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GETTING T I TO KN W YOU NOW UR GE S  EARS BE RE YOU MI EFOR IX

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DJ.S SKY  WE E THE BEST CR REW ENT.  9/7 7/2010 

A SMALL NOTE ABOUT DJ SKY, THE AUTHOR OF THIS CREATIVE SWEET MIND ( CSM)

WE THE BEST CREW. Muwonge. G. Andrew Tel: 0701637952 I'm Straight From Da Underground Kickin' It Wit Da Neu Vibes and all yo non-stop video mixin. So All You Suckers Interested Holla @ Ya Boy! @djskymix@yahoo.com Big Up To www.dj promoter.com Without U Dudes Game Wldn't Be Tight Like It Is We Shall Keep On Representin' Nobody Is Goin' Down Suckers..........We De Best. All Rights Of The Producer & Of The Owner Of The Recorded Work Reserved.Unaunthorised Copyin',Editin', Reproduction,Public Performance,Broadcastin Of This Recordin' Prohibited.This Violates The WE THE BEST CREW Productions. Standard Terms Of Trade.If U Get Caught,Trust Me,Yo' Black Monkey Ass'll Get Whupped!!! »».:: WE THE BEST ::.«« All Rights Reserved ...::: © 2O10 WE THE BEST CREW Productions :::... Born and raised in KYOTERA, kampala-Uganda, original name MUWONGE GONZAGA, began his music career at an early age. He started playing classical piano at the age of four, and found himself at the heart of the electronic alternative scene by the age of ten when he moved to KYOTERA TOWN, KAMPALA. At age 14, SKY was DJing to fund his gear addiction, and soon his passion for DJing and production were tantamount. With styles ranging from Hip-hop,local afro-beat,techno and house, to ambient, SKY blends genres. "I see it all as music AND i can make it rain” says younger Deejay sky at the age of 15. Considered one of the top DJs around, dj sky globetrotting schedule and growing legions of fans serve to prove his ability to command dance floors worldwide. With Billboard chart success on the Ad facebook project, and collaborations with other deejays such as KY, RICARDO, PONCE, IVO, Santos,BRIGHT, KAM & Alex Flatner, SKY is established in the game. With releases on labels such as WTBC, Plastic City, Circle, Tronic, Hooj Choons,URBAN MIX,FUNKY MIX, Monoid, Circle, Guidance, Platform, Twisted, & many others, there seems to be no end in sight for this bright star. In addition to his tour dates, Stryke spends time throughout the country giving clinics and seminars about his use of the industry standard Pro Tools software and its use in his work.

 

For both the ro and stud experience, SKY turn to Stanton “Stanton has always b oad dio ns n. been there t help to y take it to the next level. From top to bottom, St e o tanton's been there. I'm currently a huge n my DJ career t fan of their Ub n berstands. I use them on tour and in the studio. I've also be loving th SCS & SD n n een he DMCS con ntrollers. I've recorded a my radio spots and guest mixes on my SCS S all o System 1. Ad to that th dd he aw wesome Stan nTouch techn nology in the SC SYSTEM 3s, and yo e M ou've got a heck of an arsenal!" FOR GOD h R AN MY COUN ND NTRY

the harder you work at that practice. feel the music. We all have different levels of knowledge so you may want to just dip in where you feel the need if you are a little more worldly wise!   . There are quite a few techniques involved and the way the techniques work can be different for different types of music and with different equipment. But stick with us and we’ll get you there. But we can’t stress enough – too many people get frustrated and beat themselves up over this sort of thing. What’s more confusing is that there are no real rules. All we can do is show you some approaches that work for us. The more you practice. Mixing is a big subject. even those with no experience of DJing at all.Part Two… The Beginners guide to Beatmixing! We are going to teach you to mix… you’re gonna need to be patient. enjoy yourself. then move on and eventually it will all flow. practice it until it becomes second nature. that feels good for you and gets the desired results. the easier it will get and the quicker the process will be. then go with it. learn one little thing. Don’t expect to just read this and then miraculously be able to mix overnight. this has been written so that it suits everybody. One step at a time As with all potentially complicated and frustrating things. If you find your own way of doing things. Relax. There are an awful lot of different ideas about what mixing is all about. the best place to start is at the beginning and the best way to start is nice and slow. persistent and practice till your fingers bleed.as usual with the Kam DJ Academy. ALSO :. It will almost certainly take months if not years to become any good at this.

platter 2. target light 4. pitch bend buttons 7. metering & setting levels 3. quartz lock & strobe 6.These are the things we’ll be covering. channel 2. pitch fader 5. monitoring 4. Tools of the trade -the gear you’ll need and what it does• Decks – the different things on a DJ deck 1. the crossfader • Headphone s Basic Techniques Choose your weapons Counting beats n bars Getting a grip • Finger Positioning • Basic Manipulation • Cueing up • Releasing the platter • Performing a ‘drop mix’ Your first mix Double jeopardy • Getting the feel of the crossfader • Using two copies of the same record to perform your first ‘beat mix’ • Pushing on pulling back Mix n match • About Tempo • Using the pitch fader • Getting two different records to the same tempo   . brake & motor off • Slipmats •– the different things on a basic mixer • Mixer 1. tone arm 3.

kam. if the platter is spinning at either of the default speeds (or Quartz Locked) then one of the dots will appear to be stationary. but if you do this and your own decks run true and those in a venue don’t you need to know about it.Tools of the trade… the gear you’ll need and what it does You will find loads of instructions and advice on how to connect up and set up a huge range of DJ gear in Part One of the DJ Academy “Getting Set Up… The Kam Guide To Connecting & Setting Up Your Equipment”. For instructions on how to set it up properly so that this is what happens even when you manipulate the platter to cue up records.co. Brake & motor off There is a big difference between hitting the start/stop button and using the on/off switch with Direct Drive decks. If the platter is not spinning at a default speed then you will see a dot appear to move in one direction or other. These cause the motor to accelerate or decelerate by a specific amount for as long as they’re held down. The start/stop button engages a brake to stop the platter so that it stops spinning quite quickly. please download and read section one of our ‘Kam DJ Academy’ Pdf. The on/off switch   .. which you can download from www.uk Decks – a brief guide to the different things on a DJ deck Platter This is where you put the records. dots travelling anti-clockwise indicate a platter that’s running slow. Target light This little pop-up light is there to shed a little light on your vinyl so that you can see where you’re putting the stylus. If you set the platter running and look into the light at the dots. The Strobe Light is there to tell you whether the platter is actually spinning at the correct speed. Pitch Fader Moving this fader causes the platter to slow down or speed up (dpepnding on which direction you move it). The point of it is so that you can return record playback speed (and therefore the tempo and musical key of a record) to its original setting with a single action. Pitch bend buttons Some decks have Pitch Bend Buttons. The main advantage of this to a DJ is that it demonstrates whether a particular turntable consistently runs fast or slow. Quartz lock & strobe The Quartz Lock button essentially turns off the pitch fader. Dots travelling clockwise indicate that the platter is running fast. Tone arm The tone arm is there to hold the headshell in such a way as to keep the stylus sitting in the grooves of your records. Some decks also have a ‘Brake Speed’ control which determines how hard the deck hits the brakes. They are there as an alternative to touching the platter or spindle as outlined below. It can be tempting to rely on learning how far to move the pitch fader on your own set of decks.

These will be different for each mixer depending on the facilities available – you’ll need to check your mixer manual to find out which facilities your mixer has. channel fader – this is used to adjust the level/volume of the individual channel in relation to the other channel/s. passes through various things and then flows out of the other end. The channel fader adjusts volume before it is sent to the crossfader. you can cut out a circle of paper. through the crossfader and off out of the mixer. You should be able to stop it without much finger pressure. gain control – this adjusts the input level (volume) of the sound as it arrives at the mixer. These are not common on mixers for beginners and therefore another one for our Advanced Guide.so it stops more gradually. Sound comes in at one end. It helps to think of a channel as a path. effect send/return control or button – this is here to allow you to connect an external effects processor. The platter of your deck should continue to spin whilst you hold the actual record motionless. phono/line selection switches – many mixer channels have two sets of inputs on the back so that you can connect both a deck and a CD player to just one channel.   . If you find that even a gentle finger pressure tends to stop the platter spinning as well as the record.kam. Slipmats Put a record on a deck and set the platter spinning. pan control – this is used to make the sound of the channel seem louder in the left or right speaker. Each channel will (if it has them) consist of the following things in the order in which they occur. What makes this possible is the slip mat. For now set these to zero.actually disengages the motor so that the platter continues to spin until it runs out of momentum . pop a hole in the middle and use it as an additional slippery layer between the platter and your slip mat.uk. which provides a slippery surface for the platter to spin against. Mixer – a brief guide to the different things on a basic mixer Connections How to connect up your decks or CD players to your mixer is covered in our Kam DJ Acadamy Part One pdf available at www.co. Each of the things the sound passes through as it flows through the channel has controls. You then use this face plate switch to choose which will flow through the channel. So when we connect two decks to a mixer we connect each one to it’s own ‘channel’ on the mixer. they continue to send sound out to the mixer when you hit the stop or motor off… so the sound of the record gradually slowing down is heard. With most decks. Channel Because we’re able to connect several different sound sources (decks etc) to a mixer it’s helpful to be able to distinguish which one we’re talking about. Try gently stopping the record with your fingers. EQ controls – these are used to adjust the tonal characteristics of the sound and will be covered in detail within our forthcoming Advanced Guide To Beatmixing. With most mixer layouts all of the different controls for each channel are laid out in a single line running down the front panel from top to bottom. kill switches – another method of adjusting the tonal characteristics of sound which will be covered in our Advanced Guide.

Because the Master Level is set to zero there should be no activity on the meter. Make sure it’s the only PFL button that is active (many mixers include a status L:ED by the PFL button to make this clear) so that you’re only measuring the one channel at a time.Metering It is all too easy to overload either your mixer or your amplifier and speakers so it’s important to learn to keep your levels under control… an amp and speakers can only be as loud as it can be. Most mixers have a button on each channel marked ‘PFL’ (Pre Fade Level). If   . A perfect signal is one that peaks at the zero dB mark on the meter (notice that on most mixers this ‘zero’ LED is actually amber in colour). Feeding it with overloaded. then great. you should try to keep the output level of your mixer peaking at around 0dB. distorted sound won’t make it any louder. • Set the crossfader in a central position. • Turn the channel gain (sometimes called trim) control to zero (if your mixer has them). If you have it set at this optimum level and the sound system is still not loud enough. • Make sure you have made all the correct connections. This meter activity illustrates the level of sound arriving at the mixer. Pressing it switches the meter over to measuring the sound as it arrives at the mixer. it’ll just make it sound distorted. • Push the appropriate channel fader up to maximum. • What happens next is partly down to which mixer you have. You’ll notice that the LEDs above zero are red… which should be enough of a hint really. 3) Use the gain/trim control to adjust this so that it is peaking at around 0dB. Setting Levels Here’s a basic procedure for setting correct levels. the extra volume will make the distortion really unpleasant. • Put a record on and set it running. your problem is the sound system… not the mixer! If there is room to turn up the sound system. 5) Gradually increase the Master Level control to set a comfortable listening level… whilst observing the next item in our little list! • Regardless of mixer type. • If you have a basic mixer without any channel gain controls (like the GM25SE) you have no way of setting input levels so all you do is use the Master Level control to adjust the output level so that it peaks at around zero dB. A little bit of distortion at home. at low volume is possibly not all that noticeable but when it comes to playing through a sound system. • Ensure that you have set the input select switches for each channel to ‘phono’ (or Line if you’re using CDs). 1) Press the PFL (or Cue) button on the appropriate channel. To help avoid this we have a meter to measure the sound. 2) You should now see activity on the level meter. Kam have built the GM25 so that you will not overload the inputs with a normal record or CD. 4) Now press the PFL/Cue button again to return the level meters to measuring the Main Mix Output. • Turn the Master Output and channel fader levels down to zero. A very basic mixer may only measure the sound as it leaves the mixer. • If you have a mixer with PFL metering and gain controls here’s what you do.

Many mixers also have what we call a Split Cue feature (often simply a button) which plays the Cue through one cup of your headphones and the Main Mix through the other. Rather than rely on practicing mixes inside their headphones. the entire issue of the overall volume of the sound system will be completely out of your control as a DJ. In the middle it blends the sound of both channels together in equal proportions and sends them off to the Main Mix Output. whilst at the same time gradually increasing the volume of the other channel. 2) to cling to your head so that one cup sits over your ear and the other cup perches elsewhere on your head (usually behind the other ear). But when the control is in the middle you hear a mix of both in your headphones. If you make it to playing through a professional sound system in a professional club. you have reached maximum volume and you’ll just have to get on with your job.not. As you move it across. A basic Cue system has three controls. 1) The first and most obvious is a headphone level control. 1) to cut out the sound of the sound system when you’re wearing the cups so you can hear the Cue record clearly. So a good set of DJ headphones needs to do two things.   . Some mixers have ‘Curve’ controls which allow you to set up how quickly each channel will be faded up or down because a smooth blending DJ needs a slow and gentle fade and a turntablist needs a razor sharp fast fade. Monitoring When DJing it is essential to be able to play one record out through the speakers and to listen to (or monitor) another record through a set of headphones so that you can prepare to change between the two. The crossfader The horizontal fader at the front of the mixer. 2) The next is a control that allows you to choose whether to listen to the ‘main mix’ (the sound going out through the main output and through the speakers) or the ‘Cue’ (the record you’re preparing to mix in). Cue Up or rehearse mixing records. All mixers have what we call a ‘Cue’ system that makes this possible. This is so that you can practise your mix in your headphones before you perform it. There will either be an engineer on hand to set the volume or (more likely these days) the system will have a compressor/limiter fitted which will automatically keep the volume at a specified volume. We call this the ‘Cue Select’ control and it has another handy feature. When at one end of its track the crossfader causes just one channel to be sent to the Main Mix Output. When turned fully the opposite way you hear just the Main Mix in your headphones. So you feeding it distorted sound will achieve nothing more than making your music sound crap. Headphones Headphones are an essential item for DJs because without them you won’t be able to audition. most DJs prefer to listen to the Cue record in one ear using one cup of the headphone and to listen to the sound system with the other ear. it gradually decreases the level of that channel. when turned fully to one side (EG left) you’ll hear just the Cue record in your headphones. It’s used to transfer seamlessly from the sound of one channel to the other. 3) The system is completed by a button on each channel which determines whether each channel is going to be heard on the Cue side of the Cue Select control.

even if you don’t usually listen to it this kind of thing… find a simple house/techno record that starts with a kick drum.4. ‘deck 1’.2. Listen to the record and start to count from one to four. You should quickly notice that one beat is emphasized more than the others. These patterns will help you a lot in a great many ways so start listening out for them… we’ll return to this subject in a little more depth in our Advanced Guide. Getting a grip We are going to do the following with our crossfader still in the central position. So. Choose your weapons Many DJing techniques are easier to practice with two copies of the same record and the simple four to the floor beats of house and techno are easier to work with. Buy two copies of it. Each group of four beats is a bar and you have hopefully just identified that emphasized beat as the first beat in the bar.1.3. etc. Traditional House & Techno places a kick drum on every single beat in the bar. there’s nobody listening!). 1. in time to the kick drum beats. We’re doing this because it means you don’t have to worry about headphone monitoring for now and because it’s easier to hear what you’re going through the speakers. Counting beats n bars Place a copy on each deck and set both pitch controls on your decks to zero (press the Quartz Lock buttons if your decks have them).2.1..2. Four to the floor house/techno often also has a hi hat placed in the gap between the kick drums – we call these ‘in between’ beats.3. Set your crossfader in the centre on your mixer so that you can hear both decks. ‘off beats’. which of course means you’re going to hear an almighty racket through the speakers as you practice. out loud (don’t worry about feeling like a tit. Finger Positioning There are two basic hand positions involved. so it has four kick beats in each bar… hence the term ‘four to the floor’. one for actually Cueing up records and another for back or forward winding when you wish to locate a part of the record to Cue Up. Finger positioning for backwinding   . the more you’ll find. You’ll also spot that most dance music has a snare drum on the second and fourth beat of the bar. Put the needle on the record and start deck one spinning. In a performance situation you’d practice in your headphones.4. has a prominent kick drum (and a prominent hi hat) all the way through and preferably has a minute or so of just drums at the start.Basic Techniques THROUGHOUT THESE TUTORIALS WE’RE GOING TO FOLLOW A LITTLE OBVIOUS PROTOCOL… we’re going to assume that you’ve connected the left hand deck to channel one on your mixer – so from here on we’ll call the left hand deck.4. ‘deck 2’ and assume it’s connected to channel two. Likewise we’ll call the right hand deck. Almost all dance music is organized in four beat bars.3. The more you start looking for patterns and repetition within dance music.

Most DJs will then prepare the next mix and then return the Cue record to this ‘Cue Position’ and leave it there whilst the rest of the current track plays out or until the right moment to run the mix comes along. 3 Move your fingers over to Cue position. 6 Try moving the record forwards. We do this so that we know that we can leave it sat where it is until we need to run the mix. You should hear the kick beat. 5 You may need to re-position your fingers in Cue position during the last couple of steps… in time you’ll just get a feel for where to put your fingers. Cueing up The first four steps of the Basic Manipulation technique above are what you need to Cue Up a record. It’s a natural process… you try running a mix. It takes just under a quarter of a turn for your average pro deck to go from a standing start to correct speed if you just hit the start button. regardless of whether it’s successful or not. When we’re ready we know we can go back to it. with a much smaller hand movement and without knocking the tone arm… try it you’ll see. you’ll hear the kick beat played backwards. Basic Manipulation 1 Stop deck one. 9 Practice simply moving the record back and forth. 11. 8 You’ll notice that if you move too fast the kick drum sounds thin and high pitched. with the deck stopped.Many DJs find it easier to place their fingers somewhere close to the label when trying to wind the record backwards or forwards any great distance – like when trying to get back to the beginning of a record to practice a particular move again. This makes loads of sense because in the natural process of DJing we have one record playing through the system whilst we prepare the next. if you move too slowly it sounds very low. 10. in position. There is another very handy and not so obvious reason for using the quarter turn thing. bass heavy and less punchy. PANIC.Learn to do it with either hand!! You’ll need to be able to do this with either hand. When you’ve found the beat you want. Finger positioning for Cueing Up Position your hand on the vinyl. 4 Wind the record back to a little under a quarter turn before the kick drum beat and stop it. trying to do it at the right speed to get a feel for ‘playing’ the single kick drum beat at the correct speed so that it sounds right. In an   . putting your finger near or on the label means you can backwind much more quickly. The finger positioning is simple logic really. 2 Use your fingers in Backwinding position to wind it forwards until you hear the first kick drum beat and stop. By the nature of Djing this is something you’ll find yourself doing a lot. you pull back about a quarter turn and leave the needle in the groove. Place the needle on the blank run in at the start. you’ll need to rewind and Cue up again to perform the mix again. directly opposite the needle but about an inch from the edge of the record (where you place your fingers here is not a hard and fast rule.Keep practicing this until you are confident with it. wind forward a quarter turn and away we go. 7 Wind it backwards. it’s just that this is where many DJs fingers seem to naturally end up!).

6 With practice you’ll get a feel for how to give it a beautifully weighted. Releasing the platter 1 Starting from a Cue Position (we’re going to do this on deck 1) 2 Whilst holding the record still with your left hand. You will probably notice that the music either sets off a little too fast and then gradually slows back down to the correct speed. start deck 1 spinning (with your right hand!).emergency (like you or some other muppet knocks the tone arm off the current track) you can reach out and hit the start button and within a second you have another track running.   . 7 Practice this until you can do it with either hand. 3 Go back to practicing your back and forth action. simply let go after one of your forward actions. gentle shove to set it off at exactly the right speed.. or sets off too slowly and needs to speed up to catch the correct speed. 4 When you feel ready. 5 The record will begin to play.

the headphone Cue system so that you hear deck 1 in your 8. Practice this for a while before moving on. 14. you need to quickly move the crossfader from right to left with your right hand. release deck 1 at just the right speed and move the crossfader at the right moment… you will have performed your first ‘drop mix’. 2 Start deck 2 playing. 12. 10. decks.Cue up your first beat on deck one. in time with the next kick beat from deck two. let go of deck one at the first beat of a bar. Place one cup of your headphones over your 7. 4 With practice you will be able to play the forward kick beat from deck one in time with a beat on deck two and then play the sound of the pull back action (the reversed kick drum sound). Slide headphones. 3 Now practice trying to play the first kick drum on deck 1 ‘in time’ with the kick drum on deck 2. When you start the decks again you should hear deck 2 through your speakers and deck 1 through your headphones.Set deck 2 running from the beginning.the crossfader over to the right (for channel 2).Your first mix… Performing a ‘drop mix’ 1 Cue up both copies of your duplicate record at their first beat. in a way that actually sounds good. Cue both records up again and repeat steps 1 to 4. You have swapped from one record to another… keeping the beats in time. 5.Start your back and forth motion on deck 1. Ensure that you select channel 1 with the ‘Cue’ switch. And set left ear..   . 13. 9.When you feel like you are in time. Stop both 6.At the same time as you let go of deck one with your left hand.If you get your timing right. 11. 15.

5. Start your back and forth motion on deck 1. 5 Now slowly move the crossfader from right to left. Ensure that you select channel 1 with the ‘Cue’ switch. A little explanation of what’s going on with the crossfader. Slide headphones. a crossfader actually reduces the level of each deck by as much as a half in the central position so that the resulting Master level remains constant as we mix.Now practice all that till your fingers bleed! Double jeopardy… Getting the feel of the crossfader When performing our basic ‘drop mix’ above. 3 Try slowly moving the crossfader from left to right. 2. but a crossfader lets us do it with one hand. Clever eh? At the same time as performing this trick it is enabling us to gradually fade one record in over another. So in it’s central position it mixes together the sound from both decks.whilst fading the other out. 6. Stop both decks. 3. And set the headphone Cue system so that you hear deck 1 in your 4. 2 Set deck 1 running from the beginning. still with the pitch control at zero (or Quartz Lock on)… 1. 4 As you move through the centre and over towards the right you should hear the level decrease a little more rapidly. If you think about that for a moment. let go of deck one at the first beat of a bar. In order to move on to a more gradual blend of the two records we need to get a feel for the crossfader. Cue up your first beat on deck one.-The crossfader is there to swap seamlessly from one deck to the other. 7. 1 Stop both decks and move the crossfader to the left. When you feel like you are in time. simply adding together the sound from both decks would make the resulting Master level twice as loud wouldn’t it? To compensate.   . we moved the crossfader across very quickly o that it simply acts as a switch from deck 1 to deck 2. Place one cup of your headphones over your left ear. When you start the decks again you should hear deck 2 through your speakers and deck 1 through your headphones. It should reach a fairly substantial but not full volume in the centre and then be at full volume by the time it reaches the far left. Using two copies of the same record to perform your first ‘beat mix’ Time for your first beat mix!… still using two copies of the same record. You should notice that as you near the centre the level drops a little.the crossfader over to the right (for channel 2). As it reaches the extreme right you should hear nothing. Set deck 2 running from the beginning. You could do all this by moving the channel faders. You should be hearing music through the speakers. 8. 7 Do this a few times to get the feel of it. 6 You should hear deck 1 gradually fade up from silence.

Now the most obvious thing to do is simply practice these things until it sounds very close indeed. If you have released deck 1 at the right speed and in time with deck 2 both decks will be in time. The most common and popular method is number 1. It is helpful to think about this in terms of whether the Cue record is ‘early’ or ‘late’ in relation to the Master. you either didn’t release deck 1 at precisely the right moment or you didn’t release it with a perfectly weighted shove to set it running at the correct speed.Which as far the author is concerned is stupid. You NEED to practice the various steps up until this point until you’re very close to getting the mix right from the moment you release deck 1. pulling back… Lets assume that the previous set of instructions didn’t quite go according to plan… sadly. it will stay consistently late. At it’s most basic.. how much pressure to use. Unfortunately there is no short cut here. How you decide whether the Cue record is early or late is down to careful listening. or ‘pull them back’ until they’re in time. This can be tricky at first but try releasing deck 1 a few times to just practice and the knack should come to you. Because we know our records are running at the same tempo we know that if the kick drum from the Cue record is happening slightly after the Master record (ie it is late). you can now slide the crossfader gradually across from the left to the center and you’ll her both records playing together. With early beats we need to slow them down a little. Moving on to trying to correct the synchronization without getting everything thus far fairly sorted. Because we’re using two copies of the same record running at the same pitch there are only really two things that can have gone wrong. keep your ears on the Master record and try to stick with it so you can identify which set of beats it is. Unfortunately they might not be perfectly synchronised and they might drift out of sync’ relatively quickly if they are… so now you need to read on… Pushing on. very briefly. or ‘push it on’ a little until it is on time. because method 2 is loads easier to control! But there you go… it’s all very personal!! It is a good idea to simply try out methods 1 to 3 on a single spinning record before trying it in the mix. It’s good if you can slow down or speed up a record very   . If the kick drum from the Cue record is happening just before the Master kick beats then it is early. As you’re releasing deck 1 into the mix.IF they’re in time.9. our problem is that although the two records are running at exactly the same tempo their beats are not playing simultaneously. nobody gets it right first time. with two different sounds. Once you’ve identified whether the Cue record is early or late it’s a case of physically pulling or pushing it into time… literally making it accelerate or decelerate just a little. and there are at least four different ways this can be done. The first step to synchronization correction is to identify the problem. It’s easier to get the hang of listening for the differences without actually trying to fix them than worrying about the next step. through your speakers in synchronized DJ heaven. Just get a feel for how it’s done. is a total waste of time. because although we’re about to run through a couple of techniques for correcting the synchronization after you’ve started the mix… sadly they will only serve for quite small corrections. This is often easier to actually identify with two different records. but trying to learn this straight off with two different records is actually much more difficult because of the complication of getting the tempo of two different records together. and how long you need to touch for in relation to what happens to the record. With a late beat we need to hurry it up a bit. 10. a likely state of affairs! Don’t worry. It really helps to be very gentle.

. This is not easy. Put your thumb and forefinger on the spindle and feel it spinning between them. Simply touching the vinyl will slow it down (indeed many DJs touch the vinyl here to slow it down rather than using the edge of the platter).8%).6% or +/. it is much easier to pull back a record than push t on.slightly without causing any noticeable change in the sound. To pull a record back momentarily press the minus button. you can actually see the dots move forwards or backwards and the visual aid it offers. Admittedly you do need reasonably strong fingers and it is tricky with wet or sweaty hands. So the idea of the ‘pitch bend button’ emerged. It’s all too easy to cause a big boom when you touch the deck case or simply to slip… and the simple truth is that you’re touching the platter so if you do slip there’s a chance of whacking the tone arm. Now try squeezing just a little. Because it’s manipulating platter speed using the motor the results are potentially much smoother. To push on a late record use your fingers on the vinyl (at around the Cue Position we used when Cueing up and releasing the record) to give it a tiny little shove. For this reason some DJs get into the habit of erring on the side of releasing the Cue record early rather than late. With touching the platter. Pressing these buttons causes the platter to accelerate by either plus or minus a specified amount (usually +/. touching the platter To pull back an early Cue record beat. so that your hand is already moving at the same speed as the platter when your finger touches the vinyl. Now try gripping and turning the spindle to try and speed up the platter. gently and ever so briefly touch the edge of the spinning platter with your finger. using pitch bend buttons Touching the platter with the record playing out through the sound system is a dangerous game. Synchronisation correction method 2. Synchronisation correction method 1. To push a record on momentarily press the plus button. Don’t apply any pressure just feel it for a moment. If your deck has them you’ll find two buttons. Synchronisation correction method 3. By the nature of this action the author finds that the spindle naturally rolls between thumb and forefinger and this does the trick. You should be able to slow down the platter just a little. You may also find it informative to look at the strobe light as you try it. You’ll notice very quickly that heavy handedness causes extreme fluctuations in musical pitch and tempo. using the spindle Try touching the little chrome spindle in the middle of the platter… it may not look like it but it is spinning.   . one marked ‘+’ and another marked ‘-‘. helps some people. You need to kind of touch it on the move.

So it’s like a little flick of the pitch fader… up a couple of percent and then back again in the blink of an eye. it’s a hell of a knack and not too many people use it. The tricky bit can be getting the slider back to the place you started from! To push on a record – do the reverse. The trick is to just as quickly return it to its original position. But be warned.quickly pull the pitch slider towards the plus sign. This obvious increases the speed of the platter and hopefully pushes the beats into time. thus keeping your hands away from the platter. To pull back a record .   .Because they adjust platter speed by a fixed amount all you need to focus on is how long to push the button for. Synchronisation correction method 4: using the pitch slider Once mastered the following method is considered by many as the best because it essentially mimics the action of pitch bend buttons on decks that don’t have them. quickly push the fader towards the minus sign and then return it to the same setting. This too is manipulating platter speed using the motor so the results can be very smooth. You’ll find you only need to press very briefly.

So making   . We measure tempo in terms of how many beats occur during a minute (which we call ‘beats per minute’ or ‘bpm’ for short). But it has a disadvantage in that even at +/. a piece of Drum & Bass at around 170bpm or a piece of Hip Hop might run at around 95bpm. Tempo is the musical term for how fast a piece of music is going. The moment you decide to mix two different records together a whole new can of worms splits open and the world gets wriggly.10%. The problem is tempo. Pull the fader towards you (toward the plus sign) and the platter speeds up… thus speeding up the tempo of the music on the record. Having a large pitch range available is great when it comes to trying to get records with vastly different tempo to mix together. the platter and your music slow down. So for example a piece of hard house might be running at around 130bpm.  Mix n match… About Tempo So far we have been dealing with two copies of the same record. The fact that the rhythmic relationships which underpin different musical genres tend to by quite reliant on specific tempo ranges is just one part of what lies behind the fact that DJs tend to stick mostly to one broad style. Push the fader away from you (towards the minus sign). More sophisticated turntables have a variable pitch fader range where for example like the Kam DDX1000 a button is used to select between a pitch range of +/. Using the pitch fader To get two different records running at the same tempo we have pitch faders on decks. Many decks have a fixed pitch fader range of for example +/.10% it can take some quite fine pitch fader movements to get the tempo of two records perfectly matched… and of course having a much bigger pitch fader range means that small movements of the fader make larger changes. The actual amount the platter speeds up or slows down across the range of the fader movement is expressed in terms of a percentage. For two pieces of music to mix together they have to be running at the same tempo. Their operation is a simple affair.10/20 or 30%.

the amount by which a beat is early or late is constantly changing. If for example you want to mix a piece of Hip Hop with a piece of hard house. When you start the decks again you should hear deck 2 through your speakers and deck 1 through your headphones. 8 When you feel like you are in time. 5 Cue up your first beat on deck one.   . you should be able to tell. But life was simple because the amount by which they were early or late remained fixed because the two records were at the same tempo. 3 Ensure that you select channel 1 with the ‘Cue’ switch. let go of deck one at the first beat of a bar. 10. Hence having the pitch fader range selectable for the best of both worlds. The process for getting two different records synchronised is very similar. 4 Slide the crossfader over to the right (for channel 2). 7 Start your back and forth motion on deck 1. Time to try it… we’re going to assume you’re sensibly working with two pieces of music which are of a reasonably similar (but obviously not exactly the same) tempo… 1 Stop both decks.  small subtle changes can be tricky. that one of them is much slower than the other. but with one simple complication. Even if you slow down the 130bpm record by 13bpm to 117bpm and speed up the 100bpm record to 110bpm. So the first hurdle is to make sure you have two records which are inherently of a reasonably similar tempo. When two records are for example 10bpm apart they should mix fairly easily.The secret is to listen to the changes in length of the gaps between the Cue and Master beats. they just don’t mix. 2 Place one cup of your headphones over your left ear. listen to whether subsequent beats are early or late. With a +/-10% pitch control a record with a tempo of 100bpm will not mix with a record with a tempo of 130bpm. Getting Two different records to the same tempo Getting it ‘nearly right’ Before we can get two different records to exactly the same tempo we have to get them at least ‘nearly’ at the same tempo. presuming you released the first beat of a bar on deck 1 in time. And set the headphone Cue system so that you hear deck 1 in your headphones. 9 Keep your attention on the Master track and. Getting two reasonably similar tempo records to the same tempo When we were learning how to synchronise beats (in the pushing on pulling back section above) we were dealing with beats being early or late. 6 Set deck 2 running from the beginning. just by counting time to the beats and judging how fast you’re counting.

then beat 3 should be closer too. then this time beat 2 should either be in time or not quite so late. .If for example beat 2 (from the Cue record on deck 1) is late (just after the Master beat). then beat 3 is later still. then the Cue record is slower than the Master.    11.Cue up deck 1 and try it again with the increased platter speed. So you need to slightly increase the speed of the platter with the pitch fader and try again. 12. If you’ve made the correct assessment. then beat 4 is even later.

you’ll need to speed up the platter a little.It will take some practice because if you think about it we know have three things which can be wrong… you need to release deck 1 at the right moment. Cueing up deck 1. So if you’re repeatedly pulling back the Cue record because it’s pulling ahead. 14.By only making small adjustments to the pitch fader. Good luck. then slow down the platter a tiny bit. practice loads and come back and download Part Three of the Kam DJ Academy “The Next Level”… which should be ready soon! Part 2 . 19.You will probably find that once you have the two records more or less in time for a couple of bars they will begin to drift out of time.If at steps 9 & 10 you find that the beats from the Cue record are occurring just before the Master beats then the Cue record is running faster.At this point you’ll probably want to ease the crossfader over to the center and revel in the glory of your first beatmix of two different records… your first proper mix! 17. In which case you’ll need to increase platter speed… but the process is the same.Once you’ve got the two records running ‘nearly’ synchronized you can move on to your preferred method for ‘pulling back’ or ‘pushing on’ to try to keep the two records ‘in’.SETTING UP YOUR DECKS & MIXER CONTENTS THE SET UP – AT HOME ASSEMBLING YOUR TRUNTABLES How To Hook Up A Head shell Fitting The Head shell To The Tone Arm Fitting The Stylus Balancing The Tone Arm Slip mats WIRING UP YOUR DECKS TO YOUR MIXER Don’t Blow It White Left Red Right Turn It On Right   . If you’re repeatedly pushing on. You can obviously then push on or pull back either record to keep them in.  13. spinning it in again and listening to the differences… and repeating the process you should be able to gradually get the two records to the same tempo. 18. 16.It’s all a case of careful listening and gently nudging in the right direction. 20. you need to weight the little shove just right AND you need to have made the correct judgments about what adjustments you need to make to the pitch fader.If you find that you are repeatedly having to pull back or push on to keep the records from drifting you need to make another very small adjustment to the pitch fader. 15.

  CONNECTING YOUR MIXER TO YOUR AMP CONNECTING UP A TAPE OR MD MACHINE TO RECORD YOUR SET THE SET UP – AT A PARTY AMPLIFIERS & SPEAKERS Positioning Ohms and Watts. Resistance and Power Connecting Up Your Speakers & Amp Audio Cable Types & Input Connections Series And Parallel Bridged Using Parametric EQ BASIC ANATOMY OF A DJ MIXER BASIC ANATOMY OF A CD PLAYER USING MICROPHONES Using Standard Vocal Mic’s Using Wireless Systems   .

co om www.com/d djskymixes e   .dj jpromoter r.tu urntableu.com www.  WWW. .co om www w.universa aldj.com www.djshiru. .kamdjs.

 

 

 

THE SET UP - AT HOME
It may seem obvious but a badly organized set up can hinder you quite a bit when it comes to learning to mix. There are a few simple rules to follow; Get hold of, or build yourself a solid table. It needs to be wide and long enough to take two turntables and a mixer and it can be very handy if it’s also got some extra space to put CD players, records, drinks etc on. Most importantly it should not wobble when you knock it. If the table rocks around all over the show every time you touch the platter, you will have serious difficulty mixing. It should be at a sensible height for you to reach the decks from a standing position without stooping forward. Put your mixer between your decks, it stops you having to think about which is the left or right deck. You will need somewhere to put your amplifier. Most people end up with the amp’ under the table, or on a shelf, but wherever you decide to put it, the audio cable form the mixer is going to need to be long enough to reach it. You need somewhere to put your speakers. Ideally they should be at least six feet apart, at least six feet away from you, either side of your decks at eye height and you should be facing the speakers. This is rarely achieved. The important thing is that you can clearly hear the sound of your main mix. In a proper DJ Booth you will often be confronted with a single monitor (if you are lucky enough to have a monitor at all). DON’T put your speakers on the same table as your decks and mixer. The vibration of the bass from the speakers will cause what we call ‘feedback’. Extreme feedback sounds like a loud, bass frequency howling sound, mild feedback will add an extra mushy ‘boom’ to all of the bass elements in your music. As long as your speakers are a few feet away from your decks you will probably not be listening to your music loud enough to cause feedback at home. It is this unreliability of monitoring systems that lead to the development of the ‘split cue’ monitoring facilities on many DJ mixers.

 

 

6. Unfortunately this is not an ideal world. It’s quite likely that in your career as a DJ you will encounter any number of iffy set ups. You will need to learn to adapt quickly and concentrate on your job, but that doesn’t stop you getting set up properly at home. To find out more about setting up a small PA in a bar or at a party read our ‘Amplifiers & Speakers’ section.

ASSEMBLING YOUR TURNTABLES
Unpack your decks carefully. You’ll probably find a strip of wide sticky tape sealing your box closed. Instead of just ripping it off (which will tear off great hunks of the rest of the box with it), gently run a knife along between the two flaps of the lid. Don’t push the knife in too far, you definitely don’t want to damage your nice new decks, just carefully cut the tape. Keep that packaging. At some point you are going to want to transport your decks. The most common cause of damage to turntables is knocks taken by un-cased (or un-boxed) decks during transit. Unless you’ve gone straight for getting a set of ‘flight cases’ for your set up, you will find that the packaging that the decks (and mixer) first arrived in is the best protective option. Sit your decks on your table. Slip the hole on the middle of the platter in to place over the spindle. You may need to rotate the platter a little before it slides down to fit snugly without rocking about. You may find that the hinges for the lid come separately. Fit the hinges to the lid, then fit the lid to the deck.

HOW TO HOOK UP A HEADSHELL
There are two basic types of Head shell. THE ONE PIECE The simplest solution is the all in one Head shell and Cartridge combination like the classic Stanton Track master. These do not require any user assembly other than fitting or replacing the stylus. They tend to provide superior sound quality and stability and are obviously more convenient but come with a proportionately higher price tag.

 

  THE TRADITIONAL SELF ASSEMBLY CARTRIDGE This is by far the most common solution and where most people on a budget start off. both the little clips and the pins are fairly easily bent. On the back of the Cartridge you’ll find four little colour coded pins. a couple of little square nuts and a Stylus. make sure you’re pushing the clip on straight rather than at an angle and slide firmly in to place.. with the needle pointing downwards. FITTING THE STYLUS The stylus is a small plastic thing with a diamond tipped needle sticking out of one side and a small shaft sticking out of the other. The two little nuts have slots in their side and they slide in to place on the two brackets on top of the Cartridge. loosen the tightening ring and adjust it. Be gentle. ensuring not to damage the needle. It only needs to be tight enough to hold the Headshell firmly in place so don’t over tighten it. Ensure that the Cartridge is sitting straight in the Head shell and tighten up with a small screwdriver. The Head shell itself is supplied with your turntable. Make sure it’s sitting upright. Carefully pick up the Stylus..   . Slide the screws through the slots and screw them in. two small bolts. FITTING THE HEADSHELL TO THE TONE ARM Hold the Headshell the right way up and the right way round. They can only go on the correct way around. just line it up carefully. When you buy a Cartridge you get the body of the Cartridge. Screw the little ring on the end of the tone arm clockwise and you should feel it tighten up. Push each appropriately coloured wire in to place. You should find two small locating pins sticking out of either side of the shaft of the arm. Fit the stylus and look at the Tone Arm from the front. If it isn’t. The wires have clips which slide snugly over these pins. gently slide the shaft in to the socket. On the end of the body of the Cartridge you’ll find a small hole or socket. Offer up the Cartridge to the Head shell so that the screw holes in the nuts line up with the slots in the top of the Head shell. Carefully slide the shaft in to the socket on the end of the tone arm until it is snug. four wires.

The plastic part of the Stylus should end up sitting snugly against the body of the Cartridge. I’m not afraid to take a stand!   .  It should just slide in there with a small amount of resistance.

    .

probably as many opinions as there are DJ techniques. 8A. Different uses will inevitably require different settings but what follows is a decent all round set up.   .stantonmagnetics. Gently hold the Counter Weight without turning it. Set the Height Adjustment Ring to the value specified by the manufacturer. turn the ring with the numbers on it (known as a ‘Pressure Ring’) until the ‘zero’ is lined up with the line along the top of the shaft of the Arm. Be careful not to let the stylus hit the Platter whilst doing this. 7A. 6B. it’s time to get the Tone Arm set up properly.5’ mark on the Pressure Ring lines up with the line on the Arm. Clip the Tone Arm on the Arm Rest. You will find this information on the instructions supplied with the Cartridge.com/alpha44/pc_settings.  BALANCING THE TONE ARM Once you have The Cartridge fitted to the Headshell and the whole lot attached to the Tone Arm. There are many opinions on this subject.asp If you do not have the information for steps 6. 7 & 8 available to you. http://www. Clip the Arm back on to the rest. At this point you are supposed to gently turn the Counter Weight clockwise (without touching the Pressure Ring) until it reaches the value specified by the manufacturer for your particular Cartridge. 6A. Turn the Weight clockwise until the ‘3. Push the Counter Weight on to the shaft at the back of the tone arm with the numbers facing forward. the following steps are workable all round settings. Unclip the Arm from the Rest and gradually screw the Counter Weight forwards until the Tone Arm “floats” horizontally. For Stanton Cartridges you can also find this information at. Set the Anti Skate Ring to the same value as the Pressure Ring. Unlock and set the Height Adjust ring to zero.

somewhat luddite. Turntable assemblies with Straight Tone Arms do not have Anti Skate Rings. Turn the Anti Skate up to maximum. they’re best when a little ‘worn in’. SLIPMATS If you’re going to use a deck for DJing it is absolutely essential that you can hold the actual record still whilst the platter below continues to spin. reduce the anti skate by stages until the cartridge merely shakes about all over the place. 8B.. alternative method employed by many scratchers who feel the need to have a stylus which will stay in the groove when they decide to jump up and down on the platter or scratch with their elbows or knees or whatever. Remove the counterweight. Set the Anti Skate Ring to the same value as the Pressure Ring. A popular. Clip the arm on the rest. turn it around so that the Pressure Ring is facing away from the stylus and push it as far as it will go on to the arm. It’s smooth surfaces cut down the friction between the platter and your vinyl.. Turn the Height Ring up to about 4. Usually a piece of felt like material that’s a little bigger than a 12” with a (spindle sized) round hole in the middle. This set up should work ok for standard mixing and back cueing. If you find that even the slightest finger   .  7B. What make this possible is the Slipmat. If you try to scratch and your cartridge (which now weighs about ten tonnes) jumps back out of the groove. Brand new Slipmats sometimes don’t perform the task quite as well as they should. Alternative method for those who wish to ‘scratch’. Set the Height Adjustment Ring to 2 for a standard Cartridge or ‘0’ for an All In One Cartridge. It is placed on to the platter so that it sits between the platter and the vinyl. All of these methods apply only to turntables with standard S-Shaped Tone Arms.

poke a (spindle sized) hole in the middle and place it between the platter and the   .  pressure on a spinning record stops both the vinyl and the platter there is a solution. cut it to size. If you get a piece of paper.

Connect the white phono plug to the socket marked ‘L’. Unscrew it a few mm. one red. your mixer and your amplifier. Connect the white phono plug to the socket marked ‘L’. Connect the mains cables for both decks. Find the sockets labeled ‘channel 2’ and ‘phono input’ on your mixer. The plastic inner sleeves you sometimes get with imported pressings are absolutely ideal for this purpose. Round the back of your mixer you’ll find a load of phono sockets. The other should have a couple of phono connectors (two little plugs. then your amplifier. How many sockets you’ll find. Find the sockets labeled ‘channel 1’ and ‘phono input’ on your mixer. Grab the audio cable from the right hand deck.which carry the audio signals) and a wire with a little flat. This is a ‘ground’ post. Somewhere on the back of your mixer you’ll find a little threaded post with a plastic nut on it. WIRING UP YOUR DECKS TO YOUR MIXER Hanging off the back of each deck you’ll find 2 cables. grab both of the ‘ground’ wires (the forks).which is what we call an ‘earth’ or ‘ground’ wire. We’ll explain all about your mixer and how to connect up any other equipment you may have in a while. then the mixer. Connect the red phono plug to the socket marked ‘R’. Connect the red phono plug to the socket marked ‘R’. hold both forks together and slide them under the plastic nut of the ground post. fork like thing on the end . Grab the audio cable from the left hand deck. things should then slip for you nicely. Screw them down finger tight.  mat. One is the mains lead. but for now we’ll stick to decks. and how they will be labeled will obviously depend on your particular mixer.   . Switch off your decks. one white .

Left to Left Right to Right. designed for small signals. The audio signal from a turntable is really small. We call it a ‘line level’ signal and it does not need to be amplified before your mixer or amplifier can use it.. With other connection systems used by PA systems you need to use a little more initiative but the principles are the same.. Phono plugs are colour coded. Tape Deck. tape decks and all sorts of things. The cables we use to carry sound from one place to the other in a stereo system (‘stereo’ of course simply means ‘two’) tend to have three wires inside them. Now we use this type of plug for CD players. It happens far too often. The universal rule is that you use the red plug for the right hand side and the white plug for the left hand side. The correct name for ‘phono’ is RCA. If you feed the BIG signal from a ‘line level’ machine in to a ‘phono’ input. Useless information.  DON’T BLOW IT One of the easiest and therefore commonest ways to damage a DJ mixer is to connect the wrong equipment to the wrong input. Same with the average small PA. At best it will sound really distorted and be unusable. The reason why we call them ‘phono’ plugs & sockets is that they were first widely used for turntables.   .like your amplifier. The audio signal from a CD Player. Connect L to L and R to R. Your Mixer has a little ‘pre-amplifier’ inside it which increases the signal a lot so that it works for the rest of your equipment . We call it a ‘phono level’ signal. The rules are very simple. With most domestic equipment we use what most people call ‘phono’ plugs and sockets. So it is important to follow the same policy concerning connecting stereo cables throughout your system. at worst you will break the preamp’. One for each side of our two speaker system and another to carry away unwanted electricity and discharge it to the ground. MiniDisc Player or DAT Player etc is much bigger. WHITE LEFT RED RIGHT Your average domestic Hi Fi has just two speakers and almost all records are recorded with two ‘channels’ of sound to feed those two speakers. you overload the ‘pre-amplifier’. known at the time as ‘phonographs’.

As a DJ it is part of your job to make sure that the volume of the music is appropriate for your audience and is not distorted. Turn the master output volume control of your mixer to zero. CD Player. That’s. Turn the master output volume controls on your amplifier to zero.   . 6. the lot. some Power Amplifiers do not have a volume control at all. 1. Our idea of a ‘normal operating level’ comes from this professional approach to the issue. when switching on your equipment. 4. Turn on the power on your mixer. 2. 3. Turn the volume control on your amplifier to a normal operating level. Many Professional PA Amplifiers are designed to be run with their volume controls set to maximum. mixer. If you’re using a Hi Fi set up as a monitoring system at home. Turn on the power to your decks and CD player. 7. A ‘normal operating level’ is a very subjective thing that depends on your particular set up. You will have to use your common sense and decide what is an appropriate setting. So step 8 is simply to set the appropriate listening level using the volume controls on your mixer. 5. amplifier. decks.  TURN IT ON RIGHT Always follow this procedure. This doesn’t necessarily mean simply turning it up as loud as possible. you’ll often find that you can simply set the master volume to about 30% or 40% and then use the master volume control on your DJ mixer to control the listening level. But there can be no simple line of advice here. With a professional PA system. Turn on the power on your amplifier. Check that everything is switched off. in this order. The reasoning behind this is that the DJ is supposed to control the subjective volume of the system from the mixer. 8.

  CONNECTING YOUR MIXER TO YOUR AMP . DAT or MD recorder. which will be labeled ‘input’ and connect (again. If you are connecting to a domestic hi fi amplifier it will probably have ‘phono’ type input sockets. If you are connecting to a PA style power amplifier.   . CONNECTING UP A TAPE OR MD MACHINE TO RECORD YOUR SET Right next to the ‘main out’ phono sockets on the back of your mixer you’ll find another set of sockets labeled ‘Rec Out’. it will probably have either 1/4” jack or XLR type input sockets which will mean you’ll need a cable with phono plugs at one end and the correct plug to suit your amplifier on the other.AT HOME On the back of your mixer you’ll find a set of sockets marked either ‘main out’. Connect the other end to the sockets labeled either ‘Line In’ or ‘Rec In’ on your cassette. Get a phono cable and connect one end of it to these. The sockets will also be marked ‘L’ & ‘R’. Get a phono cable. ensuring you get the plugs the right way around). ‘master out’ or something very similar. Grab the other end of your phono cable. If you’re using a portable MD recorder you may find that it has a ‘minijack’ type single socket instead of ‘phono’ sockets. You will need to locate the appropriate input sockets on the back of your amplifier. connect one end of it to the mixer ensuring that you get them the right way around. Any decent specialist Equipment Retailer will be able to supply you with the correct cable. You will find guidance on professional connection types in our ‘Amplifiers And Speakers’ section below.

if you put the decks in front of the speakers the DJ may have trouble hearing the sound in their headphones and feedback may occur. Being behind the speakers isn’t ideal for the DJ because it may be difficult to hear. You need to be able to hear what you are doing.. So the trick to satisfying all these things is careful positioning. If the DJ cannot hear the main speakers well enough to mix there are two possible remedies. The first challenge is deciding where to set up your decks and where to position your speakers. preferably at one end of the room and preferably a sufficient distance apart to provide the listener with a decent stereo image of the sound.. As we’ve said. Speakers should be pointing at the audience. The decks should be between the speakers. If you place a deck right in front of a really loud speaker you will suffer from bass feedback. If you try to use a microphone right in front of a speaker you will suffer from mid to high frequency feedback. So in a professional Club the DJ booth is placed behind the main speakers and smaller ‘monitor’ speakers (with an independent volume control) are provided especially for the DJ. At a gig the priority is your audience and there are a few complications to be dealt with.  THE SET UP . so the DJ is facing the audience. Try the following first.AT A PARTY CONNECTING UP YOUR SPEAKERS & AMP Setting up a sound system for a party can be a little different from a domestic set up. POSITIONING At home we suggested that you’d want to place your table for your decks and mixer between the speakers so that you are facing the speakers. You need to be able to see their reaction. The audience needs to be able to hear what you are doing. This is great at home because the priority is you being able to hear what you are doing.   . In a bar or party situation where you’re working with just two main speakers you don’t have that luxury. A different solution is required.

It’s also a good idea to only pull the speaker back as far as is strictly necessary. It can work out better if you only pull one speaker back because DJs tend to monitor the sound from the PA in one ear and the record they’re trying to mix in the other (on their headphones). move it back a foot or two. so that it points a little more towards the DJ. But there are two problems. The question to ask is whether an amplifier that’s rated at 200W is capable of sustaining a constant output of 200W (which logically means it can actually produce peak signals which are much bigger than 200W) or whether 200W   . RESISTANCE AND POWER You’ll probably be aware that most amplifiers and speakers tend to be rated in Watts. sadly. the speakers to avoid it. wrong. Microphones are very susceptible to feedback so mic’s need to be positioned behind. you can (to some extent) control how loud the sound is for the DJ. right? Erm. If you started with the speaker beside and directly in line with the decks. The more Watts the louder it all is. Firstly. This is particularly important if you are using microphones. The idea is to give ourselves a means of measuring how loud a particular combination of amplifier and speaker is likely to be. With an MC or vocalist etc simply ensure you place them correctly in relation to the speakers. The idea of the Watt is that it is a measurement of either how much power an amplifier can put out or how much power a speaker can tolerate before it breaks. OHMS AND WATTS. By turning the speaker a little more or less. As you slide it back the DJ will be progressively more ‘in front of’ the speaker so will hear better. or if necessary beside. How far back you pull or how much you rotate a speaker depends on circumstance.  You can try rotating one of the speakers inwards slightly. If the DJ is to use a mic’ then you will need to experiment a little with positioning the speakers to get as good a compromise as you can between the DJ being able to hear the sound from the speakers and avoiding feedback on the mic’. Rotating the speaker too far however might point it too far away from the audience so the alternative is to physically re-position the speaker. there is no law governing precisely how a manufacturer has measured the power an amplifier can put out.

math’s heads will see the point. this means it can deal with 100W of power comfortably. One delivers 200W RMS per channel in to 8 Ohm. Also. Some are rated at 4 Ohm. The other 100W ‘peak’ per channel in to 4 Ohm. So speakers have a ‘resistance’ rating stated in ‘Ohm’ which is a unit of measurement of electrical resistance. The most important rule to follow is to match the impedance of your speakers to your amplifier -if you know that your speakers are rated at 8 Ohm and your amplifier is stated as delivering a particular Wattage in to 8 Ohm you are on the right road. The RMS bit stands for Root Mean Square . we have two amplifiers. most are rated at 8 Ohm and some are even rated at 2 or 16 Ohm. So the following scenario is possible. We all know that electricity can flow through metal but not wood. There is a way of measuring the comfortable constant operating level of amplifiers or speakers and anything that could produce or handle a sustained measured signal of 200W would be called 200W RMS. So wood has a very high level of resistance to the flow of electricity. is that 200W shared by both speakers.  represents the absolute loudest signal it can produce without distorting (which would also logically mean that it could actually only sustain a much lower constant output). The main reason for rating the Wattage and Resistance of amp’s and speakers is so that you can avoid blowing them up. A rating of simply 100W could mean that it can handle a maximum of 100W. if it is that 200W actually means 100W ‘per channel’. To continue our analogy with the 200W amplifier. Many manufacturers however rate their amplifiers at the ‘peak’ power they can produce. The Second problem is resistance. When a speaker is said to be rated at 100W RMS. An 8 Ohm speaker needs a lot more power from an amplifier than a 4 Ohm speaker in order to achieve the same actual listening volume. both quite legally stated as having a rating of 200W. The former is probably three times more powerful. Metals tend to have a lower level of resistance to electricity and all metals actually have different levels of resistance to electricity. Different speakers have different levels of resistance to electricity. Using an amplifier with a lower Wattage rating than your speakers may make the   . You may think that the next step in damage avoidance is matching the Wattage of amp’ and speakers but this can be deceptive. an amp’ that delivers 200W RMS of power to a speaker rated 8 Ohm will produce a quieter final volume than it would connected to a speaker rated at 4 Ohm.

A standard XLR cable will have a Male plug at one and and a Female plug at the other. Kam amplifiers are happy driving 4 and 8 Ohm speakers and the power they will produce in each circumstance is clearly stated on this web site and in all literature. Balanced XLR -this is the professional industry standard type of analogue audio connection. the output on the mixer will have a Female socket ready to accept a Male plug. You will have no problems with a Kam system. ‘Male’ has three exposed pins. 1. Kam speakers are all rated at 8 Ohm. If you are going to use Kam products with those of other manufacturers. Obviously connect the left speaker to the output marked ‘L’ (sometimes ‘A’) and the right speaker to the output marked ‘R’ (‘B’). Cable Types . As long as the impedance ratings are matched between amp’ and speaker. ‘Female’ has three holes that accept the pins from the ‘Male’ connection. Attach one end to the ‘speaker output’ on your amplifier and the other end to the ‘input’ on your speaker. If it sounds distorted. It is actually often better for your amplifier if you use an amp’ with three or four times the Wattage rating of your speakers because amplifiers overheat when they’re worked too hard. It uses a system based around Male and Female versions of two different plugs and sockets.mixer to amplifier In the 'Wiring Your Decks To Your Mixer' section above we covered connecting your mixer to an amplifier in a domestic situation where the main type of cable in use is the standard RCA Phono. turn it down. check that you match them up.  amp’ struggle to provide enough power. With appropriate cables you can use whichever of these suits your needs. You’ll need 2 of the correct cables (see below) to carry the signal from your amplifier to your speakers. Kam amplifiers are rated at their RMS Wattage. The idea is that you have Male plugs that fit into Female sockets and Female plugs that fit into Male sockets. When used to carry audio from a mixer to an amplifier. XLR   . AUDIO CABLE TYPES & INPUT CONNECTIONS Actual connection for a twin speaker set up is very simple. The input to the amplifier wil have a Male socket designed to accept a Female plug. Here are some examples of what each might be used for. the best tool you have for damage limitation is your ears. There are many different types of audio connection in use within professional systems. If you don’t thrash ‘them they’ll last longer too. The input section of Kam amplifiers features three different types of connection to facilitate use in many different situations.

The 'TS' part of the name refers to the fact that the pin is divided into two sections. The balanced XLR was developed to replace the balanced TRS jack connection type.. Trouble can come from the fact that micrphones and some amplifiers and speakers also use XLR connections. 3. the other wire to carry the negative half and the shield to serve as protection from interferance. The 'shield' is actually a protective tube of copper mesh that surrounds the signal carrying wires throughout the length of a cable.  plugs/sockets are sturdy and have a 'latch' to prevent accidental disconnection. Unbalanced TS ¼" Jack -is a semi-professional cable type which has a single pin. a 'Ring' carries the other half of the balanced audio signal and the rest of the shaft which we still call 'Shield' carries the 'earth'.Amp’s & Speakers’ below) inappropriately. The ‘balanced’ approach helps reduce electrical interference (which can cause hum) and reduce signal loss. The 'Tip' carries one half of a balanced audio signal. it uses one wire to carry the positive half of an audio signal. Shielded Cables All good quality audio cable is what we call ‘Shielded’. Using these to connect from the mixer to your amplifier should deliver a cleaner stronger audio signal from the mixer to the amplifier. the idea is to protect the signal carrying wires from external interference by catching any stray electrical signals (usually caused by close proximity to other cables) and carrying them safely away to to earth to release them. Balanced TRS ¼" Jack -is a single pin plug that is the same size as the TS Jack but the pin is divided into three sections rather than two so that it can be used to carry balanced audio signals. 2..   . Balanced Vs Unbalanced A balanced audio cable has two wires and a ‘shield’ inside it. The idea is that because you have different types of connection on the mixer and amplifier it’s more difficult to accidentally connect a microphone (see ‘Using Microphones’ below) or speaker (see ‘Cable Types . DJ mixers intended for use in professional/install environments (like the Kam KAP range) may feature balanced XLR main outputs. the 'Tip' carries the entire audio signal and the rest of the shaft which we call the 'Sheild' because it connects to the earth 'shield' within the cable.

The XLR. 2. The Crossover divides the signal into three bands (or sometimes only two . In this mode the input signals from Channels A & B are combined and their signal is sent to both amplifier Channels… so you can connect a mono input cable to either Channel A or Channel B. Unbalanced ¼" Jack and RCA Phono input connection types to facilitate use within many different set-ups. Unbalanced RCA Phono -is the standard domestic audio connection format. The amplifier will have a socket designed to accept a ‘female’ XLR plug. For Mono operation. To make this possible the signal is split by a device we call a 'Crossover' that sits between your mixer and the amplifier in the signal chain. Connect the left side of an appropriate cable from your mixer to the input marked 'Channel A' and the right side of the input cable to 'Channel B'. mid and high end slices of the audio spectrum. move the 'Output Mode' switch (if your amplifier has one) to the 'Mono' position. which in turn drive the speakers. XLR plugs have a latch to   . the speaker will feature a socket designed to accept a ‘male’ XLR plug.one for bass and another for mid/high) and then sends them to separate amplifiers. RCA Phono cables are often unshielded. When used for connecting speakers. If your amplifier does not have a mono mode and you need to connect a mono audio signal to it you’ll need to use a special cable that splits the mono signal into two and connect both sides to your amplifier. It uses a central pin to carry the entire audio signal and the flattened outer ring to connect to the earth. 1. move the 'Output Mode' switch (if your amplifier has one) to the 'Stereo' position.amplifier to speakers Finding the right cable is down to identifying which of the methods of connection commonly used at the ends of speaker cables is right for your system. Amplifier Input Connections Kam amplifiers provide XLR. It uses a single pin plug and it doesn’t matter which way around you use the cable. separate speakers are often used to handle bass. In a large club style installation. About Crossovers All Kam speakers are 'full range' which means they're designed to handle the entire audio signal. For stereo use. Cable Types . The main types are. The 1/4” Jack.  4.

SERIES AND PARALLEL It’s possible to connect more than one speaker to an amplifier and there are two ways of doing it. Some Hi Fi systems use small plastic plugs called ‘banana plugs’. The idea is that you connect the output from the amplifier to the input of the first speaker in the chain. Bare Wires are often used at each end of speaker cables for Hi Fi systems. Where you connect them one after the other. Where you connect them side by side. It may take a minute to grasp this but connecting two speakers in parallel actually dramatically reduces the impedance rating of the speakers by   . 1. This uses cables that have identical chunky plastic plugs at either end. 3. Many PA speakers have both an input and an output socket on them specially. They are attached to both amplifiers and speakers via ‘binding posts’ similar to grounding posts on DJ mixers. 2 Parallel. You loosen the nut on the post. then you take another cable. To achieve this you need a box or cable that splits the signal from the output of your amplifier so that you have two plugs/speakers being fed by one amplifier output. 4 Ohm becomes 8 Ohm. The ‘Speakon’. connect one end to the output on that same speaker and connect the other end of the cable to the input on the next speaker in the chain. Series. The Speakon system was introduced to replace the use of Jack and XLR connections for speakers and has become the industry standard professional speaker connection method for safety reasons. 4. Simply follow the colour coding. Both 1/4” Jack Plugs and XLRs are also used by microphones and if you connect a microphone to the output of an amplifier the microphone can become live and very dangerous. If you connect two speakers in this way it doubles the impedance rating of the speakers. Speakon plugs also have a latch to prevent accidental disconnection.  stop them being accidentally disconnected and they will only connect the correct way around. loop the bare wire around the post and then screw down the nut. 5. It’s very handy but it effects the impedance rating of the speakers so should be approached with care. Simply connect each plug to the input on each speaker. The plugs feature a type of shaft unique to speaker connection.

. The ideal is for music to sound exactly the same as it did in the studio when it was produced. we’re not going to explain any further. You should never connect a bridged output from an amplifier to any speaker with less than an 8 Ohm input Impedance rating and rated Wattage of the combined power of both amplifier Channels. EQ stands for ‘Equalisation’. If an amplifier doesn’t have binding post outputs then a different cable needs to be made. but we’re afraid that for now. Bridged Mode works by connecting a single speaker to the positive terminals of each side of the amplifier. on any sound system. It works well if you wish to use a single high powered amplifier to drive several low rated speakers. USING GRAPHIC EQ Using EQ is the subject of much misconception and myth. In terms of using a graphic EQ unit within a PA system. Of course all things are not equal.. in any environment. Here’s why. Kam amplifiers feature binding posts so all you need to use Bridged Mode Connection is a special ‘Y’ cable. BRIDGED CONNECTION Bridged Mode operation effectively devotes both Channels of your amplifier to driving a single speaker. You’ll find that in some rooms a particular PA will sound more piercing or   . Every sound system is different and any particular sound system will sound quite different in different rooms. Parallel connection should be left to professionals.  about 75% (so 8 Ohm becomes 2 Ohm). Bridged Operation is inherently potentially dangerous for your equipment so you should not attempt to use it if you don’t know what you’re doing. EQ is used to decrease or increase specific frequencies in relation to the rest of the sound. The cable connects both positive terminals on the amplifier to the positive input connection of the speaker (regardless of connection type). This is not a clever way to get more volume from your system because it will simply place massive demands on your amplifier and could cause it to overheat. the idea is to compensate for the way a PA sounds in a particular room. a perfect sound system will simply amplify and reproduce all of the frequencies within music equally.

Pressing this button sends the sound from this particular channel to the both the PFL Level Meter and the Headphone Monitoring System.  boomy than in others. This button is used to switch between two different methods of headphone monitoring. When the button is up you hear the sound as set up by you (via the Headphone Crossfade & PFL System below) will be heard in both ears of your headphones. We are going to run through the controls in the logical order in which you might use them for a standard beatmix. Connection A PA Graphic EQ is connected between your mixer and your amplifier. 1. The idea of the EQ is to actually reduce the offending frequencies. When the button is down the sound from the Cue/PFL   . Channel Input Selector Switch. Split/PFL Headphone Selection Button. Cue Select Button. In addition to simply choosing whether you want to play music from your deck or a CD the switch can be used to sharply cut sound on and off to produce rhythmic stuttering type effects. This switch swaps between the two. Each channel of the mixer has two sets of input sockets on the back panel so that several bits of equipment can be connected to each channel. Very few people understand this and instead attempt to use EQ to boost (increase) certain frequencies (usually the bass!!). Connect the master output from your mixer to the input of the EQ (ensuring to follow the Stereo signal path and about general connection procedure. then feeding it more bass will just make it sound worse. 2. to tell you what they do and to give an insight in to how they might be useful. BASIC ANATOMY OF A DJ MIXER The idea of this section is to tell you what all of the various controls on your mixer are called. The reason is that all rooms have ‘resonant’ frequencies that will sound louder than all of the other frequencies coming from your speakers. Connect the output of the EQ to the input of your amp’. Usually one for ‘phono’ signals from a turntable and one for ‘line’ level signals from a CD player etc. The result is usually distorted sound. 3. If you have a speaker that does not reproduce bass very well.

Use it to get the input level (as measured by the PFL Meter) peaking at Zero dB. It’s used to adjust the level of sound as it arrives at your mixer. Care should be taken not to overload the Master Output by excessive boosting.  System will be heard in the left ear and the sound of the Main Output will be heard in the right ear. PFL Meter. This sets the volume in your headphones. When in the middle a mix of the two will be heard. one controls bass. EQ controls reduce (cut) or increase (boost) specific frequencies within a sound in relation to all of the other frequencies. This will simply make the entire signal louder and mean you either end up turning down the channel level to compensate or listening to distorted music. In this case we have four knobs.   . 5. Try it to get a feel for which controls effect which frequencies. Sadly far too many DJs tend to end up turning ALL of the EQ controls to maximum in the bizarre belief that this will somehow make the music sound better. When the fader is to the right the sound of the main output will be heard in both ears of your headphones. An ideal input signal level will be peaking at the ‘Zero’ dB mark. TIP do not over use EQ to boost frequencies. This is a volume control. 4. 8. the first is to remove frequencies from one or more records so that they can be more easily mixed together (without clashing rhythmically or melodically). one controls low mid. The second is to compensate for deficient recordings EG boosting the bass of older records that have less bass than we have come to expect from our music. Channel Gain Control. Headphone Crossfade. before it passes through EQ etc. PFL stands for Pre Fade Level (or Pre Fade Listen). 6. When this little fader is to the left the sound from the ‘Cue/PFL System’ will be heard in both ears of your headphones. When you press the Cue Select Button of a particular channel it’s signal is sent to this meter and measured. EQ has many uses but there are two main ones. one controls high mid and the other top frequencies. Channel EQ Controls. 7. Headphone Level Control. Turning anti-clockwise cuts frequencies and clockwise boosts.

CD Players etc in relation to each other so that they   .  9. This is a volume control. It’s used to set the volume of your individual decks. Channel Fader.

With the Control fully anti-clockwise the Crossfader will function normally. on ‘medium’ the fader reaches full volume about 65% up the fader. With the Crossfader ‘off’ the sound from all of the channels goes straight to the Master Output. Selecting one of the numbers routes the corresponding channel to the appropriate side of the crossfader. Crossfade Curve Control. The Curve Control reduces how much the fader needs to travel to get from ‘off’ to ‘max’. 13. 10. Without a Crossfader you would need to use both hands to achieve the same thing by moving the two appropriate channel faders. The ‘off’ setting bypasses the crossfader completely. The same happens from right to left. It functions like two standard faders that cross in the middle. These are used to assign particular channels to either side of the Crossfader. A standard Channel Fader takes the volume of a sound from ‘off’ (the bottom of the fader) to ‘maximum’ across the entire length of the fader. the sound from the right side will be gradually faded in.  can be mixed together seamlessly. the sound from whatever channel you have assigned to the left side of the Crossfader will be sent to the Master Output and the sound from the right side of the Crossfader will not be heard. When the Crossfader is to the left. 12. Crossfader. A standard Crossfader takes the volume of each channel from ‘off’ to ‘maximum’ across the entire length of the fader. It has 3 positions. The purpose of a Crossfader is to allow you to perform a seamless transition from the sound of one channel to that of another with a single hand movement. When the fader is in the center an equal mix of both channels is heard. Crossfader Assign Controls. As the left side is faded out. Channel Fader Curve Switch. ‘long’ acts as a standard fader. 11. As the fader is moved from left to right the sound from the left will gradually fade out. on ‘short’ the fader reaches ‘max’ about 35% up the fader. This is useful for particular scratch techniques. It is possible to mix entirely with Channel Faders without using the Crossfader at all. Turn it fully clockwise and the Crossfader will ‘cut in’ the incoming channel very sharply so that you only need to move the Crossfader a few millimeters before it reaches   . The Curve Switch reduces how much the fader needs to travel to get from ‘off’ to ‘max’.

Turning the control between the two extremes gives you a sliding scale of settings.  full volume. These springy buttons are used in conjunction with the crossfader. Punch Buttons. The idea is that they are handy when you want to cut the   . Many scratch techniques require very specific Curve settings. 14.

19. It can really help how good a mix sounds if the volume of the song you are mixing in matches the volume of the song you are mixing out of. Inversely if the Crossfader is 100% left. Master Output Level. 17. the right button punches in the right side. unaffected. Effect Send Level Control. The optimum output level for a DJ mixer is ‘zero dB’. 15. Level Meters are not just pretty flashing lights. Pressing these buttons splits the sound flowing through the channel and sends part of it from the relevant channel to the Effect Send Control. If you want to use an Effects Processor to twist the sound of your music then an effect send and return system allows you to process individual channels. This control is therefore used to get the relative volume right between the original un-effected sound and your effected sound.  sound of a track in sharply rather than the gentle blend achieved with the Crossfader. They’re there to facilitate smooth mixing. 18. Drastic jumps or drops in volume sound crap and the bigger the sound system the more noticeable they are. Effect Send Switches. Master Level Meters. This is used to set the volume of the sound as it leaves the Master Output. The Effect Send Control allows you to set the level arriving at the Effects Processor so that it does not overload. If the Level Meter is always kept peaking at the zero mark you will maintain a more constant mix and you’ll know that you are not overloading the PA (which is very handy if you can’t actually hear the PA directly). It does not stop the sound continuing on its way to the Master Output. After passing through this control your Effected sound is passed directly to the Master Output of the mixer. If the Crossfader is 100% right. as usual. Many budget Effects Processors do not have input level controls. They have an extremely important role in the mixing process.   . Effects Return Level Control. you use the left punch button to cut in the sound from the left hand side. 16. These are used to measure the volume of the sound leaving the Master Output.

We are going to base this run down around our very own KCD990 twin CD Player.see the Kam Case for an example. THE TWIN FORMAT A twin CD Player has two boxes. We are going to run through the controls in the logical order in which you might use them for a standard beatmix. The idea is that because the Player unit is a bit bulky and needs to be used in a fairly level location to work properly and the Controls ideally need to be positioned quite close to your mixer (often angled slightly for better access to the controls . The CD deck format has a larger surface area devoted to the controls which inevitably means it is a little easier to use when you’re in a hurry. It doesn’t matter which end of the cable attaches to which unit but the connector on the cable only fits these sockets the right way up. You’ll need to attach the analogue   . There are two kinds of specialist DJ CD Players. separate box with all the buttons etc. heavy unit with two trays that slide out to accept your CDs and the ‘Controller’. You’ll find small 12 pin sockets on the back of the Controller and identical sockets on the back of the Player and an appropriate cable in the box.  BASIC ANATOMY OF A CD PLAYER The idea of this section is to tell you what all of the various controls on your CD Player are called. Connections 1) The Controller needs to be able to tell the Player what to do so the two units are connected together using a ‘Control Cable’. which is the smaller. to tell you what they do and to give an insight in to how they might be useful. So you’ve got two pairs of RCA Phono sockets on the back of the Player for analogue out and two more lone RCA sockets for Digital out. Marked Left and Right appropriately. 2) Each of the two CD Players has it’s own Analogue and Digital audio output. Rack mounting means it fits easily into a flight case so is great for those who wish to be mobile. The CD deck is generally not quite so convenient for mobile use. The twin format is compact and convenient because it fits into the kind of standard 19” rack we use for mounting amplifiers and all manner of professional audio equipment in clubs and recording studios. the traditional ‘twin’ machine and the ‘CD deck’. it is more convenient to split the two things up. Oh and connect the left side of the Controller to the left Player etc! Connect the two units together before you turn on the power. the ‘Player’ which is a large.

The front panel of the Controller is divided in two. These are for locating the next track you want to play. We call the exact moment you want playback to start from. Always follow the correct connection rules ‘White Left Red Right’. If you have a bigger mixer you may have the luxury of connecting each Player to its own mixer channel.  outputs to the ‘Line Inputs’ on a DJ mixer. Hit it again and Playback continues from the same song position. one set for each Player. the ‘Cue Point’. Hit it again and you pause playback... which takes you to the Cue Point as described below. 1) Open/Close Button. this will cue up and begin playing the next track. Hit this once and the CD tray on the Player will slide open. The +10 button between the two Skip Buttons skips you forward ten tracks at a time. One button takes you forwards the other takes you backwards.. As yet there are very few DJ mixers available with Digital Audio inputs but you might want to use the Digital Audio Outputs to transfer music to a computer or Minidisc Player. 3) Play/Pause Button. These buttons are the only controls which are duplicated on the front of the Player. Hit it again and the tray will close again.. We call the   . 2) You’ll also find a mains cable coming from the Player unit. Hit this once and you start playback. If you have a two channel mixer you’ll want to connect the Left CD Player to channel one and the Right Player to channel two. If the Player is already playing the current track. just like a normal CD player. This is found on the front of the Player and is surrounded by a protective ridge to prevent accidental power down. ABOUT CUEING UP Once you’ve found the track you want to play you need to set the place within the track that you want playback to start from. THE CONTROLS The Power Switch. 2) Track Skip Buttons. Each side has identical controls. Which inputs you use on your mixer is up to you and which mixer you have. unless you hit the Cue Button whilst playback is paused. Hit the button and the beginning of the next track will be cued up. You then use the ‘Channel Selector Switches on your mixer to choose whether your CD Players or your turntables are played through your mixers two channels.

The need to cue u .   . the difference is how w do it. a Cue Button. Search Bu o e uttons and a Jog W d Wheel.  process of locating and se s etting this point. A DJ CD p e we player give you thr es ree tools to for the job. d up is the s same for CD DJs as it is for V C s Vinyl DJs a many of the sa and y ame musical rules ap pply. ‘cu s ueing up’.

normal playback ceases and we start to wind forwards or backwards through the current track. If you think about it one twenty fifth of a second is a quite short piece of sound. so a single beat would be about half a second long and a kick drum perhaps as much as a quarter of a second long. Ponder this. With a turntable you’d have to take the time to backwind and Cue Up manually every time you want to practice the mix. but it will be jumping from frame to frame. The idea is obviously that if you’re trying to perform a drop mix or beat mix. Once you have set a Cue Point. being able to instantly start playback from the right beat of the right bar. We call these chunks ‘frames’. So having each kick drum divided into upwards of 4 or 5 slices means we have a very accurate tool for ensuring that we start playback from absolutely precisely the beginning of the right kick drum beat. 120 BPM would give you 2 musical beats per second. These are very similar to the rewind or fast forward controls on a tape player and we use them to find the approximate area of the track we want to Cue Up. over and over again is invaluable. pressing the Cue button will stop playback (if the track was playing!) and set things up so that pressing the Play button again will start playback from the Cue Point. 4) Cue Button. You’ll quickly notice that if you were actually playing the track at the time you hit the button the Player will continue to try to play the track. the Cue Point is set to the current frame. 5) Search Buttons. From a Djing viewpoint we usually wish to select an individual kick drum as a Cue Point (usually one at the beginning of a bar). a piece of slow house music would run at about 120 Beats Per Minute. Before the Cue Button is of any use you need to start playback and then pause it.. Each frame therefore contains a very small snippet of sound. A DJ CD player divides each second of music into 25 chunks. which would mean that a kick drum might occupy about 7 or 8 frames.. If you then press and hold the Play Button and press the Cue Button at the same time. Press a Search Button and watch the Display.   . Cueing up with a DJ CD player is arguably considerably easier than with a turntable.  ABOUT FRAMES Before we can explain about Cueing Up we need to explain about Frames.

Then set this as your Cue Point in the usual manner by pressing and holding the Play Button and the Cue Button together. The Pitch controls on a DJ CD Player are used to slow down or speed up playback of one track to match another. somewhere near to our desired Cue Point. The Jog Wheel is used for finding and precisely setting Cue Points. It’s used to pull or push the downbeats of two tracks together. This speeds up or slows down playback. This is the equivalent of touching and then letting go of the platter of a turntable. Before you can beatmix two pieces of music they need to be playing at the same speed or musical tempo. don’t worry. By winding the Wheel you should be able to find the right place for your Cue Point. Then wind it back frame by frame until you get the frame immediately before the first frame of the drum. Merely having both pieces of music running at the same tempo is not the end of the story with beatmixing. The moment you turn the Jog Wheel from this state the player should enter ‘Cue Mode’ and you will hear a kind of stuttering effect as one frame is played over and over again. With the Kam KCD990 used for our illustration.. we only ever need to use the Jog Wheel when our player is in a state of paused playback.. This way you will get the nice clean sound of the kick drum without it sounding at all clipped. you also need to synchronise the beats of the two tracks. 7) Pitch Button. The Pitch Button switches on and off the rest of the pitch controls. It is accompanied by a little status light which lets you know whether the Pitch Controls are active or not.  6) The Jog Wheel. so for example the kick drums need to be occurring at exactly the same time. Put your finger into the little indentation on the Jog Wheel and wind it around. the pitch slider can slow down or speed up a track by up to 16% but this will vary with different DJ CD Players. This frame is almost always actually silent (or relatively quiet). a single frame is not going to make any difference to the timing as you go for your mix. 8) Pitch Slider. A good tip for cueing kick drums is to actually wind the Wheel until it is playing part of the drum beat you’re after. This is a mixing aide designed to help you figure how much you’ll need to speed up or slow down a track so that it matches the tempo   . Pressing a Pitch Bend button temporarily slows down or speeds up playback (by+/-16% on the KCD990) for as long as you hold down the button.. Logically. You’ll notice that moving the wheel slowly moves the Cue Point by a single frame (either forwards or backwards). The ‘pitch’ of a piece of music refers to how fast it is.. 9) Pitch Bend Buttons. 10) BPM Tap.

seconds and frames. As the tracks plays the line gets progressively shorter. There’s also a written indication of whether you’re in single or continuous playback mode. This button switches the player between two different playback modes. If you do this for both tracks you’ll know what the difference in speed is between he two. With vinyl on a turntable you actually guess by looking at how far the needle is from the end of the track. You can see which mode is enabled on the display next to the numbers. This is not particularly desirable when   . Press the button once and the mode will change. You can see which mode is enabled on the display. It’s important to know how much playback time you have left for a particular track before it runs out and you need to mix in another track. 12 Time. Performs an instant playback stop. The CD Player actually gives you a read out of this info’ in minutes. 11) Display. 10) Stop Button. When there is less than a minute of the track remaining the whole line flashes on and off to give you a warning that you need to be ready to mix in the next track. The LCD screen is there to keep you informed. Over on the right side you get a read out of the amount of pitch adjustment being applied to the track. Possibly the best use for this information is simply to let yourself know which direction you need to move the pitch slider for your incoming track to bring the two tempos closer together. If necessary you can re-tap the tempo button to make finer adjustments to pitch. If you tap this button in time with the music. It can be useful to know how much of a track has already ‘elapsed’ and how much there is ‘remaining’. Press the button once and the display readout will change.  of the one playing on the other player. In ‘Cont’ (Continuous) mode the player responds just like a normal CD player because when it gets to then end of one track on a CD it simply moves on to playing the next track. 13 Cont/Single. Just above the track number it shows whether playback is running or paused with the usual little triangle or two little vertical line symbols. press it again and it will change again. It will be shown as a number that represents Beats Per Minute. the tempo of the track will be shown in the display. The middle of the Display shows a numeric readout of either the amount of elapsed or remaining time for the track and a horizontal dotted line. The dotted line represents the overall length of the current track. press it again and it will change again. The Time button toggles the display between these two different display modes. To the left of the screen It shows the currently selected track number.

  Djing so in ‘Single’ mode. when the player reaches the end of the current track.   . it stops.

handling noise is a big issue. the only way to ensure that you avoid feedback is to position the vocalist behind the speakers. USING MICROPHONES Microphones are one of those seemingly very simple things. They will be laid out differently but the function will be very similar. There are two basic breeds of microphone. ‘studio’ and ‘live’. USING STANDARD VOCAL MICROPHONES Positioning If you try to use a mic’ in front of a PA speaker it will feed back. So here is a simple set up procedure and a tip or two to set you in the right direction. With a mic’ intended for live use. particularly to handling noise. so is having a rugged build. Most studio mics are designed to spend their lives on stands so handling noise and a few other similar considerations are not so important. This creates a loop because a specific frequency passes through the mic. Studio mic’s are designed to capture sounds as well as possible. The result is two very different types of mic’ whose attributes are tailored to fit their intended use. They’re really easy to connect up and get working. so people often overlook some of the finer points about how to get the best results out of them. so they tend to be very sensitive. back out of the speakers. Obviously we have restricted the following information to mic’s intended for live use by DJ’s and MC’s. back into the amp’ etc. getting louder and louder each time. Feedback is the sound produced when a mic picks up it’s own signal coming from the speaker. Use the following procedures to set up a mic (behind the speakers) and try slowly walking out in front of the speakers   .  CD DECKS The controls outlined above for Twin CD Players are similar to those found on CD Decks. into the amp’. Unless you use a separate ‘Feedback Dstroyer’ (a device that automatically prevents feedback by detecting the offending frequency and suppressing it with EQ). into the mic. In essence the best way to grasp this concept is to try it. Handling noise is what you get if you hold a mic’ and use it at the same time and it is caused by the friction of your hand against the body of the mic’.

So you’ll need a cable that has a Female XLR plug at one end and either a 1/4” jack or Male XLR plug at the other. 4. If your microphone has an integral cable with a 1/4” jack plug on the end you will need a mixer with an appropriate mic’ input socket to be able to use it. Switch On your mic’ and start speaking or singing into it. Ensure that your mic’ is switched off if it has an on/off switch.  with the mic’. 6. Connection First you need to identify your mic’ level input on your mixer. you’ll get the idea in no time and get an idea of where in relation to the speakers a mic’ can be positioned before feedback starts. Next you need to ensure you have the correct cable. 3. 5. 2. If you try and plug a mic’ into a line or phono input it won’t work. It’s pretty important that you find the right mic input socket on your mixer because one of the most important things to know about mic’s is that they produce a much smaller signal than line level equipment like CD players and ‘phono level’ turntables. Your mixer should either have a 1/4” jack or Male XLR mic input socket.   . Use the Cue Select system on your mixer to ensure that the microphone input is being measured by your mixers Level Meters and that you can hear it in your headphones. Turn down the input gain control (if it has one) and mic’ level control on your mixer. Most vocal mic’s have a Male XLR socket in one end.. If your mixer doesn’t have an input gain control you’ll need to turn up the actual mic level control instead. Kam mixers either feature 1/4” jack or dual function XLR/1/4” jack input sockets. Gradually increase the mic’ gain control if your mixer has one and leave the actual mic’ level control at zero (just as you would when setting up a record ready for mixing).. From there it is a good plan to get into the habit of sticking to the following procedure. Connect the cable between your mic’ and your mixer. It probably won’t damage your equipment (which plugging a line level item into a mic’ level input may well do) but it won’t get you far. 1.

When the vocalist isn’t active.  7. The problem is that a vocalist does not always sing at the same volume. This means that you’ll need the correct cable to   . Here are a couple of tips relating to what happens when they’re not doing their thing. Never unplug a mic’ from a mixer with the levels still up.. If they do you might want to consider stopping them as this tends to actually spoil a DJ set rather than improve it. Because of the transmission and reception process. unlike other sound sources like decks and CD players. So it’s important to set your mic’ input level with your vocalist when they’re at their loudest. You don’t want the mic’ in the way of the DJ and you don’t want it rolling off onto the floor and getting damaged in the drop (not a problem with the Kam KDM550 of course thanks to it’s ‘anti roll’ rubber collar). Wireless systems produce line level rather than mic’ level output signals. all you need to do is switch the mic’ back on and all will still be nice. USING WIRELESS MICROPHONE SYSTEMS Connecting Wireless microphones is a little different. and 9 times out of 10 that means on top of the mixer or on a table. This step of the operation is the most crucial aspect of mic set up. Use a mic’ stand -all too often DJs and MCs resort to trying to find somewhere to balance the mic when they’re not using it. The Kam KWM5 & KWM10 systems for example have either unbalanced 1/4” jack or balanced XLR line level output sockets. which we will discuss a little more in the ‘Mic Technique’ section below. 8.. switch off their mic’ using this switch rather than using the level controls on the mixer. Other little mic’ tips If you have a guest vocalist or MC during a DJ set the chances are that they won’t sing or chat all the way through your set. Using the switch on the mic’ means that those carefully set up levels will remain correctly set so that when the vocalists kicks off again. So use a stand to stash the mic’ on. it’ll usually create a nasty thunking sound that may damage the PA. signal levels from mics can vary quite dramatically in normal use. Once you’ve set a sensible input signal level you can turn up the mic’ level control until the voice sounds right in relation to the music. Switch off -Many mic’s have an on/off switch on them. Observe the mixer level meters and stop increasing the mic’ input level when your signal is peaking at just below zero dB on the meter.

. For a bit that’s belted out at the top of their voice they should move as much as a foot away from the mic’. So you need to keep a beady eye on the input levels to your mixer when using the system. or do we limit the functionality?’ Kam have chosen to provide the user with the power they may need. Different styles of singing therefore suit different songs. but it can cause trouble too if you don’t use it correctly. which is a lot. The level control is there to help you compensate. If you whisper you sound intimate and your voice will be quiet. learning to gauge the volume of their own voice and moving closer to and further away from the mic’ (preferably whilst keeping an eye on the signal levels on the mixer). With the KWM system specifically the unit can boost output levels by as much as 20dB. Because of the technical considerations and diverse operating conditions associated with Wireless systems you will find an output level control on the mic’ receiver unit.. You still need to follow all of the correct connection and level setting procedures on your mixer as outlined above. This is partly because the human voice takes on a different tonal and atmospheric character at different volumes. shout and it will sound aggressive and your voice will be very loud. BASIC MIC TECHNIQUE Learning a little bit of basic mic’ technique can significantly improve the overall sound quality and listening pleasure with vocals. or parts of songs and will be at different volumes.... This is there because differences in distance from the receiver unit and battery strength in the microphone can produce significantly variable level response. The way to combat this is for the vocalist to move closer to or further away from the mic’. the vocalist can learn to capture all of the tonal characteristics of different passages whilst maintaining a relatively constant overall signal level. It takes a bit of practice but it works. ‘do we provide the end user with enough power to cover every eventuality.   . but that makes it the users responsibility to use the facilities correctly. it is merely the connection point that differs. From a manufacturers perspective this sort of thing is always a dilemma.. By following this rule. The underlying principle of the whole thing is that it is likely that a good vocalist will sing or speak some passages at higher volumes than others. in the knowledge that power can be abused. So for a whispered passage the vocalist should get right up close to the mic’ so that it can pick up the quiet nuances of the voice.  run between the mic’ receiver unit and a line level input on your mixer.

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Return to the Sound Setup tab by clicking on the Config button in the upper right corner of the skin.  NOW LET’ GO TROUGH MY BEST MIXING SOFTWARE EVER IT MIXES AUDIO & VIDEO Welcome to VirtualDJ! Ohhhhh…. So to familiarize yourself with the in terface lets look at the Sound Setup in the Config. B. Click on the Config button in the upper right corner of the skin. Setup for Basic Internal Soundcard use… From installation you should not have to make any adjustment. Now you can use VirtualDJ to mix your favorite songs and hear the results from your computer’s speakers. the de faults are • Inputs None • Outputs Single Output • Soundcard Simple with your sound card listed in the drop down to the right. A. Headphones with Internal Sound card.   . This tab is used to make the selections for the various configurations. B. it includes all the professional features a real DJ needs. Setup for Headphones with Internal Sound card use… * This setup uses your Internal Sound card with a second soundcard for headphones. A. use the Apply button to assign the changes to be used. The first tab presented is the Soundcard tab. Very easy to use and with a very smooth learning curve. External mixer with Multi channel card. or Timecode Control. You can get a second sound card with a single stereo output from an local or on line source. When making changes to the Sound Setup.another good work done here! Overview VirtualDJ is the latest state of the art software in music mixing for DJs. Leave the Inputs option set to None. But you will discover that VirtualDJ also offers some breakthrough features that will definitely change the way you mix! Now lets setup VirtualDJ with one of the common uses with a sound card Basic Internal Sound card. After install.

D. Most desktop systems have a 4.1 Card option. [Left deck : Left chan / Right deck : Right chan] C. you will see that instead of Left: Master / Right : Headphones. etc. For laptop users you will need to use the Mono separated setup if you do not use an external card. ECHO. Plug the other end of the cables into the Line inputs of the appropriate channels on the Mixer. Typically. Now. Just reverse the selection to use the Internal card for your Headphones. leaving the drop down to the right with the default. If you want to use your Internal sound card for the Master output of the music then pick the Internal card for the first card. M Audio. Change the Output from Headphones to External Mixer B. you get Left deck:Left Chan and Right Deck:Right Chan. And the second card for use as the Headphones. * See brand names like ESI. Leave the channel assignment drop down with the default. you can use the previous Mono separated configuration to have each deck assigned to a dedicated output.   . The Next Level ! External Mixer setup … Since you would be preview/cueing your mixes from the mixer. We look at these type of cards in the Timecode Setup section. and BLUE output jacks then your card is not a 4. Change the Outputs to Headphones. If your card only has GREEN. for various multi channel sound cards to choose from.1 surround card and you will need to use the Mono separated option instead. If you simply change the Headphones output option to External Mixer. Building on the basic setup … First you will need some specific cables. Pick your cards accordingly. D. it is more ideal that you have a multi channel sound card so you can assign each deck to a dedicated output on the card. This will provide a MONO signal to each channel of the mixer. Hercules. You will need to plug each of the cables above into the respective BLACK and GREEN outputs of the soundcard. Change the Soundcard option to 2 cards After making the change to 2 Cards. The top drop down is the first card and the second is the second card. By having the multi channel soundcard you can achieve a STEREO output from each deck. Change the Soundcard to the 4. RED. the GREEN output of the sound card is the FRONT output (Left deck [Chan 1]) and the BLACK is the REAR output (Right deck [Chan 2]).  C.1 Surround sound card in them. There are more Professional Grade cards on the market that will provide more flexibility in connec tions to the mixer. Though it is not necessary (as described above). so we will look at that configuration for setting up the external mixer. A. Make sure you Apply the changes and select OK to close the dialog. you will notice that the second drop down to the right of the Out puts has changed to show Master : First card / Headphones : Second Card And to the right of the Soundcard drop down are two drop downs to choose the 2 cards to be used.

Right turntable to Input 2. VirtualDJ s Timecode interface does not support sending a MONO signal of the timecode to the software. The appropriate ca bles should be furnished with all the components. I f not. etc. Maybe a couple turntables or table-top CD d ecks. The inputs must be STEREO. M Audio.connect the L&R cables of eac h turntable to the respective jacks on the sound-card.  E. Left turntable to Input 1.5mm) stereo plug to Stereo RCA (Male) plugs F. for various ASIO supported multi channel sound cards to choose from. Connect your timecode control component to the soundcard. Thatis it… quick and simple … External Mixer Setup! As mentioned if you are using a more Professional Grade soundcard the settings are very similar. So before we change the settings in VirtualDJ. The card also needs to not only have 4 Mono (2 Stereo) outputs it also needs to have 4 Mono (2 Stereo) inputs. With the VirtualDJ internal crossfader disabled. ECHO. this will allow the audio to flow freely from in VirtualDJ to the external mixer channels. set the internal crossfader to DISABLED. CD Players . Turntables .1 card Windows Driver Model (WDM) support • ASIO card Audio Stream Input/Output driver support (Lower Latency) * See brand names like ESI. 2. Make sure the soundcard is set to PHONO for each input. you are going to want a soundcard that is supported with ASIO drivers. Hercules. And your external mixer. This controls the crossfader curve of the internal VirtualDJ mixer. Most turntables have the cables connected to them. H.connect the L&R cables of eac   . When planning your use for Timecode control of VirtualDJ. • 4. From the Left hand list. You can choose from the following options under the sound card drop down depending on the drivers that are being used. Back in VirtualDJ. the ones you most likely need are RCA to RCA for connecting the table-top CD players to the sound card or the soundcard to the mixer. Connect/Install the soundcard to the system by following the manufacture supplied instructions. Two (2) 1/8 (3. Your ASIO supported 4-IN/4-OUT Soundcard. Click OK to close the Config dialog. 1. Click on the Options tab of the Config dialog. the first item listed is Crossfader. So let’s setup your system for using Timecode … Quick Guide – Timecode Setup Building on the External Mixer setup … Now you have some new components and different cables. lets get all the hardw are configured. click on the Apply button to set the changes. G. Since an exter nal mixer is being used and all crossfading of the tracks will be done externally.

virtualdj. please refer to the Getting Started guide and User Guide for more information. Your setup should look like the following but with your soundcard showing in the last drop-down above t he ASIO Config… button. select the Inputs drop-down and select the Timecodes option (last one). we can now open VirtualDJ and configure the software. On the Soundcard configuration tab. On the Soundcard tab. G. Click OK. Your connections should look something like the following: With the connections in place. C. then you can select the Single Timecode option and con-tinue to follow along. I. click the Apply button to commit your settings. to close the Timecode Config dialog. You are now ready to start mixing your music using the timecode vinyl or CDs with your turntables/CD players. Left player to Input 1. If you are only using 1 timecode. F. Welcome to the NEXT LEVEL!!! If you continue to have questions or need more information on these Quick Setup steps. E. And. If you only need to adjust one deck. From the Soundcards drop-down. D. B. You can also visit our help forums at … http://www. Click on the Config button on the skin interface.  h CD Player to the respective jacks on the soundcard. From the Vinyl drop down select the correct vinyl or CD timecode version that you are using. CD Players Insert the Timecode CD into your player. Then click OK to close the dialog. and Silence settings. Right player to Input 2. Output 1 to Channel 1 and Output 2 to Channel 2 on the mixer. select the option for External Mixer. From the Outputs drop-down. J. Then select your soundcard’s drivers from the drop-down right of the ASIO card graphic. Turntables With the Timecode vinyl on the platters and needles set at the beginning of the vinyl. Press Play to start sending the timecode signal to the configuration dialog. select the ASIO card. At this point you can make global adjustments using the Left/Right. Gain. A. 3.   . Ma ke sure the soundcard is set to LINE for each input.com/forums/ Copyright © 2010 written by dj sky @ we the best crew ent. Now click on the button Timecode Config … H. Phase/Anti. Connect the soundcard to the mixer. then select the appropriate deck tab and make the adjustments there. You should see the following concentric circles to access the configuration dialog… display for each deck.