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Forensic Entomology IE

Courtney Seelke Chapter One: The Insect Body

Homology
In order to apply anatomical terms to the different types of insects, one must determine homology. Homology is the identification of anatomical parts that have structural similarity because of a common evolutionary origin. Serial Homology is applied to the same structures on different segments of an individual.

Example: Legs on each segment of an arthropod

tip Longitudinal: parallel to length Transverse: perpendicular to axis ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● . base Distal: farthest from body.Anatomical Positions ● Anterior: front or head Posterior: hind end or tail Dorsal: upper surface or back Ventral: lower surface or belly Lateral: side or outer part Median: middle or inner part Proximal: nearest to body.

Can have modified hairs or setae that function as sensory organs – ● ● Common types: ● Simple Plumose Scales Poison ● ● ● ● Can have spines or apodemes. ● ● . Apophyses connect to the exoskeleton to provide muscle attachments and function as the endoskeleton. Any line seen on the surface of the insect's exoskeleton is a suture.Exoskeleton ● The external support system Made up of sclerites and tough flexible membranous joints.

or Annelida. Snodgrass proposed a sequence of steps leading to the insects that are instructive now. ● . In 1935.The Evolution of Insect Bodies ● Insects evolved from the segmented worms.

with a tubular intestine running nearly the full length. Stage Three: Becomes an arthropod with jointed legs and enlarged sensory apparatus. – ● ● ● ● Head – sense organs. each specialized for a specific duty. as well as airflow – – . Final Stage: Only 3 body regions remain. Thorax – locomotion and houses large muscles Abdomen – reproductive organs and intestines.Evolution Stages ● Stage one: the wormlike ancestor has a cylindrical body. Stage Four: Body regions become specialized. ingesting food. Has become terrestrial. sensing enviroment. Each body segments develops a pair of movable appendages. Stage Two: Aquires a pair of eyes and antennae.

Primary Segments ● Head Thorax Abdomen ● ● There is a distinction made between primary segments. which correspond to true embryonic segments. which are functional subdivisions. . and secondary segments.

How would the muscles move the segments if the soft body wall became sclerotized? ● The evolutionary solution was: 1) Keep the muscles attached to true intersegmental lines 2) Develop the rigid sclerites to include the true intersegmental lines so that the sclerites can be moved by the muscles 3) Place lines of flexibility just in advance of the true intersegmental lines. . a problem arose.Secondary Segmentation ● When insects evolved exoskeletons.

moisture. sounds. salivary ducts. odors and flavors Ventral nerve cord. aorta. trachea. important sense organs and brain Leads the way when the insect moves forward Detects changing physical and chemical properties – ● Articulates with the body at the cervix Contains a large hole in which passes the – ● ● ● Color. touch. foregut. hemolymph and various muscles .Head ● Contains the feeding appendages.

immediately ventral to the head capsule (grasshoppers) Prognathous: mouthparts are directed forward and project anterior to the eyes (beetles) Opisthognathous: the sucking beak is directed toward the rear.Head ● Parts of the Head – – – ● Three positions of the head – Cranium Antennae Mouthparts Hypognathous: mouthparts directed downward. beneath the thorax (Homoptera) – – .

Head . Three facial areas: – ● Other parts of the cranium: – – – – – – – – – – – – – Labroclypeal suture Frontoclypeal suture Gena Clypeogneal suture Subgenal suture Subgena Occipital suture Postoccipital suture Occiput Post occiput Occipital condyles Occipital suture Postgena ● ● ● ● Vertex: summit of the head. minus the appendages.Cranium ● The sclerotized head capsule. Contains compound eyes Internal structure called tentorium Anterior and Posterior tentorial pits mark invaginations of the arms that meet medially to form the tentorial bridge. between & behind eyes Frons: between the antennae & eyes Clypeus: area of cranium where the labrum is attached – – .

distinctive areas to develop in certain groups of insects. ● Special terminology – Postclypeus: the prominent bulge between the eyes that houses the muscles for a sucking pump Anteclypeus: smaller area below the postclypeus Hypostomal or postgenal: secondarily sclerotized forms of Postclyperus and Anteclypeus – ● – .Modifications of the Cranium ● The sutures and areas of the cranium can vary quite a bit due to placement of mouth parts and musculature. Sometimes there are new.

Antenna may pivot on an articular process or antennifer. segmented appendages that attach to the cranium around the area of the compound eyes. The Johnston's organ detects movements of the flagellum ● ● Scape Pedicel Flagellum ● .Head .Antennae ● Paired. Three parts: – – – ● Moved by muscles from the head that insert on the scape.

Modifications of Antennae .

The inner edge is for biting and may be hardened by deposits of zinc. These are muscled as to be individually movable. less massive and retaining the segmentation of an appendage. manganese. and salivary glands . The maxillae are the second pair of jaws. or iron. The tip contains cutting teeth and the base is a grinding surface. Contains: – – – – – ● The mandibles are heavily sclerotized jaws.Head .Mouthparts ● The mandibulate is the basic type from which specialized mouthparts are derived. ● ● Labrum: upper lip Paired mandibles Paired maxillae Labium: lower lip A median tonguelike hypopharynx ● ● ● ● These enclose the true mouth. or preoral cavity.

.Modifications of Mouthparts ● Insect mouthparts vary in structure and function depending on what the insect eats.

● ● Prothorax: forelegs Mesothorax: middle legs Metathorax: hind legs ● – – .Thorax ● This second body division is specialized for locomotion. Three segments: – ● The Thoracic Nota contains the wingbearing sclerite. The Thoracic Pleura provides support and points of attachment for the legs and wings. The Thoracic Sterna is ventral and contains many sutures.

● ● . Insects that fly with the wings coupled tend to have an enlarged mesothorax to accommodate the dominate fore wings. the metathorax is enlarged. In insects that fly with the hind wings.Modifications of the Thorax ● The pterothoracic segments are nearly equal in size and structure in insects that have equal muscular power in both parts of wings.

Legs ● Six segments beginning at base: – – – – – ● Coxa Trochanter Femur Tibia Tarsus ● The pretarsus is moveable by muscles that originate in the tibia and femur. In some insects the pretarsus is a par of ungues.Thorax . or tarsal claws. ● Divided into 5 tarsomeres – Pretarsus . and a arolium.

Modifications of Legs Fossioral legs Raptorial forelegs Saltatorial hind legs Natatorial legs Cursorial Legs Prehensile or Cheliform legs .

cubitus. These include 3 axillary sclerites. Trachea and nerves grow up these channels. The longitudinal wing veins are: costa.Thorax . the wings are saclike on the lateral body walls. The upper and lower sacs partially fuse and leave a system of narrow. and the median plate. anal and jugal ● .Wings ● During development. bloodfilled channels. At maturity most of the channels are transformed into wing veins that support the membranous portions. radius. media. subcosta. the humeral plate. ● The wing base house small articulatory sclerites.

Modifications of Wings .

Also contains a dorsal epiproct and lateral paraprocts on the eleventh segment.Abdomen ● Last body division contains the viscera. most of alimentary canal and dorsal circulatory vessel and reproductive organs On the 8th and 9th segments on the female and the 9th on the males are the external genitalia ● Contains the ovipostior (used for depositing eggs) in the female and the aedeagus (a median intromittent penis) in the males. ● ● .

Abdomen and External Genitalia .

Modifications of the Abdomen Modifications of Cerci Modifications of ovipositors .

and Purcell Google Images . Doyen.References Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity by Daly.