Unix / Linux commands

Unix command ALIAS Description Create abbreviations (aliases) for commands Change the current directory Execute a command at a specified time Details alias abbreviation=command Displays a list of all aliases, standard arguments can be used (-a, -l, etc.). To cancel the alias use the unalias command. F.e. alias my_command='ls -al'. archie filename Search the Archie database for a file on a FTP site. at [-filename][-m] time -filename - Read the command(s) from the file specified. -m = Notify the user by mail when the job is completed. time = The time when the commands are going to be executed. bc To use decimals, type scale = number (of decimal digits). End the calculator with Ctrl-D. bg [%n] %n = Without this parameter it displays the jobs that are currently executed in the background. With a number the process with the given number is executed in the background. & = At the end of a command starts the process in the background. cal [month][year]




Use the calculator


Execute processes in the background


Display the calendar of the current month Cancel requests for printing


cancel [ -u user] print-request Requests can be cancelled by using the printer-id or by specifying the printer name. -u user = Cancel print jobs that are queued for the specified user. cat [-sn] [filenames] If more than one filename is supplied, it is added at the end of the previous file and displayed. -n = Display numbers in ascending order in front of each line.


Display one or more files

-s = Do not comment about nonexistent files. filenames = The filename(s) in the order that you want them to be displayed. CD Change the current directory cd [pathname] Change the current directory to pathname or to root directory if no pathname is given. chgrp groupname filename(s) | directory name(s) Change group of the named file or directory. chmod [ugo,+-,rwx] filename | directory name Change mode permissions of the named file(s) or directory(ies). See File permissions for detailed information. chown username filename | directoryname Change the owner of a file or directory. chsh Change the Unix shell you log into. clear Clears the display. Only the prompt is displayed. cmp filename filename Compares the named files. If they are equal nothing is returned, otherwise it returns the first character and line where the two files differ. compress [-v] filename Compress the named file. The compressed file gets .Z appended to the filename. -v = Ask for verification after compressing the file. cp oldname newname [-r][-i] pathname (cp index.html index1.html) The cp command allows you to copy files to new files, or copy files and directories to new directories. The command line cp index.html otherdir will copy the file index.html to the directory otherdir. -i = Ask before updating a file or directory that exists in the destination with the same name. -r = To copy a directory including its contents to a new directory, recursive. crontab filename [-r][-l][-e] pathname


Change group name Set file access permissions



Change owner


Change shell


Clears display


Compare files


Compress file


Copy a file


Scheduled files

The crontab command allows you to run, delete or edit scheduled tasks. -l = lists your currently scheduled tasks. -r = deletes all currently scheduled tasks. -e = edit your scheduled tasks. DATE List current date and time Disk space info date


df [-k] [filesystem] Shows disk space available on the system. -k = Use 1024 byte blocks instead of the default 512. filesystem = If omitted displays the amount of disk space used and available on all mounted filesystems. du [-aks] [filename | directoryname] Shows how much disk space is being used up by folders. -a = Shows counts for all files encountered, not only directories. -k = Use 1024 byte blocks instead of the default 512. -s = Don't display space usage of subdirectories.


Disk space info


Display the diff textfile1 textfile2 differences between two text files Output string echo characterstring Displays the character string to the standard output device. exit Exit the system or logout. fg [%n] %n = Without this parameter it restarts the job that is currently executed in the background. With a number the process with the given number is restarted in the foreground. & = At the end of a command starts the process in the foreground.



Exit system


Execute processes in the foreground


File classification file filename(s) Shows information about the file type of the filename(s).

Notes Search patterns can be combined. -c = displays only the number of lines that match. ! = negation -o = logical OR One or more search patterns are combined using logical AND.atime n = search for files that have been last accessed before n days.links n = search for files with n links.FIND Search command find directorypath(s) searchpattern action(s) Search the specified directorie(s) for files that satisfy the search pattern and act on them according to the action(s) parameter.-n. User info finger emailaddress Shows more information about a user. . grep [-c.print = display the path(s) of the files found.-v.-y] pattern [filename(s)] Search for a string in a file or files.newer filename = search for files that have been modified more recently than the specified file. gopher Use the Gopher database browser. ftp hostname (or IP address) Connects to a FTP site.-i. gcc option filename Compile source code into a file. -v = displays all other lines except those lines that FINGER FTP FTP to a site GCC Compile source code Connect to Gopher Search in a file GOPHER GREP . . Search-patterns -name filename = search for files with the specified filename.mtime n = search for files that have been last modified before n days. but it asks for approval before the action.exec command = run command for each file found . -n = displays the line number in front of every displayed line.ok command = as exec. .size n = search for files of n blocks (usually 512 or 1024 bytes). . . ( ) or \ \ = these can be used to define groups of search patterns. Actions .-w. . -i = ignore case.

jobs HOSTNAME IRC JOBS Display active processes Terminate process KILL kill [-signr] process_ID Terminate the process with the specified process ID.. -9 = send a definite kill signal.) -C = list entries in columns. -y = case independent pattern matching. -R = list subdirectories as well. the current directory and parent directory entries (. If no number is given the first 10 lines are displayed. . etc. respectively). -F = list directories with /. and .match. -R* = list subdirectories 2 levels below current directory. lower case letters in pattern will also match upper case letters in the input. You can combine switches by placing them one after the other (ls -la. logout LOGOUT Logs off the system lprint Print a file lprintd Abort a print job lprintq List the print queue LS List files in the current directory ls [-CFRR*acdglrstu] [list of filenames or directories] The -a switch will include hidden files (hidden files in UNIX begin with a dot (.. GZIP Compress a file gzip filename Compress a file. -n = the number of lines to display from the top of the file. HEAD Display head of a head [-n] filename(s) file Display the first n lines of the named file(s). -w = matches whole words only. irc hostname (or IP address) Connect to an Internet Relay Chat host.)). Display hostname Connect to IRC hostname Display the name of the host machine.

). man ls. To search for some text. use rm -r directoryname. mv oldname newname password Change the administrator password. pico filename An easy to use text editor. make filename Compile a source code into a file.e. owner..-a = list all entries. including files with a dot (. size. -u = use time of last access (not last modified date) for sorting (with -t) or printing onscreen (with -l). -l = list in long format (mode. -t = sort contents by time of last modified date. etc. and modified date)./) in front of the program name. mkdir -i directoryname To create a directory in the current directory. etc. mkdir directoryname.htaccess. man chmod. you can also delete it using the rmdir command. man command Shows the help on the entered command. If you want to run a program that's in your current directory. If the directory is empty. group. press the forward-slash (/) key and type the text you want to search for. MAKEFILE MAN MKDIR Create a directory MORE List a file MV PASSWORD Rename a file Change password Edit a file PICO . -s = list size in 1024 byte blocks. -d = list directories only. -c = sort entries by last modified date. f. The -i parameter will make the system prompt you before deleting a file or directory. -r = list in reverse order. -g = list hidden files and directories. more filename View a file with a pause after every full screen. you'll need to put a dot-slash (. MAKE Compile source code Compile source code file Read the help make command Compile a source code. To delete a directory and all its contents. no of links. type mkdir followed by the directory name.

rm -r directoryname ( to delete folders with its files). Page user to chat talk username Pages the user for a chat. the user is an e-mail address. TALK TAR TIN. trn Connect to Usenet newsgroups. rz Receive a file using Zmodem. Other methods are lharc.PINE A mailer program pine An easy to use mailer program. unix2dos filename newname Adds the carriage returns (CR) to the Unix text file. sz filename Send a file using Zmodem. but these methods may not be present on your system. lzh. RMDIR RZ SZ Send a file TAIL Show last lines of tail filename a file Show the last few lines of a file. What is the current directory Delete/remove a file Remove a directory Receive a file pwd PWD RM rm filename To delete a single file. rmdir directoryname. TRN Connect to Usenet Connect TELNET DOS2UNIX Conversion of text files Conversion of text files Who is logged in? UNIX2DOS WHO W Who is logged in w . Archive files tar filename Create or extract multiple file archives. and lha. who Shows who is logged into the local system. dos2unix filename newname Strips the carriage returns (CR) from the DOS text file. tin. use rm filename. telnet hostname (or IP address) Connect to an Internet web site.

will be associated with that file. which says who is allowed to do what with the file.the Owner of the file. Therefore there are three types of permissions: r w x . write username Write to a user on the local system (CTRL-C to end it). or the group associated with the folder you created the file in. and Others (everyone else). In UNIX they are referred to using the letters U (for Owner or User). then you are the owner of that file. ZIP Compress to zip Unix & Linux folder & file permissions As a webmaster you need to know how to use the CHMOD command to set folder and file permissions (also referred to as 'file attributes') on UNIX and Linux web servers. execute (run) the file if it's a program or script. If you created the file.members of the group to which the owner belongs .write to the file or directory .execute the file or search the directory Each of these permissions can be set for any one of three types of user: u g o .read the file or directory . anyone in the Group that the file belongs to. On a UNIX web server. There are three things that can be done to files or folders: • • • read the file or folder (this means listing the contents of the file or folder) write to the file.all other users . You need to set the correct file permissions especially with CGI script files when you install them. There are three types of people that can do things to files . and O (for Others).and what are they doing? WRITE Write to a user Shows who is logged into the local system and what they are doing.the user who owns the file (you) . For folders this means accessing files in the folder. For folders this means creating and deleting files in the folder. and your group. zip username Compress to zip for IBM files. G (for Group). Every file (and folder) also has an "owner" and a "group" associated with it. every file and folder stored on the hard drive have a set of permissions associated with it.

it means that permission is not granted. members of the group. the second number determines the group permissions and the third number determines the other permissions. The details look like this: 15Kb 02/01/02 22:45 drwxrwxrwx The string of letters. but only read and executed by the group. representing each of the types of users (the owner. represents the permissions that are set for this folder. and everyone else). write and execute permissions for the owner. and only read by everyone else. There is a 'd' attribute on the left. it would look like this: Read (R) Write (W) Execute (X) No No No No No Yes . Each value corresponds to a certain setting of the read. d r Using numbers You can also use numbers for setting file and folder permissions. drwxrwxrwx. write and execute permissions.CGI script installation pages will tell you to 'CHMOD 755' or 'Set the file to executable'. Each number can have one of eight values ranging from 0 to 7. you'll notice some letters next to the file listings. This all refers to setting the file permissions or attributes. which tells us if this is a file or a folder (directory). the group and for other users. -rwxr--r-A file that can be read and written by the user. Each of the three numbers corresponds to each of the three sections of letters. When you use FTP or Telnet. If any of these letters is replaced with a hyphen (-). These values are added together for any one user category: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 or in a Number 0 1 = execute only = write only = write and execute (1+2) = read only = read and execute (4+1) = read and write (4+2) = read and write and execute (4+2+1) table format. The first number determines the owner permissions. w x r w x r w x Owner Group Other Directory Read Write Execute Read Write Execute Read Write Execute The string of letters breaks down into 3 sections of 3 letters each. For example: drwxrwxrwx A folder which has read. These letters are the current settings for the file or folder permissions.

write and execute permissions for the owner. you can type the 3 digit number. or by selecting CHMOD / Set permissions from a menu option. The above example of CHMOD 755 will be the one used most. group and others using the check boxes. Once you've selected the appropriate menu option.2 3 4 5 6 7 For example: No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes 777 is the same as rwxrwxrwx 755 is the same as rwxr-xr-x Setting permissions using FTP Your FTP program will most likely allow you to set file and folder permissions by selecting the file or folder in the remote window and either right-clicking on it and selecting an option such as CHMOD or Set permissions. you'll see a dialog box similar to the following (this one is from CuteFTP for Windows): Using the screen of your FTP client. . it should be easy to set the read. If you already know which numbers are needed. since almost all CGI scripts need to be 755. The FTP client will change (chmod) the permissions for you.

You must be a member of the group to which you are changing ownership to.g. which means add these permissions. Changing group ownership of files and directories Every user is a member of one or more groups. or you can use the letters. or the equals sign (=).Setting permissions using Telnet The other way to set permissions on your files is using Telnet (or a standard shell). the minus sign (-). . For example: chmod a+x mailform. To find out which groups you belong to use the command: groups. write and execute permission just for the owner (the permissions for the group and for others remain unchanged). You can change the group ownership of a file or directory with the command: chgrp group_name file/directory_name.pl You can use the letters u (owner/user). and r (read). use the command: groups username. to mean all users (u. chmod u=rwx mailform.o). use the command: ls -gl. use the following syntax: chmod xxx filename where "xxx" is the 3 digit number representing the permissions. which means change the permissions to exactly these. You assign permissions using either the plus sign (+).pl adds execute permissions for all users to the file mailform. and o. Checking your folder and file permissions To display the access permissions of a file or directory use the command: ls -l filename (directory) This displays a one line summary for each file or directory. Once you're connected to the server and have logged in. chmod 755 mailform. and filename is the file you want to change. g. Your files and directories are owned by the group (or one of the groups) that you belong to.pl sets read.pl (makes the file executable). You can then use the command chmod to set permissions on your files and folders. change to the folder containing the files you want to change (cd yourdomain/cgi-bin). which means remove these permissions. w (write) and x (execute) to represent the permissions to set. g (group) and o (other) to set permissions for each of the user types. You can use the number notation described above. To set permissions with numbers. To list the group ownership of your files. This is known as group ownership. You can also use a instead of u. To find out which groups another user belongs to.

gz . connect to your web server using a terminal emulation program. you should type the following command at the prompt: cd /usr/dom/www or cd /home/sites/me/web Always start from the root directory (/).Untar a Unix / Linux file How to untar a Unix / Linux file Unzipping files is an important part of downloading Linux files from the Internet.gz.f. you would have to do a command like this: uncompress [filename with all extensions] tar -xvf [filename with only tar extension] Other ways to decompress files are to use: gunzip [filename with .tar [filename].z [filename].gz extension] .gz [filename]. gunzip yourfile. .tgz.gz zcat [filename with . Typically this directory is named 'www'. The file should be uploaded in BINARY format using any FTP program.tar. tar.z Extraction First you upload the .tgz. One of the most popular of these programs is Telnet.tar. Using the above command will save you from having to redirect the output for gzip or anything else (because the z option automatically decompresses the file for you). although there are other common extensions. With files that have the .tar . In Linux a majority of the files that are downloaded are in tgz format (a gnu zipped tar file).e. Enter your username and password when prompted.z extension use this command: tar -zxvf [filename with all extensions] example: tar -zxvf yourfile. as shown here: [filename].e.gz or . If this directory is named 'www'.gz This will extract the file for you in the directory you are currently in. zcat yourfile.f. Once the installation file has been uploaded. or tar.tar.tgz [filename].gz extension] .tar.z file to the directory on your web server designated for public Internet use.tar. otherwise without the z argument. 'htdocs' or 'web'. then change to the directory on your web server designated for Internet use.

Enter your root password to get access to root.z extension] .e.undo the last command SCREEN COMMANDS (CTRL-X means pressing the CTRL key and the X key simultaneously) CTRL-l .cgi chmod 755 *.pl You can also use most FTP clients to change the file attributes.filename is the file to be edited UNDO u . uncompress yourfile. therefore you should set the proper permissions on the program as required. VI Unix editor The vi editor is a shell editor for Unix systems.reprint current screen . Complete documentation is available by typing: man vi START SESSION vi filename .f. It works on all Unix computers.z Not all Unix systems extract archive files with all the necessary permissions intact. then type su at the command line. Use a Telnet or SSH client and login to your web server. 777 (RWX-RWX-RWX) and 755 (RWX-RX-RX) are the most widely used attributes for files relating to running most CGI scripts on a server. Using Telnet type the following at the prompt: chmod -R 777 "directoryname" cd "directoryname" chmod 755 cgi-bin cd cgi-bin chmod 755 *. On a DEC station the Escape key is the F11 key. Enter your username and password.uncompress [filename with . It makes use of a regular keyboard with an Escape key.

move cursor to end of current line SPACE .expose one more line at the top of the screen CTRL-E .move cursor up one line.move cursor forward one character (SPACE is the Space bar) nG . same column h .move cursor forward one character RET .go forward one screen CTRL-B .move cursor backward to the next occurrence of a pattern n .move cursor forward to the next occurrence of a pattern ?pattern .page up half a screen CURSOR POSITIONING COMMANDS j .move the cursor backward to the end of the previous word w .move cursor down one line.repeats the last / or ? pattern search.page down half a screen CTRL-U . .go back one screen CTRL-D .move cursor to the beginning of line n b .move cursor to the beginning of line n (Default is the last line of the file) :n .CTRL-L .move the cursor forward to the next word /pattern .move the cursor backward to the beginning of the previous word e . same column k .expose one more line at the bottom of the screen CTRL-F .move cursor to beginning of current line $ .move cursor back one character l .move cursor to beginning of next line (RET is the Return key) 0 .

open a new line below the current line for text insertion (press ESC key to terminate the command) O .stop text insertion.change case of the current character xp .open a new line above the current line for text insertion (press ESC key to terminate the command) DEL .delete the current line dw .insert text at the beginning of the line (press ESC key to terminate the command) o . (ESC is the Escape key.append text after the cursor (press ESC key to terminate the command) A .change text up to the end of the line C or cc . on a DEC station this is the F11 key) TEXT DELETION COMMANDS x .change remaining text on current line (until terminated with the ESC key) ~ .overwrite the last character during text insertion (DEL is the Delete key) ESC .delete the current word d) .delete from cursor to end of line P .TEXT INSERTION COMMANDS a .delete the rest of the current sentence D or d$ .delete the current character dd .insert text before the cursor (press ESC key to terminate the command) I .change characters of current word (until terminated with the ESC key) c$ .transpose current and following characters .append text at the end of the line (press ESC key to terminate the command) i .put text back from previous delete TEXT MODIFICATION COMMANDS cw .

replace the current character with x R .write changes to current file and quit editing session :q! .places the line in the buffer after the current position of the cursor APPEND FILE COMMANDS :R filename .insert the file filename where the cursor was before the : was typed EXIT COMMANDS ZZ . If telnet is invoked with a host argument. This causes an attempt to negotiate the TELNET BINARY option for both input and output. -E Disables the Escape character functionality.replace the following characters (until terminated with the ESC key) CUT AND PASTE COMMANDS yy . it performs an open command implicitly.exit vi and save changes :wq .J . It begins in command mode. OPTIONS -8 Request 8-bit operation.quit editing session (no changes are made) Telnet commands telnet [-8ELadr] [-S tos] [-e escapechar] [-l user] [-n tracefile] [host [port]] DESCRIPTION The telnet command is used for interactive communication with another host using the TELNET protocol.put the current line in a buffer (does not delete the line from its current position) p .join current line with next line s .delete the current character and go into insertion mode rx . see the description below. where it prints a telnet prompt ("telnet> "). . By default Telnet is not 8-bit clean. sets the Escape character to ``no character''.

-L Specifies an 8-bit data path on output.. under the control of the remote system. In this mode. In ``character at a time'' mode. These codes are accepted only at the beginning of a line. The remote system will also relay changes to any special characters that happen on the remote system. -d Sets the initial value of the debug toggle to TRUE. When input editing or character echoing is to be disabled. or if the localchars toggle is TRUE (the default for ``old line by line``). To obtain a list of available types.. -n tracefile : When LINEMODE is enabled. the default escape character is a tilde. This causes the TELNET BINARY option to be negotiated on just output. There are options (see toggle autoflush and toggle autosynch) which cause this action to flush subsequent output to the terminal (until the remote host acknowledges the TELNET sequence) and flush previous terminal input (in the case of quit and intr). -e escapechar : Sets the escape character to escapechar. In ``old line by line'' mode. The auth command controls the TELNET AUTHENTICATE protocol option. If telnet was compiled without authentication. The ``local echo character'' (initially ``^E'') may be used to turn off and on the local echo (this would mostly be used to enter passwords without the password being echoed). The username is retrieved via getlogin(3). This is accomplished by sending the specified name as the USER environment variable. -r Emulate rlogin(1). all text is echoed locally. This sends the user name via the USER variable of the ENVIRON option if supported by the remote system. no escape character will be used. and may also be used with the open command. character processing is done on the local system. -S tos : Sets the IP type of service (TOS) option for the telnet connection to the value tos. auth argument . The interpretation of the escape character is changed: an escape character followed by a dot causes telnet to disconnect from the remote host. TELNET COMMANDS The following telnet commands are available. the remote system will relay that information. This option implies the -a option. use the auth disable ? command. Unique prefixes are understood as abbreviations. Entering the escape character while connected causes telnet to drop to command mode. and a ^] (the default telnet escape character) generates a normal telnet prompt. the user's quit. the auth command will not be supported. If the LINEMODE option is enabled. . -l user : Specify user as the user to log in as on the remote system. and only completed lines are sent to the remote host. If LINEMODE has ever been enabled. so that they can take effect on the local system. and quit is sent as a TELNET ABORT instead of BREAK. A ^Z instead of a dot suspends telnet. intr. Valid arguments are: disable type Disable the specified type of authentication. -a Attempt automatic login. If no character is supplied. so it requires that the remote system supports the TELNET ENVIRON option. and sent as TELNET protocol sequences to the remote side. most text typed is immediately sent to the remote host for processing. then the user's susp and eof are also sent as TELNET protocol sequences. and flush characters are trapped locally.

use the authenable ? command. -input This is the same as ``encrypt stop input''. encryption of both input and output is started. To obtain a list of available types. status List the current status of the various types of authentication. To obtain a list of available types. If you do not specify input or output. -output This is the same as ``encrypt stop output''.. If you do not specify input or output. The USER variable is marked to be sent if the -a or -l command line options were used. The environ command is used to propagate environment variables across the telnet link using the TELNET ENVIRON protocol option. If you do not specify input or output. but only the DISPLAY and PRINTER variables are marked to be sent by default. environ arguments. encryption of both is disabled. Valid arguments are: define variable value . All variables exported from the shell are defined. encryption of both is enabled. type type Sets the default type of encryption to be used with later ``encrypt start'' or ``encrypt stop'' commands. enable type [input|output] Enable the specified type of encryption. status Display the current status of the encryption module. stop [input|output] Stop encrypting. use ``encrypt disable ?''. output This is the same as ``encrypt start output''. input This is the same as ``encrypt start input''.. encryption of both is stopped. Valid arguments are: disable type [input|output] Disable the specified type of encryption. To obtain a list of available types. start [input|output] Attempt to begin encrypting. If you do not specify input or output.enable type Enable the specified type of authentication. use ``encrypt enable ?''.

softtabs (-softtabs) Attempt to enable (disable) the SOFT_TAB mode of the LINEMODE option This requires that the LINEMODE option be enabled. ? Prints out help information for the environ command. logout Send the TELNET LOGOUT protocol option to the remote host. This requires that the LINEMODE option be enabled. After establishing a connection. then enter ``character at a time`` mode. mode type Type is one of several options. then attempt to enter ``old-line-by-line`` mode. list List the current set of environment variables. and blank lines. The remote host may still ask for variables that are not exported. character Disable the TELNET LINEMODE option. edit (-edit) Attempt to enable (disable) the EDIT mode of the LINEMODE option. This command is similar to a close command. isig (-isig) Attempt to enable (disable) the TRAPSIG mode of the LINEMODE option. nothing happens. The remote host may still ask for the rest.unexport variable Do not mark the specified variable for propagation to the remote host. or if the remote side does not understand the LINEMODE op tion. are ignored. Telnet asks the remote host to go into the requested mode. If the remote side also supports the concept of suspending a user's session for later reattachment. This requires that the LINEMODE option be enabled. Those marked with a * will be propagated to the remote host. Protocol negotiation can be forced by placing a dash before the port number. But if it does. Upon . or if the remote side does not understand the LINEMODE option.telnetrc file are executed. It is possible to connect to services that do not support the telnet protocol without creating problems. indented by whitespace lines beginning without whitespace are interpreted as hostnames. depending on the state of the session. this command should cause it to close the connection. the logout command indicates that the session should be terminated immediately. The rest of the file should consist of hostnames and sequences of telnet commands to use with that host. litecho (-litecho) Attempt to enable (disable) the LIT_ECHO mode of the LINEMODE option. If the remote host does not support the LOGOUT option. If the remote host says it can. The format of the . line Enable the TELNET LINEMODE option. that mode takes effect. Commands should be one per line. This requires that the LINEMODE option be enabled.telnetrc file is as follows: Lines beginning with a #. any commands associated with the remote host in the user's .

synch Sends the TELNET SYNCH sequence. This sequence causes the remote system to discard all previously typed but not yet read input. eor Sends the TELNET EOR (End of Record) sequence. which should cause the remote system to erase the last character entered. to which the remote system may or may not choose to respond. el Sends the TELNET EL (Erase Line) sequence. eof Sends the TELNET EOF (End Of File) sequence. An end of file condition on input. ga Sends the TELNET GA (Go Ahead) sequence. send arguments Send one or more special telnet protocol character sequences to the remote host. This sequence is sent as TCP urgent data and if it doesn't work. which should cause the remote system to erase the line currently being entered. which should cause the remote system to flush all output from the remote system to the user's terminal. do cmd . ayt Sends the TELNET AYT (Are You There?) sequence. a lower case ``r'' may be echoed on the terminal. quit Close any open session and exit telnet. which likely susp Sends the TELNET SUSP (Suspend Process) sequence. which may have significance to the remote system. ao Sends the TELNET AO (Abort Output) sequence. when in command mode. brk Sends the TELNET BRK (Break) sequence. The following are the codes which may be specified (more than one may be used in one command): abort Sends the TELNET ABORT (Abort Processes) sequence.connecting to a particular host. the commands associated with hat host are executed. escape Sends the current telnet escape character. will trigger this operation as well. ec Sends the TELNET EC (Erase Character) sequence.

The values of variables may be interrogated with the display command. and suppressing echoing of entered characters (f. The special value off turns off the function associated with the variable. or LINEMODE is enabled. The unset command will disable or set to FALSE any of the specified variables. a password). In addition. eof If telnet is operating in LINEMODE or ``old line by line'' mode. forw1 forw2 If TELNET is operating in LINEMODE. The initial value for the "Are You There" character is the terminal's status character. echo This is the value (initially ``^E'') which.dont cmd will cmd wont cmd Sends the TELNET DO cmd sequence. The initial value for the forwarding characters are taken from the terminal's eol and eol2 characters. are listed here. The variables which may be set or unset. toggles between doing local echoing of entered characters for normal processing. ? Prints out help information for the send command. any of the variables for the toggle command may be explicitly set or unset. ayt If telnet is in localchars mode. including a list of known symbolic names. when in ``line by line'' mode. This is equivalent to using the unset command. a TELNET AYT sequence is sent to the remote host. a TELNET AO sequence is sent to the remote host. set argument value unset argument value The set command will set any one of a number of telnet variables to a specific value or to TRUE. Cmd can also be either help or ? to print out help information. or a symbolic name for a specific TELNET command. these are the characters that. . a TELNET IP sequence is sent to the remote host. and the status character is typed. cause partial lines to be forwarded to the remote system. when typed. interrupt If telnet is in localchars mode and the interrupt character is typed. but not toggled. flushoutput If telnet is in localchars mode and the flushoutput character is typed. The initial value for the flush character is taken to be the terminal's flush character.e. Cmd can be either a decimal number between 0 and 255. The initial value for the interrupt character is taken to be the terminal's intr character. entering this character as the first character on a line will cause this character to be the end of file.

a TELNET SUSP sequence is sent to the remote host. reprint If telnet is operating in LINEMODE or ``old line by line`` mode. the local side will switch to the remote value.kill If telnet is in localchars mode and if telnet is operating in ``character at a time'' mode. then this character is taken to be the terminal's reprint character. By default. caused by netdata or option tracing being TRUE. The initial value for the quit character is taken to be the terminal's quit character. The initial value for the kill character is taken to be the terminal's kill character. then this character is taken to be the terminal's worderase character. The initial value for the reprint character is taken to be the terminal's reprint character. and the suspend character is typed. Special characters are characters that get mapped to TELNET commands sequences (ip or quit) or line editing characters (erase and kill). then this character is taken to be the terminal's lnext character. The initial value for the suspend character is taken to be the terminal's suspend character. and if there are any discrepancies with the local side. a TELNET BRK sequence is sent to the remote host. If it is set to ``-''. then tracing information will be written to standard output. quit If telnet is in localchars mode and the quit character is typed. then when this character is typed. as with the r commandline option. worderase If telnet is operating in LINEMODE or ``old line by line`` mode. The initial value for the lnext character is taken to be the terminal's lnext character. check Verify the current settings for the current special characters. the local special characters are exported. Setting it enables rlogin mode. rlogin This is the rlogin mode escape character. susp If telnet is in localchars mode. will be written. a TELNET EL sequence is sent to the remote system. The remote side is requested to send all the current special character settings. lnext If telnet is operating in LINEMODE or ``old line by line`` mode. slc state The slc command (Set Local Characters) is used to set or change the state of the the special characters when the TELNET LINEMODE option has been enabled. tracefile This is the file to which the output. ? Displays the legal set (unset) commands. or LINEMODE is enabled. The initial value for the worderase character is taken to be the terminal's worderase character. .

This includes the name of the remote host. the resulting telnet sequence sent is followed by the TELNET SYNCH sequence. autodecrypt When the TELNET ENCRYPT option is negotiated. otherwise FALSE (see stty(1)). the user's login name is propagated using the TELNET ENVIRON option.. then when either the intr or quit characters is typed. status Show the current status of telnet. This procedure should cause the remote system to begin discarding all previously typed input until both of the telnet sequences have been read and acted upon. The local default characters are those of the local terminal at the time when telnet was started. . The initial value for this toggle is TRUE if the terminal user had not done an "stty noflsh". autosynch If autosynch and localchars are both TRUE. then carriage returns will be send as <CR><NUL>. binary Enable or disable the TELNET BINARY option on both input and output. Setting this flag is the same as specifying the a option to the open command or on the command line. then carriage returns will be sent as <CR><LF>.. The autoencrypt (autodecrypt) command states that encryption of the output (input) stream should be enabled as soon as possible. autologin If the remote side supports the TELNET AUTHENTICATION option. as well as the current mode. This flag exists only if encryption support is enabled. import Switch to the remote defaults for the special characters.export Switch to the local defaults for the special characters. outbinary Enable or disable the TELNET BINARY option on output. If the TELNET AUTHENTICATION option is not supported. crlf If this is TRUE. inbinary Enable or disable the TELNET BINARY option on input. by default the actual encryption (decryption) of the data stream does not start automatically. If this is FALSE. telnet attempts to use it to perform automatic authentication. toggle arguments . The remote default characters are those of the remote system at the time when the TELNET connection was established. The initial value for this toggle is FALSE. The initial value of this toggle is FALSE. ? Prints out help information for the slc command. Toggle (between TRUE and FALSE) various flags that control how system acknowledges (via a TELNET TIMING MARK option) that it has processed those TELNET sequences.

crmod Toggle carriage return mode. This flag only exists if encryption support is available. localchars If this is TRUE, then the flush, interrupt, quit, erase, and kill characters are recognized locally, and transformed into appropriate TELNET control sequences (respectively ao, ip, brk, ec, and el). The initial value for this toggle is TRUE in ``old line by line'' mode, and FALSE in ``character at a time'' mode. When the LINEMODE option is enabled, the value of localchars is ignored, and assumed to always be TRUE. If LINEMODE has ever been enabled, then quit is sent as abort, and eof and are sent as eof and susp. netdata Toggles the display of all network data in hexadecimal format. The initial value for this toggle is FALSE. options Toggles the display of some internal telnet protocol processing. The initial value for this toggle is FALSE. prettydump When the netdata toggle is enabled, if prettydump is enabled the output from the netdata command will be formatted in a more user readable format. Spaces are put between each character in the output, and the beginning of telnet escape sequences are preceded by a '*' to aid in locating them. skiprc When the skiprc toggle is TRUE, telnet does not read the .telnetrc file. The initial value for this toggle is FALSE. termdata Toggles the display of all terminal data (in hexadecimal format). The initial value for this toggle is FALSE. verbose_encrypt When the verbose_encrypt toggle is TRUE, TELNET prints out a message each time encryption is enabled or disabled. The initial value for this toggle is FALSE. This flag only exists if encryption support is available. ? Displays the legal toggle commands. z Suspend telnet. This command only works when the user is using Telnet uses at least the HOME, SHELL, DISPLAY, and TERM environment variables. Other environment variables may be propagated to the other side via the TELNET ENVIRON option. NOTE: on some remote systems, echo has to be turned off manually when in ``old line by line'' mode. In ``old line by line'' mode or LINEMODE the terminal's eof character is only recognized and sent to the remote system when it is the first character on a line.

1 Introduction This is my own summary of useful Linux abbreviations, directories, files, and commands. I use my own annotations to recall useful options and arguments that are not necessarily documented in easy-to-find places. I quite often call up this file when I can't remember the syntax of a command that I use often (but not often enough to remember the syntax!). I also editorialize on the relative usefulness of different types of programs. This document is work in progress. Send suggested changes and corrections to ambler.steven@uqam.ca O'Reilly has just published online an alphabetical list of commands from Linux in a Nutshell. It is available here. It contains more detailed explanations of many of the commands listed here. 2 Shorthand at the Command Prompt Some of these are specific to the bash shell. I have not experimented enough with other shells to know which are common to all shells. See also the ``Bash Reference Card'', SSC (2000), available online. • / - root directory • ./ - current directory • ./command_name - run a command in the current directory when the current directory is not on the path • ../ - parent directory • ~ - home directory • $ - typical prompt when logged in as ordinary user • # - typical prompt when logged in as root or superuser • ! - repeat specified command • !! - repeat previous command • ^^ - repeat previous command with substitution • & - run a program in background mode • [Tab][Tab] - prints a list of all available commands. This is just an example of autocomplete with no restriction on the first letter. • x[Tab][Tab] - prints a list of all available completions for a command, where the beginning is ``x'' • [Alt][Ctrl][F1] - switch to the first virtual text console • [Alt][Ctrl][Fn] - switch to the nth virtual text console. Typically, there are six on a Linux PC system. • [Alt][Ctrl][F7] - switch to the first GUI console, if there is one running. If the graphical console freezes, one can switch to a nongraphical console, kill the process that is giving problems, and switch back to the graphical console using this shortcut. • [ArrowUp] - scroll through the command history (in bash) • [Shift][PageUp] - scroll terminal output up. This also works at the login prompt, so you can scroll through your boot messages. • [Shift][PageDown] - scroll terminal output down • [Ctrl][Alt][+] - switch to next X server resolution (if the server is set up for more than one resolution) • [Ctrl][Alt][-] - change to previous X server resolution • [Ctrl][Alt][BkSpc] - kill the current X server. Used when normal exit is not possible. • [Ctrl][Alt][Del] - shut down the system and reboot • [Ctrl]c - kill the current process • [Ctrl]d - logout from the current terminal • [Ctrl]s - stop transfer to current terminal • [Ctrl]q - resume transfer to current terminal. This should be tried if the terminal stops responding. • [Ctrl]z - send current process to the background • reset - restore a terminal to its default settings

[Leftmousebutton] - Hold down left mouse button and drag to highlight text. Releasing the button copies the region to the text buffer under X and (if gpm is installed) in console mode. • [Middlemousebutton] - Copies text from the text buffer and inserts it at the cursor location. With a two-button mouse, click on both buttons simultaneously. It is necessary for three-button emulation to be enabled, either under gpm or in XF86Config. 3 Typical Dot Files There is some redundancy across these programs. For example, the look and behavior of emacs can be customized by usinng the .emacs file, but also by adding the appropriate modifications to the .Xdefaults file. Default versions of these files are often installed in users' home directories when the software packages that use them are installed. If a program doesn't find its configuration file in the user's home directory, it will often fall back on a sytem-wide default configuration file installed in one of the subdirectories that the package lives in. • .bash_logout - file executed by bash shell on logout • .bash_profile - initialization of bash shell run only on login. Bash looks first for a .bash_profile file when started as a login shell or with the -login option. If it does not find .bash_profile, it looks for .bash_login. If it doesn't find that, it looks for .profile. System-wide functions and aliases go in /etc/bashrc and default environment variables go in /etc/profile. • .bashrc - initialization command run when bash shell starts up as a non-login shell • .cshrc - initialization commands that are run automatically (like autoexec.bat) when C shell is initiated • • • • • • • • • • • .emacs - configuration file for emacs editor .fvwmrc - configuration file for fvwm window manager .fvwm2rc - configuration file for fvwm2 window manager .jedrc - configuration file for the jed text editor .lessrc - typically contains key bindings for cursor movement with the less command .login - initialization file when user logs in .logout - commands run when user logs out .wm_style - gives choice of default window manager if one is not specified in startx .Xdefaults - sets up X resources for individual user. The behavior of many different application programs can be changed by modifying this file. .xinitrc - initialization file when running startx. Can be used to activate applications, run a given window manager, and modify the appearance of the root window. .xsession - configuration file for xdm

4 Useful Files • /boot/vmlinuz - the typical location and name of the Linux kernel. In the Slackware distribution, the kernel is located at /vmlinuz.

/etc/fstab .allow . Used in conjunction with the eval command (see below). Most often.used to store colors for different file types when using ls command. daily.similar to /etc/passwd but for groups /etc/inetd. The dircolors command uses this file when there is not a .used when you want to send output into oblivion /etc/aliases .file containing aliases used by sendmail and other MTAs (mail transport agents).modules .first IDE hard drive /dev/hdc .second floppy disk drive /dev/hda .conf . /etc/exports .shell script to run different commands periodically (hourly. weekly. Red Hat and Mandrake do not contain these device driver files by default.hosts forbidden (by the tcpd daemon) to access Internet services /etc/group .aliases and options for configurable modules /etc/crontab .5" diskette with up to 1. /etc/hosts. A good start to securing a Linux box is to turn off these services unless they are necessary. monthly.) /etc/DIR_COLORS .configures the inetd daemon to tell it what TCP/IP services to provide (which daemons to load at boot time). Man exports contains information on how to set up this file for remote users.• • /dev/fd0 . it is necessary to run the newaliases utility for the changes to be passed to sendmail. Generally.on many machines.hosts allowed (by the tcpd daemon) to access Internet services /etc/hosts.contains a list of host names and absolute IP addresses. /etc/bashrc . there is a symbolic link called /dev/cdrom which is just a link to the true cdrom driver file. this is invoked when formatting a floppy drive for a particular density. Slackware comes with drivers that allow for formatting a 3. After updating this file. /dev/fd1 .contains information on partitions and filesystems used by system to mount different partitions and devices on the directory tree /etc/HOSTNAME .system-wide default functions and aliases for the bash shell /etc/conf. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . /dev/null .7MB of space.deny . etc.dir_colors file in the user's home directory.specifies hosts to which file systems can be exported using NFS.driver for the first floppy drive in high density mode.first floppy disk drive /dev/fd0H1440 . the IDE cdrom drive.stores the name of the host computer /etc/hosts .

contains a list of terminals on which root can login. For security reasons. It is this file in Slackware that sets up the DIR_COLORS environment variable for the color ls command. For obvious security reasons. and running xdm for a graphical login prompt (only if the default runlevel is set for a graphical login).runs different programs and processes on startup.d/rc.cpu information /proc/filesystems . /etc/resolv. /etc/lilo. This is often overwitten by the /etc/rc. terminals. See the remarks in connection with /etc/issue. /etc/printcap .sets system-wide defaults for bash shell.S (Slackware) or /etc/rc. and perhaps other rpm-based distributions).prints interrupts currently in use /proc/ioports .contains a list of the i/o addresses used by various devices connected to the computer • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . among other things.X configuration file.contains a list of domain name servers used by the local machine /etc/securetty .conf . This is typically the program which is responsible for.contains passwords and other information concerning users who are registered to use the system. This is often overwritten by /etc/rc. printed immediately after login.• /etc/inittab . this should not include dialup terminals. The location in Slackware is /etc/XF86Config.conf .local (Mandrake/Red Hat) on startup.configuration file for lilo boot loader /etc/motd . It can be modified by root directly. and printers /etc/X11/XF86Config . /etc/termcap .d.shows the setup of printers /etc/profile .sysinit script contained in /etc/rc.ASCII database defining the capabilities and characteristics of different consoles.shows currently mounted devices and partitions and their status /etc/passwd . The relevant lines should be commented out (or changed) in these scripts if a custom pre-login message is desired. this is readable only by root. /etc/issue . running the rc script in /etc/rc. /proc/cpuinfo .d/rc. Also sets up other system-wide environment variables.prints filesystems currently in use /proc/interrupts .local script (in Mandrake and Red Hat. /etc/mtab .S script (in Slackware) or by the /etc/rc. setting the default runlevel. A corrupt /etc/passwd file can easily render a Linux box unusable.d/rc.d/rc.pre-login message. bringing down the system in an orderly fashion in response to [Ctrl][Alt][Del].d. running the rc.message of the day file. but it is preferable to use a configuration utility such as passwd to make the changes. setting up virtual login terminals.

/proc/version .contains most of the initialization scripts themselves on an rpm-based system.essential UNIX commands such as ls. It's also possible to use the free command to get the same information (and more).d .d.where ``*'' is a number corresponding to the default run level.d . NFS. and an rc.contains a number of shell scripts that are run on bootup at different run levels. along the lines of autoexec. • • • • • • /bin .d . which are in /etc/rc. /etc/rc. etc. an rc.bat in DOS.modules script to load modular device drivers.contains scripts that are run by /etc/profile upon login. /etc/rc.inet1 script to set up networking (in Slackwar).used by syslog daemon to store kernel boot-time messages /var/log/lastlog .contains binary data indicating login times and duration for each user on system • • • • 5 Important Directories Different distributions have different directory structures. Should contain all binaries needed to boot the system or run it in single-user mode /boot .d . etc. There is also typically an rc. and mail. Includes tables of disks to mount. despite attempts at standardization such as the the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) organization.d/init.local script that can be edited to run commands desired by the administrator.configuration files for the X Window system /home .used by system to store information about last boot /var/log/wtmp . On rpm-based systems.d/init. /etc/rc.home directories of individual users /lib . /etc/skel .files used during booting and possibly the kernel itself are stored here /dev . these files are symbolic links to the initialization scripts themselves.standard shared library files • • • • • • . /etc/X11 .• /proc/kcore .files used by subsystems such as networking. Contains files for services to be started and stopped at that run level. processes to run on startup.prints Linux version and other info /var/log/messages .d/rc*. Often contains subdirectories and files used to populate a new user's home directory.The command ls -l /proc/kcore will give the amount of RAM on the computer.contains device files for various devices on system /etc . /etc/profile.directory containing several example or skeleton initialization shells.

which contains executable binaries related to the X Window system /usr/doc .virtual file system that provides a number of system statistics /root .location of program documentation files under Mandrake and Red Hat /usr/src . etc.other commands used by superuser for system administration /usr/share .location of manual page files /usr/sbin .typical mount point for many user-mountable devices such as floppy drives. /usr/bin . The /bin directory is generally located on the same disk partition as /. so putting binaries essential for boot here is not a good idea. Each device is mounted on a subdirectory of /mnt.contains subdirectories where many installed programs have configuration.primary location of the GNU info system files /usr/lib . configuration. Should not contain binaries necessary for booting the system. /usr/bin/X11 .contains most user commands. which is mounted in read-only mode during the boot process. Source code for programs of all types are often unpacked in this directory.home directory for root /sbin .o extensions /mnt . /proc .directory specifically designed for programs and users to store temporary files.• • • • • • • • /lib/modules . • • • • • • • • • • • • .standard location of include files used in C programs such as stdio.directory containing a number of subdirectory with programs. Searched by the linker when programs are compiled. cd-rom readers.most often a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.a.yet another place to look for comon executables /usr/man . libraries.standard library files such as libc.modular device driver files. etc.h /usr/info .location of binaries used for system administration. /usr/lib/X11 .location of source programs used to build system. which go in /bin. most with . setup and auxiliary files /usr/share/doc . /usr .X Window system distribution /usr/local/bin . Other filesystems are only mounted at a later stage during startup.location of miscellaneous documentation. and the main location of program documentation files under Slackware /usr/include . and monitoring /tmp . documentation.

package installation scripts in Slackware are stored here.bashrc file.contains files.bash_profile file which is run when an xterm is started. /etc/profile adds /usr/X11R6/bin. A great reference for bash shell variable. On my Slackware box.directory paths to search for executable files. the command line prompt is set in /etc/profile. which sets the prompt. . On my Linux box.sysinit. /var/log/scripts . See p. each of which has detailed information on an installed package in Slackware. used by various utilities /var/log/packages . You can inspect these scripts to see what special features are included in individual packages.home directory. Each package file contains a short description plus a list of all installed files. • • 7 Important Daemons and Startup Services These are programs or processes which are run at boot time. p. bash builtin commands. Most are started and stopped with scripts in the . which is one of the shell scripts invoked by the init process (inittab).name of file that mail is stored in (mailbox) MAILCHECK . The xterm and rxvt prompts are different.secondary prompt string.sets the frequency at which bash checks for mail PATH . It is not set by /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XTerm. \t (time). On my Red Hat boxes. I also have a . which means that the path must be set before by another configuration file.bash_profile adds /home/ambler/bin. the primary prompt string is set in the /etc/bashrc file. PS1 . /var/spool . The same file can also be found at /var/adm/packages. • • • • HOME . \u (username). since I don't have a . I don't know where the prompt is set in X sessions. The . which in turn runs /etc/bashrc. This means that the same prompt is used by xterm and rxvt in X sessions. /etc/profile adds /usr/X11R6/bin to the path. \w (absolute pathname of working directory). Things that can be put in the prompt string include \h (hostname). In fact.d/rc. since the adm subdirectory is a symbolic link to log.bash_profile file in my home directory adds /home/ambler/bin to the path. PS2 . According to A Practical Guide to Linux. abbreviated as ~ MAIL . etc. \W (name of working directory w/o path).331 of A Practical Guide to Linux for more details. the first command to set the path would seem to be in /etc/rc. the PATH is set in /etc/profile. On my Linux box.prompt string.• • • /usr/src/linux . Some remain in memory to execute various tasks when required (daemons). Contains the kernel sources. mail that has not yet been picked up. • • 6 Important Bash Shell Variables These variables are most often inherited or declared when a shell is started.often a symbolic link to a subdirectory whose name corresponds to the exact version of the Linux kernel that is running. The prompt is also set in /etc/profile.329. and bash in general is SSC (2000). but the setting in bashrc seems to take precedence.administrative files such as log files. Finally. \d (date). /var .temporary storage for files being printed. Then.

The www. that support apm. Daemons.implements the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and the Internet Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP).mandrakeuser. The utility chkconfig is also designed to query and configure runtime services for different runlevels.font server in Mandrake fetchmail .d/init. installing the Apache package will cause an httpd script to be placed in /etc/rc.keeps watch for ethernet IP address pairings that are resolved using the ARP protocol.control the operation of automount daemons. The exact contents of this directory will depend on which packages from a particular distribution are installed. apmd . especially laptops. Services'' chapter of the CTDP (2000a) document. There are man pages on most of these.runs the automount daemon for remote filesystem mounting such as nfs anacron .d directory (see above). drakfont . atd . such as rotating log files. A good source of information on daemons and services is the ``Linux Devices. arpwatch . although I haven't tried it. For example.d. Monitors battery status and can shut down the system if power is too low.routing daemon that handles multiple routing protocols and replaces routed and egpup • • • • • • • • • • • .automatic task scheduler./etc/rc.daemon for print services under the Common Unix Printer System.org site has a good page on common services/daemons. etc. cups . used to mount and unmount devices on demand bootparamd . A server process that provides information to diskless clients necessary for booting crond . cleaning up /tmp directories.checks delayed `cron' tasks (see below) at boot time and executes them. The Red Hat program tksysv (ntsysv is the non graphical version) allows root to automatically configure which of these are started automatically at boot time.runs jobs queued by `at' autofs .Advanced Power Management BIOS daemon.allows computers to boot from a Linux machine using the BOOTP network protocol. a replacement for lpd dhcpd . Manages the execution of tasks that are executed at regular but infrequent intervals. Used to lease out IP addresses to remote machines. The linuxconf program does the same thing. For use on machines.daemon to fetch mail at regular intervals from mail servers ftpd . Useful if you have cron jobs scheduled but don't run your machine all the time. especially those included in recent versions of the Mandrake distribution.ftp server daemon gated . • • • amd .d/init.

• • • gpm .the Apache webserver hypertext transfer protocol daemon identd . Used for configuring a gateway/firewall. network -activates all network interfaces at boot time by calling scripts in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .The identd server provides a means to determine the identity of a user of a particular TCP connection. inetd . telnetd.line printer and print spooler daemon mcserv . particularly dial-in services. If the system does not have a portmapper.0 at the time of writing). thereby economizing on system resources.daemon for packet forwarding.Usenet news server daemon ipchains . In the latest version of Red Hat (7. If the system has a portmapper running. mysql .useful mouse server for applications running on the Linux console.``startup hook'' needed for the linuxconf system configuration tool lpd .provides DNS services netfs .server program for the Midnight Commander networking file system.). Under many distributions. then the port will be registered with the portmapper and thus clients will automatically connect to the right port. then a port should be manually specified with the -p option (see below). it has been replaced by xinetd. httpd .for users of ISDN cards kerneld . isdn provides ISDN network interfacing services isdn4linux .detects and configures new or changed hardware during boot linuxconf . This daemon can automatically load and unload other daemons (ftpd. it returns a character string which identifies the owner of that connection on the server's system. inetd will execute scripts in the file /etc/inetd. smb and ncp shares on boot.database server daemon named . If the program is run as root the program will try to get a reserved port otherwise it will use 9876 as the port. etc. innd .conf. Given a TCP port number pair. only the Midnight Commander file manager).automatically loads and unloads kernel modules keytable .network filesystem mounter. A partial list of services controlled by inetd is listed below. It provides access to the host file system to clients running the Midnight file system (currently.listens for service requests on network connections.loads the appropriate keyboard map from /etc/sysconfig/ keyboard kheader kudzu . Used for mounting nfs.

server which maintains the database used by the rwho(1) and ruptime(1) programs. Requests are • . qmail.random number generating daemon.needed for running SAMBA snmpd . destination.daemon for managing sound squid . Now the default on desktop installations of Mandrake. which can restrict access to services based on type of service.database server daemon random .mail transfer agent.used for exporting nfs shares when requested by remote systems nfslock . designed for the exchange of electronic mail messages. smtpd. Allows users on a network to get performance statistics for any connected machine. related to security and encryption routed .needed for Remote Procedure Calls postfix . postgresql . rsmtpd. etc. sendmail . Others.starts and stops nfs file locking service numlock . zmail.provides services that allow users to find one another over the network rwalld . including sendmail.provides Simple Network Management Protocol support sound . Several daemons that support SMTP are available. are not included.generic services for pcmcia cards in laptops portmap .web page proxy server daemon syslogd . rusersd . smb . This is the agent that comes with Red Hat.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • nfsd .from the tcp_wrappers package.manages routing tables rstatd . origin of request. Its operation is predicated on the ability to broadcast messages on a network.mail transport agent which is a replacement for sendmail.Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.allows users to use rwall to write messages on remote terminals rwhod .manages system log files smtpd .locks numlock key at init runlevel change pcmcia .deny files. such as smtpd.allow and hosts.kernel statistics server. Intercepts requests normally handled by inetd and filters them through the files hosts. tcpd . etc.

Fast. Enlightenment .a custom configuration for fvwm2 which mimics the look and feel of Windows95. They are quite configurable. but configuration involves editing text files which are sometimes obscure. • • .org. This is the default window manager on many commercial Unix systems. but is very small.NIS binder. It has very few features. CDE . Provides a means to syncronize time over the network. but a bit of a resource hog. fast.X font server xinetd .daemon for webmin web-based system administration program ypbind .Network Time Protocol daemon.conf.a light. are old standbies in the Linux world. Light Window Manager. Fvwm .F (?) Virtual Window Manager. Blackbox .implementation of Fvwm2 configured to look and feel like Windows 95. Fvwm2 .Based on Fvwm. See http://winman. along with Fvwm2. xinetd replaces inetd as the default network services daemon in Red Hat 7. There is no free version. Needed if computer is part of Network Information Service domain.more modern replacement for inetd.intercepted because calls to particular services are replaced with calls to tcpd in /etc/inetd. This. but it gets the job done efficiently. It doesn't clutter the screen with too much junk. window manager.0.telnet server daemon usb . It apparently allows for similar kinds of access filters to the ones used by tcpd in conjunction with inetd. and probably the coolest looking window manager. • • • • telnetd .Very configurable. Designed to give a similar look and feel to the NextStep interface.Common Desktop Environment. • • • • • • • Afterstep . webmin . Fvwm95 .newer version of above. AnotherLevel . xntpd .daemon for devices on Universal Serial Bus xfs . • • • 8 Window Managers The ``Window Managers for X'' site is extremely useful for keeping track of new Linux window managers. Flwm .

Kwm . a toolbar. There are also a couple of thirdparty programs available which allow the user to configure Icewm using a graphical interface.x. I may be wrong. up to twelve virtual desktops.K Desktop Environment. In early development stages.Ice Window Manager. Icewm .Motif window manager. Highly configurable and themable.a small. this one is my favorite. • • • • • • • • • • 9 Alphabetical List of Principal Commands In the following command list.the window manager that comes with the KDE desktop environment. with one-click switching from one to the other. efficient. Sawfish .• Gnome . On rpm-based systems. to find out which package owns the command foo (where foo is a standalone executable). so many that it would be difficult to include them all here.Tab window manager. Includes its own window manager.``Cholesterol-Free Desktop Environment''. It is completely configurable with menus. XFce . Many of the desktop utilities can be run under different window managers. The shell builtins are indicated. use the command rpm -q -f foo. including Linux. and a file manager. There are different chapters which group commands in different categories. configurable window manager that is now the default window manager with Gnome.One of the more popular window managers. but the syntax is extremely easy to understand. An attempt to create a new type of desktop environment for Unix machines. In many cases. and easy on system resources. UDE . A themable collection of desktop utilities that can be used with different window managers. Unfortunately. There are now many utilities that are included with either the Gnome or the KDE desktop environments. On low memory/small hard drive machines. but I believe kikbd is the only program out there that allows the user to reconfigure the keyboard layout to different national keyboards on the fly. Another good source of information on commands is the CTDP (2000b) document. I find it easy to use and to configure.Gnome desktop environment. Olwm . this utility is no longer available under KDE 2. Windowmaker . etc. . they are commands which are internal to a shell such as bash (shell builtins). KDE . Very small. the distinction between upper case and lower case letters is important. Twm . very fast. a sound manager. they duplicate the functionality of one or more of the programs listed below. I would suggest consulting the online documentation for these packages.Open Look window manager. quite configurable. In some cases. The current default window manager for a gnome session is Sawfish. Mwm . It has tearoff menus. Its toolbar looks like the one in CDE. Configuration involves editing text files.Unix Desktop Environment. a background manager. Most of the commands are utilities that are run by invoking their own executable files.

It is available as an rpm on the rpmfind.AfterStep laptop advanced power management utility ash .net site.print statistics concerning user connect time access .printer filter called by lpd to deal with printing different types of files. a very simple shell program sometimes used on boot diskettes since it takes up much less space than bash. modify and extract from archives arch . it is available as one of the main packages in the ap set.0. zsh. On my Red Hat system.• • • • • • a2p . This is actually a shell builtin. ali . This is a fairly sophisticated print filter. I believe that Red Hat uses its own printer filters. I have global alias commands in my /etc/bashrc file and in my /.Adobe utility for viewing pdf files adduser .utility to convert to and from different Linux package formats. This utility is not part of the basic internal and external programs under Red Hat Linux.bashrc file.list mail aliases alias . ar . It is not set up by default in Slackware.create. It used to be available on the second cd of a Slackware distribution. etc.assign name to specified command list.utility to copy or restore files to an archive file.enables login on terminals.a shell. agetty . Red Hat (rpm) and Slackware (tgz) packages. On my Slackware box.determine whether a file can be accessed acroread . mgetty. Stampede (stp). and uugetty. Since 4.the portable GNU assembler asapm . Can handle Debian (deb). Read the mail that the installation program sends to the root user.print machine architecture type as . apropos .used by root to add user to system o usage: adduser userid afio . See getty.display command names based on keyword search o usage: apropos keyword apsfilter . • • • • • • • • • • • • . alien . tcsh.translation utility from ``any'' to Postscript ac . I have made the rm command a little bit safer with o alias rm='rm -i' so that you can't recursively delete your /dev directory without telling the system you're sure you want to do it.translation utility from awk to Perl a2ps .

Commercial.puts a job in the background.print banner to standard output.searches for and process patterns in a file banner . bsh .a spell checking program along the lines of ispell aspostit . atrm .a language (compiler) similar to C. Use atq to determine the identities of various jobs. bh . with unlimited precision arithmetic bg PID .removes pending jobs queued by at. bison .queue. This is a shell builtin. This is a shell builtin.shows pending jobs queued by at.AfterStep cpu load monitor asmail . o usage: atrm job awk . and atrm to remove jobs from the queue.displays or redefines key bindings.equivalent to ash • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . This is the same as executing [Ctrl]z while interacting with the running process. Use atq to show pending jobs.send process with pid ``PID'' to the background. Syntax is o banner [option] [characters] bash . batch .AfterStep mail checking utility asmodem . bc . or delete jobs for later execution. o usage: at time o or: at -f file time atq .AfterStep utility to monitor modem status aspell .mail notification utility.a powerful backup utility program. This is the default shell in the Red Hat installation. biff .X Window postit note utility at . If run by root. Demonstration versions are often included with Linux distributions such as Red Hat. Notifies user of mail arrival and sender's name.parser generator similar to yacc bru .Bourne again shell.executes a shell script at specified time.• • • • • • asload . shows everybody's pending jobs. examine. See at. This is a shell builtin. bind .

use o chmod g +s file-name There are lots of security issues related to allowing a program to have root's permissions when run by an ordinary user.change working directory. but menu-driven chat . tcsh and zsh. chmod . It is designed to work with System V initialization scripts.changes group associated with file.used to uncompress files compressed with bzip2 byacc . Can be used to change the group associated with subdirectories and files of a directory.compresses with algorithm different from gzip bzless . A value of 2 is used for write permission.Query or update system services/daemons for different runlevels. copy standard input to standard output.invokes GNU C and C++ compiler cal . o usage: chgrp group files o or: chgrp -R group files chkconfig . Used to join or display files.used to interact with a modem via a chat script chgrp . Graphical tools for configuring system services include ntsysv. The syntax for the symbolic version is o chmod [options] who operation permission file-list The syntax for the absolute version is o chmod [options] mode file-list To set the uid to the owner's permissions. This utility is included with many rpmbased distributions such as RedHat and Mandrake.parser generator bzip2 .similar to fdisk. This is a shell builtin in bash.command line utility for playing audio cds cfdisk .• • • • • • bunzip2 . Manipulates the various symbolic links in /etc/rc. tksysv and ksysv (the latter is a KDE utility).view bzipped files c++ . Chmod can also be used to change the suid bit on files.changes ownership of a file. cdplay .combine. A value of 4 is used for read permission. o usage: chown userid files • • • • • • • • • . Can be used recursively. cd . I don't pretend to understand all of these issues. use o chmod u +s file-name To set the uid to the group's permissions. See umask for default file permissions upon file creation. chown .displays a 12-month calendar for the given year or a one-month calendar of the given month o usage: cal month year cat .set permissions (modes) of files or directories.d. A value of 1 is used for execute permission.

control-panel . including subdirectories. Under Red Hat.o • • • • or: chown -R userid files chsh .clear screen command cmp . into /destinationdirectory. In order to back up an entire directory structure on diskettes.compares two files for differences o usage: cmp file1 file2 co . Use the command as follows: o cp -r /sourcedirectory /targetdirectory cpio .schedules command to run at regularly specified time csh . Allows one directory structure to be mirrored elsewhere on the partition or on another partition.copies on or more files. This is the graphical version that uses ncurses. Recursive copying is one simple way of archiving part of a directory structure.GNU C-compatible compiler preprocessor crontab .creates or records changes in an RCS file clear . this is just a link to xterm-color. In order to copy an individual file which is larger than a floppy. • • • • • • • • • • • • . -depth -print | cpio -pv /destinationdirectory This copies the working directory and its contents.Slackware tool to install.compares sorted files configure . removepkg.separate files into sections. The command for mirroring a directory structure is the following: o find .color xterm program. cd to the directory and use the following command: o find . cp . use: o find . uninstall and query packages. use: o cpio -iv < /dev/fd0 The cpio command will prompt the user to insert more diskettes as they are needed.retrieves an unencoded version of an RCS file comm .direct copy of files to an output device.automatically configures software source code color-xterm . Allows creation of archive file spanning multiple diskettes. -depth -print | cpio -ov > /dev/fd0 To restore from diskettes. makepkg. cpp .graphical system configuration tool under Red Hat.run C shell csplit . Front end to installpkg. -name nameoffile -print | cpio -iv > /dev/fd0 cpkgtool .change default shell ci . See also split.

selects characters or TAB-separated fields from lines of input and writes them to standard output date . for example.• cvs .a variation of the GNU ls command that defaults to printing file names in columns dircolors . Is built on RCS. Gives free space in blocks. Then. place the diskette to be copied in the floppy drive.copy o Replace the diskette with a fresh diskette. This is a shell builtin. This is actually an environment variable. whenever xterm is run with the -ls (login shell) option. Can be used to make copies of boot or root diskettes for installing Linux. I get color directories by aliasing the ls command (see below). Useful when many developers are working on the same project.5 inch diskette as 1440k.used for setting up incoming dip connections. diplogin . df . It can be used to set up an outgoing SLIP connection or an incoming connection. Then. o dd if=floppy. o dd if=/dev/fd0 ibs=512 > floppy.set colors for GNU ls command. • • • • • • • • • • • • . First.displays differences between two files o usage: diff file1 file2 diff3 .used to set up a SLIP or PPP connection. to make and exact copy of a floppy disk. It can be used.copy bs=512 of=/dev/fd0 The ibs and bs options specify the block sizes for input and for both input and output. This is useful for those accustomed to thinking of the capacity of a high-density 3.direct copy of file from one device to another. cut .compares three files and reports on differences dip . diff . declare .manages concurrent acces to files in a hierarchy. See the man page for dip.set display for output of programms under X Windows. The remote machine must have permission to send output to the local machine. It stores successive revisions of files efficiently and ensures that access to files by multiple developers is done in a controlled manner. Can be used to run a program on a remote machine while displaying the output on a local machine. this command is run by the /etc/profile script.displays or sets date and time o usage: date o or: date date dd . A boot disk image can be directly copied to a floppy using the second of the two dd commands above. In Slackware.declares attributes for a variable (same as typeset).displays capacity and free capacity on different physical devices such as hard drive partitions and floppy drives that are mounted on the file system. See the more detailed discussion in connection with the xhost command below. Stands for concurrent version system. Typical usage is eval `dircolors -b`. With the (undocumented) option -h. the program gives free space in Mb or Gb. ls displays different colors for different types of files. as follows. In Red Hat and Mandrake. display . dir .

echo . text.list paths to search o echo $HOME or echo ~ .• • • dmesg .a dynamic resource editor for X Toolkit applications. elm . use o dvips filename -pp pagenumber -t landscape e2fsck . See above.an interactive mail system elvis .print information about the keyboard driver's translation tables to standard output dvilj . and you wish to print this in landscape mode. giving files sizes in bytes. to a Postscript capable Laserjet printer. Use -t landscape.displays messages from /var/log relative to the most recent boot dos . efax . One use is to print out information about environment variables. and this program must be run as root.a version of the vi text editor emacs . There are specialized versions for individual models of Laserjet printer.convert between fax.fax program efix . editres .displays information on disk usage. bit-map and gray-scale formats egrep . dvilj2p . There is a switch to print only a subset of the pages. Runs faster than grep and fgrep.check an ext2 filesystem. The device should not be mounted.send a dvi file to a Laserjet printer. as in o echo $PATH .send a dvi file to a Postscript printer. and another switch to print in landscape mode.list name of home directory This is a shell builtin. If you have one page of a document that is a wide table. or to a file (with the -o option).screen oriented text editor • • • • • • • • • • • • • .specialized version of dvilj for the IIp series of printers.search files for lines that match regular expressions. dumpkeys .invoke the DOSEMU DOS emulator du . dvips . which is one of the arguments to the paper type switch.write arguments to standard output. The command o du / -bh | less will display detailed disk usage for each subdirectory starting at root. The syntax is o e2fsck /dev/devicename where the filesystem is on /dev/devicename. Allows the user to change X resources for individual applications.

See dircolors command. In addition. and executes commands for the history list.place the value of a variable in the calling environment (makes it global). This is a shell builtin. If only one process is running in background mode.exit a shell.a variation of the exec command.null command that returns an unsuccessful exit status fax . an improved version of vi. the user can take control and interact directly when desired. edits. This is a shell builtin. expr . afterward returning control to the script.used to partition hard drives o usage: fdisk device fg PID . fg with no argument is sufficient to bring it to the foreground • • • • • • • • • • • . This is a shell builtin. exec .convert tabs in files to spaces and write to standard output expect . Following the script.views. expand .FORTRAN to C translator f77 .system call which creates a subshell to execute a binary or a script. This is a shell builtin. The man page lists it as being the same as vim.retrieve mail from a remote mail server and pass it to local SMTP agents on the local machine fdisk . execve . This is a shell builtin. ex .desplay the current environment or set a variable equal to a new value eval . exit .simple user interface to efax and efix programs fc .utility evaluates an expression and displays the result f2c .bring a background or stopped process with pid ``PID'' to the foreground. This is a shell builtin. Expect knows what can be expected from a program and what the correct response should be. export .interactive command-based editor.scans and evaluates the command line.FORTRAN 77 compiler false .• • • • • • • • env .low level format of a floppy device fetchmail . An interpreted language provides branching and high-level control structures to direct the dialogue.a program that ``talks'' to other interactive programs according to a script. fdformat .

gives used and free memory on system along with other useful information fromdos . finger .• • • fgrep . This is a shell builtin. Put a call to fortune in /etc/profile and get something inspirational or amusing every time you fire up an xterm as a login shell. Find can be incredibly powerful. -name filename -print in order to find files matching a particular name on the working directory and all subdirectories.takes a DOS text file from stdin and sends a UNIX file to stdout.break lines of specified files so they are no wider than a specified lengths fortune . It seems to be obligatory to have this if a TEX installation such as teTEX is installed. ghostview .search for patterns in files file . free .invoke C. The find command that I use the most is o find .simple text formatting utility. Tries to make all nonblank lines nearly the same length.print kernel's scancode-to-keycode mapping table ghostscript .file system check and repair ftp . C++ compiler getipts .GNU awk. but it is incredibly obscure.file transfer over network g++ .parses arguments to a shell script.C++ compiler g77 . How they communicate with one another is somewhat obscure. getkeycodes . fsck .Aladdin ghostscript interpreter/previewer gimp .display information about a specified userid or userids fmt .Red Hat graphical front end for the rpm package installer and manager.set of printing utilities.displays classification of a file or files according to the type of data they contain find . mostly for processing delimited text files gcc .available in the bsdgames package in Slackware and other distributions. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .find files according to a large variety of search criteria.image manipulation and paint program glint .GNU Fortran 77 compiler gawk . fold .

the x should be replaced by the partition where the /boot/grub directory is located. This refused to work. It took me a while to figure out that grub doesn't understand symbolic links. head . gunzip . so that for example a partition which is called hda6 under Linux will be called (hd0. Note that grub has its own conventions for naming devices and numbering partitions.4. The documentation suggests installing grub on a diskette using the ``dd'' command. The -i option returns matches without regard to case.0 and choosing the lilo bootloader during the initial install. but o grub-install '(fd0)' did work. The files necessary to run grub are normally located in /boot/grub.x) o setup (hd0) Here. o usage: grep pattern files o or: grep -i pattern files o or: grep -n pattern files o or: grep -v pattern files groupadd . The -v option causes non-matched lines to be printed.shut down system as root.• grep .create a new group on the system groups .PostScript and PDF previewer. This is a shell builtin.3-20mdk. without reboot.used to find a string within a file.used to compress or decompress files halt . vmlinuz-2.displays first part of a file • • • • • • • • • • • • . The -n option means that each line of output is preceded by file name and line number. Can be used instead of lilo to boot multiple operating systems.Gnu grand unified bootloader. which is probably the root partition of the Linux system.command to install grub on the hard drive (or floppy drive).remembers the location of commands in the search path. immediately hash .shows which groups you are in grub .5) by grub. the following sequence of commands can be used to install grub in the master boot record (MBR) sector of the hard disk: o root (hd0. Once the file menu.see vi gzexe . The single quotes are necessary. I encountered a couple of snafus trying to install grub on my home machine after installing Mandrake 8.lst has been edited and appropriated entries added to boot the different operating systems on one's hard disk(s). based on ghostview gvim .used to uncompress files compressed with gzip gv .compresses executables gzip . The Mandrake installation program set up /boot/vmlinuz as a symlink to the actual kernel. grub-install .

• • • • • • • • history .daemon which starts up other daemons on demand. the host name is stored in the file /etc/HOSTNAME.interrupt key. It can be invoked in emacs emulation mode with jemacs and in WordStar emulation mode with jstar.display (as root) information on network interfaces that are currently active.used to query and set the hardware clock hylafax . run at bootup. Has modes for TEX. o usage: init run_level insmod . ifconfig .displays list of current jobs in the background. executes commands in /etc/inittab. hwclock . This is the GNU hypertext reader.Slackware command to install one of the packages from the program sets intr . ifdown .used to get or set hostname. second as eth1.conf. init . kbd_mode .used (by root) to install modular device drivers installpkg . etc.look up host names using domain server hostname .simple WordStar-like text editor.display system information. etc.display userid and groupid inetd .commercial fax program id . A simple emacs clone. etc.command for viewing and manipulating the shell command history list host . Can be used (with root privileges) to change the system run level. First ethernet interface should be listed as eth0. Typically. jove .Joseph's Own Version of Emacs. Configured in /etc/inetd. Behaves like emacs.programmer's file editor.print current keyboard mode • • • • • • • • • • • • • .the mother of all processes. This is a shell builtin. FORTRAN. jobs .start up the interface info . usually [Ctrl-C] ispell . joe . C. First modem ppp connection should be listed as ppp0. The ``lo'' connection is ``loopback'' only.shut down the network interface ifup [interface_name] .checks files for spelling errors o usage: ispell files jed .

a utility program that comes with KDE that allows users to switch on the fly among different international keyboards. Also used to send signals to processes or restart them. one screenful at a time.kill processes by name. let . This is a shell builtin in bash.Linux alternative to ``more'' command.creates the necessary links and cache (for use by the run-time linker. in the file /etc/ld. When less pauses. killall .list the shared libraries on which a given executable depends. One can scroll both forwards and backwards.kernel daemon. My 486 has a hard drive that is too large for the machine's BIOS.so) to the most recent shared libraries found in the directories specified on the command line. and where they are located leave . of a diskette.kill all processes except the ones on which it depends last . or in another location. I do the following (as root): o /sbin/fdformat /dev/fd0H1440 o /sbin/mkfs. • • • • • • • • • • • • .generate a listing of user logins lastlog . lilo .conf. This is a shell builtin. so I have to boot from a floppy.installs boot loader on the boot sector of a hard drive. It can be used under different window managers than kfm. Ldconfig checks the header and file names of the libraries it encounters when determining which versions should have their links updated. Displays text files.so.ext2 /dev/fd0 o mount -t ext2 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy o cp -dp /boot/* /mnt/floppy o /sbin/lilo -C /etc/lilo. there is a large number of available commands to tell it what to do next. killall5 . To create a boot diskette. and in the trusted directories (/usr/lib and /lib).display reminder at specified time less .prints the last login times of all users latex . a process that stays in memory and does all sorts of useful stuff. ldd . Ldconfig ignores symbolic links when scanning for libraries. tcsh and zsh.sends a signal to (especially to terminate) a job or process. kill .GUI to add/remove kernel modules (as root in X terminal).evaluates a numeric expression. ld.• • • kernelcfg .compile a LATEX file ldconfig .flop file instead of the default lilo. like automatic loading of device driver modules kikbd . kerneld . Kill all processes which are instances of the speciffied program.flop The -C option to lilo has lilo use the lilo.conf.

with the -s option.utility to display information on pci buses and hardware devices attached to them.look for strings in files lpq . Version 1. lspnp .cancel a job from print queue ls . which is available online at their web site. The syntax is easier than the find command. depending on the distribution. The syntax is o ln [options] source [dest] locate filename .2 installation manual. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .creates a link to a file. It comes with my Red Hat distribution. and is not included with Slackware..consult /etc/utmp for user's login name logout . To get colored directory listings under Red Hat.send file to be printed lprm . used to limit access to a file . symbolic links which can link files on different disk partitions.interactive tool for configuring Linux system. It would seem to be the easiest way to configure Linux under Slackware. lock . There is a pretty good introduction to the use of linuxconf in the Red Hat 5. with file sizes in kilobytes.temporarily lock terminal lockfile . The following command o alias ls='ls -Fskb -color=auto' will give directory listings in color.15 is available for Slackware.log in to system logname .show print jobs that are waiting lpr .• linuxconf .used (by root) to show kernel modules currently loaded lspci . Part of the pciutils package that comes with many Linux distributions.find the file name which contains the string ``filename''. use o ls -color To get this all the time. etc.bashrc. ln .utility to display information about pnp devices. This is a Gnome tool. Part of the pcmcia or kernelpcmcia package. Uses X if loaded.create semaphore file(s). add o alias ls='ls -color=auto' to . Used to create hard links and. and append a character to the file to indicate its type.execute logout as individual user and bring up login: prompt look .list directory contents.list attributes of files in ext2 file system lsmod . Mandrake. lsattr .

This is a utility that helps when developing a set of programs.creates a Linux swap space on the specified hard disk parition (root privileges neede) o usage: mkswap device more .an implementation of the traditional UNIX macro processor.mouse configuration utility under Red Hat.configures swap space man .• m4 . such as mkfs. Should be invoked after lowlevel formatting of the disk using fdformat. makebootdisk .conf configuration file without having to edit the configuration file directly. Located in /usr/sbin.create a directory mkfs .attempt to determine path to manual pages mc .mount all filesystems according to the specifications in /etc/fstab mouseconfig .Midnight Commander file manager and visual shell mesg .mount device using filesystem of type [fstype] with device name [device] at the location [mountpoint] in the filesystem directory tree mount -a . stopping after each full screen mount -t [fstype] [device] [mountpoint] .terminal program mkdir . It is very often used in combination with configure when compiling and installing noncompiled software packages.enables/disables reception of messages minicom .list file contents. apsfilter is the printer filter that comes with the Red Hat and Slackware distributions.keeps a set of programs current.create a file system (format) on a device or partition. It has several versions which are all links to the basic program.sends or reads electronic mail make . magicfilter .ext2 and mkfs. mail .executable script to make device files on /dev makeswap . It works by executing a script called makefile. It can be used with the sendmail configuration package in Red Hat (and Slackware) to generate a sendmail. Makefile or GNUmakefile in the working directory. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .general purpose printer filter.msdos.displays information from online Unix reference manual manpath .command in Slackware to do just what the name says MAKEDEV . mkswap . See apsfilter above.

od . or pathces. Includes the following commands. Mtools . nm . Changes user's identification nice program_name . mv . This is the equivalent of tksysv. nohup .print multiple pages per sheet on a Postscript printer.changes working directory on DOS disk o mcopy .package of MS-DOS utilities.runs a command that keeps running after logout. since modern shells preserve background processes by default.displays contents of a DOS file The default device for execution of these commands is /dev/fd0 and can be referred to as ``a:''.• • mpage .joins corresponding lines from files patch . nm assumes `a. created by diff.lists contents of DOS directories o mformat .similar to login. Must be rerun every time /etc/aliases is modified for the changes to take effect.moves (renames) files netconf .lists the symbols from object files objfile. nxterm . and must have output to a non tty.adds DOS formatting information to a disk o mtype . newgrp .rebuilds the /etc/aliases database used by sendmail.deletes DOS files o mdir .used (as root) to set up network newaliases . ntsysv . The man page for nxterm under Red Hat brings up the same page as xterm. If no object files are given as arguments.copies DOS files from one directory to another o mdel .determine validity and portability of filenames pdflatex . but does not require a graphical interface. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Produces pdf output from a LATEX file. Can also be used to print a page in landscape mode. According to Linux in a Nutshell.color xterm program.sets the priority of the program ``program_name''.updates source code. The command is in principle immune to hangups.dumps contents of a file passwd . o mcd .part of the pdftex program suite. pathchk .out'. this is necessary only in the Bourne shell. Attempts to update a file from a file of change information.run level editor under Red Hat.change login password paste .

converts passwords to the shadow password format pwunconv .9 distribution that is included with Red Hat 5. and with Slackware 4.display processes in the form of a tree structure.Slackware tool to install. Usage is: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .paginates files for printing printenv .simple screen oriented text editor. perl .display data one screenful at a time pico . pkgtool . removepkg. Use the -a option for processes for all users. See also pdflatex. uninstall and query packages.• pdftex . pr . python . makepkg.retrieve mail via the Post Office Protocol.produces pdf output from a TeX file. This is a shell builtin.print absolute path of working directory. popclient . Supports POP2 and POP3. This is a shell builtin. It is also available as a separate program.run (as root) in an X terminal to configure your printer(s) ps .unconverts passwords from the shadow password format. It is included as part of the Pine program. pwd .practical extraction and report language pg .pushes the argument onto the top of the directory stack and uses cd to change to that directory. Can also measure the time it takes the queried computer to respond.copy one or more files to or from remote computer. pushd .display list of environment variables printtool . The syntax is poorly explained in the documentation that I have. Killing a parent process will also kill all the children and their descendants. Use the -x option to include processes not attached to a terminal. ping .pops the top directory of the directory stack and uses cd to change to that directory. The cpkgtool is the ncurses graphical version of this program.0 and above. object-oriented programming language rcp .displays status of processes. This is a shell builtin. pstree . Generates a standard Unix password file.2 and above. interactive.checks the integrity of password and shadow files pwconv . pwchk . popd . including the man pages.interpreted. This program is part of the tetex 0.check if Internet computer is responding. Front end to installpkg.

return . Gives package information and a file list for the package foo. The general syntax is as follows. Seems to be equivalent to shutdown -r now in generic Linux. reboot .declares a variable to be read only. Examples are o rpm -qil foo. RAM disk size. or video mode in kernel read .exits from a function. rlog .log in to remote computer.creates or changes the attributes of an RCS file. This is a shell builtin. readonly .query/set image root device.rhosts with a list of users (preceded by the full domain name or exact IP address of their machine) with access privileges. The n option returns numerical addresses rather than names. swap device.prints a summary of the history of an RCS file rlogin .resets the priority of process ``program_name''.reads line from standard input.o rcp filename username@remotehost:path The user's home directory on the remote system must contain the file . I often use this command in query mode to query packages about what files they contain and to find out which package owns a particular file. This is a shell builtin.in Slackware.rhosts file on the remote machine. trying to display a binary file in an xterm.remove empty directories rmmod . rpm .interpret and handle remote mail received via uucp rmdir .uqam. renice program_name . rdev .si. can be used to remove the contents of a specified directory including all subdirectories. reboots the system.ca The remote computer must recognize the local user and the local machine. reset . rmail . rm . This is a shell builtin. for example.used to reset the screen characteristics.used to remove modular device drivers route -n .show routing table. This is useful if the screen gets messed up from. Stands for Revision Control System.invokes the Red Hat package manager in command line mode. using the UQAM Nobel machine as an example: o rlogin -l userid nobel.remove files or directories. o localhostname username • • • • • • • • • • rcs . • • • • • • . With the -r (recursive) option (very dangerous!). See the rcp command for how to set up the .

This is a shell builtin. to give root privileges to a program run by an ordinary user. run ``setup'' as root.a terminal program similar to xterm.set or display value of environment variables setserial . We need to find out about installing the rpm package on a Slackware box.summarize host's status: uptime.edits a file (not interactively).show host status of local machines rusers . setenv . setup . set . If it isn't. giving the values of currently defined variables. rsh .set or display value of shell variables. showmount . Used.show information about an nfs server • • • • • • • • • • • . just another name for bash. which comes from ``Linux Newbie Administrator Guide''.show who is logged in on a LAN. I don't understand this last remark. load averages. but which has less features and uses less memory sed . This is actually done by running the chmod program as root.set terminal attributes for a virtual console setuid . o • • • • • • • rpm2tgz . for example.promotes each command-line argument. and current time ruptime . On Linux. Setup devices and file systems.standard UNIX shell.set the id of a program when it is run. or the full path to foo must be specified. Foo must be in the working directory.Slackware program to set up program sets and configure system. shift . They can then be installed using the installpkg command (or pkgtool).used by root to configure a serial port setterm .write to all users over a network rwho . This is a shell builtin. See the chmod command for the syntax. The command o set | less prints the current user environment. mount root file system sh . The rwho service must be enabled for this command to run.an extremely useful utility on Slackware systems that converts rpm packages to tgz format. See rcp and rlogin.rpm -qfil foo. rstat .list who is logged on local machines rwall . rxvt . It's probably better to use a package converter such as alien. Also a tool for processing text files. Gives package information and a file list for the package that owns the file foo.execute shell command on a remote computer.

with better security and encryption features.displays the last part of a file talk .split file into specified number of segments ssh . stty . With the -r option. etc. including root sudo . startx .sorts and/or merge files split .query host for system information tac . rsh. reboot.:1 . Apparently has many of the same functionalities as rlogin. startx -.provide list of and information about symbolic links sync . [Ctrl] [Alt][F8]. Used to allow dialin SLIP connections..creates process that sleeps for specified interval sliplogin .visual communication program that copies lines from one terminal to that of another user • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .sets or displays operating options for terminal su . etc. With the -h option. ftp. telnet.writes memory buffers to physical devices systat .log in as another user. This is a script which starts up X clients and shuts down the X server on exit from the window manager.attaches a SLIP interface to standard input.• shutdown .allows individual users to have root permission to perform specified tasks swapoff .print file in reverse tail . o usage: shutdown -r minutes sleep .enables swap disk symlinks . sort .disables swap disk swapon . One can switch between different graphical displays using [Ctrl][Alt][F7].start the next X window session on the display 1 (the default is opened on display 0).secure shell. after specified amount of time. halt the system. We may want to learn how to set this up and use it.front end to xinit in Linux.reboot or shut down system as root.

There seem to be two different conventions concerning gzipped tarballs.scripting language tcsh . The data is sent by pipe from one tar process to another. tcsh and zsh. multiuser. telnet . Exact run level that corresponds to single-user.extended version of the C shell tee .copy standard input to standard output and one or more files telinit . use o tar -xvzf filename. use o tar tvf tarfile To extract individual files from a tar archive. I find the syntax of this command to be frustratingly opaque. a wildcard such as *. tin . and X levels depends on distribution. This example is taken from Running Linux. or the name of a subdirectory. Slackware packages use the latter convention. | (cd . use o tar xvf tarfile files where files is the list of files to extract.evaluates an expression or compares arguments.displays times for the current shell and its children.177.remote login over network test . tar xvf -) No tar file is ever written to disk. If the material to be archived exceeds the capacity of the backup medium. tcl .. To mirror all the files and subdirectories in from-stuff to to-stuff..• tar . The other popular choice is . Use the following command to back up to floppies: o tar -cvf /dev/fd0 filename(s) or directoryname(s) The backup can be restored with o tar -xvf /dev/fd0 Tar can be used for other things.Netnews reader tkdesk . To use this command to unzip gzipped tarballs in verbose mode.graphical desktop file manager for X • • • • • • • • • • . or a directory (with its subdirectories) on tape or onto floppies.tar. tar creates missing subdirectories underneath the current directory in which the cammand is invoked. use o tar -cvzf filename. This is a shell builtin in bash.tgz To create a tarball from files in a given directory and its subdirectories.used to change run level. Strange. The command can also be used to archive a file. tftp .gz.tgz. p. a group of files.user interface to TFTP protocol time .tgz sourcename Sourcename can be the name of a single file. the program will prompt the user to insert a new tape or diskette. use the commands o cd from-stuff o tar cf .file compression and archiving utility. The following works for me. One often encounters ./to-stuff. When extracting files. This is a shell builtin. To list the table of contents of a tar archive. because there is also a /usr/bin/time program on my Red Hat system.

This is a shell builtin.display system load average in graph format top . typeset . Usage is o umask xyz The system subtracts x. This is a shell builtin. compatible with DOS PKzip updatedb .traps a signal.displays how each argument would be interpreted as a command.displays lines of a file that are unique unset . tload .displays information about the system. unalias .translate underscores to underlining umask . type . This is a shell builtin.shows special file that represents your terminal.initializes terminal tty . The command umount -a will (re)mount all file systems listed in /etc/fstab. it displays the name of the operating system. umount [device] .declares attributes for a variaable (same as declare).update access and modification times of a file. the host name. This is a shell builtin.• • • • • • • • • • • • • tksysv . unzip . tr . and hardware. With the -a option. If the file does not exist on disk. it displays information about the operating system.finish writing to the device and remove it from the active filesystem. Allows root to configure the services that are started at each run level. ul . uniq .remove name previously defined by alias. an empty file is created.null command that returns a successful exit status tset .graphical runlevel editor under Red Hat. This is a shell builtin.translation utility that can be used.removes a variable or function. y and z from the owner. to replace specified characters in a text file trap .update file database used by locate command • • • • • • • . true . With no arguments. group and other file permissions that it would otherwise assign to new files. for example.establishes the file-creation permissions mask.dynamically displays process status touch . This is a shell builtin. Displays the terminal pathname.uncompress files compressed with the zip utility. uname .

useradd .prints list of users on the system vdir .use to find utilities in standard locations which . wc . characters and words in a file Wharf .console based cd player workman .shows the time. This is a shell builtin.same as adduser userdel .display information about userid that is currently logged in wish .vi in read-only mode vim . users .used to find utilities in search path.query remote host to verify the accuracy of an email address w . the number of users. The user's home directory and undelivered mail must be dealt with separately.send messages to another local user X .remove an account (as root).display info about userids and active processes wait .starts up the X server. Can be invoked with o X -quiet -query remotemachineaddress . vi . and average load.front end to tk.display information about currently logged in userids whoami .waits for a background process to terminate.standard screen oriented Unix editor view .displays number of lines.the AfterStep application dock module whatis .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • uptime . an X window extension of tcl workbone . who . Defaults to printing out the long version of directory entries.variant of the GNU version of the ls command.graphical cd player program write .display one-line summary of specified command whereis .improved vi editor vrfy . Will return the absolute directory path of the named utility program. how long the system has been up.

Red Hat utility for configuring settings for X xdm . the man pages are pretty obscure.d/xterm): o X -quiet -query remotemachineaddress If the address of a nameserver is not configured.display an available font in X.menet. delimited by blanks (which can be protected with double or single quotes or a backslash) or newlines.tell X server that remote computer has access to your machine and that you will use the remote computer. Gnome and KDE come with their own versions of X display/login managers. See the discussion in connection with xdm below. Creates a grid in an x-term with one character per rectangle.in order to get a graphical login screen on the remote machine. run the following command on the local machine (one doesn't have to be root to do this) • • • • • • • • • • • • • .edu/~kaszeta/unix/xterminal/index.a simple text editor for X xf86config . then the numeric address of the remote machine rather than its name should be entered. As usual.umn.used to start an X login session. xdm. See the discussion on the following site: o http://www. xdvi . X needs to be started at bootup with the command (in /etc/rc.converts standard output of one command into arguments for another.graphical configuration tool for X XF86Setup . If the machines are connected through ethernet cards and the net. and executes the command (default is /bin/echo) one or more times with any initial-arguments followed by arguments read from standard input.html See the man pages for X. Blank lines on the standard input are ignored. • • xadm . xfig . To set up a remote X session on the UQAM Nobel machine.display advanced power management BIOS information xargs .graphical configuration tool for X xfd . called respectively gdm and kdm.utility for interactive generation of figures xfm .simple calculator program xclipboard .graphical file manager for X xhost .d/init. This is one of those powerful but obscure commands.view a dvi file compiled under LATEX xedit . This can be used to start a login session on a remote system.graphical mail delivery notification utility xcalc . xbiff .name says it all Xconfigurator . This can be used to set up remote X sessions. and Xserver. then obviously basic networking has to be set up. The best single source seems to be the Xserver man pages. After X is configured. Xargs reads arguments from the standard input.

and insert the command o xmodmap /etc/X11/Xmodmap. and swap usage xpaint .utility to configure root window of an X terminal • • • • • .o xhost +nobel. For ksh. This program is part of the XFree86 package in Red Hat.linuxquebec. xload .graphical interface to print manager. xplaycd .start X Window.graphical front end under X to the nmh mail handling system. so it must be necessary to have X running on the local machine. Can be used to install a French Canadian keyboard.xinitrc (with startx) file. xmh .displays bar graphs of system load.ca Then. which is the default login shell on Nobel. xman . The local X server is the program that has all of the information concerning the properties of the graphics card and terminal.si. use o netscape -display localhostname:0. Once logged in.displays a graphic of the system load xlpq . Download the Xmodmap.list fonts available under the X Window system.GPL'd utility for previewing dvi files. xlsfonts . including Slackware.cf file from www.org. but does not seem to be a part of the base Red Hat distribution. xmodmap . log onto the remote machine using rlogin (see above) or telnet. xosview . After using xhost to give permission to the remote machine to display on the local machine. Doesn't seem to work too well on texts with a lot of math. The following should also work. use the following command to get the remote X server to open an X terminal on the local machine: o setenv DISPLAY localhostname:0 . xterm & This is valid for csh.uqam.cf & into the . xterm Other X-based programs such as Netscape or Gauss (graphical version) can also be run on a remote machine with display on the local machine with little trouble.xession (with xdm) or the . (and I think bash) replace with o DISPLAY=localhostname:0 o export DISPLAY . Displays manual pages under X. load average.browsable command reference.0 Question: can one start the X session on the local machine and then run a remote copy of a window manager? • • • • • • • xinit .simple paint program for X xpdf .X Window audio cd player utility xsetroot . The command startx is a front end to xinit in Linux. memory usage. This is included on one of the XFCE menus.utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in X.

print contents of compressed files one screen at a time znew . we want to distinguish between shell commands and Linux commands. xvidtune .parser generator ytalk .read one or more files that have been compressed with gzip or compress and write to standard output zcmp .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • xsysinfo .1 uses Postfix as its default MTA.1 Mail Transfer Agents (MTAs) The Linux distributions I know come with sendmail. which as of version 7. We also want to point out the typical location of these commands on different Linux distributions.view zipped files zmore .utility for fine tuning of monitor settings under X yacc .color version of xterm xv .read compressed files and pass them to cmp zdiff . we want to be able to distinguish between commands that are an intrinsic part of the kernel.start an X Window terminal session xterm-color .AfterStep button panel module zip . commands that are executable binaries that come with every distribution of Linux.read compressed files and pass them to grep Zharf .graphical display of load and memory usage xterm .read compressed files and pass them to diff zgrep .zip utility compatible with DOS PKzip zless .utility for viewing and manipulating many types of image files.multi-user program similar to talk zcat . and executable shell scripts. 10 Notes on Applications 10.gz format Eventually. executable binaries that are not provided with all distributiions of Linux. • Exim - .uncompress Z files and recompress in . There are several competing programs available. This is a shareware program. Even the simplest don't seem to be that easy to configure. except for Mandrake. Finally.

• Fetchmail . following the Address-Rewriting miniHOWTO.mc file and processing it with the m4 macro interpreter. I don't have my own domain name.A successor program to XFmail (see below) Arrow - . Fetchmail will poll all of the pop servers listed in /. Red Hat shipped with smail. Involves setting up a Perl CGI script on the server side. Qmail .this one gets my vote for the most complicated and obscure configuration file.Designed as a replacement for Fetchmail. but which mysteriously complains about ``dangerous write permissions'' every time the system boots up.cf to be able to send mail with emacs. Zmailer . It would appear that at one point in its history. Getmail . o DMuqam. If I send mail to UQAM users using their normalized usernames. /etc/sendmail. Sendmail . Archimedes .ca # relay all mail through nobel server The problem comes from the fact that.apparently designed for mail servers with a large number of users. MMDF Postfix . It is reputed to be more secure than sendmail.ca proto pop3 user USERNAME pass PASSWORD Use the following to have fetchmail loaded as a daemon that will download mail at regular intervals: o fetchmail -d 6000 The interval is specified in seconds. Most individual Linux users will be using machines connected to the Internet via an ISP or on networks (such as university networks) with centralized mail processing and access to the net. I now have something that works.uqam.a ``modern'' replacement for sendmail. Allows you to access your mail with any browser. the net does not know who or where they are. it is not the default MTA of any Linux distributions that I know of.ca # masquerade the domain name o DNambler. I have to change the following lines in sendmail. • • • • • • • 10.steven # masquerade username o DSnobel.cf.seems to be a popular choice on smaller systems.uqam. I have managed to get a configuration that works by writing a sendmail. as a user on a local network. Mandrake 7. Since it doesn't have a GPL license.2 Mail User Agents (MUAs) • • • Acmemail . Use the following line in /. Smail . but this has been replaced with sendmail.1 and up uses this as its default MTA.si.fetchmailrc: o poll pop.a mail transport agent and potential replacement for sendmail. I want return mail to be routed to UQAM's mail server and I want the server to handle all my mail for me. even mail to other UQAM users.Web-based mail agent.seemingly one of the few ways (Pine is able to do this as well) to download mail automatically from a POP or IMAP server and pass it to local mail handling agents.fetchmailrc.

etc. use the Setup Config command.mail reader and contact manager/calendar designed for use under Gnome Exmh . I haven't been able to figure out from the description whether it runs independently of or in conjunction with sendmail and procmail.for ``Mahogany''. Mh Mumail Mutt . pine -p popserver 2. connect to the remote server.com/pop3/user=myid}INBOX When Pine is restarted. First. Seems similar to XFmail (see below). See the man page for nmh for details.the default Gnome mail program Blitzmail Elm Emumail . it should ask for your password. Features now include: o MIME support o ability to read and post network news o maintenance of an address book of mail recipients o spell checking during message composition o mouse support when using xterm on an X Window system o a highly configurable environment Pine can be used to download mail from one or more POP3 mail servers. set up multiple configuration files (pine -p localmail.darkelf.Web-based mail agent. to configure Pine to use a POP3 server. which is highly configurable.1 and 5. Then. See Tip of the Week (http://tipoftheweek. Pine . and use it is if it were accessing local mail.server. while xmh is owned by XFree86. Set something like this in the inbox-path: o {pop.2 come with exmh and xmh. The exmh front end is a separate package. Allows you to use any browser to check your POP mail account.mail reading program included with KDE M . Red Hat 5.text based mail program.).graphical front end for Mh Kmail . The article is unclear on whether there is the option of leaving copies of the downloaded mail on the server.• • • • Balsa .net) for the fourth week of February 1999.mail handling system. which are graphical front ends for nmh. Sylpheed XCmail - • • • • • • • • • • • . Evolution . pine -p popserver 1. The Web site of the company that makes this one can be used to check your mail on a Unix system without setting up any CGI script on the server side.text based mail and news utility. Nmh . This system includes a large number of binary commands that are kept in /usr/bin.

and still manages to use colors for menu bars and syntax highlighting. nedit .included with most Linux distributions. vi . It works well in console mode. and a few other editors. pico . The program xjed which comes with some versions starts up its own X terminal when invoked. while not taking up too much disk space or memory. For editing TEX and LATEX files. 10. It often comes packaged with the Pine mail user agent. highlighting. it can be pretty hard to understand.simple text editor."Joe's Own Editor". a fairly powerful editor with a compact binary and an ability to emulate Wordstar. jove . It runs without using sendmail and procmail. etc. Allows the user to place program icons on the desktop. It does simple syntax highlighting for TeX files. vim .a fairly powerful emacs clone whose binary is actually smaller than that of the Joe editor.a pretty powerful GUI text editor emacs . which is a major advantage. it has commands which are closest to Windows text editors. Pico.3 Editors • • cooledit .spinoff of muemacs. It's a GUI-based mail tool that seems to offer most of the features of Netscape's mail module.This one seems very promising. Of all text editors for Linux that I've seen. If you're not used to the syntax. It has very good syntax highlighting for both LATEX and HTML. jed . joe . It would seem to be pretty configurable and takes up much less disk space than emacs. microemacs (JASSPA) . I tried this out a couple of times and managed to crash it when making some minor errors in command syntax.powerful text editor that includes modules for reading and sending mail and postings to newsgroups.an X Window based text editor. the AucTEX addon package is invaluable. muemacs .• XFmail .simple text editor included with many Linux distributions • • • • • • • • • • 10. marking text. and makes emacs pretty hard to beat as an editor with LATEX. . Pretty powerful and configurable. and a browser module. for cursor movement. including giving positioning of parentheses."Joe's Own Version of Emacs".Desktop File Manager.has pretty good emacs emulation (it can even read mail like emacs!).4 Other • dfm . Emacs.improved version of vi xedit . although more than joe and muemacs.

May be a good substitute for GAUSS and/or MATLAB. ``Linux Newbie Administrator Guide''.tripod. ``Linux Files and Command Reference''.dk/linux-newbie/ Siever. Linux in a Nutshell. scilab . Piotr et.Linus Torvalds Windows 2000.com/os/linux/commands/index. Matthias Kalle Dalheimer and Lar Kaufman (1999). al. Gnome version of Midnight Commander. (1998). 12 References Computer Technology Documentation Project (CTDP) (2000a). Matt. http://ctdp.html Computer Technology Documentation Project (CTDP) (2000b). http://www. third edition. Jessica P.pdf Welsh. I got those with the system. Windows NT must be restarted for the change to take effect.com/ssc/bash/ bash. Ellen. mc . for free'. Runs in console mode and in an xterm. O'Reilly Sobell. Includes a graphical interface and allows the user to place icons on the desktop. resumes after the endsw command. Resumes execution after the loop. and Stephen Figgins (2000).html Klimas. ``Bash Reference Card''. people just stare at you blankly and say `Hey.'' .Midnight Commander file manager. Windows NT: transforms your workstation into a microcomputer. Resumes job in the background. ``How Linux Works''. O'Reilly and Associates The C shell provides the following built-in commands: # alias bg break breaksw case Marks a command. http://ctdp. Defines a label in a switch command. Displays alias. Reboot now [OK]? Linux: transforms your microcomputer into a workstation. from the company that brought you EDLIN! Linux: because rebooting is for adding new hardware.a free matrix programming language. Windows: where do you want to go today? Linux: where do you want to go tomorrow? This program has performed an illegal operation and will be shut down: please reboot using Linux. Breaks from a switch command. .Gnome Midnight Commander. Stephen Spainhour. ``When you say `I wrote a program that crashed Windows'. (1999). Your mouse has moved.• • • gmc . http://sunsite. Addison-Wesley SSC (2000). Running Linux. third edition. Hekman. 11 Some Nifty Slogans Linux: the choice of a GNU generation. Mark G.tripod. A Practical Guide to Linux.com/os/linux/howlinuxworks/index.ssc.

but without the new line. Changes the priority of commands run in the shell.cd chdir continue default dirs echo eval exec exit fg foreach glob goto hashstat history if jobs kill limit login logout nice nohup notify onintr popd pushd Changes directory. Exits the shell. Continues a loop. Pops the top directory off the directory stack and changes to the new top directory. Sets or list system resource limits. term (terminate) is the default signal. like the echo command. Logs out. Executes a command if condition met. Specifies a looping control statement and execute a sequence of commands until reaching an end command. Exchanges the top two elements of the directory stack. Brings a job in the foreground. Evaluates a command. . Writes arguments to the standard output of the shell. Continues execution after the specified label. Logs on. Ignores the hangup signal. Displays hash table statistics. Lists active jobs. same as cd. Sends a signal to a process. Displays the directory stack. Notifies the user about changes in job status. Changes directory. Displays the history list. Specifies the default case in a switch. Writes arguments to the standard output of the shell. Executes the command in the current shell. Tells the shell what to do on interrupt.

Sets environment variables. Stops the current shell. Displays the time used to execute commands. Removes limitations on system Resource. Disables the internal hash table. Starts a switch. Waits for background jobs to complete. . Executes the commands between the while and matching end statements repeatedly. Stops a background job. Shifts shell arguments. Repeats the execution of a command. Removes command alias. Deletes shell variables. Displays or set the values of all the shell variables. Shows or set file permissions.rehash repeat set setenv shift source stop suspend switch time umask unalias unhash unlimit unset unsetenv wait while … end @ Re-computes the hash table of the contents of the directories in the path shell variable. Deletes environment variables. Displays or set the value of a shell variable. Reads commands from a script.