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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

PREDISPOSING FACTORS: Age: 13-30 y.o. Gender: Female Conditions:Pregnancy, excessive menstruation, alcoholics Underlying disease conditions: Cancer, Kidney Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus PRECIPITATING FACTORS: Dietary intake (Iron, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid), erythropoietin Malabsorption:Lack of intrinsic factor, Inappropriate interventions upon intake of Supplements, Gastrectomy, Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Manifestations:  Smooth sour tongue  Diarrhea  Paresthesias of hands and feet  Impaired coordination and position sense

Folic Acid Deficiency

Iron Deficiency

Proliferation of large immature dysfunctional RBC

Lack of hemoglobin in the RBC

Alterations of Normal production of RBCs

O2 Carrying Capability

Hypoxia

Hypoxemia

Manifestations:  Pale skin  shortness of breath  rapid heartbeat  low vitality  dizziness

Organ Dysfunction

Organ Failure

DEATH

ANEMIA

it would lead to organ dysfunction and then organ failure thus complications arises during this time and if left untreated. also called erythrocytes. medical condition caused by an abnormally low number of red blood cells. Red blood cells may also be destroyed by some genetic conditions. which is produced by the kidneys.PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ANEMIA Anemia. Red blood cell production becomes impaired if the body has inadequate amounts of certain nutrients. . If appropriate interventions are not done. may also lead to decreased red blood cell production. the more red blood cells it traps and destroys. such as thalassemia. In some cases. a red. In some cases red blood cells are destroyed by a malfunction of the immune system in which antibodies attach to red blood cells. iron-rich protein that carries oxygen in the blood to the body s tissues. an organ that removes worn red blood cells from the body. such as from bleeding ulcers or tumors of the intestinal tract. including iron. anemia results. Red blood cells normally live for about 120 days before the immune system removes them from the body. Excessive bleeding can cause dangerously low blood pressure as well as insufficient oxygen delivery to body tissues. contain hemoglobin. stroke or heart failure. death is inevitable. kidney disease. Decreased RBCs in the system would lead to hypoxia that would later turn to hypoxemia. Large amounts of blood loss may occur suddenly due to injury or surgery. diabetes mellitus. shortness of breath. and. But if the destruction of red blood cells exceeds the body s ability to produce new red blood cells. There are three primary causes of anemia: (1) reduced production of red blood cells. and folic acid. (2) excessive destruction of red blood cells. The larger the spleen grows. as well as the hormone erythropoietin. Red blood cells. excessive bleeding may occur over time. vitamin B12. dizziness. low vitality. that cause defects in the structure or function of red blood cells. These symptoms include pale skin. and inflammatory bowel disease. Chronic illnesses. if left untreated. such as cancer. The body compensates by producing new red blood cells. rapid heartbeat. Abnormal destruction of red blood cells may be caused by an enlarged spleen. People with anemia develop symptoms caused by the poor delivery of oxygen to their body tissues. marking them for destruction. and (3) extensive bleeding.