and low signal power. The BUC is also connected to the feed horn through a wave guide port of the OMT junction device. in this case are at an angle of 90° relative to each other. unit (ODU) of a VSAT modem. the transmitted and received radio signal to and fro the antenna are said to be ³orthogonal´. The transmission signal of the up-link. The device that unites both up-link and down-link paths. The port facing the parabolic reflector of the antenna is a circular polarizing port so that horizontal and vertical polarity coupling of inbound and outbound radio signal is easily achieved.01% of the transmitter's output power is cross-fed into the receiver's wave guide port). front-end receiver amplifier unit at the antenna. and communications links.(block up converter) and the very low power received signal power ( -volts) coming from the antenna (aerial) to the LNB receiver unit.Hence this device serves in an essential role as the junction element of the outdoor. In the VSAT Ku band of operation case. radar antennas. It protects the receiver front-end element (the low-noise block converter.

6 INDOOR UNIT The Indoor Unit (IDU) is the component of the VSAT terminal that is located indoors. Figure 3. It is usually the satellite router. In a VSAT terminal. control signals.5 INTERFACILITY LINK CABLE An Inter-Facility Link (IFL) is the set of coaxial cables that connect the indoor equipment to the outdoor equipment of a satellite earth station. Further isolation may be obtained by means of selective radio frequency filtering to achieve an isolation of 100dB (100dB means that only a 10í10 fraction of the transmitter's output power is cross-fed into the wave guide port of the receiver).The 40dB isolation provides essential protection to the very sensitive receiver amplifier against burn out from the relatively high-power signal of the transmitter unit. 3. and DC power.7 Orthomode transducer 3. The IDU is connected to the Outdoor Unit (ODU) via InterFacility Link (IFL) cables. Page | 22 . the IFL is usually one or two co-axial cables carrying IF signals.

Not designed for TCP/IP traffic. IP is encapsulated within MPEG 4. The standard has been widely adopted due to its simplicity.2 IDIRECT TECHNOLOGY iDirect has pioneered TCP/IP over satellite technology in the industry to ensure the most efficient use of satellite bandwidth.Lower Cost of Remote Terminals Disadvantages of DVB based system: .CHAPTER.Designed and built for Video Broadcast .Very inefficient when use of transponder capacity and very high Hub equipment cost . . and cost. DVB was primarily designed for one way broadcast of video and MPEG traffic. easily available chipsets. Advantages of DVB based system: . The intent of the open standard is to accelerate economies of scale. thereby generating lower-cost solutions and opening the market in a shorter timeframe than could be possible with competing proprietary solutions.Generally Power-Limited satellite requirement. 4 FEATURES OF VSAT NETWORKS 4. Recently a new standard DVB-RCS (Return Channel via Satellite) was completed to allow for a standard based return channel for two-way traffic. As demand for IP over satellite continues to grow Page | 23 .1 DVB TECHNOLOGY Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) is a satellite-based standard that was primarily designed to use in broadcast video applications.High bandwidth outbound or broadcast . DVB based technology is widely deployed and understood by most network operators.

Very scalable hub equipment. at the same time provide a business class service with all the TCP/IP enhancements over satellite. The RTTM feature set is an inherent part of iDirect¶s operating system software (iDS) and has been specifically designed to support applications such as voice that are not tolerant of delay. Advantages of iDirect Technology . with multiple network support within a chassis 4.Primarily Bandwidth limited. requiring specific network conditions to perform properly. The obstacles associated with this challenge have been addressed using iDirect¶s highly differentiated real time traffic management (RTTM) feature set.Frequency Hopping Capability ± Dynamically Assigned based on demand . iDirect technology is designed to allow Network Operators implement these networks at a much lower cost.Queue depth checked 5 times/sec .All remotes have a minimum CIR .Extremely responsive TDMA channels .Multiple-inroutes Network Capability . Page | 24 . Traditionally. transporting voice over satellite has been supported through implementation of Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) technology ostensibly creating a continuously connected environment similar to a dedicated private line circuit.3 VOIP OVER VSAT iDirect Technologies broadband IP VSAT network system effectively transports VoIP traffic over satellite. thus much lower service costs .more Network Operators would want to start offering IP services over satellite. Using SCPC to support enterprise VoIP needs is bandwidth inefficient and therefore a costly solution.

web-based portal that presents a full inventory of both Uplogix appliances and the infrastructure equipment connected to them. Uplogix Automated Remote Management (ARM) appliances enable operators to remotely monitor and control both satellite and terrestrial-based network equipment. Administrators can manage all Uplogix appliances via the Uplogix Control Center. The appliances co-locate and connect serially with network and satellite communications equipment to provide non-stop local management and control. Page | 25 . configuration and recovery procedures²reducing the time. operations staff can schedule and coordinate all network maintenance and management operations to be performed by Uplogix appliances.CHAPTER. the Control Center serves as the central repository and reporting interface for all data collection and audit logs provided by the appliances. maintenance. 5 AUTOMATIC VSAT NETWORK MANAGEMENT USING UPLOGIX 5.a centralized. Working via the Control Center console. In addition.1 LOCAL CONTROL OF REMOTE NETWORK EQUIPMENT Uplogix offers a new approach to reducing the cost and complexity of supporting satellite network environments. cost and error associated with manual support. Uplogix appliances automate numerous network support.

1 Uplogix Remote Management Platform for Satellite Communications 5.Minimizes on-site tech support and engineer visits to remote locations.Provides a single point of management control for both terrestrial and satellite-based network equipment. .2 KEY TECHNICAL BENEFITS . -Delivers continuous monitoring data and management control even during outages LEO Antenna LEO. Page | 26 . .Figure 5.Immediately diagnoses and repairs service failures through intelligent automation.

if it were not for the need to check the uplink from the remote site. As fly-away VSATs are constantly transported.25 s or 0. where the user terminals are most often personal computers. Voice communications on a VSAT network means telephony with possibly longer delays than those incurred on terrestrial lines. assembled and disassembled.50 s depending on the selected network configuration.1 CIVILIAN SERVICE It can be noted that most of the services supported by two-way VSAT networks deal with interactive data traffic. the topology of a star-shaped network fits well into the natural information flow between field units and command base. 6. 6 VSAT NETWORK APPLICATION VSAT networks have both civilian and military applications.2 MILITARY APPLICATION VSAT networks have been adopted by many military forces in the world. sometimes called µflyaway¶ stations. and delays are typically 0. which are transported by car or aircraft and set up at a location where news reporters can transmit video signals to a hub located near the company¶s studio. Indeed the inherent flexibility in the deployment of VSATs makes them a valuable means of installing temporary communications links between small units in the battlefield and headquarters located near the hub. Moreover. Today they weigh typically 100 kg and can be installed in less than 20 minutes. Of course the service could be considered as inbound only. Frequency Page | 27 . they must be robust. Telephony services imply full connectivity. as mentioned above. Satellite news gathering (SNG) can be viewed as a temporary network using transportable VSATs. and to be in touch by telephone with the staff at the studio. 6. as a result of the long satellite path.CHAPTER. The most notable exceptions are voice communications and satellite news gathering. These will now be presented. lightweight and easy to install.

4 GHz band and downlinks in the 7.75 GHz band.1 Fly-away VSAT station Page | 28 . Another key requirement is low probability of detection by hostile interceptors. It supports data and vocoded voice at 2. Figure 6.bands are at X-band. with uplinks in the 7. Spread spectrum techniques are largely used.4 kbsí1. As an example.25± 7. the manpack station developed by the UK Defence Research Agency (DRA) for its Milpico VSAT military network is equipped with a 45 cm antenna. The military use VSAT must be a small. low weight. weighs less than 17 kg and can be set up within 90 seconds. low power station that is easy to operate under battlefield conditions. In order to do so.9±8. the hub stations need to be equipped with antennas as large as 14 m.

* High level business applications can be supported.3 PRIVATE VSAT NETWORKS * Private VSAT offers organisational level connectivity solutions and bandwidth.2 Private VSAT Network Page | 29 . * Multicast services. * VPN connectivity available-including IPSEC. International and internert connectivity * Web browsing and E-mail. * Web browsing and server hosting.6. * Higher bandwidth at lower cost available on demand. * Pricing have been simplified and more complex network can be engineered. Figure 6.

and the ability to both intelligently manage the VSAT component. VSAT has a number of advantages like asymmetrty of data transfer. while cleanly integrating with management systems for other components and providing full end-to-end class based monitoring is the ultimate challenge. In modern future the VSAT network can be used for remote access to very small antennas and provide better signal reception.CONCLUSION VSAT networking has been developed into a sophisticated technique that can provide remote access to the small antennas through satellite. distance insensitive cost and private corporate. customer satisfaction and generating additional revenues. VSAT networking an focus on a discussion of how this service integration could take place and the possible performance improvements that could be achieved. flexibility. As a result of the power limitation resulting from the imposed small size and low cost of the remote station. Page | 30 . Most of research on VSAT has been conducted for environment and engineering applications. As has been discussed previously. However VSAT networks has very important application in communication field . end to end management is becoming a critical requirement for most customers. automation. low bit error. A VSAT network offers communications between remote terminals. but can also provide great opportunities for time saving.

www. K. Ltd.net/satellite/vsat/about_vsat. Satellite Communication . Jrnl.REFERENCES 1. 2. Joseph. ³Ku-Band Satellite Networks using VSATs-Part1:Multiaccess Protocols´. D. Timothy Pratt.com. http://en. Raychaudhuri.org/wiki/VSAT 6. 4.crystalcommunications. Sat. Comms..uplogix. Wiley India Pvt.wikipedia.. Int. http://www. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Gerard Maral . VSAT Networks. 5.htm Page | 31 . 3.