Chapter 2
PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Density and Specific Gravity
21C Intensive properties do not depend on the size (extent) of the system but extensive properties do.
22C The specific gravity, or relative density, and is defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to
the density of some standard substance at a specified temperature (usually water at 4°C, for which ρ
H2O
=
1000 kg/m
3
). That is,
H2O
/ ρ ρ = SG . When specific gravity is known, density is determined from
H2O
ρ ρ × = SG .
23C A gas can be treated as an ideal gas when it is at a high temperature or low pressure relative to its
critical temperature and pressure.
24C R
u
is the universal gas constant that is the same for all gases whereas R is the specific gas constant
that is different for different gases. These two are related to each other by R = R
u
/M, where M is the molar
mass of the gas.
25 A balloon is filled with helium gas. The mole number and the mass of helium in the balloon are to be
determined.
Assumptions At specified conditions, helium behaves as an ideal gas.
Properties The universal gas constant is R
u
= 8.314 kPa.m
3
/kmol.K. The molar mass of helium is 4.0
kg/kmol.
Analysis The volume of the sphere is
3 3 3
m 113.1 m) (3
3
4
3
4
= = = π π r V
He
D = 6 m
20°C
200 kPa
Assuming ideal gas behavior, the mole numbers of He is determined from
kmol 9.286 =
⋅ ⋅
= =
K) K)(293 /kmol m kPa (8.314
) m kPa)(113.1 (200
3
3
T R
P
N
u
V
Then the mass of He can be determined from
kg 37.1 = = = kg/kmol) kmol)(4.0 (9.286 NM m
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
26 A balloon is filled with helium gas. The mole number and the mass of helium in the balloon are to
be determined. The effect of the balloon diameter on the mass of helium is to be investigated, and the
results are to be tabulated and plotted.
"Given Data"
{D=6"[m]"}
{P=200"[kPa]"}
T=20"[C]"
P=100"[kPa]"
R_u=8.314"[kJ/kmol*K]"
"Solution"
P*V=N*R_u*(T+273)
V=4*pi*(D/2)^3/3"[m^3]"
m=N*MOLARMASS(Helium)"[kg]"
D [m] m [kg]
0.5 0.01075
2.111 0.8095
3.722 4.437
5.333 13.05
6.944 28.81
8.556 53.88
10.17 90.41
11.78 140.6
13.39 206.5
15 290.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0
100
200
300
400
500
D [m]
m
[
k
g
]
Mass of Helium in Balloon as function of Diameter
P = 200 kPa
m
[
k
g
]
P = 100 kPa
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
27 An automobile tire is inflated with air. The pressure rise of air in the tire when the tire is heated and the
amount of air that must be bled off to reduce the temperature to the original value are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tire remains
constant.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa⋅m
3
/kg⋅K.
Analysis Initially, the absolute pressure in the tire is
P P P
g atm 1
= + = + = 210 100 310 kPa
Treating air as an ideal gas and assuming the volume of the tire to
remain constant, the final pressure in the tire can be determined from
kPa 336 kPa) (310
K 298
K 323
1
1
2
2
2
2 2
1
1 1
= = = ÷→ ÷ = P
T
T
P
T
P
T
P V V
Tire
25°C
210 kPa
Thus the pressure rise is
kPa 26 = − = − = ∆ 310 336
1 2
P P P
The amount of air that needs to be bled off to restore pressure to its original value is
kg 0.0070 = − = − = ∆
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
0.0836 0.0906
kg 0.0836
K) K)(323 /kg m kPa (0.287
) m kPa)(0.025 (310
kg 0.0906
K) K)(298 /kg m kPa (0.287
) m kPa)(0.025 (310
2 1
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
m m m
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
V
V
28E An automobile tire is under inflated with air. The amount of air that needs to be added to the tire to
raise its pressure to the recommended value is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tire remains
constant.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.3704 psia⋅ft
3
/lbm⋅R.
Tire
0.53 ft
3
90°F
20 psia
Analysis The initial and final absolute pressures in the tire are
P
1
= P
g1
+ P
atm
= 20 + 14.6 = 34.6 psia
P
2
= P
g2
+ P
atm
= 30 + 14.6 = 44.6 psia
Treating air as an ideal gas, the initial mass in the tire is
lbm 0.0900
R) R)(550 /lbm ft psia (0.3704
) ft psia)(0.53 (34.6
3
3
1
1
1
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
RT
P
m
V
Noting that the temperature and the volume of the tire remain constant, the final mass in the tire becomes
lbm 0.1160
R) R)(550 /lbm ft psia (0.3704
) ft psia)(0.53 (44.6
3
3
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
RT
P
m
V
Thus the amount of air that needs to be added is
lbm 0.0260 = − = − = ∆ 0.0900 0.1160
1 2
m m m
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
29E A rigid tank contains slightly pressurized air. The amount of air that needs to be added to the tank to
raise its pressure and temperature to the recommended values is to be determined. √
Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tank remains
constant.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.3704 psia⋅ft
3
/lbm⋅R.
Analysis Treating air as an ideal gas, the initial volume and the final mass in the tank are determined to be
lbm 33.73
R) R)(550 /lbm ft psia (0.3704
) ft 3 psia)(196. (35
ft 196.3
psia 20
R) R)(530 /lbm ft psia 4 lbm)(0.370 (20
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1 1
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
RT
P
m
P
RT m
V
V
Air, 20 lbm
20 psia
70°F
Thus the amount of air added is
lbm 13.7 = − = − = ∆ 20.0 33.73
1 2
m m m
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
210 The variation of density of atmospheric air with elevation is given in tabular form. A relation for the
variation of density with elevation is to be obtained, the density at 7 km elevation is to be calculated, and
the mass of the atmosphere using the correlation is to be estimated. √
Assumptions 1 Atmospheric air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The earth is perfectly sphere with a radius of
6377 km, and the thickness of the atmosphere is 25 km.
Properties The density data are given in tabular form as
r, km
z, km
ρ, kg/m
3
6377
0
1.225
6378
1
1.112
6379
2
1.007
6380
3
0.9093
6381
4
0.8194
6382
5
0.7364
6383
6
0.6601
6385
8
0.5258
6387
10
0.4135
6392
15
0.1948
6397
20
0.08891
6402
25
0.04008
Analysis Using EES, (1) Define a trivial function rho= a+z in equation window, (2) select new parametric
table from Tables, and type the data in a twocolumn table, (3) select Plot and plot the data, and (4) select
plot and click on “curve fit” to get curve fit window. Then specify 2
nd
order polynomial and enter/edit
equation. The results are:
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
z, km
ρ
,
k
g
/
m
3
ρ(z) = a + bz + cz
2
= 1.20252 – 0.101674z + 0.0022375z
2
for the unit of kg/m
3
,
(or, ρ(z) = (1.20252 – 0.101674z + 0.0022375z
2
)×10
9
for the unit of kg/km
3
)
where z is the vertical distance from the earth surface at sea level. At z = 7 km, the equation would give ρ =
0.60 kg/m
3
.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
(b) The mass of atmosphere can be evaluated by integration to be
  5 / 4 / ) 2 ( 3 / ) 2 ( 2 / ) 2 ( 4
) 2 )( ( 4 ) ( 4 ) (
5 4
0
3 2
0 0
2
0 0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
ch h cr b h cr br a h br a r h ar
dz z z r r cz bz a dz z r cz bz a dV m
h
z
h
z
V
+ + + + + + + + =
+ + + + = + + + = =
∫ ∫ ∫
= =
π
π π ρ
where r
0
= 6377 km is the radius of the earth, h = 25 km is the thickness of the atmosphere, and a =
1.20252, b = 0.101674, and c = 0.0022375 are the constants in the density function. Substituting and
multiplying by the factor 10
9
for the density unity kg/km
3
, the mass of the atmosphere is determined to be
m = 5.092×10
18
kg
Discussion Performing the analysis with excel would yield exactly the same results.
EES Solution for final result:
a=1.2025166
b=0.10167
c=0.0022375
r=6377
h=25
m=4*pi*(a*r^2*h+r*(2*a+b*r)*h^2/2+(a+2*b*r+c*r^2)*h^3/3+(b+2*c*r)*h^4/4+c*h^5/5)*1E+9
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
Vapor Pressure and Cavitation
211C The pressure of a vapor, whether it exists alone or in a mixture with other gases, is called the vapor
pressure P
v
. During phase change processes between the liquid and vapor phases of a pure substance, the
saturation pressure and the vapor pressure are equivalent since the vapor is pure.
212C Yes. The saturation temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure. The higher the pressure,
the higher the saturation or boiling temperature.
213C If the pressure of a substance is increased during a boiling process, the temperature will also
increase since the boiling (or saturation) temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure and increases
with it.
214C During liquid flow, vaporization may occur at locations where the pressure drops below the vapor
pressure. The vapor bubbles collapse as they are swept away from the low pressure regions, generating
highly destructive, extremely high pressure waves. This phenomenon which is a common cause for drop in
performance and even the erosion of impeller blades is called cavitation.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
215 The minimum pressure in a piping system to avoid cavitation is to be determined.
Properties The vapor pressure of water at 40°C is 7.38 kPa.
Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure anywhere in flow should not be allowed to drop below the vapor
(or saturation ) pressure at the given temperature. That is,
kPa 7.38 = =
°C sat
P P
40 @ min
Therefore, the pressure should be maintained above 7.38 kPa everywhere in flow.
Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and thus the risk of
cavitation is greater at higher fluid temperatures.
216 The minimum pressure in a pump is given. It is to be determined if there is a danger of cavitation.
Properties The vapor pressure of water at 20°C is 2.339 kPa.
Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure everywhere in the flow should remain above the vapor (or
saturation ) pressure at the given temperature, which is
kPa 339 . 2
20 @
= =
°C sat v
P P
The minimum pressure in the pump is 2 kPa, which is less than the vapor pressure. Therefore, a there is
danger of cavitation in the pump.
Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and thus there is a greater
danger of cavitation at higher fluid temperatures.
217E The minimum pressure in a pump is given. It is to be determined if there is a danger of cavitation.
Properties The vapor pressure of water at 70°F is 0.3632 psia.
Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure everywhere in the flow should remain above the vapor (or
saturation ) pressure at the given temperature, which is
psia 3632 . 0
70 @
= =
°F sat v
P P
The minimum pressure in the pump is 0.1 psia, which is less than the vapor pressure. Therefore, there is
danger of cavitation in the pump.
Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and the danger of cavitation
increases at higher fluid temperatures.
218 The minimum pressure in a pump to avoid cavitation is to be determined.
Properties The vapor pressure of water at 25°C is 3.17 kPa.
Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure anywhere in the system should not be allowed to drop below the
vapor (or saturation ) pressure at the given temperature. That is,
kPa 3.17 = =
°C sat
P P
25 @ min
Therefore, the lowest pressure that can exist in the pump is 3.17 kPa.
Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and thus the risk of
cavitation is greater at higher fluid temperatures.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
Energy and Specific Heats
219C The macroscopic forms of energy are those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some
outside reference frame. The microscopic forms of energy, on the other hand, are those related to the
molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity, and are independent of outside
reference frames.
220C The sum of all forms of the energy a system possesses is called total energy. In the absence of
magnetic, electrical and surface tension effects, the total energy of a system consists of the kinetic,
potential, and internal energies.
221C The internal energy of a system is made up of sensible, latent, chemical and nuclear energies. The
sensible internal energy is due to translational, rotational, and vibrational effects.
222C Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy, and it is referred to as heat in
daily life.
223C Flow energy or flow work is the energy needed to push a fluid into or out of a control volume.
Fluids at rest do not possess any flow energy.
224C Flowing fluids possess flow energy in addition to the forms of energy a fluid at rest possesses. The
total energy of a fluid at rest consists of internal, kinetic, and potential energies. The total energy of a
flowing fluid consists of internal, kinetic, potential, and flow energies.
225C Using specific heat values at the average temperature, the changes in internal energy of ideal gases
can be determined from . For incompressible substances, c
p
≅ c
v
≅ c and . T c u
avg v
∆ = ∆
,
T c u
avg
∆ = ∆
226C Using specific heat values at the average temperature, the changes in enthalpy of ideal gases can be
determined from . For incompressible substances, c
p
≅ c
v
≅ c and
.
T c h
avg p
∆ = ∆
,
P v T c
avg
∆ + ∆ P v u h ≅ ∆ + ∆ = ∆
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
Coefficient of Compressibility
227C The coefficient of compressibility represents the variation of pressure of a fluid with volume or
density at constant temperature. Isothermal compressibility is the inverse of the coefficient of
compressibility, and it represents the fractional change in volume or density corresponding to a change in
pressure.
228C The coefficient of volume expansion represents the variation of the density of a fluid with
temperature at constant pressure. It differs from the coefficient of compressibility in that latter represents
the variation of pressure of a fluid with density at constant temperature.
229C The coefficient of compressibility of a fluid cannot be negative, but the coefficient of volume
expansion can (e.g., liquid water below 4°C).
230 The percent increase in the density of an ideal gas is given for a moderate pressure. The percent
increase in density of the gas when compressed at a higher pressure is to be determined.
Assumptions The gas behaves an ideal gas.
Analysis For an ideal gas, P = ρRT and ρ ρ / ) / ( P RT P
T
= = ∂ ∂ , and thus P =
gas ideal
κ . Therefore, the
coefficient of compressibility of an ideal gas is equal to its absolute pressure, and the coefficient of
compressibility of the gas increases with increasing pressure.
Substituting κ = P into the definition of the coefficient of compressibility
ρ ρ
κ
/ / ∆
∆
≅
∆
∆
− ≅
P P
v v
and rearranging gives
P
P ∆
=
∆
ρ
ρ
Therefore, the percent increase of density of an ideal gas during isothermal compression is equal to the
percent increase in pressure.
At 10 atm: % 10
10
10 11
=
−
=
∆
=
∆
P
P
ρ
ρ
At 100 atm: % 1
100
100 101
=
−
=
∆
=
∆
P
P
ρ
ρ
Therefore, a pressure change of 1 atm causes a density change of 10% at 10 atm and a density change of
1% at 100 atm.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
231 Using the definition of the coefficient of volume expansion and the expression T / 1
gas ideal
= β , it is to
be shown that the percent increase in the specific volume of an ideal gas during isobaric expansion is equal
to the percent increase in absolute temperature.
Assumptions The gas behaves an ideal gas.
Analysis The coefficient of volume expansion β can be expressed as
T T
P
∆
∆
≈

.

\

∂
∂
=
v v v
v
/ 1
β
Noting that T / 1
gas ideal
= β for an ideal gas and rearranging give
T
T ∆
=
∆
v
v
Therefore, the percent increase in the specific volume of an ideal gas during isobaric expansion is equal to
the percent increase in absolute temperature.
232 Water at a given temperature and pressure is compressed to a high pressure isothermally. The increase
in the density of water is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The isothermal compressibility is constant in the given pressure range. 2 An
approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes by finite changes.
Properties The density of water at 20°C and 1 atm pressure is ρ
1
= 998 kg/m
3
. The isothermal
compressibility of water is given to be α = 4.80×10
5
atm
1
.
Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed
to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed
approximately as
T P ∆ − ∆ = ∆ βρ αρ ρ
The change in density due to a change of pressure from 1 atm to 800 atm at constant temperature is
3
kg/m 38.3 = − × = ∆ = ∆
−
atm ) 1 800 )( kg/m 998 )( atm 10 80 . 4 (
3 1 5
P αρ ρ
Discussion Note that the density of water increases from 998 to 1036.3 kg/m
3
while being compressed,
as expected. This problem can be solved more accurately using differential analysis when functional forms
of properties are available.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
233 Water at a given temperature and pressure is heated to a higher temperature at constant pressure. The
change in the density of water is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant in the given temperature range. 2 An
approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes.
Properties The density of water at 15°C and 1 atm pressure is ρ
1
= 999.1 kg/m
3
. The coefficient of
volume expansion at the average temperature of (15+95)/2 = 55°C is β = 0.484×10
3
K
1
.
Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed
to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed
approximately as
T P ∆ − ∆ = ∆ βρ αρ ρ
The change in density due to the change of temperature from 15°C to 95°C at constant pressure is
3
kg/m 38.7 − = − × − = ∆ − = ∆
−
K ) 15 95 )( kg/m 1 . 999 )( K 10 484 . 0 (
3 1 3
T βρ ρ
Discussion Noting that
1 2
ρ ρ ρ − = ∆ , the density of water at 95°C and 1 atm is
3
1 2
kg/m 4 . 960 ) 7 . 38 ( 1 . 999 = − + = ∆ + = ρ ρ ρ
which is almost identical to the listed value of 961.5 kg/m
3
at 95°C in water table in the Appendix. This is
mostly due to β varying with temperature almost linearly. Note that the density of water decreases while
being heated, as expected. This problem can be solved more accurately using differential analysis when
functional forms of properties are available.
234 Saturated refrigerant134a at a given temperature is cooled at constant pressure. The change in the
density of the refrigerant is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant in the given temperature range. 2 An
approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes.
Properties The density of saturated liquid R134a at 10°C is ρ
1
=1261 kg/m
3
. The coefficient of volume
expansion at the average temperature of (10+0)/2 = 5°C is β = 0.00269 K
1
.
Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed
to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed
approximately as
T P ∆ − ∆ = ∆ βρ αρ ρ
The change in density due to the change of temperature from 10°C to 0°C at constant pressure is
3
kg/m 33.9 = − − = ∆ − = ∆ K ) 10 0 )( kg/m 1261 )( K 00269 . 0 (
3 1
T βρ ρ
Discussion Noting that
1 2
ρ ρ ρ − = ∆ , the density of R134a at 0°C is
3
1 2
kg/m 9 . 1294 9 . 33 1261 = + = ∆ + = ρ ρ ρ
which is almost identical to the listed value of 1295 kg/m
3
at 0°C in R134a table in the Appendix. This is
mostly due to β varying with temperature almost linearly. Note that the density increases during cooling, as
expected.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
235 A water tank completely filled with water can withstand tension caused by a volume expansion of 2%.
The maximum temperature rise allowed in the tank without jeopardizing safety is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant. 2 An approximate analysis is performed
by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes. 3 The effect of pressure is disregarded.
Properties The average volume expansion coefficient is given to be β = 0.377×10
3
K
1
.
Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed
to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed
approximately as
T P ∆ − ∆ = ∆ βρ αρ ρ
A volume increase of 2% corresponds to a density decrease of 2%, which can be expressed as
ρ ρ 02 . 0 − = ∆ . Then the decrease in density due to a temperature rise of ∆T at constant pressure is
T ∆ − = − βρ ρ 02 . 0
Solving for ∆T and substituting, the maximum temperature rise is determined to be
C 53.0 K 53.0 ° = =
×
= = ∆
− 1  3
K 10 377 . 0
02 . 0 02 . 0
β
T
Discussion This result is conservative since in reality the increasing pressure will tend to compress the
water and increase its density.
236 A water tank completely filled with water can withstand tension caused by a volume expansion of 1%.
The maximum temperature rise allowed in the tank without jeopardizing safety is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant. 2 An approximate analysis is performed
by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes. 3 The effect of pressure is disregarded.
Properties The average volume expansion coefficient is given to be β = 0.377×10
3
K
1
.
Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed
to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed
approximately as
T P ∆ − ∆ = ∆ βρ αρ ρ
A volume increase of 1% corresponds to a density decrease of 1%, which can be expressed as
ρ ρ 01 . 0 − = ∆ . Then the decrease in density due to a temperature rise of ∆T at constant pressure is
T ∆ − = − βρ ρ 01 . 0
Solving for ∆T and substituting, the maximum temperature rise is determined to be
C 26.5 K 26.5 ° = =
×
= = ∆
− 1  3
K 10 377 . 0
01 . 0 01 . 0
β
T
Discussion This result is conservative since in reality the increasing pressure will tend to compress the
water and increase its density.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
237 The density of seawater at the free surface and the bulk modulus of elasticity are given. The density
and pressure at a depth of 2500 m are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The temperature and the bulk modulus of elasticity of seawater is constant. 2 The
gravitational acceleration remains constant.
Properties The density of seawater at free surface where the pressure is given to be 1030 kg/m
3
, and the
bulk modulus of elasticity of seawater is given to be 2.34×10
9
N/m
2
.
Analysis The coefficient of compressibility or the bulk modulus of elasticity of fluids is expressed as
z = 0
z
2500 m
T
P


.

\

∂
∂
=
ρ
ρ κ or
ρ
ρ κ
d
dP
= (at constant T )
The differential pressure change across a differential fluid height of dz is given as
gdz dP ρ =
Combining the two relations above and rearranging,
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ κ = →
d
dz
g
d
gdz
2
=
κ ρ
ρ gdz d
=
2
Integrating from z = 0 where to z = z where
3
0
kg/m 1030 = = ρ ρ ρ ρ = gives
dz
g d
z
∫ ∫
=
0
2
0
κ ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
→
κ ρ ρ
gz
= −
1 1
0
Solving for ρ gives the variation of density with depth as
κ ρ
ρ
/ / 1
1
0
gz −
=
Substituting into the pressure change relation gdz dP ρ = and integrating from z = 0 where
to z = z where P = P gives kPa 98
0
= = P P
κ ρ / / 1
0
0
0
gz
gdz
dP
z P
P −
=
∫ ∫
→


.

\

−
+ =
κ ρ
κ
/ 1
1
ln
0
0
gz
P P
which is the desired relation for the variation of pressure in seawater with depth.
At z = 2500 m, the values of density and pressure are determined by substitution to be
3
kg/m 1041 =
× −
=
) N/m 10 34 . 2 /( m) 2500 )( m/s 81 . 9 ( ) kg/m 1030 /( 1
1
2 9 2 3
ρ
MPa 25.50 =
× =


.

\

× −
× + =
Pa 10 550 . 2
) N/m 10 34 . 2 /( m) 2500 )( m/s 81 . 9 )( kg/m 1030 ( 1
1
ln ) N/m 10 34 . 2 ( Pa) 000 , 98 (
7
2 9 2 3
2 9
P
since 1 Pa = 1 N/m
2
= 1 kg/m⋅s
2
and 1 kPa = 1000 Pa.
Discussion Note that if we assumed ρ = ρ
o
= constant at 1030 kg/m
3
, the pressure at 2500 m would be
gz P P ρ + =
0
= 0.098 + 25.26 = 25.36 MPa. Then the density at 2500 m can be estimated to be
3 1
kg/m 11.1 MPa) (25.26 MPa) 0 (1030)(234 = = ∆ = ∆
−
P ρα ρ and thus ρ = 1041 kg/m
3
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214
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
Viscosity
238C Viscosity is a measure of the “stickiness” or “resistance to deformation” of a fluid. It is due to the
internal frictional force that develops between different layers of fluids as they are forced to move relative
to each other. Viscosity is caused by the cohesive forces between the molecules in liquids, and by the
molecular collisions in gases. Liquids have higher dynamic viscosities than gases.
239C The fluids whose shear stress is proportional to the velocity gradient are called Newtonian fluids.
Most common fluids such as water, air, gasoline, and oils are Newtonian fluids.
240C When two identical small glass balls dropped into two identical containers, one filled with water and
the other with oil, the ball dropped in water will reach the bottom of the container first because of the
much lower viscosity of water relative to oil.
241C (a) The dynamic viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature. (b) The dynamic viscosity of gases
increases with temperature.
242C For liquids, the kinematic viscosity is practically independent of pressure. For gases, the kinematic
viscosity is inversely proportional to density and thus pressure since the density of a gas is proportional to
its pressure.
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215
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
243 A block is moved at a constant velocity on an inclined surface. The force that needs to be applied in
the horizontal direction when the block is dry, and the percent reduction in the required force when an oil
film is applied on the surface are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The inclined surface is plane. 2 The friction coefficient and the oil film thickness are
uniform. 3 The weight of the oil layer is negligible.
Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be u = 0.012 Pa⋅s = 0.012 N⋅s/m
2
.
Analysis (a) The velocity of the block is constant, and thus its
acceleration and the net force acting on it are zero. Free body
diagram of the block is given. Then the force balance gives
x
y
F
f
20
0
V= 0.8 m/s
F
1
20
0
W = 150 N
F
N1
20
0
: 0 =
∑ x
F 0 20 sin 20 cos
1 1
= ° − ° −
N f
F F F (1)
: 0 =
∑ y
F 0 20 sin 20 cos
1
= − ° − ° W F F
f N
(2)
Friction force: (3)
1 N f
fF F =
Substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (2) and solving for F
N1
gives
N 0 . 177
20 sin 27 . 0 20 cos
N 150
20 sin 20 cos
1
=
° − °
=
° − °
=
f
W
F
N
Then from Eq. (1):
N 105.5 = ° + ° × = ° + ° = 20 sin ) N 177 ( 20 cos ) N 177 27 . 0 ( 20 sin 20 cos
1 1 N f
F F F
(b) In this case, the friction force will be replaced the shear force applied on the bottom surface of the block
by oil. Because of the noslip condition, the oil film will stick no the inclined surface at the bottom and the
lower surface of the block at the top. Then the shear force can be expressed as
V= 0.8 m/s
N 4 . 2
m 10 4
m/s 8 . 0
) m 2 . 0 5 . 0 )( s/m N 012 . 0 (
4 
2 2
=
×
× ⋅ = = =
h
V
A A F
s s w shear
u τ
50 cm
0.4 mm
F
shear
= τ
w
A
s
20
0
F
2
W = 150 N
F
N2
Replacing the friction force by the shear force in part (a),
∑
: 0 =
x
F 0 20 sin 20 cos
2 2
= ° − ° −
N shear
F F F (4)
∑
: 0 =
y
F 0 20 sin 20 cos
2
= − ° − ° W F F
shear N
(5)
Eq. (5) gives N 60.5 1 20 cos / )] N 150 ( 20 sin ) N 4 . 2 [( 20 cos / ) 20 sin (
2
= ° + ° = ° + ° = W F F
shear N
Substituting into Eq. (4), the required horizontal force is determined to be
N 57.2 20 sin ) N 5 . 160 ( 20 cos ) N 4 . 2 ( 20 sin 20 cos
2 2
= ° + ° = ° + ° =
N shear
F F F
Then,
Percentage reduction in required force = 45.8% =
−
=
−
100
5 . 105
2 . 57 5 . 105
100
1
2 1
F
F F
Discussion Note that the force required to push the block on the inclined surface reduces significantly by
oiling the surface.
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216
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
244 The velocity profile of a fluid flowing though a circular pipe is given. The friction drag force exerted
on the pipe by the fluid in the flow direction per unit length of the pipe is to be determined.
Assumptions The viscosity of the fluid is constant.
u(r) = u
max
(1r
n
/R
n
)
Analysis The wall shear stress is determined from its definition to be
R
u n
R
nr
u
R
r
dr
d
u
dr
du
R r
n
n
R r
n
n
R r
w
max
1
max max
1
u
u u u τ =
−
− =


.

\

− − = − =
=
−
=
=
R
r
0
u
max
Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow, and the negative sign is added to the τ
w
relation for
pipes to make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. (Or, du /dr =  du /dy since y
= R – r). Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes
L u n L R
R
u n
A F
w w max
max
2 ) 2 ( πu π
u
τ = = =
Therefore, the drag force per unit length of the pipe is
max
2 / u n L F πu = .
Discussion Note that the drag force acting on the pipe in this case is independent of the pipe diameter.
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217
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
245 A thin flat plate is pulled horizontally through an oil layer sandwiched between two plates, one
stationary and the other moving at a constant velocity. The location in oil where the velocity is zero and the
force that needs to be applied on the plate are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The thickness of the plate is negligible. 2 The velocity profile in each oil layer is linear.
Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be u = 0.027 Pa⋅s = 0.027 N⋅s/m
2
.
Analysis (a) The velocity profile in each oil layer relative to the fixed wall is as shown in the figure below.
The point of zero velocity is indicated by point A, and its distance from the lower plate is determined from
geometric considerations (the similarity of the two triangles in the lower oil layer) to be
3 . 0
1 6 . 2
=
−
A
A
y
y
→ y
A
= 0.60 mm
Fixed wall
y
y
A
A
V = 1 m/s
F
V
w
= 0.3 m/s
Moving wall
h
2
=2.6 mm
h
1
=1 mm
(b) The magnitudes of shear forces acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate are
N 08 . 1
m 10 1.0
m/s 1
) m 2 . 0 2 . 0 )( s/m N 027 . 0 (
0
3 
2 2
1
upper , upper shear,
=
×
× ⋅ =
−
= = =
h
V
A
dy
du
A A F
s s s w
u u τ
N 54 . 0
m 10 2.6
m/s )] 3 . 0 ( 1 [
) m 2 . 0 2 . 0 )( s/m N 027 . 0 (
3 
2 2
2
lower , lower shear,
=
×
− −
× ⋅ =
−
= = =
h
V V
A
dy
du
A A F
w
s s s w
u u τ
Noting that both shear forces are in the opposite direction of motion of the plate, the force F is determined
from a force balance on the plate to be
N 1.62 = + = + = 54 . 0 08 . 1
lower shear, upper shear,
F F F
Discussion Note that wall shear is a friction force between a solid and a liquid, and it acts in the opposite
direction of motion.
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218
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
246 A frustum shaped body is rotating at a constant angular speed in an oil container. The power required
to maintain this motion, and the reduction in the required power input when the oil temperature rises are to
be determined.
Assumptions The thickness of the oil layer remains constant.
Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be u = 0.1 Pa⋅s = 0.1 N⋅s/m
2
at 20°C and 0.0078 Pa⋅s at
80°C.
Analysis The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where V = ωr is the tangential
velocity. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of the frustum at a distance r from the axis of
rotation can be expressed as
Case
z
r
L = 12 cm
D = 12 cm
d = 4 cm
SAE 10W oil of
film thickness h
h
r
h
V
dr
du
w
ω
u u u τ = = =
Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface, the torque it generates, and the shaft
power associated with it can be expressed as
dA
h
r
dA dF
w
ω
u τ = =
dA
h
r
rdF d
2
T
ω
u = =
dA r
h A
∫
=
2
T
uω
dA r
h
W
A
∫
= =
2
2
sh
T
uω
ω
&
Top surface: For the top surface, rdr dA π 2 = . Substituting and integrating,
h
D r
h
dr r
h
dr r r
h
W
D
r
D
r
D
r 32 4
2 2
) 2 (
4 2
2 /
0
4 2
3
2 /
0
2
2
2 /
0
2
top sh,
πuω πuω πuω
π
uω
= = = =
=
= =
∫ ∫
&
Bottom surface: A relation for the bottom surface is obtained by replacing D by d,
h
d
W
32
4 2
bottom sh,
πuω
=
&
Side surface: The differential area for the side surface can be expressed as rdz dA π 2 = . From geometric
considerations, the variation of radius with axial distance can be expressed as
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219
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
z
L
d D d
2 2
−
+ = r .
Differentiating gives dz
L
d D
dr
2
−
= or dr
d D
L
dz
−
=
2
. Therefore, rdr
d D
L
dz dA
−
= =
π
π
4
2 .
Substituting and integrating,
) ( 16
) (
4 ) (
4
) (
4 4
2 2 2
2 /
2 /
4 2
3
2 /
2 /
2
2
2 /
0
2
top sh,
d D h
d D L r
d D h
L
dr r
d D h
L
rdr
d D
L
r
h
D
d r
D
d r
D
r −
−
=
−
=
−
=
−
=
=
= =
∫ ∫
πuω πuω πuω π uω
&
W
Then the total power required becomes
−
−
+ + = + + =
d D
D d L
D d
h
D
W W W
)] ) / ( 1 [ 2
) / ( 1
32
4
4
4 2
side sh, bottom sh, top sh, total sh,
πuω
& & & &
W
where d/D = 4/12 = 1/3. Substituting,
W 270 = 
.

\

−
−
+ +
⋅
=
Nm/s 1
W 1
m ) 04 . 0 12 . 0 (
)] ) 3 / 1 ( 1 [ m) 12 . 0 ( 2
) 3 / 1 ( 1
m) 0012 . 0 ( 32
m) 12 . 0 ( /s) 200 )( s/m N 1 . 0 (
4
4
4 2 2
total sh,
π
&
W
Noting that power is proportional to viscosity, the power required at 80°C is
W 21.1 W) 270 (
s/m N 1 . 0
s/m N 0078 . 0
2
2
C 20 total, sh,
20
80
C 80 total, sh,
=
⋅
⋅
= =
°
°
°
°
W
C
C
& &
u
u
W
Therefore, the reduction in the requires power input at 80°C is
Reduction = W (92%) W 249 = − = −
° °
1 . 21 270
C 80 total, sh, C 20 total, sh,
W
& &
Discussion Note that the power required to overcome shear forces in a viscous fluid greatly depends on
temperature.
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220
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
247 A clutch system is used to transmit torque through an oil film between two identical disks. For
specified rotational speeds, the torque transmitted is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil film is uniform. 2 The rotational speeds of disks remains constant.
Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be u = 0.38 N⋅s/m
2
.
30 cm
3 mm
Driven
shaft
Driving
shaft
SAE 30W oil
Analysis The disks are rotting in the same direction at different angular speeds of ω
1
and of ω
2
. Therefore,
we can assume one of the disks to be stationary and the other to be rotating at an angular speed of
2 1
ω ω − .
The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where r V ) (
2 1
ω ω − = is the tangential
velocity. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of the faster disk at a distance r from the axis
of rotation can be expressed as
h
r
h
V
dr
du
w
) (
2 1
ω ω
u u u τ
−
= = =
ω
1
h
Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface
and the torque generation associated with it can be expressed as
ω
2
dr r
h
r
dA dF
w
) 2 (
) (
2 1
π
ω ω
u τ
−
= =
dr r
h
dr r
h
r
rdF d
3 2 1
2
2 1
) ( 2
) 2 (
) (
T
ω ω πu
π
ω ω
u
−
=
−
= =
Integrating,
h
D r
h
dr r
h
D
r
D
r 32
) (
4
) ( 2 ) ( 2
T
4
2 1
2 /
0
4
2 1 3
2 /
0
2 1
ω ω πu ω ω πu ω ω πu −
=
−
=
−
=
=
=
∫
Noting that n& π ω 2 = , the relative angular speed is
( ) rad/s 5.445
s 60
min 1
rev/min] 1398 1450 rad/rev)[ 2 ( ) ( 2
2 1 2 1
=

.

\

− = − = − π π ω ω n n & & ,
Substituting, the torque transmitted is determined to be
m N 0.55 ⋅ =
⋅
=
m) 003 . 0 ( 32
m) 30 . 0 ( /s) 445 . 5 )( s/m N 38 . 0 (
T
4 2
π
Discussion Note that the torque transmitted is proportional to the fourth power of disk diameter, and is
inversely proportional to the thickness of the oil film.
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221
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
248 Prob. 247 is reconsidered. Using EES software, the effect of oil film thickness on the torque
transmitted is investigated. Film thickness varied from 0.1 mm to 10 mm, and the results are tabulated and
plotted. The relation used is
h
D
32
) (
4
2 1
ω ω πu −
= T .
mu=0.38
n1=1450 "rpm"
w1=2*pi*n1/60 "rad/s"
n2=1398 "rpm"
w2=2*pi*n2/60 "rad/s"
D=0.3 "m"
Tq=pi*mu*(w1w2)*(D^4)/(32*h)
Film thickness
h, mm
Torque transmitted
T, Nm
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
2
4
6
8
10
16.46
8.23
4.11
2.74
2.06
1.65
0.82
0.41
0.27
0.21
0.16
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
h [m]
T
q
[
N
m
]
Conclusion Torque transmitted is inversely proportional to oil film thickness, and the film thickness should
be as small as possible to maximize the transmitted torque.
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222
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
249 A multidisk Electrorheological “ER” clutch with a fluid in which shear stress is expressed as
) ( dy du
y
u τ τ + = is considered. A relationship for the torque transmitted by the clutch is to be obtained,
and the numerical value of the torque is to be calculated.
Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer between the disks is constant. 2 The Bingham plastic model
for shear stress expressed as ) ( dy du
y
u τ τ + = is valid.
Properties The constants in shear stress relation are given to be u = 0.1 Pa⋅s and τ
y
=2.5 kPa.
h = 1.2 mm
R
2
R
1
Shell
Plates mounted on input shaft
Plates mounted on shell
Input shaft
Output shaft
Variable magnetic field
Analysis (a) The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where V = ωr is the
tangential velocity relative to plates mounted on the shell. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the
surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as
h
r
h
V
dr
du
y y y w
ω
u τ u τ u τ τ + = + = + =
Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface of a
disk and the torque generation associated with it can be expressed as
dr r
h
r
dA dF
y w
) 2 ( π
ω
u τ τ

.

\

+ = =
dr
h
r
r dr r
h
r
r rdF d
y y


.

\

+ =

.

\

+ = =
3
2
2 ) 2 ( T
ω
u τ π π
ω
u τ
Integrating,
− + − =
+ =


.

\

+ =
=
=
∫
) (
4
) (
3
2
4 3
2 2 T
4
1
4
2
3
1
3
2
4 3 3
2
2
1
2
1
R R
h
R R
h
r r
dr
h
r
r
y
R
R r
y y
R
R r
uω
τ
π
uω
τ π
ω
u τ π
This is the torque transmitted by one surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft. Then the torque
transmitted by both surfaces of N plates attached to input shaft in the clutch becomes
− + − = ) (
4
) (
3
4 T
4
1
4
2
3
1
3
2
R R
h
R R N
y uω
τ
π
(b) Noting that rad/s 3 . 251 rad/min 080 , 15 ) rev/min 2400 ( 2 2 = = = = π π ω n& and substituting,
m N 2060 ⋅ =
−
⋅
+ − = ] ) m 05 . 0 ( m) 20 . 0 [(
m) 0012 . 0 ( 4
/s) 3 . 251 )( s/m N 1 . 0 (
] ) m 05 . 0 ( m) 20 . 0 [(
3
N/m 2500
) 11 )( 4 ( T
4 4
2
3 3
2
π
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223
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
250 A multidisk called magnetorheological “MR” clutch with a fluid in which the shear stress is
expressed as
m
y
dy du K ) ( + = τ τ is considered. A relationship for the torque transmitted by the clutch is
to be obtained, and the numerical value of the torque is to be calculated.
Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer between the disks is constant. 2 The HerschelBulkley model
for shear stress expressed as
m
y
dy du K ) ( + = τ τ is valid.
Properties The constants in shear stress relation are given to be τ
y
= 900 Pa, K = 58 Pa⋅s
m
, and m = 0.82.
h = 1.2 mm
R
2
R
1
Shell
Plates mounted on input shaft
Plates mounted on shell
Input shaft
Output shaft
Variable magnetic field
Analysis (a) The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V/h where V = ωr is the
tangential velocity relative to plates mounted on the shell. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the
surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as
m
y
m
y
m
y w
h
r
K
h
V
K
dr
du
K

.

\

+ =

.

\

+ =

.

\

+ =
ω
τ τ τ τ
Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface of a
disk and the torque generation associated with it can be expressed as
dr r
h
r
K dA dF
m
y w
) 2 ( π
ω
τ τ


.

\


.

\

+ = =
dr
h
r
K r dr r
h
r
K r rdF d
m
m
m
y
m
y


.

\

+ =


.

\


.

\

+ = =
+2
2
2 ) 2 ( T
ω
τ π π
ω
τ
Integrating,
−
+
+ − =
+
+ =


.

\

+ =
+ +
+
+
∫
) (
) 3 (
) (
3
2
) 3 ( 3
2 2 T
3
1
3
2
3
1
3
2
3 3
2
2
2
1
2
1
m m
m
m
y
R
R
m
m m
y
m
m
m
y
R
R
R R
h m
K
R R
h m
r K r
dr
h
r
K r
ω
τ
π
ω
τ π
ω
τ π
This is the torque transmitted by one surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft. Then the torque
transmitted by both surfaces of N plates attached to input shaft in the clutch becomes
−
+
+ − =
+ +
) (
) 3 (
) (
3
4 T
3
1
3
2
3
1
3
2
m m
m
m
y
R R
h m
K
R R N
ω
τ
π
(b) Noting that rad/s 3 . 251 rad/min 080 , 15 ) rev/min 2400 ( 2 2 = = = = π π ω n& and substituting,
m kN 103.4 ⋅ =
−
+
⋅
+ − =
] ) m 05 . 0 ( m) 20 . 0 [(
m) 0012 . 0 )( 3 82 . 0 (
/s) 3 . 251 )( /m s N 58 (
] ) m 05 . 0 ( m) 20 . 0 [(
3
N/m 900
) 11 )( 4 ( T
82 . 3 3.82
0.82
0.82 2 0.82
3 3
2
π
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224
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
251 The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given. The viscosity of the fluid is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 The inner cylinder is completely submerged in oil. 2 The viscous effects on the two ends of
the inner cylinder are negligible. 3 The fluid is Newtonian.
Analysis Substituting the given values, the viscosity of the fluid is determined to be
2
s/m N 0.0231
T
⋅ =
⋅
= =
m) 75 . 0 )( s 60 / 200 ( m) 075 . 0 ( 4
m) m)(0.0012 N 8 . 0 (
4
1  3 2 3 2
π π
u
L n R &
l
R
l = 0.12 cm
fluid
Discussion This is the viscosity value at the temperature that existed
during the experiment. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature,
and the values can be significantly different at different temperatures.
252E The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given. The viscosity of the fluid is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 The inner cylinder is completely submerged in the fluid. 2 The viscous effects on the two
ends of the inner cylinder are negligible. 3 The fluid is Newtonian.
Analysis Substituting the given values, the viscosity of the fluid is determined to be
2 5
s/ft lbf 10 9.97 ⋅ × =
⋅
= =
−
ft) 3 )( s 60 / 250 ( ft) 12 / 6 . 5 ( 4
ft) 2 ft)(0.05/1 lbf 2 . 1 (
4
1  3 2 3 2
π π
u
L n R &
l T
R
l = 0.05 in
fluid
Discussion This is the viscosity value at temperature that existed
during the experiment. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature,
and the values can be significantly different at different temperatures.
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225
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
253 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow through a circular pipe is given. A relation for
friction drag force exerted on the pipe and its numerical value for water are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The flow through the circular pipe is onedimensional. 2 The fluid is Newtonian.
Properties The viscosity of water at 20°C is given to be 0.0010 kg/m⋅s.
u(r) = u
max
(1r
2
/R
2
)
Analysis The velocity profile is given by


.

\

− =
2
2
max
1 ) (
R
r
u r u
where R is the radius of the pipe, r is the radial distance from the center
of the pipe, and u
max
is the maximum flow velocity, which occurs at the
center, r = 0. The shear stress at the pipe surface can be expressed as
R
u
R
r
u
R
r
dr
d
u
dr
du
R r
R r
R r
w
max
2
max
2
2
max
2 2
1
u
u u u τ =
−
− =


.

\

− − = − =
=
=
=
R
r
0
u
max
Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow, and the negative sign is added to the τ
w
relation for
pipes to make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. (Or, du /dr =  du /dy since y
= R – r). Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes
max
max
4 ) 2 (
2
Lu RL
R
u
A F
s w D
πu π
u
τ = = =
Substituting,
N 0.565 =


.

\

⋅
⋅ = =
2
max
m/s kg 1
N 1
m/s) m)(3 s)(15 kg/m 0010 . 0 ( 4 4 π πuLu F
D
Discussion In the entrance region and during turbulent flow, the velocity gradient is greater near the wall,
and thus the drag force in such cases will be greater.
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226
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
254 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow through a circular pipe is given. A relation for
friction drag force exerted on the pipe and its numerical value for water are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The flow through the circular pipe is onedimensional. 2 The fluid is Newtonian.
Properties The viscosity of water at 20°C is given to be 0.0010 kg/m⋅s.
u(r) = u
max
(1r
2
/R
2
)
Analysis The velocity profile is given by


.

\

− =
2
2
max
1 ) (
R
r
u r u
where R is the radius of the pipe, r is the radial distance from the center
of the pipe, and u
max
is the maximum flow velocity, which occurs at the
center, r = 0. The shear stress at the pipe surface can be expressed as
R
u
R
r
u
R
r
dr
d
u
dr
du
R r
R r
R r
w
max
2
max
2
2
max
2 2
1
u
u u u τ =
−
− =


.

\

− − = − =
=
=
=
R
r
0
u
max
Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow, and the negative sign is added to the τ
w
relation for
pipes to make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. (Or, du /dr =  du /dy since y
= R – r). Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes
max
max
4 ) 2 (
2
Lu RL
R
u
A F
s w D
πu π
u
τ = = =
Substituting,
N 0.942 =


.

\

⋅
⋅ = =
2
max
m/s kg 1
N 1
m/s) m)(5 s)(15 kg/m 0010 . 0 ( 4 4 π πuLu F
D
Discussion In the entrance region and during turbulent flow, the velocity gradient is greater near the wall,
and thus the drag force in such cases will be larger.
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227
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
Surface Tension and Capillary Effect
255C The magnitude of the pulling force at the surface of a liquid per unit length is called surface tension
σ
s
. It is caused by the attractive forces between the molecules. The surface tension is also surface energy
since it represents the stretching work that needs to be done to increase the surface area of the liquid by a
unit amount.
256C The pressure inside a soap bubble is greater than the pressure outside, as evidenced by the stretch of
the soap film.
257C The capillary effect is the rise or fall of a liquid in a smalldiameter tube inserted into the liquid. It is
caused by the net effect of the cohesive forces (the forces between like molecules, like water) and adhesive
forces (the forces between dislike molecules, like water and glass). The capillary effect is proportional to
the cosine of the contact angle, which is the angle that the tangent to the liquid surface makes with the solid
surface at the point of contact.
258C The liquid level in the tube will drop since the contact angle is greater than 90°, and cos 110° < 0.
259C The capillary rise is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tube, and thus it is greater in the
smallerdiameter tube.
260E A slender glass tube is inserted into kerosene. The capillary rise of kerosene in the tube is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the kerosene, and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass
tube. 2 The kerosene is open to the atmospheric air.
Properties The surface tension of keroseneglass at 68°F (20°C) is σ
s
= 0.028×0.06852 = 0.00192 lbf/ft.
The density of kerosene at 68°F is ρ = 51.2 lbm/ft
3
. The contact angle of kerosene with the glass surface is
given to be 26°.
Analysis Substituting the numerical values, the capillary rise is determined to be
in 0.65 =
=


.

\

⋅ °
= =
ft 0539 . 0
lbf 1
ft/s lbm 2 . 32
ft) 12 / 015 . 0 )( ft/s 2 . 32 )( lbm/ft 2 . 51 (
) 26 cos lbf/ft)( 00192 . 0 ( 2 cos 2
2
2 3
gR
h
s
ρ
φ σ
Discussion The capillary rise in this case more than half of an inch, and thus it is
clearly noticeable.
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228
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
261 A glass tube is inserted into a liquid, and the capillary rise is measured. The surface tension of the
liquid is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the liquid, and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass tube.
2 The liquid is open to the atmospheric air.
Properties The density of the liquid is given to be 960 kg/m
3
. The contact angle is given to be 15°.
Analysis Substituting the numerical values, the surface tension is determined from the capillary rise relation
to be
N/m 0.0232 =


.

\

⋅
°
= =
2
2 3
m/s kg 1
N 1
) 15 cos 2(
m) m)(0.005 2 / 0019 . 0 )( m/s 81 . 9 ( ) kg/m 960 (
cos 2 φ
ρ
σ
gRh
s
Air
Liquid
h
Discussion The surface tension depends on temperature. Therefore, the
value determined is valid at the temperature of the liquid.
262 The diameter of a soap bubble is given. The gage pressure inside the bubble is to be determined.
Assumptions The soap bubble is in atmospheric air.
Properties The surface tension of soap water at 20°C is σ
s
= 0.025 N/m.
Analysis The pressure difference between the inside and the outside of a bubble is given by
R
P P P
s
i
σ 4
0 bubble
= − = ∆
In the open atmosphere P
0
= P
atm
, and thus
bubble
P ∆ is equivalent to the gage pressure. Substituting,
Pa 100 N/m 100
m 0.002/2
N/m) 4(0.025
2
bubble ,
= = = ∆ = P P
gage i
Pa 4 N/m 4
m 0.05/2
N/m) 4(0.025
2
bubble ,
= = = ∆ = P P
gage i
P
0
Soap
bubble
P
Discussion Note that the gage pressure in a soap bubble is inversely
proportional to the radius. Therefore, the excess pressure is larger in
smaller bubbles.
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229
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
263 Nutrients dissolved in water are carried to upper parts of plants. The height that the water solution will
rise in a tree as a result of the capillary effect is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The solution can be treated as water with a contact angle of 15°. 2 The diameter of the tube
is constant. 3 The temperature of the water solution is 20°C.
Properties The surface tension of water at 20°C is σ
s
= 0.073 N/m. The density of water solution can be
taken to be 1000 kg/m
3
. The contact angle is given to be 15°.
Analysis Substituting the numerical values, the capillary rise is determined to be
m 5.75 =


.

\

⋅
×
°
= =
−
N 1
m/s kg 1
m) 10 5 . 2 )( m/s 81 . 9 )( kg/m 1000 (
) 15 cos N/m)( 073 . 0 ( 2 cos 2
2
6 2 3
gR
h
s
ρ
φ σ
Discussion Other effects such as the chemical potential difference
also cause the fluid to rise in trees.
264 The force acting on the movable wire of a liquid film suspended on a Ushaped wire frame is
measured. The surface tension of the liquid in the air is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the liquid, and no contamination on the surfaces of the wire
frame. 2 The liquid is open to the atmospheric air.
Analysis Substituting the numerical values, the surface tension is determined from the surface tension force
relation to be
N/m 0.075 = = =
) m 2(0.08
N 012 . 0
2b
F
s
σ
Liquid
film
b F Discussion The surface tension depends on temperature. Therefore, the
value determined is valid at the temperature of the liquid.
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230
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
265 A steel ball floats on water due to the surface tension effect. The maximum diameter of the ball is to
be determined, and the calculations are to be repeated for aluminum.
Assumptions 1 The water is pure, and its temperature is constant. 2 The ball is dropped on water slowly so
that the inertial effects are negligible. 3 The contact angle is taken to be 0° for maximum diameter.
Properties The surface tension of water at 20°C is σ
s
= 0.073 N/m. The contact angle is taken to be 0°. The
densities of steel and aluminum are given to be ρ
steel
= 7800 kg/m
3
and ρ
Al
= 2700 kg/m
3
.
Analysis The surface tension force and the weight of
the ball can be expressed as
s s
D F σ π = and W 6 /
3
D g g mg π ρ ρ = = = V
When the ball floats, the net force acting on the ball in the vertical direction is zero. Therefore, setting
and solving for diameter D gives W F
s
=
W = mg
σ
g
D
s
ρ
σ 6
=
Substititing the known quantities, the maximum diameters for the steel and aluminum balls become
mm 2.4 = × =


.

\

⋅
= =
−
m 10 4 . 2
N 1
m/s kg 1
) m/s )(9.81 kg/m (7800
N/m) 073 . 0 ( 6 6
3
2
2 3
g
D
s
steel
ρ
σ
mm 4.1 = × =


.

\

⋅
= =
−
m 10 1 . 4
N 1
m/s kg 1
) m/s )(9.81 kg/m (2700
N/m) 073 . 0 ( 6 6
3
2
2 3
g
D
s
Al
ρ
σ
Discussion Note that the ball diameter is inversely proportional to the square root of density, and thus for a
given material, the smaller balls are more likely to float.
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231
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
Review Problems
266 The pressure in an automobile tire increases during a trip while its volume remains constant. The
percent increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is to be determined.
TIRE
200 kPa
0.022 m
3
Assumptions 1 The volume of the tire remains constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas.
Analysis Noting that air is an ideal gas and the volume is constant, the
ratio of absolute temperatures after and before the trip are
1.069 =
kPa 290
kPa 310
=
1
2
1
2
2
2 2
1
1 1
P
P
T
T
T
P
T
P
= → =
V V
Therefore, the absolute temperature of air in the tire will increase by 6.9% during this trip.
267 A large tank contains nitrogen at a specified temperature and pressure. Now some nitrogen is allowed
to escape, and the temperature and pressure of nitrogen drop to new values. The amount of nitrogen that
has escaped is to be determined.
Analysis Treating N
2
as an ideal gas, the initial and the final masses in the tank are determined to be
kg 138.0
K) K)(293 /kg m kPa (0.2968
) m kPa)(20 (600
kg 180.9
K) K)(298 /kg m kPa (0.2968
) m kPa)(20 (800
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
V
V
N
2
800 kPa
25°C
20 m
3
Thus the amount of N
2
that escaped is
kg 42.9 = − = − = ∆ 138.0 180.9
2 1
m m m
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232
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
268 Suspended solid particles in water are considered. A relation is to be developed for the specific gravity
of the suspension in terms of the mass fraction and volume fraction C of the particles. √
mass s,
C
vol s,
Assumptions 1 The solid particles are distributed uniformly in water so that the solution is homogeneous. 2
The effect of dissimilar molecules on each other is negligible.
Analysis Consider solid particles of mass m
s
and volume V
s
dissolved in a fluid of mass m
f
and volume V
m
.
The total volume of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as
f s m
V V V + =
Dividing by V
m
and using the definition
m s
C V V /
vol s,
= give
m
f
vol s
C
V
V
+ =
,
1 →
vol s
m
f
C
,
1− =
V
V
(1)
The total mass of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as
f s m
m m m + =
Dividing by m
m
and using the definition C
m s
m m /
mass s,
= give
m m
f f
mass s
m
f
mass s
C
m
m
C
V
V
ρ
ρ
+ = + =
, ,
1 →
f
m
mass s
m
f
C
V
V
) 1 (
,
− =
ρ
ρ
(2)
Combining equations 1 and 2 gives
vol s
mass s
m
f
C
C
,
,
1
1
−
−
=
ρ
ρ
When the fluid is water, the ratio
m f
ρ ρ / is the inverse of the definition of specific gravity. Therefore, the
desired relation for the specific gravity of the mixture is
mass s
vol s
f
m
m
C
C
SG
,
,
1
1
−
−
= =
ρ
ρ
which is the desired result.
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233
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
269 The specific gravities of solid particles and carrier fluids of a slurry are given. The relation for the
specific gravity of the slurry is to be obtained in terms of the mass fraction C and the specific gravity
SG
s
of solid particles. √
mass s,
Assumptions 1 The solid particles are distributed uniformly in water so that the solution is homogeneous. 2
The effect of dissimilar molecules on each other is negligible.
Analysis Consider solid particles of mass m
s
and volume V
s
dissolved in a fluid of mass m
f
and volume V
m
.
The total volume of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as
f s m
V V V + =
Dividing by V
m
gives
m
f
m
s
V
V
V
V
+ = 1 →
s
m
mass s
s
m
m
s
m m
s s
m
s
m
f
SG
SG
C
m
m
m
m
,
1 1
/
/
1 1 − = − = − = − =
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
V
V
V
V
(1)
since ratio of densities is equal two the ratio of specific gravities, and
mass s,
/ C m m
m s
= .
The total mass of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as
f s m
m m m + =
Dividing by m
m
and using the definition C
m s
m m /
mass s,
= give
m m
f f
mass s
m
f
mass s
C
m
m
C
V
V
ρ
ρ
+ = + =
, ,
1 →
m mass s
f
f
m
C V
V
) 1 (
,
−
=
ρ
ρ
(2)
Taking the fluid to be water so that
m f m
SG = ρ ρ / and combining equations 1 and 2 give
mass s
s m mass s
m
C
SG SG C
SG
,
,
1
/ 1
−
−
=
Solving for SG
m
and rearranging gives
) 1 1 ( 1
1
mass s,
− +
=
s
m
SG C
SG
which is the desired result.
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234
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
270E The minimum pressure on the suction side of a water pump is given. The maximum water
temperature to avoid the danger of cavitation is to be determined.
Properties The saturation temperature of water at 0.95 psia is 100°F.
Analysis To avoid cavitation at a specified pressure, the fluid temperature everywhere in the flow should
remain below the saturation temperature at the given pressure, which is
F 100° = =
psia sat
T T
95 . 0 @ max
Therefore, the T < 100°F to avoid cavitation.
Discussion Note that saturation temperature increases with pressure, and thus cavitation may occur at
higher pressure locations at higher fluid temperatures.
271 Air in a partially filled closed water tank is evacuated. The absolute pressure in the evacuated space is
to be determined.
Properties The saturation pressure of water at 60°C is 19.94 kPa.
Analysis When air is completely evacuated, the vacated space is filled with water vapor, and the tank
contains a saturated watervapor mixture at the given pressure. Since we have a twophase mixture of a
pure substance at a specified temperature, the vapor pressure must be the saturation pressure at this
temperature. That is,
kPa 19.94 = =
°C sat v
P P
60 @
Discussion If there is any air left in the container, the vapor pressure will be less. In that case the sum of
the component pressures of vapor and air would equal 19.94 kPa.
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
272 The variation of the dynamic viscosity of water with absolute temperature is given. Using tabular data,
a relation is to be obtained for viscosity as a 4
th
degree polynomial. The result is to be compared to
Andrade’s equation in the form of .
T B
e D
/
⋅ = u
Properties The viscosity data are given in tabular form as
T(K) u (Pa⋅s)
273.15
1.787×10
3
278.15 1.519×10
3
283.15 1.307×10
3
293.15 1.002×10
3
303.15 7.975×10
4
313.15 6.529×10
4
333.15 4.665×10
4
353.15 3.547×10
4
373.15 2.828×10
4
Analysis Using EES, (1) Define a trivial function a=mu+T in equation window, (2) select new parametric
table from Tables, and type the data in a twocolumn table, (3) select Plot and plot the data, and (4) select
plot and click on “curve fit” to get curve fit window. Then specify polynomial and enter/edit equation. The
results are:
270 292 314 336 358 380
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.001
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
T
u
u = 0.489291758  0.00568904387T + 0.0000249152104T
2
 4.86155745×10
8
T
3
+ 3.56198079×10
11
T
4
u = 0.000001475*EXP(1926.5/T) [used initial guess of a0=1.8×10
6
and a1=1800 in mu=a0*exp(a1/T)]
At T = 323.15 K, the polynomial and exponential curve fits give
Polynomial: u(323.15 K) = 0.0005529 Pa⋅s (1.1% error, relative to 0.0005468 Pa⋅s)
Exponential: u(323.15 K) = 0.0005726 Pa⋅s (4.7% error, relative to 0.0005468 Pa⋅s)
Discussion This problem can also be solved using an Excel worksheet, with the following results:
Polynomial: A = 0.4893, B = 0.005689, C = 0.00002492, D = 0.000000048612, and E =
0.00000000003562
Andrade’s equation:
T 06 . 1864
e * 6 E 807952 . 1 − = u
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
273 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow between two parallel plates is given. A relation
for friction drag force exerted on the plates per unit area of the plates is to be obtained.
Assumptions 1 The flow between the plates is onedimensional. 2 The fluid is Newtonian.
Analysis The velocity profile is given by ( )  
2
max
4 ) ( h y h y u y u − = ( )  
2
max
4 ) ( h y h y u y u − =
h
y
0
u
max
where h is the distance between the two plates, y is the vertical distance
from the bottom plate, and u
max
is the maximum flow velocity that occurs
at midplane. The shear stress at the bottom surface can be expressed as
h
u
h
y
h
u
h
y
h
y
dy
d
u
dy
du
y
y y
w
max
0
2
max
0
2
2
max
0
4 2 1
4 4
u
u u u τ = 
.

\

− =


.

\

− = =
=
= =
Because of symmetry, the wall shear stress is identical at both bottom and top plates. Then the friction drag
force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the plates becomes
plate
max
8
2 A
h
u
A F
plate w D
u
τ = =
Therefore, the friction drag per unit plate area is
h
u
A F
D
max
plate
8
/
u
=
Discussion Note that the friction drag force acting on the plates is inversely proportional to the distance
between plates.
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237
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
274 The laminar flow of a Bingham plastic fluid in a horizontal pipe of radius R is considered. The shear
stress at the pipe wall and the friction drag force acting on a pipe section of length L are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The fluid is a Bingham plastic with ) ( dr du
y
u τ τ + = where τ
y
is the yield stress. 2 The
flow through the pipe is onedimensional.
R
r
0
u(r)
Analysis The velocity profile is given by ) ( ) (
4
) (
2 2
R r R r
L
P
r u
y
− + −
∆
=
u
τ
u
where ∆p/L is the pressure
drop along the pipe per unit length, u is the dynamic viscosity, r is the radial distance from the centerline.
Its gradient at the pipe wall (r = R) is

.

\

+
∆
=


.

\

+
∆
=


.

\

− + −
∆
=
=
=
=
y
R r
y
R r
y
R r
R
L
P
L
P
r R r R r
L
P
dr
d
dr
du
τ
u u
τ
u u
τ
u 2
1
4
2 ) ( ) (
4
2 2
Substituing into ) ( dr du
y
u τ τ + = , the wall shear stress at the pipe surface becomes
R
L
P
R
L
P
dr
du
y y y
R r
y w
2
2
2
∆
+ = +
∆
+ = + =
=
τ τ τ u τ τ
Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes
P R RL R
L
P
RL RL R
L
P
A F
y y y s w D
∆ + =

.

\

∆
+ =

.

\

∆
+ = =
2
4
2
2 2 ) 2 (
2
2 π τ π τ π π τ τ
Discussion Note that the total friction drag is proportional to yield shear stress and the pressure drop.
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238
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
275 A circular disk immersed in oil is used as a damper, as shown in the figure. It is to be shown that the
damping torque is ω C =
damping
T where ( )
4
1 1 5 . 0 R b a + = πu C .
Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer on each side remains constant. 2 The velocity profiles are
linear on both sides of the disk. 3 The tip effects are negligible. 4 The effect of the shaft is negligible.
Damping oil
Disk
b
a
R
Analysis The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness a is V /a where V = ωr is the tangential
velocity. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the upper surface of the disk at a distance r from the axis
of rotation can be expressed as
a
r
a
V
dr
du
w
ω
u u u τ = = =
Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface and the torque it generates can be
expressed as
dA
a
r
dA dF
w
ω
u τ = =
dA
a
r
rdF d
2
T
ω
u = =
Noting that rdr dA π 2 = and integrating, the torque on the top surface is determined to be
a
R r
a
dr r
a
dr r r
a
dA r
a
R
r
R
r
R
r A 2 4
2 2
) 2 ( T
4
0
4
3
0
2
0
2
top
πuω πuω πuω
π
uω uω
= = = = =
=
= =
∫ ∫ ∫
The torque on the bottom surface is obtained by replaying a by b,
b
R
2
T
4
bottom
πuω
=
The total torque acting on the disk is the sum of the torques acting on the top and bottom surfaces,

.

\

+ = + =
b a
R 1 1
2
T T T
4
top bottom total damping,
πuω
or,
ω C =
total damping,
T where

.

\

+ =
b a
R 1 1
2
4
πu
C
This completes the proof.
Discussion Note that the damping torque (and thus damping power) is inversely proportional to the
thickness of oil films on either side, and it is proportional to the 4
th
power of the radius of the damper disk.
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239
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
276E A glass tube is inserted into mercury. The capillary drop of mercury in the tube is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in mercury, and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass tube.
2 The mercury is open to the atmospheric air.
Properties The surface tension of mercuryglass in atmospheric air at 68°F (20°C) is σ
s
= 0.440×0.06852 =
0.03015 lbf/ft. The density of mercury is ρ = 847 lbm/ft
3
at 77°F, but we can also use this value at 68°F.
The contact angle is given to be 140°.
Analysis Substituting the numerical values, the capillary drop is determined to be
in 0.0175
ft 00145 . 0
lbf 1
ft/s lbm 2 . 32
ft) 12 / 45 . 0 )( ft/s 2 . 32 )( lbm/ft 847 (
) 140 cos lbf/ft)( 03015 . 0 ( 2 cos 2
2
2 3
− =
− =


.

\

⋅ °
= =
gR
h
s
ρ
φ σ
Air
Mercury h
Discussion The negative sign indicates capillary drop instead of rise. The
drop is very small in this case because of the large diameter of the tube.
277 A relation is to be derived for the capillary rise of a liquid between two large parallel plates a distance
t apart inserted into a liquid vertically. The contact angle is given to be ϕ..
Assumptions There are no impurities in the liquid, and no contamination on the surfaces of the plates.
Analysis The magnitude of the capillary rise between two large parallel plates can be determined from a
force balance on the rectangular liquid column of height h and width w between the plates. The bottom of
the liquid column is at the same level as the free surface of the liquid reservoir, and thus the pressure there
must be atmospheric pressure. This will balance the atmospheric pressure acting from the top surface, and
thus these two effects will cancel each other. The weight of the liquid column is
) ( h t w g g mg W × × = = = ρ ρ V
W
t
Air
Liquid
h
Equating the vertical component of the surface tension force to the weight gives
φ σ ρ cos 2 ) (
s surface
w h t w g F W = × × → =
Canceling w and solving for h gives the capillary rise to be
Capillary rise:
gt
h
s
ρ
φ σ cos 2
=
Discussion The relation above is also valid for nonwetting liquids
(such as mercury in glass), and gives the capillary drop.
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240
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids
278 A journal bearing is lubricated with oil whose viscosity is known. The torques needed to overcome the
bearing friction during startup and steady operation are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The gap is uniform, and is completely filled with oil. 2 The end effects on the sides of the
bearing are negligible. 3 The fluid is Newtonian.
Properties The viscosity of oil is given to be 0.1 kg/m⋅s at 20°C, and 0.008 kg/m⋅s at 80°C.
Analysis The radius of the shaft is R = 0.04 m. Substituting the given values, the torque is determined to be
At start up at 20°C:
m N 0.79 ⋅ = ⋅ = =
m 0008 . 0
m) 30 . 0 )( s 60 / 500 ( m) 04 . 0 ( 4
) s kg/m 1 . 0 (
4
1 3 2 3 2
π π
u
l
&L n R
T
During steady operation at 80°C:
m N 0.063 ⋅ = ⋅ = =
m 0008 . 0
m) 30 . 0 )( s 60 / 500 ( m) 04 . 0 ( 4
) s kg/m 008 . 0 (
4
1 3 2 3 2
π π
u
l
&L n R
T
Discussion Note that the torque needed to overcome friction reduces
considerably due to the decrease in the viscosity of oil at higher
temperature.
R
l = 0.08 cm
fluid
279 … 281 Design and Essay Problems
KJ
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241
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 26 A balloon is filled with helium gas. The mole number and the mass of helium in the balloon are to be determined. The effect of the balloon diameter on the mass of helium is to be investigated, and the results are to be tabulated and plotted. "Given Data" {D=6"[m]"} {P=200"[kPa]"} T=20"[C]" P=100"[kPa]" R_u=8.314"[kJ/kmol*K]" "Solution" P*V=N*R_u*(T+273) V=4*pi*(D/2)^3/3"[m^3]" m=N*MOLARMASS(Helium)"[kg]" D [m] 0.5 2.111 3.722 5.333 6.944 8.556 10.17 11.78 13.39 15
500
m [kg] 0.01075 0.8095 4.437 13.05 28.81 53.88 90.41 140.6 206.5 290.4
400
P = 200 kPa P = 100 kPa
m [kg]
200
100
0 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
D [m] Mass of Helium in Balloon as function of Diameter
22
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
m [kg]
300
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 27 An automobile tire is inflated with air. The pressure rise of air in the tire when the tire is heated and the amount of air that must be bled off to reduce the temperature to the original value are to be determined. Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tire remains constant. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa⋅m3/kg⋅K. Analysis Initially, the absolute pressure in the tire is
P = Pg + Patm = 210 + 100 = 310 kPa 1
Treating air as an ideal gas and assuming the volume of the tire to remain constant, the final pressure in the tire can be determined from
323K P1V 1 P2V 2 T = → P2 = 2 P1 = (310kPa) = 336 kPa T1 T2 T1 298K
Tire 25°C
Thus the pressure rise is
∆P = P2 − P1 = 336 − 310 = 26 kPa
210 kPa
The amount of air that needs to be bled off to restore pressure to its original value is
m1 = m2 = P1V (310kPa)(0.025m 3 ) = = 0.0906kg RT1 (0.287kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K)(298K) P2V (310kPa)(0.025m 3 ) = = 0.0836kg RT2 (0.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K)(323K) ∆m = m1 − m 2 = 0.0906 − 0.0836 = 0.0070 kg
28E An automobile tire is under inflated with air. The amount of air that needs to be added to the tire to raise its pressure to the recommended value is to be determined. Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tire remains constant. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.3704 psia⋅ft3/lbm⋅R. Analysis The initial and final absolute pressures in the tire are P1 = Pg1 + Patm = 20 + 14.6 = 34.6 psia P2 = Pg2 + Patm = 30 + 14.6 = 44.6 psia Treating air as an ideal gas, the initial mass in the tire is
m1 = (34.6 psia)(0.53 ft 3 ) P1V = = 0.0900 lbm RT1 (0.3704 psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R)(550 R)
Tire 0.53 ft3 90°F 20 psia
Noting that the temperature and the volume of the tire remain constant, the final mass in the tire becomes
m2 = (44.6 psia)(0.53 ft 3 ) P2V = = 0.1160 lbm RT2 (0.3704 psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R)(550 R)
Thus the amount of air that needs to be added is
∆m = m 2 − m1 = 0.1160 − 0.0900 = 0.0260 lbm
23
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Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 29E A rigid tank contains slightly pressurized air. The amount of air that needs to be added to the tank to raise its pressure and temperature to the recommended values is to be determined. √ Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tank remains constant. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.3704 psia⋅ft3/lbm⋅R. Analysis Treating air as an ideal gas, the initial volume and the final mass in the tank are determined to be
3 m1 RT1 (20 lbm)(0.3704 psia ⋅ ft /lbm ⋅ R)(530 R) = = 196.3 ft 3 P1 20 psia
V =
m2 =
(35 psia)(196.3 ft 3 ) P2V = = 33.73 lbm RT2 (0.3704 psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R)(550 R)
Air, 20 lbm 20 psia 70°F
Thus the amount of air added is
∆m = m 2 − m1 = 33.73 − 20.0 = 13.7 lbm
24
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112 1.20252 – 0. km 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 ρ. . and the mass of the atmosphere using the correlation is to be estimated.6601 0.4 1.04008 Analysis Using EES.0022375z2 for the unit of kg/m3. km 15 20 25 ρ(z) = a + bz + cz2 = 1.101674z + 0.7364 0. 2 The earth is perfectly sphere with a radius of 6377 km. (or. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. and (4) select plot and click on “curve fit” to get curve fit window.101674z + 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.2 0 0 ρ.0022375z2)×109 for the unit of kg/km3) where z is the vertical distance from the earth surface at sea level. √ Assumptions 1 Atmospheric air behaves as an ideal gas. The results are: 1. A relation for the variation of density with elevation is to be obtained. ρ(z) = (1. kg/m3 1. and the thickness of the atmosphere is 25 km. Inc. kg/m 5 10 z. and type the data in a twocolumn table. (1) Define a trivial function rho= a+z in equation window.225 1. Properties The density data are given in tabular form as r.60 kg/m3.2 1 3 0. the density at 7 km elevation is to be calculated.08891 0.6 0.007 0.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 210 The variation of density of atmospheric air with elevation is given in tabular form.4 0. If you are a student using this Manual.8194 0. km 6377 6378 6379 6380 6381 6382 6383 6385 6387 6392 6397 6402 z. (2) select new parametric table from Tables.1948 0.20252 – 0.4135 0.8 0. 25 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5258 0. Then specify 2nd order polynomial and enter/edit equation.9093 0. At z = 7 km. the equation would give ρ = 0. (3) select Plot and plot the data. you are using it without permission.
10167 c=0. b = 0. EES Solution for final result: a=1.0022375 r=6377 h=25 m=4*pi*(a*r^2*h+r*(2*a+b*r)*h^2/2+(a+2*b*r+c*r^2)*h^3/3+(b+2*c*r)*h^4/4+c*h^5/5)*1E+9 26 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. h = 25 km is the thickness of the atmosphere. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. Substituting and multiplying by the factor 109 for the density unity kg/km3.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids (b) The mass of atmosphere can be evaluated by integration to be m= V ∫ ρdV = ∫ h z =0 (a + bz + cz 2 )4π (r0 + z ) 2 dz = 4π ∫ h z =0 (a + bz + cz 2 )(r02 + 2r0 z + z 2 )dz = 4π ar02 h + r0 (2a + br0 )h 2 / 2 + (a + 2br0 + cr02 )h 3 / 3 + (b + 2cr0 )h 4 / 4 + ch 5 / 5 where r0 = 6377 km is the radius of the earth.0022375 are the constants in the density function. If you are a student using this Manual. the mass of the atmosphere is determined to be [ ] m = 5.101674.092×1018 kg Discussion Performing the analysis with excel would yield exactly the same results. you are using it without permission. and a = 1. .20252. and c = 0.2025166 b=0. Inc.
vaporization may occur at locations where the pressure drops below the vapor pressure. 213C If the pressure of a substance is increased during a boiling process. During phase change processes between the liquid and vapor phases of a pure substance. extremely high pressure waves. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. . whether it exists alone or in a mixture with other gases. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. the saturation pressure and the vapor pressure are equivalent since the vapor is pure. generating highly destructive. Inc. is called the vapor pressure Pv. The vapor bubbles collapse as they are swept away from the low pressure regions. The higher the pressure. 27 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the temperature will also increase since the boiling (or saturation) temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure and increases with it. 214C During liquid flow.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Vapor Pressure and Cavitation 211C The pressure of a vapor. 212C Yes. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. the higher the saturation or boiling temperature. This phenomenon which is a common cause for drop in performance and even the erosion of impeller blades is called cavitation. The saturation temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure.
the pressure everywhere in the flow should remain above the vapor (or saturation ) pressure at the given temperature. which is Pv = Psat @ 20°C = 2. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.17 kPa Therefore. and thus there is a greater danger of cavitation at higher fluid temperatures. Therefore. Properties The vapor pressure of water at 25°C is 3. Properties The vapor pressure of water at 40°C is 7. Analysis To avoid cavitation. . the pressure should be maintained above 7.339 kPa. 217E The minimum pressure in a pump is given. and thus the risk of cavitation is greater at higher fluid temperatures. Analysis To avoid cavitation. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Analysis To avoid cavitation.38 kPa everywhere in flow. which is Pv = Psat @ 70°F = 0. the pressure anywhere in the system should not be allowed to drop below the vapor (or saturation ) pressure at the given temperature. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.38 kPa. a there is danger of cavitation in the pump. 218 The minimum pressure in a pump to avoid cavitation is to be determined. 216 The minimum pressure in a pump is given. the pressure everywhere in the flow should remain above the vapor (or saturation ) pressure at the given temperature. which is less than the vapor pressure. Analysis To avoid cavitation.339 kPa The minimum pressure in the pump is 2 kPa. there is danger of cavitation in the pump. That is.3632 psia The minimum pressure in the pump is 0. Properties The vapor pressure of water at 20°C is 2. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.17 kPa. Inc. the lowest pressure that can exist in the pump is 3. It is to be determined if there is a danger of cavitation.3632 psia.38 kPa Therefore. the pressure anywhere in flow should not be allowed to drop below the vapor (or saturation ) pressure at the given temperature. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 215 The minimum pressure in a piping system to avoid cavitation is to be determined. which is less than the vapor pressure. Pmin = Psat @ 40°C = 7. That is. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Pmin = Psat @ 25°C = 3. Properties The vapor pressure of water at 70°F is 0.1 psia. It is to be determined if there is a danger of cavitation.17 kPa. and thus the risk of cavitation is greater at higher fluid temperatures. 28 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and the danger of cavitation increases at higher fluid temperatures. Therefore.
the total energy of a system consists of the kinetic. For incompressible substances. and it is referred to as heat in daily life. on the other hand. you are using it without permission. 221C The internal energy of a system is made up of sensible. 222C Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy. electrical and surface tension effects. The microscopic forms of energy. the changes in enthalpy of ideal gases can be determined from ∆h = c p . In the absence of magnetic. The total energy of a fluid at rest consists of internal. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. For incompressible substances. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 220C The sum of all forms of the energy a system possesses is called total energy. 226C Using specific heat values at the average temperature. and are independent of outside reference frames.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Energy and Specific Heats 219C The macroscopic forms of energy are those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some outside reference frame. potential. and flow energies. 223C Flow energy or flow work is the energy needed to push a fluid into or out of a control volume. 29 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and potential energies. avg ∆T . and vibrational effects. . The sensible internal energy is due to translational. are those related to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity. 224C Flowing fluids possess flow energy in addition to the forms of energy a fluid at rest possesses. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. chemical and nuclear energies. kinetic. kinetic. and internal energies. 225C Using specific heat values at the average temperature. the changes in internal energy of ideal gases can be determined from ∆u = c v. cp ≅ cv ≅ c and ∆h = ∆u + v∆P ≅ c avg ∆T + v∆P .avg ∆T . Fluids at rest do not possess any flow energy. cp ≅ cv ≅ c and ∆u = c avg ∆T . potential. latent. The total energy of a flowing fluid consists of internal. rotational.
. 210 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. It differs from the coefficient of compressibility in that latter represents the variation of pressure of a fluid with density at constant temperature. 229C The coefficient of compressibility of a fluid cannot be negative. 228C The coefficient of volume expansion represents the variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant pressure. Therefore.g. Inc. and it represents the fractional change in volume or density corresponding to a change in pressure. the coefficient of compressibility of an ideal gas is equal to its absolute pressure. Analysis For an ideal gas.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Coefficient of Compressibility 227C The coefficient of compressibility represents the variation of pressure of a fluid with volume or density at constant temperature. a pressure change of 1 atm causes a density change of 10% at 10 atm and a density change of 1% at 100 atm. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. P = ρRT and (∂P / ∂ρ ) T = RT = P / ρ . but the coefficient of volume expansion can (e. Assumptions The gas behaves an ideal gas. and the coefficient of compressibility of the gas increases with increasing pressure. the percent increase of density of an ideal gas during isothermal compression is equal to the percent increase in pressure. and thus κ ideal gas = P . At 10 atm: At 100 atm: ∆ρ P 10 ρ ∆ρ ∆P 101 − 100 = = = 1% 100 ρ P = ∆P = 11 − 10 = 10% Therefore. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. ∆P ∆P ≅ Substituting κ = P into the definition of the coefficient of compressibility κ ≅ − ∆v / v ∆ρ / ρ and rearranging gives ∆ρ ρ = ∆P P Therefore. If you are a student using this Manual. Isothermal compressibility is the inverse of the coefficient of compressibility. 230 The percent increase in the density of an ideal gas is given for a moderate pressure. The percent increase in density of the gas when compressed at a higher pressure is to be determined. . liquid water below 4°C). you are using it without permission.
the percent increase in the specific volume of an ideal gas during isobaric expansion is equal to the percent increase in absolute temperature. . The isothermal compressibility of water is given to be α = 4. Assumptions 1 The isothermal compressibility is constant in the given pressure range.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 231 Using the definition of the coefficient of volume expansion and the expression β ideal gas = 1 / T . Assumptions The gas behaves an ideal gas. The increase in the density of water is to be determined. This problem can be solved more accurately using differential analysis when functional forms of properties are available. you are using it without permission. Inc. approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes by finite changes. 211 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.3 kg/m 3 Discussion Note that the density of water increases from 998 to 1036. as expected. Analysis The coefficient of volume expansion β can be expressed as ∆v / v 1 ∂v ≈ ∆T v ∂T P β= Noting that β ideal gas = 1 / T for an ideal gas and rearranging give ∆v v = ∆T T Therefore. 2 An Properties The density of water at 20°C and 1 atm pressure is ρ1 = 998 kg/m3. it is to be shown that the percent increase in the specific volume of an ideal gas during isobaric expansion is equal to the percent increase in absolute temperature. 232 Water at a given temperature and pressure is compressed to a high pressure isothermally. the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as ∆ρ = αρ∆P − βρ∆T The change in density due to a change of pressure from 1 atm to 800 atm at constant temperature is ∆ρ = αρ∆P = (4. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed to be constant.3 kg/m3 while being compressed.80×105 atm1.80 × 10 −5 atm 1 )(998 kg/m 3 )(800 − 1)atm = 38. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.
The change in the density of the refrigerant is to be determined.1 kg/m3.5 kg/m3 at 95°C in water table in the Appendix. Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant in the given temperature range. This is mostly due to β varying with temperature almost linearly. The coefficient of volume expansion at the average temperature of (10+0)/2 = 5°C is β = 0. The change in the density of water is to be determined.9 kg/m 3 which is almost identical to the listed value of 1295 kg/m3 at 0°C in R134a table in the Appendix. as expected. Properties The density of saturated liquid R134a at 10°C is ρ1 =1261 kg/m3. 234 Saturated refrigerant134a at a given temperature is cooled at constant pressure. Properties The density of water at 15°C and 1 atm pressure is ρ1 = 999. This is mostly due to β varying with temperature almost linearly. Inc. the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as ∆ρ = αρ∆P − βρ∆T The change in density due to the change of temperature from 15°C to 95°C at constant pressure is ∆ρ = − βρ ∆T = −(0.4 kg/m 3 which is almost identical to the listed value of 961.00269 K1. 212 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. Note that the density of water decreases while being heated. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.1 kg/m 3 )(95 − 15)K = −38.1 + (−38. The coefficient of volume expansion at the average temperature of (15+95)/2 = 55°C is β = 0.9 kg/m 3 Discussion Noting that ∆ρ = ρ 2 − ρ 1 . you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed to be constant. the density of water at 95°C and 1 atm is ρ 2 = ρ 1 + ∆ρ = 999. the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as ∆ρ = αρ∆P − βρ∆T The change in density due to the change of temperature from 10°C to 0°C at constant pressure is ∆ρ = − βρ∆T = −(0. This problem can be solved more accurately using differential analysis when functional forms of properties are available.00269 K 1 )(1261 kg/m 3 )(0 − 10)K = 33.484×103 K1.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 233 Water at a given temperature and pressure is heated to a higher temperature at constant pressure.7 kg/m 3 Discussion Noting that ∆ρ = ρ 2 − ρ 1 . the density of R134a at 0°C is ρ 2 = ρ 1 + ∆ρ = 1261 + 33.9 = 1294. as expected. 2 An approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes. 2 An approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes. Note that the density increases during cooling. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed to be constant. Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant in the given temperature range. .7) = 960.484 × 10 −3 K 1 )(999.
which can be expressed as ∆ρ = −0.377×103 K1.5°C Discussion This result is conservative since in reality the increasing pressure will tend to compress the water and increase its density. Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant. Inc.01ρ = − βρ ∆T Solving for ∆T and substituting. which can be expressed as ∆ρ = −0.02 0. . 3 The effect of pressure is disregarded.02 ρ . 213 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 235 A water tank completely filled with water can withstand tension caused by a volume expansion of 2%. 3 The effect of pressure is disregarded. Properties The average volume expansion coefficient is given to be β = 0. the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as ∆ρ = αρ∆P − βρ∆T A volume increase of 1% corresponds to a density decrease of 1%. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed to be constant. The maximum temperature rise allowed in the tank without jeopardizing safety is to be determined. 2 An approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Then the decrease in density due to a temperature rise of ∆T at constant pressure is −0. Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant.01 0.01 β = 0. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.377 × 10 −3 K 1 = 26.377 × 10 − 3 K 1 = 53.5 K = 26.01ρ . The maximum temperature rise allowed in the tank without jeopardizing safety is to be determined. the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as ∆ρ = αρ∆P − βρ∆T A volume increase of 2% corresponds to a density decrease of 2%.0 K = 53. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties α and β are assumed to be constant.377×103 K1. Properties The average volume expansion coefficient is given to be β = 0.0°C Discussion This result is conservative since in reality the increasing pressure will tend to compress the water and increase its density. Then the decrease in density due to a temperature rise of ∆T at constant pressure is −0. the maximum temperature rise is determined to be ∆T = 0. the maximum temperature rise is determined to be ∆T = 0. 236 A water tank completely filled with water can withstand tension caused by a volume expansion of 1%.02 ρ = − βρ∆T Solving for ∆T and substituting. 2 An approximate analysis is performed by replacing differential changes in quantities by finite changes.02 β = 0.
550 × 10 7 Pa = 25. Analysis The coefficient of compressibility or the bulk modulus of elasticity of fluids is expressed as ∂P κ = ρ ∂ρ T dP = ρ gdz or κ=ρ dP dρ (at constant T ) z=0 z 2500 m The differential pressure change across a differential fluid height of dz is given as Combining the two relations above and rearranging.1 kg/m 3 and thus ρ = 1041 kg/m3 214 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the values of density and pressure are determined by substitution to be ρ= 1 1 /(1030 kg/m 3 ) − (9.34 × 10 9 N/m 2 ) = 2.098 + 25. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.26 MPa) = 11.36 MPa. and the bulk modulus of elasticity of seawater is given to be 2.26 = 25. you are using it without permission. Then the density at 2500 m can be estimated to be ∆ρ = ρα∆P = (1030)(2340 MPa) −1 (25.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 237 The density of seawater at the free surface and the bulk modulus of elasticity are given. At z = 2500 m. 2 The gravitational acceleration remains constant. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.34×109 N/m2. If you are a student using this Manual.34 × 10 9 N/m 2 ) ln 1 − (1030 kg/m 3 )(9. The density and pressure at a depth of 2500 m are to be determined.81 m/s 2 )(2500 m) /( 2.50 MPa since 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg/m⋅s2 and 1 kPa = 1000 Pa.34 × 10 9 N/m 2 ) = 1041 kg/m 3 1 P = (98. Assumptions 1 The temperature and the bulk modulus of elasticity of seawater is constant.81 m/s 2 )(2500 m) /( 2. the pressure at 2500 m would be P = P0 + ρgz = 0.000 Pa) + (2. κ=ρ ρ gdz dz = gρ 2 dρ dρ → dρ ρ 2 = gdz κ Integrating from z = 0 where ρ = ρ 0 = 1030 kg/m 3 to z = z where ρ = ρ gives ∫ρ ρ 0 dρ ρ 2 = dz κ∫ 0 g z → 1 ρ0 − 1 ρ = gz κ Solving for ρ gives the variation of density with depth as ρ= 1 1 / ρ 0 − gz / κ Substituting into the pressure change relation dP = ρ gdz and integrating from z = 0 where P = P0 = 98 kPa to z = z where P = P gives ∫ P P0 dP = ∫ z 0 gdz 1 / ρ 0 − gz / κ → 1 P = P0 + κ ln 1 − ρ gz / κ 0 which is the desired relation for the variation of pressure in seawater with depth. . Inc. Properties The density of seawater at free surface where the pressure is given to be 1030 kg/m3. Discussion Note that if we assumed ρ = ρo = constant at 1030 kg/m3.
© 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. Most common fluids such as water. Viscosity is caused by the cohesive forces between the molecules in liquids. 241C (a) The dynamic viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature. and by the molecular collisions in gases. gasoline. For gases. you are using it without permission. the kinematic viscosity is inversely proportional to density and thus pressure since the density of a gas is proportional to its pressure. air. the kinematic viscosity is practically independent of pressure. 215 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. 240C When two identical small glass balls dropped into two identical containers. . (b) The dynamic viscosity of gases increases with temperature. Inc. Liquids have higher dynamic viscosities than gases. and oils are Newtonian fluids.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Viscosity 238C Viscosity is a measure of the “stickiness” or “resistance to deformation” of a fluid. 242C For liquids. It is due to the internal frictional force that develops between different layers of fluids as they are forced to move relative to each other. the ball dropped in water will reach the bottom of the container first because of the much lower viscosity of water relative to oil. one filled with water and the other with oil. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 239C The fluids whose shear stress is proportional to the velocity gradient are called Newtonian fluids.
. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.8% F1 105.2 N F1 − F2 105.27 sin 20° Then from Eq. Then the force balance gives V= 0.8 m/s F1 20 0 Friction force: F f = fFN 1 ∑ ∑F Fx = 0 : y F1 − F f cos 20° − FN 1 sin 20° = 0 FN 1 cos 20° − F f sin 20° − W = 0 (1) (2) (3) Ff 200 200 W = 150 N FN1 y x = 0: Substituting Eq.012 N⋅s/m2. Free body diagram of the block is given. (3) into Eq.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 243 A block is moved at a constant velocity on an inclined surface.2 100 = 100 = 45. and the percent reduction in the required force when an oil film is applied on the surface are to be determined. (4). 2 The friction coefficient and the oil film thickness are uniform. and thus its acceleration and the net force acting on it are zero. Because of the noslip condition. The force that needs to be applied in the horizontal direction when the block is dry.2 m 2 ) = 2. (5) gives FN 2 = ( Fshear sin 20° + W ) / cos 20° = [(2. Then the shear force can be expressed as V= 0.5 N Substituting into Eq. 3 The weight of the oil layer is negligible.5 − 57. If you are a student using this Manual. ∑F ∑F x y = 0: = 0: F2 − Fshear cos 20° − FN 2 sin 20° = 0 FN 2 cos 20° − Fshear sin 20° − W = 0 (4) (5) Eq. the friction force will be replaced the shear force applied on the bottom surface of the block by oil. Inc. (2) and solving for FN1 gives W 150 N FN 1 = = = 177. the oil film will stick no the inclined surface at the bottom and the lower surface of the block at the top.012 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(0.5 × 0.0 N cos 20° − f sin 20° cos 20° − 0.8 m/s Fshear = τ w As = µAs = (0.8 m/s 50 cm 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.4 m Replacing the friction force by the shear force in part (a). Assumptions 1 The inclined surface is plane.5 Discussion Note that the force required to push the block on the inclined surface reduces significantly by oiling the surface.4 mm F2 20 0 Fshear = τwAs FN2 W = 150 N V 0. (1): F1 = F f cos 20° + FN 1 sin 20° = (0.27 × 177 N) cos 20° + (177 N) sin 20° = 105. Then.4 N h 4 × 10 .4 N) cos 20° + (160.5 N) sin 20° = 57.012 Pa⋅s = 0. Analysis (a) The velocity of the block is constant.5 N (b) In this case. Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be µ = 0. Percentage reduction in required force = 216 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.4 N ) sin 20° + (150 N )] / cos 20° = 160. the required horizontal force is determined to be F2 = Fshear cos 20° + FN 2 sin 20° = (2.
.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 244 The velocity profile of a fluid flowing though a circular pipe is given. and the negative sign is added to the τw relation for pipes to make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the drag force per unit length of the pipe is F = τ w Aw = F / L = 2nπµu max . Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes τ w = −µ du dr = − µu max nµu max (2πR ) L = 2nπµu max L R Therefore. du /dr = . © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. Discussion Note that the drag force acting on the pipe in this case is independent of the pipe diameter.du /dy since y = R – r). Analysis The wall shear stress is determined from its definition to be u(r) = umax(1rn/Rn) R r 0 umax nµu max − nr n −1 d rn 1 − = − µu max = n Rn R dr R r=R r=R r=R Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow. Assumptions The viscosity of the fluid is constant. (Or. If you are a student using this Manual. The friction drag force exerted on the pipe by the fluid in the flow direction per unit length of the pipe is to be determined. 217 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.
62 N Discussion Note that wall shear is a friction force between a solid and a liquid.6 − y A 1 = yA 0.2 m 2 ) = 1.3 → yA = 0.3)] m/s du = µAs = (0.54 = 1. and its distance from the lower plate is determined from geometric considerations (the similarity of the two triangles in the lower oil layer) to be 2. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. the force F is determined from a force balance on the plate to be F = Fshear.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 245 A thin flat plate is pulled horizontally through an oil layer sandwiched between two plates. Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be µ = 0. lower = 1. lower = τ w. The point of zero velocity is indicated by point A. .027 Pa⋅s = 0. one stationary and the other moving at a constant velocity. Inc.08 N dy h1 1. 2 The velocity profile in each oil layer is linear.6 × 10 3 m Noting that both shear forces are in the opposite direction of motion of the plate.0 × 10 3 m V − Vw [1 − (−0. upper = τ w.2 × 0. Analysis (a) The velocity profile in each oil layer relative to the fixed wall is as shown in the figure below.3 m/s Moving wall (b) The magnitudes of shear forces acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate are Fshear. 218 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.2 × 0. and it acts in the opposite direction of motion.027 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(0.54 N dy h2 2.2 m 2 ) = 0.60 mm Fixed wall h1=1 mm V = 1 m/s F h2=2. upper + Fshear. The location in oil where the velocity is zero and the force that needs to be applied on the plate are to be determined. upper As = µAs Fshear. Assumptions 1 The thickness of the plate is negligible.027 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.08 + 0.027 N⋅s/m2. If you are a student using this Manual. lower As = µAs 1 m/s du V −0 = µAs = (0.6 mm y yA A Vw= 0. you are using it without permission.
. the variation of radius with axial distance can be expressed as 219 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission. dA = 2πrdr . The power required to maintain this motion. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of the frustum at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as du V ωr =µ =µ dr h h Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. the torque it generates. bottom = 32h Side surface: The differential area for the side surface can be expressed as dA = 2πrdz .Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 246 A frustum shaped body is rotating at a constant angular speed in an oil container.1 N⋅s/m2 at 20°C and 0. Assumptions The thickness of the oil layer remains constant. top = h ∫ D/2 r =0 2πµω 2 r (2πr )dr = h 2 ∫ D/2 r =0 2πµω 2 r 4 r dr = h 4 3 D/2 = r =0 πµω 2 D 4 32h Bottom surface: A relation for the bottom surface is obtained by replacing D by d. Case SAE 10W oil of film thickness h D = 12 cm L = 12 cm d = 4 cm z r Analysis The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where V = ωr is the tangential velocity.0078 Pa⋅s at 80°C. πµω 2 d 4 & Wsh. and the reduction in the required power input when the oil temperature rises are to be determined. ∫ µω 2 & Wsh. and the shaft power associated with it can be expressed as ωr dF = τ w dA = µ dA h ωr 2 dT = rdF = µ dA h τw = µ T= µω h ∫r A 2 dA µω 2 & Wsh = ωT = r 2 dA h A Top surface: For the top surface. Substituting and integrating. Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be µ = 0.1 Pa⋅s = 0. Inc. From geometric considerations. If you are a student using this Manual.
1 W µ 20°C 0. the power required at 80°C is µ 0. If you are a student using this Manual. top = h ∫ D/2 r =0 4πµω 2 L 4πL r rdr = h( D − d ) D−d 2 ∫ r =d / 2 4πµω 2 L r 4 r dr = h( D − d ) 4 3 D/2 = r =d / 2 πµω 2 L( D 2 − d 2 ) 16 h( D − d ) Then the total power required becomes 2 L[1 − (d / D ) 4 )] πµω 2 D 4 & & & & Wsh.1 N ⋅ s/m 2 Therefore. bottom + Wsh. Substituting. total = = 270 W 1 + (1 / 3) + (0. .1 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(200 /s) 2 (0. 80°C = 80°C Wsh. 20°C = (270 W) = 21. total. total = Wsh. π (0.12 − 0.04) m 1 Nm/s 32(0. side = 1 + (d / D ) 4 + D−d 32h where d/D = 4/12 = 1/3.0078 N ⋅ s/m 2 & & Wsh. 80°C = 270 − 21. r= or dz = 4πL 2L dr . D−d D−d D/2 µω 2 & Wsh. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids d D−d + z.12 m) 4 2(0. 220 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the reduction in the requires power input at 80°C is & & Reduction = Wsh. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. 20°C − Wsh. Inc. Therefore. dA = 2πdz = rdr . top + Wsh. total.0012 m) Noting that power is proportional to viscosity. 2 2L D−d Differentiating gives dr = dz 2L Substituting and integrating. you are using it without permission.12 m)[1 − (1 / 3) 4 )] 1 W 4 & Wsh. total. total.1 = 249 W (92%) Discussion Note that the power required to overcome shear forces in a viscous fluid greatly depends on temperature.
we can assume one of the disks to be stationary and the other to be rotating at an angular speed of ω1 − ω 2 . Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of the faster disk at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as (ω − ω 2 )r du V τw = µ =µ =µ 1 dr h h h Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface and the torque generation associated with it can be expressed as ω2 (ω1 − ω 2 )r ω1 dF = τ w dA = µ (2πr )dr h dT = rdF = µ (ω1 − ω 2 )r 2 2πµ (ω1 − ω 2 ) 3 (2πr )dr = r dr h h D/2 Integrating. Therefore. Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil film is uniform.445 rad/s .30 m) 4 32(0. 221 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.38 N⋅s/m2. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 247 A clutch system is used to transmit torque through an oil film between two identical disks. the torque transmitted is to be determined. Properties The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be µ = 0. Inc. the torque transmitted is determined to be T= π (0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.55 N ⋅ m Discussion Note that the torque transmitted is proportional to the fourth power of disk diameter. 2πµ (ω1 − ω 2 ) T= h ∫ r =0 2πµ (ω1 − ω 2 ) r 4 r dr = h 4 3 D/2 = r =0 πµ (ω1 − ω 2 ) D 4 32h & Noting that ω = 2πn . The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where V = (ω1 − ω 2 )r is the tangential velocity. Driving shaft Driven shaft 30 cm 3 mm SAE 30W oil Analysis The disks are rotting in the same direction at different angular speeds of ω1 and of ω2 . . © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. the relative angular speed is & & ω1 − ω 2 = 2π (n1 − n 2 ) = (2π rad/rev)[(1450 − 1398) rev/min] 1 min = 5. and is inversely proportional to the thickness of the oil film.445 /s)(0. For specified rotational speeds.003 m) = 0. 60 s Substituting. 2 The rotational speeds of disks remains constant.38 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(5.
1 mm to 10 mm. mm 0. 247 is reconsidered.8 1 2 4 6 8 10 Torque transmitted T. Film thickness varied from 0. If you are a student using this Manual. the effect of oil film thickness on the torque transmitted is investigated.06 1.11 2. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. Inc. 32h mu=0.41 0.1 0. .004 0.27 0. Nm 16.2 0.008 0. and the film thickness should be as small as possible to maximize the transmitted torque.21 0.46 8.82 0.3 "m" Tq=pi*mu*(w1w2)*(D^4)/(32*h) Film thickness h.23 4.6 0.01 h [m] Conclusion Torque transmitted is inversely proportional to oil film thickness. and the results are tabulated and πµ (ω1 − ω 2 ) D 4 plotted. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.65 0.16 18 16 14 12 Tq [Nm] 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. you are using it without permission. The relation used is T = . 222 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.74 2.002 0.38 n1=1450 "rpm" w1=2*pi*n1/60 "rad/s" n2=1398 "rpm" w2=2*pi*n2/60 "rad/s" D=0.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 248 Prob.006 0.4 0. Using EES software.
. Then the torque transmitted by both surfaces of N plates attached to input shaft in the clutch becomes τ y µω 4 3 3 T = 4πN ( R 2 − R1 ) + ( R 2 − R14 ) 3 4h & (b) Noting that ω = 2πn = 2π (2400 rev/min ) = 15.05 m ) 4 ] = 2060 N ⋅ m [(0. T = 2π ∫ R2 r = R1 r 3 µωr 4 2 τ y µω 4 ωr 3 3 3 dr = 2π τ y τ y r 2 + µ ( R 2 − R14 ) + = 2π ( R 2 − R1 ) + h 3 4h r = R 4h 3 1 R This is the torque transmitted by one surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft. Properties The constants in shear stress relation are given to be µ = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.2 mm Shell R2 R1 Output shaft Input shaft Plates mounted on input shaft Plates mounted on shell Variable magnetic field Analysis (a) The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where V = ωr is the tangential velocity relative to plates mounted on the shell.20 m) 3 − (0. Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer between the disks is constant. If you are a student using this Manual.5 kPa. 2 The Bingham plastic model for shear stress expressed as τ = τ y + µ (du dy ) is valid. A relationship for the torque transmitted by the clutch is to be obtained. and the numerical value of the torque is to be calculated. you are using it without permission.080 rad/min = 251.1 Pa⋅s and τy=2.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 249 A multidisk Electrorheological “ER” clutch with a fluid in which shear stress is expressed as τ = τ y + µ (du dy ) is considered.05 m ) 3 ] + 4(0.0012 m) 3 223 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.3 /s) T = (4π )(11) [(0.20 m) 4 − (0. 2500 N/m 2 (0.1 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(251.3 rad/s and substituting. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as ωr du V =τ y + µ =τ y + µ dr h h Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface of a disk and the torque generation associated with it can be expressed as ωr dF = τ w dA = τ y + µ (2πr )dr h τw =τ y + µ ωr ωr 3 2 dr dT = rdF = r τ y + µ (2πr )dr = 2π τ y r + µ h h Integrating. Inc. h = 1.
82 T = (4π )(11) [(0.2 mm Shell R2 R1 Output shaft Input shaft Plates mounted on input shaft Plates mounted on shell Variable magnetic field Analysis (a) The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V/h where V = ωr is the tangential velocity relative to plates mounted on the shell. Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer between the disks is constant. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.3 rad/s and substituting.82 − (0. If you are a student using this Manual. and m = 0.0012 m) = 103.82 /m 2 )(251.4 kN ⋅ m 224 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission. h = 1.20 m) 3.3 /s) 0. . K = 58 Pa⋅sm .20 m) 3 − (0. Then the torque transmitted by both surfaces of N plates attached to input shaft in the clutch becomes τ y Kω m 3 3 m m T = 4πN ( R 2 − R1 ) + ( R 2 + 3 − R1 + 3 ) m (m + 3)h 3 & = 2π (2400 rev/min ) = 15. 3 m m + 3 R2 m m+ 2 R2 τ y Kω m 3 3 m m dr = 2π τ r + Kω r τ r 2 + K ω r T = 2π ( R 2 + 3 − R1 + 3 ) y = 2π ( R 2 − R1 ) + y m m m R1 3 (m + 3)h R h (m + 3)h 3 1 ∫ This is the torque transmitted by one surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft.82 3 (0. Properties The constants in shear stress relation are given to be τy = 900 Pa.05 m ) 3.05 m ) 3 ] + [(0. (b) Noting that ω = 2πn 900 N/m 2 (58 N ⋅ s 0.82 + 3)(0.82 ] 0. A relationship for the torque transmitted by the clutch is to be obtained.080 rad/min = 251. 2 The HerschelBulkley model for shear stress expressed as τ = τ y + K (du dy ) m is valid.82.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 250 A multidisk called magnetorheological “MR” clutch with a fluid in which the shear stress is expressed as τ = τ y + K (du dy ) m is considered. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as m m ωr m V du τ w = τ y + K = τ y + K = τ y + K h h dr Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface of a disk and the torque generation associated with it can be expressed as m ωr dF = τ w dA = τ y + K (2πr )dr h m +2 m ω mr ωr dr dT = rdF = r τ y + K (2πr )dr = 2π τ y r 2 + K m h h Integrating. and the numerical value of the torque is to be calculated. Inc.
Analysis Substituting the given values. .05/12 ft) 4π 2 (5. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. 2 The viscous effects on the two ends of the inner cylinder are negligible.2 lbf ⋅ ft)(0. Assumptions 1 The inner cylinder is completely submerged in oil. and the values can be significantly different at different temperatures.12 cm fluid 252E The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given.8 N ⋅ m)(0.6 / 12 ft) 3 (250 / 60 s 1 )(3 ft) = 9. If you are a student using this Manual.05 in fluid 225 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. R l = 0.97 × 10 −5 lbf ⋅ s/ft 2 Discussion This is the viscosity value at temperature that existed during the experiment. 3 The fluid is Newtonian.0231 N ⋅ s/m 2 Discussion This is the viscosity value at the temperature that existed during the experiment. R l = 0. The viscosity of the fluid is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The inner cylinder is completely submerged in the fluid. The viscosity of the fluid is to be determined. and the values can be significantly different at different temperatures. 3 The fluid is Newtonian. 2 The viscous effects on the two ends of the inner cylinder are negligible. Analysis Substituting the given values. the viscosity of the fluid is determined to be µ= & 4π 2 R 3 nL Tl = (1. the viscosity of the fluid is determined to be µ= & 4π R nL 2 Tl 3 = (0. Inc.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 251 The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature.0012 m) 4π (0.075 m) (200 / 60 s )(0. you are using it without permission.75 m) 2 3 1 = 0.
you are using it without permission. (Or. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Assumptions 1 The flow through the circular pipe is onedimensional. and the negative sign is added to the τw relation for pipes to make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. 2 The fluid is Newtonian. 226 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. r2 Analysis The velocity profile is given by u (r ) = u max 1 − 2 R where R is the radius of the pipe.0010 kg/m⋅s.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 253 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow through a circular pipe is given. which occurs at the center. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. If you are a student using this Manual. and thus the drag force in such cases will be greater. 1N = 0. . the velocity gradient is greater near the wall. Inc. Properties The viscosity of water at 20°C is given to be 0. du /dr = . A relation for friction drag force exerted on the pipe and its numerical value for water are to be determined.0010 kg/m ⋅ s)(15 m)(3 m/s) 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 Discussion In the entrance region and during turbulent flow.565 N FD = 4πµLu max = 4π (0. r is the radial distance from the center of the pipe.du /dy since y = R – r). Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes 2 µu max FD = τ w As = (2πRL ) = 4πµLu max R Substituting. and umax is the maximum flow velocity. r = 0. The shear stress at the pipe surface can be expressed as u(r) = umax(1r2/R2) R r 0 umax = 2 µu max R τ w = −µ du dr r=R = − µu max − 2r d r2 1 − = − µu max 2 dr R 2 r = R R r =R Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow.
0010 kg/m⋅s.0010 kg/m ⋅ s)(15 m)(5 m/s) 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 Discussion In the entrance region and during turbulent flow. du /dr = .942 N FD = 4πµLu max = 4π (0. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. the velocity gradient is greater near the wall. 2 The fluid is Newtonian. and thus the drag force in such cases will be larger. and the negative sign is added to the τw relation for pipes to make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. Properties The viscosity of water at 20°C is given to be 0. r = 0. (Or.du /dy since y = R – r). Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. and umax is the maximum flow velocity. . Assumptions 1 The flow through the circular pipe is onedimensional.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 254 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow through a circular pipe is given. Inc. 227 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. r is the radial distance from the center of the pipe. Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes 2 µu max FD = τ w As = (2πRL ) = 4πµLu max R Substituting. r2 Analysis The velocity profile is given by u (r ) = u max 1 − 2 R where R is the radius of the pipe. A relation for friction drag force exerted on the pipe and its numerical value for water are to be determined. you are using it without permission. 1N = 0. The shear stress at the pipe surface can be expressed as u(r) = umax(1r2/R2) R r 0 umax = 2 µu max R τ w = −µ du dr r=R = − µu max − 2r d r2 1 − = − µu max 2 dr R 2 r = R R r =R Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow. which occurs at the center.
228 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Surface Tension and Capillary Effect 255C The magnitude of the pulling force at the surface of a liquid per unit length is called surface tension σs. 2 The kerosene is open to the atmospheric air. If you are a student using this Manual. 258C The liquid level in the tube will drop since the contact angle is greater than 90°.015 / 12 ft) = 0.00192 lbf/ft)(cos 26°) = ρgR 1 lbf (51. 260E A slender glass tube is inserted into kerosene. and thus it is greater in the smallerdiameter tube. It is caused by the attractive forces between the molecules.028×0. The surface tension is also surface energy since it represents the stretching work that needs to be done to increase the surface area of the liquid by a unit amount. like water) and adhesive forces (the forces between dislike molecules. and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass tube.00192 lbf/ft. the capillary rise is determined to be h= 32.0539 ft = 0. like water and glass). Inc.2 lbm/ft3. Analysis Substituting the numerical values. The capillary effect is proportional to the cosine of the contact angle.65 in Discussion The capillary rise in this case more than half of an inch.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s 2 2σ s cos φ 2(0. . © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. 256C The pressure inside a soap bubble is greater than the pressure outside. as evidenced by the stretch of the soap film.2 lbm/ft 3 )(32. The capillary rise of kerosene in the tube is to be determined.06852 = 0. and thus it is clearly noticeable. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. It is caused by the net effect of the cohesive forces (the forces between like molecules. 259C The capillary rise is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tube.2 ft/s 2 )(0. Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the kerosene. and cos 110° < 0. which is the angle that the tangent to the liquid surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact. Properties The surface tension of keroseneglass at 68°F (20°C) is σs = 0. The density of kerosene at 68°F is ρ = 51. you are using it without permission. 257C The capillary effect is the rise or fall of a liquid in a smalldiameter tube inserted into the liquid. The contact angle of kerosene with the glass surface is given to be 26°.
0019 / 2 m)(0. the excess pressure is larger in smaller bubbles. gage = ∆Pbubble 4(0.0232 N/m = σs = 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 2 cos φ 2(cos 15°) Discussion The surface tension depends on temperature. Therefore.002/2 m 4(0. Analysis The pressure difference between the inside and the outside of a bubble is given by ∆Pbubble = Pi − P0 = 4σ s R In the open atmosphere P0 = Patm.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 261 A glass tube is inserted into a liquid. The surface tension of the liquid is to be determined. Air Liquid h 262 The diameter of a soap bubble is given.05/2 m P0 Discussion Note that the gage pressure in a soap bubble is inversely proportional to the radius. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. 2 The liquid is open to the atmospheric air. Properties The surface tension of soap water at 20°C is σs = 0. gage = ∆Pbubble = Pi . The contact angle is given to be 15°. Substituting.81 m/s 2 )(0. the surface tension is determined from the capillary rise relation to be ρgRh (960 kg/m 3 )(9. Properties The density of the liquid is given to be 960 kg/m3.025 N/m) = = 4 N/m 2 = 4 Pa 0. Analysis Substituting the numerical values. the value determined is valid at the temperature of the liquid. . If you are a student using this Manual.005 m) 1N = 0. The gage pressure inside the bubble is to be determined. Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the liquid.025 N/m) = 100 N/m 2 = 100 Pa 0. Assumptions The soap bubble is in atmospheric air. and thus ∆Pbubble is equivalent to the gage pressure. Therefore. Inc. and the capillary rise is measured.025 N/m. and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass tube. Soap bubble P 229 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Pi . you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.
the surface tension is determined from the surface tension force relation to be F 0. Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the liquid. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.75 m Discussion Other effects such as the chemical potential difference also cause the fluid to rise in trees.5 × 10 − 6 m) = 5. the value determined is valid at the temperature of the liquid. The density of water solution can be taken to be 1000 kg/m3. Analysis Substituting the numerical values. 3 The temperature of the water solution is 20°C. Inc. b Liquid film F 230 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.075 N/m 2b 2(0. the capillary rise is determined to be h= 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 2σ s cos φ 2(0. you are using it without permission. and no contamination on the surfaces of the wire frame.073 N/m.81 m/s 2 )(2.08 m) Discussion The surface tension depends on temperature. Analysis Substituting the numerical values. The height that the water solution will rise in a tree as a result of the capillary effect is to be determined. Properties The surface tension of water at 20°C is σs = 0. 2 The diameter of the tube is constant. The surface tension of the liquid in the air is to be determined.073 N/m)(cos 15°) = ρgR 1N (1000 kg/m 3 )(9.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 263 Nutrients dissolved in water are carried to upper parts of plants. 2 The liquid is open to the atmospheric air. Assumptions 1 The solution can be treated as water with a contact angle of 15°. 264 The force acting on the movable wire of a liquid film suspended on a Ushaped wire frame is measured. Therefore. If you are a student using this Manual. .012 N σs = = = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. The contact angle is given to be 15°.
Assumptions 1 The water is pure. setting Fs = W and solving for diameter D gives D= 6σ s ρg 6σ s = ρg 6σ s = ρg 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 1N (7800 kg/m 3 )(9. Therefore. the maximum diameters for the steel and aluminum balls become D steel = D Al = 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = 4. The maximum diameter of the ball is to be determined. and its temperature is constant. If you are a student using this Manual.4 mm Substititing the known quantities. and thus for a given material. the smaller balls are more likely to float. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.81 m/s 2 ) Discussion Note that the ball diameter is inversely proportional to the square root of density. The densities of steel and aluminum are given to be ρsteel = 7800 kg/m3 and ρAl = 2700 kg/m3.1 mm 1N (2700 kg/m 3 )(9. you are using it without permission. 2 The ball is dropped on water slowly so that the inertial effects are negligible. 231 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the net force acting on the ball in the vertical direction is zero. and the calculations are to be repeated for aluminum.073 N/m) = 2. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.073 N/m. σ Analysis The surface tension force and the weight of the ball can be expressed as Fs = πDσ s W = mg and W = mg = ρgV = ρgπD 3 / 6 When the ball floats.073 N/m) 6(0. Properties The surface tension of water at 20°C is σs = 0. Inc.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 265 A steel ball floats on water due to the surface tension effect.1× 10 −3 m = 4.81 m/s 2 ) 6(0. 3 The contact angle is taken to be 0° for maximum diameter. . The contact angle is taken to be 0°.4 × 10 −3 m = 2.
9 kg RT1 (0. If you are a student using this Manual. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the ratio of absolute temperatures after and before the trip are P1V 1 P2V 2 T P 310 kPa = → 2 = 2 = = 1.0 = 42.9% during this trip.2968kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K)(293K) N2 800 kPa 25°C 3 20 m Thus the amount of N2 that escaped is ∆m = m1 − m 2 = 180. Analysis Noting that air is an ideal gas and the volume is constant.9 − 138. Now some nitrogen is allowed to escape.2968kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K)(298K) (600kPa)(20m 3 ) P2V = = 138. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. 267 A large tank contains nitrogen at a specified temperature and pressure. and the temperature and pressure of nitrogen drop to new values. The percent increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is to be determined.022 m 3 Therefore. The amount of nitrogen that has escaped is to be determined. the initial and the final masses in the tank are determined to be m1 = m2 = (800kPa)(20m 3 ) P1V = = 180.9 kg 232 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis Treating N2 as an ideal gas.0kg RT2 (0. Assumptions 1 The volume of the tire remains constant. you are using it without permission.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Review Problems 266 The pressure in an automobile tire increases during a trip while its volume remains constant. Inc.069 T1 T2 T1 P1 290 kPa TIRE 200 kPa 0. the absolute temperature of air in the tire will increase by 6. . 2 Air is an ideal gas.
vol + Vf Vm → Vf Vm = 1− C s . . vol of the particles. Therefore. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. the desired relation for the specific gravity of the mixture is SG m = ρ m 1 − C s .Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 268 Suspended solid particles in water are considered. The total volume of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as V m = V s +V f Dividing by Vm and using the definition C s.mass ) Vm Vf (2) Combining equations 1 and 2 gives ρf ρm = 1 − C s .vol (1) The total mass of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as mm = m s + m f Dividing by mm and using the definition C s. the ratio ρ f / ρ m is the inverse of the definition of specific gravity. A relation is to be developed for the specific gravity of the suspension in terms of the mass fraction C s. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission.mass + ρ fV f ρ mV m → ρf ρm = (1 − C s . Inc.mass 1 − C s .mass + mf mm = C s . vol = V s / V m give 1 = C s .vol = ρ f 1 − C s . 2 The effect of dissimilar molecules on each other is negligible.mass which is the desired result. Analysis Consider solid particles of mass ms and volume Vs dissolved in a fluid of mass mf and volume Vm. mass and volume fraction C s. 233 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.vol When the fluid is water. mass = m s / m m give 1 = C s . √ Assumptions 1 The solid particles are distributed uniformly in water so that the solution is homogeneous. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.
√ Assumptions 1 The solid particles are distributed uniformly in water so that the solution is homogeneous.mass + mf mm = C s . If you are a student using this Manual.mass Solving for SGm and rearranging gives SG m = 1 1 + C s. mass (1 SG s − 1) which is the desired result. mass . mass = m s / m m give 1 = C s . 2 The effect of dissimilar molecules on each other is negligible.mass + ρ fV f ρ mV m → Vf ρm = ρ f (1 − C s .mass SG m / SG s 1 − C s . The total volume of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as V m = V s +V f Dividing by Vm gives 1= Vs V f + → Vm Vm Vf Vm = 1− m / ρs m ρ SG m Vs = 1− s = 1 − s m = 1 − C s . The total mass of the suspension (or mixture) can be expressed as mm = m s + m f Dividing by mm and using the definition C s. The relation for the specific gravity of the slurry is to be obtained in terms of the mass fraction C s. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.mass )V m (2) Taking the fluid to be water so that ρ m / ρ f = SG m and combining equations 1 and 2 give SG m = 1 − C s . and m s / m m = C s. 234 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. mass and the specific gravity SGs of solid particles.mass Vm mm / ρ m mm ρ s SG s (1) since ratio of densities is equal two the ratio of specific gravities. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. . Analysis Consider solid particles of mass ms and volume Vs dissolved in a fluid of mass mf and volume Vm.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 269 The specific gravities of solid particles and carrier fluids of a slurry are given.
Pv = Psat @ 60°C = 19. and thus cavitation may occur at higher pressure locations at higher fluid temperatures. Inc.94 kPa. The maximum water temperature to avoid the danger of cavitation is to be determined. you are using it without permission. Since we have a twophase mixture of a pure substance at a specified temperature. The absolute pressure in the evacuated space is to be determined. which is Tmax = Tsat @ 0. . and the tank contains a saturated watervapor mixture at the given pressure. In that case the sum of the component pressures of vapor and air would equal 19. the vacated space is filled with water vapor. If you are a student using this Manual.94 kPa Discussion If there is any air left in the container. Properties The saturation pressure of water at 60°C is 19. the vapor pressure must be the saturation pressure at this temperature. the fluid temperature everywhere in the flow should remain below the saturation temperature at the given pressure. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 270E The minimum pressure on the suction side of a water pump is given. the T < 100°F to avoid cavitation. 235 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 271 Air in a partially filled closed water tank is evacuated. Discussion Note that saturation temperature increases with pressure. Properties The saturation temperature of water at 0. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. Analysis To avoid cavitation at a specified pressure.95 psia = 100°F Therefore. That is.95 psia is 100°F.94 kPa. the vapor pressure will be less. Analysis When air is completely evacuated.
005689.15 3.0012 0.06 T 236 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.665×104 353. with the following results: Polynomial: A = 0.0016 0.489291758 . The results are: 0. and type the data in a twocolumn table.56198079×1011T4 µ = 0.15 7.547×104 373.1% error. Using tabular data. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.0000249152104T2 .0005468 Pa⋅s) Discussion This problem can also be solved using an Excel worksheet. (3) select Plot and plot the data.0005468 Pa⋅s) Exponential: µ(323.15 1. you are using it without permission. .0008 0.0004 0. Properties The viscosity data are given in tabular form as T(K) µ (Pa⋅s) 273.0005726 Pa⋅s (4.519×103 283. (2) select new parametric table from Tables.8×106 and a1=1800 in mu=a0*exp(a1/T)] At T = 323. If you are a student using this Manual.00568904387T + 0.0006 0.529×104 333. and (4) select plot and click on “curve fit” to get curve fit window.15 1.15 1.7% error. B = 0.15 6. the polynomial and exponential curve fits give Polynomial: µ(323.0002 270 292 314 336 358 380 µ T µ = 0.0.000001475*EXP(1926.4893.15 K) = 0. (1) Define a trivial function a=mu+T in equation window.807952E − 6 * e 1864. The result is to be compared to Andrade’s equation in the form of µ = D ⋅ e B / T .4.15 K.828×104 Analysis Using EES. Inc.5/T) [used initial guess of a0=1.00002492.307×103 293.15 2. C = 0.975×104 313.0014 0.15 K) = 0.0005529 Pa⋅s (1.002×103 303.001 0.15 4. and E = 0.000000048612. Then specify polynomial and enter/edit equation.00000000003562 Andrade’s equation: µ = 1.787×103 278. relative to 0.0018 0. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.15 1. a relation is to be obtained for viscosity as a 4th degree polynomial. D = 0.86155745×108T3 + 3.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 272 The variation of the dynamic viscosity of water with absolute temperature is given. relative to 0.
Inc. y is the vertical distance from the bottom plate. Assumptions 1 The flow between the plates is onedimensional. the wall shear stress is identical at both bottom and top plates. 237 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2 The fluid is Newtonian. Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the plates becomes 8µu max FD = 2τ w A plate = Aplate h Therefore. . you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. Analysis The velocity profile is given by u ( y ) = 4u max y h − ( y h )2 [ ] u ( y ) = 4u max y h − ( y h )2 [ ] where h is the distance between the two plates. If you are a student using this Manual. A relation for friction drag force exerted on the plates per unit area of the plates is to be obtained. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the friction drag per unit plate area is 8µu max FD / Aplate = h Discussion Note that the friction drag force acting on the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between plates. The shear stress at the bottom surface can be expressed as τw = µ du dy = 4 µu max y =0 d y y2 − dy h h 2 1 2y = 4 µu max − 2 h h y =0 = y =0 4 µu max h umax y 0 h Because of symmetry. and umax is the maximum flow velocity that occurs at midplane.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 273 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow between two parallel plates is given.
R r 0 u(r) Analysis The velocity profile is given by u (r ) = τy ∆P 2 (r − R 2 ) + (r − R ) where ∆p/L is the pressure 4 µL µ drop along the pipe per unit length. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 238 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2 The flow through the pipe is onedimensional. . The shear stress at the pipe wall and the friction drag force acting on a pipe section of length L are to be determined. the wall shear stress at the pipe surface becomes τw =τ y + µ du dr r=R =τ y + ∆P ∆P R + τ y = 2τ y + R 2L 2L Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes ∆P ∆P FD = τ w As = 2τ y + R (2πRL ) = 2πRL 2τ y + R = 4πRLτ y + πR 2 ∆P 2L 2L Discussion Note that the total friction drag is proportional to yield shear stress and the pressure drop. µ is the dynamic viscosity. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 274 The laminar flow of a Bingham plastic fluid in a horizontal pipe of radius R is considered. r is the radial distance from the centerline. Inc. Assumptions 1 The fluid is a Bingham plastic with τ = τ y + µ (du dr ) where τy is the yield stress. Its gradient at the pipe wall (r = R) is du dr = r=R τy d ∆P 2 2 4 µL (r − R ) + µ (r − R ) dr r=R ∆P τ y = 2r 4 µL + µ 1 ∆P = R +τ y µ 2L r=R Substituing into τ = τ y + µ (du dr ) .
Inc. total = Cω where C = + 2 a b This completes the proof. 4 The effect of the shaft is negligible. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the torque on the top surface is determined to be τw = µ Ttop = µω a ∫ A r dA = 2 µω a ∫ R r =0 2πµω r (2πr )dr = a 2 ∫ R r =0 2πµω r 4 r dr = 4 a 3 R = r =0 πµωR 4 2a The torque on the bottom surface is obtained by replaying a by b. as shown in the figure. Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer on each side remains constant. and it is proportional to the 4th power of the radius of the damper disk. It is to be shown that the damping torque is Tdamping = Cω where C = 0. 239 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. R a Damping oil b Disk Analysis The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness a is V /a where V = ωr is the tangential velocity. Discussion Note that the damping torque (and thus damping power) is inversely proportional to the thickness of oil films on either side.5πµ (1 a + 1 b )R 4 . 3 The tip effects are negligible. . 2 The velocity profiles are linear on both sides of the disk. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the upper surface of the disk at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as du V ωr =µ =µ dr a a Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface and the torque it generates can be expressed as ωr dF = τ w dA = µ dA a ωr 2 dT = rdF = µ dA a Noting that dA = 2πrdr and integrating.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 275 A circular disk immersed in oil is used as a damper. πµR 4 1 1 Tdamping. πµωR 4 1 1 Tdamping. πµωR 4 Tbottom = 2b The total torque acting on the disk is the sum of the torques acting on the top and bottom surfaces. total = Tbottom + Ttop = + 2 a b or. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies. If you are a student using this Manual.
The weight of the liquid column is W = mg = ρgV = ρg ( w × t × h) Equating the vertical component of the surface tension force to the weight gives W = Fsurface → t ρg ( w × t × h) = 2wσ s cos φ Canceling w and solving for h gives the capillary rise to be Capillary rise: 2σ s cos φ h= ρgt Air Liquid W h Discussion The relation above is also valid for nonwetting liquids (such as mercury in glass).. The contact angle is given to be 140°. If you are a student using this Manual.00145 ft = −0. and no contamination on the surfaces of the plates. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission.03015 lbf/ft.45 / 12 ft) Air Mercury h = −0. The density of mercury is ρ = 847 lbm/ft3 at 77°F. Inc. the capillary drop is determined to be h= 32. The contact angle is given to be ϕ. and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass tube. 2 The mercury is open to the atmospheric air. The drop is very small in this case because of the large diameter of the tube. Analysis Substituting the numerical values. 277 A relation is to be derived for the capillary rise of a liquid between two large parallel plates a distance t apart inserted into a liquid vertically. but we can also use this value at 68°F.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s 2 2σ s cos φ 2(0. and gives the capillary drop.440×0.0175 in Discussion The negative sign indicates capillary drop instead of rise. The bottom of the liquid column is at the same level as the free surface of the liquid reservoir. The capillary drop of mercury in the tube is to be determined. This will balance the atmospheric pressure acting from the top surface.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 276E A glass tube is inserted into mercury. and thus these two effects will cancel each other. . Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in mercury. Assumptions There are no impurities in the liquid. Analysis The magnitude of the capillary rise between two large parallel plates can be determined from a force balance on the rectangular liquid column of height h and width w between the plates. 240 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Properties The surface tension of mercuryglass in atmospheric air at 68°F (20°C) is σs = 0.06852 = 0. and thus the pressure there must be atmospheric pressure.2 ft/s 2 )(0.03015 lbf/ft)(cos 140°) = ρgR 1 lbf (847 lbm/ft 3 )(32. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.
R l = 0.008 kg/m ⋅ s) = 0. The torques needed to overcome the bearing friction during startup and steady operation are to be determined.0008 m l During steady operation at 80°C: & 4π 2 (0.30 m) 4π 2 R 3 nL T=µ = (0. the torque is determined to be At start up at 20°C: & 4π 2 (0.30 m) 4π 2 R 3 nL T=µ = (0. Inc. Substituting the given values. you are using it without permission.Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 278 A journal bearing is lubricated with oil whose viscosity is known. .1 kg/m⋅s at 20°C. Analysis The radius of the shaft is R = 0.04 m) 3 (500 / 60 s 1 )(0.04 m. and 0. and is completely filled with oil. 2 The end effects on the sides of the bearing are negligible. Assumptions 1 The gap is uniform.08 cm fluid 279 … 281 Design and Essay Problems 241 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1 kg/m ⋅ s) = 0. Properties The viscosity of oil is given to be 0. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies.008 kg/m⋅s at 80°C.0008 m l Discussion Note that the torque needed to overcome friction reduces considerably due to the decrease in the viscosity of oil at higher temperature.063 N ⋅ m 0.04 m) 3 (500 / 60 s 1 )(0. 3 The fluid is Newtonian. If you are a student using this Manual.79 N ⋅ m 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.