# Collection of Exercises

for the lecture

Electrical Machines II

by

Univ. Prof. Dr.–Ing. G. Henneberger RWTH Aachen

Edited and Processed by Assistants of the Institute for Electrical Machines.

Michael Bork Andreas Br¨ sse o Babak Fahimi Thomas Friedrich Matthias Schmitz

Reprint Prohibited 1. Edition 2003

Exercise P1
A permenant excited DC machine has the following nominal data:

The armature inductance amounts to

ration and all losses except the armature copper losses are to be neglected.

of the machine.

2. The machine is coupled with a load machine with a moment of inertia

loaded standstill machine is suddenly connected to a 110V power supply. Which speed appears after a long time? What is the speed of the machine after a time equal to two times the armature time constants at starting? Guess with the help of damping D, whether the starting is aperiodic or under oscillations. 3. The DC motor is now supplied from a DC voltage supply of 300 V through a DC current converter with 1 kHz pulse frequency. Determine the ratio chosen, so that at nominal torque, the speed is !

which has to be

4. The machine is supplied from an ideal current converter, whose permissible armature current limit is 100A! Further the regulation is limited to a maximum angular acceleration of . Determine the minimum reverse time from and the armature current for the unloaded and loaded case as in b).

8 3 2 ¨¨ H 96 50Gx§§¨ wv

US IT' E ¥ A ¨

srqic` f¡ ` phg e d

8 3 2 E 96 50GR¨ ©@

a ¢`

W ¢`

mature time constant

, the nominal starting time

W V

1. Calculate the armature resistance

H UIST'RPQ¥ IA ¨ F ECA G2 §DB@ 8 6 3 2 ¥ £ ¡  '% # £ ¡    £ ¡   ¨¥¥ £ ¡ 97504§§\$"10 )(&\$"! §¦ ¤©§¦¤¢
and the moment of inertia is , the no-load speed

. Satu-

and the mechanical time constant

X Y0

at nominal voltage, the ar-

8 3 2 ¨¨ 96 504"§§¨ H y

b c`

. The

to

H
d

¦

8 bW a a a ¦ ¦ 8 bW 8 bW

H H
c

£

¥ ¥ S 9" 6 0' 5 \$8 )  Y`A #£ H y t ¦ 3 X 1 §S WX9 £ H y t ¦ 3 v A 5H£ H y t ¦ 3 X 1 V 30 S £ ¦ T£ %#!  & y H U U  ¥  Q R" B I G£ P6 HFDE5 X v H Cy H   ¥ ) ' 98 5 \$0(6  8   & A #t ¦ y H 30053 S @!67v #£ t ¦ y H 4X 2053 S £ %"#!y H  3 1  ¥ v ¥  X ¥§©¥ v t S ¤HS ¢96   ¦S £ ¡ 8

Note:

2

£

tX

y Q 796 ) ' 8 5" I G 4 68 & 9' P6 H y t H Q 79D0' 6 ' 5" P6 G H y 68 6) & 4 I y t

@ b c` £ W ` ¥ A £ ¥ A ! H 896 S Q# A P H £ HS §¥ ¨ H f¨ ¨ ! £ P § 8 3 2 ¨ 96 0 G"§¨ E £ 0 ¨£ X ¥ 0 £ ¡     £ X 0

A " #` H CA d §#  D©H £ @ f§¨¥# ¥ A ¨ ¨ ! £ c` P ! b H IA  p d  £  p d b `  Q Q S @ ¥§¥ A ¨T£ PQ¥ ¨ £ @ A H P C S Q¥ DA ¥ G2 ¨ £ p W cd `  G b  0 §  E S ' C ¥ P H U T"P DA ¦£ U S ' D Q¥ IA ¨ v DA ¥ B

S 2 E 4# IH £ S "¨ C £ ¥ ¨¨ §§ £ §§¨ H £ t

£ £ £ a

bc` b c` £ a ` £ W ` £ X 0 ¨£ § £ X 0 ¨£ § 0 ¥  T¦¤  £ s¡¡    £ W V £ W V
1.

S C G2 DA ¨ H  ¨¥ ©§¥ a ` £ ¢  W ¡ a ` £ D8 W  § £ § A ¨ £ ¢ # ¡ W  £ ¢V £ S 2 E G¤# IH £ C S £ 'B% t ¥# £ ¤¨ RQ¥ IA ¨ £ ¡ 0 £ X 0 £ ¡ t £ t ¥ £   U DS ' P H W V ¢ A § F £# E  C A ¨ SG2¤©\$£ W ` ©£ G2 §§DB@ £ W   ¨¥ 8 6 3 2 ¨¨ 9950G"§§¨ H HA I(E ¨   8 3 2 ¥ 96 0 G¤§§ £ ©§©¥ £ 0 £ s¡¡ ¤    ¨¥¥

HA ¨¥   ¡  I(E ©\$£ % § # £ ! ' ( ¡ ¢ # £§ A ¨   § ¡ ¡   '% "§ e (&# y ©§¥ £  e ¡ y ¡   £ s¡¡  y ¡    ¨¥ ¡

Solution

2.

3

H

t ¦ ¦ 3 t ¦ ¦ 3

3 ¥ v y ¦ D 035 B ) ( 3 ¥ v ¦ y H £ E5 B 0 0 D

£ X £ £

¥

1 ) ( 0 205
¦

9 5 8 5 b@!6 ©9 'W 8 G %6 3 3S G 9 6 8 U 9 3 & 3 \$ §

£ b ` ¥ b ` Q Q £ pW d  

 3H  C S C ¥ ©¥ H DA \$£  5 § 50G2 S §¥ A P ©@ C DA t t U S §¨§¨ H y £  § G§¥§ H c G©¦£ T§©Q¨P'' ¥ H ¥ ¥ HS ¥ HS ¨ ¥ S 2 ¨ ¥ &¨ H \$£ !§ §§¨ H ¡ ¨

5 & & S EH ©# IIA ¨ £ 0 e 0 5 &  50G H P 3 H 2 S IA Q¥ C ¥ H £ ¢ & H ¥ 8967503G2R¨§¨§¨©¥\$£ D 9750GR§§¨ H Cy 9750GR§§¨ H v 8 6 3 2 ¨ ¨ yB 8 6 3 2 ¨ ¨ E C DA  IH  ©# @ y x§§¨ H £ §§ H y £ ¨ ¥§ ¥  W t S H !b  5 & H §§ £ & ¥¥   ¢ H IA t t E S H S §§ H d H S DA § IH £ U T§©Q¨P'' ¥ H ¥ ¨ ¥¥  C S 2¢¨ H ¦£ ¡ ( §§¨ H £    ¨ ¥ ¨ £
¢ §¡ ¢ £ 

¢ ¡ §¦

£

¡ 

phg £ sriic` e s¡  ` ¨£ § £ W   ©£ §

C DA ¨ ¨ ¨ ¤ T£ ¨§©H  £ ¥  W E " ©# ¢     ¤©# H £ ¢ H ¥§ A ¨ £ ¤§ v  §CIH £ ¤V £ £ v ¤  ¨   ¢ £ ! £ £¡ ¡ § H E  §CIH £ ¨§¨ §E¨ ©¨ @ £ "¨©¥§¥\$£ X 0 0 £ ¡   8 6 3 2 E 9750G¤¨ ©@ £ £

¡

3.

D 8970 G2 §@ A # P £ ¢" ` \$£ 5 B 0 6 3 @ ¥ D 05 B ) ( E©@  ¨ H P¥¥ f¨ A T£ U 6 ¨ H £ C  A  Tv Q§§ A ¨ y H £ D " ` ¥ 5 B 0 CE A §§E  ©H £ H y t ¦   E Q# D©H ¦¦ \$£ 0 P CA £

Assumption

4

£ £ £ 



5 & 05 && ¢& 

S 'P C ¥ U T§Q¥ DA \$£  

£ £ £ £ £ £    

5 & £ ¢&
¡ 

5 § 5 & 0& 0   § 5 & & § 5¢ & ¢& 'P ¨ U ST§Q¥ HIA T£  5 & £  £ ¢&

¡

Exercise P2
For an universal motor the following rating plate data is known:

Apart from that, the following data is also measured:

Saturation and all losses except the copper losses in armature and excitation winding are to be neglected. 1. Determine the nominal power, the nominal power factor, the nominal efﬁciency and the nominal torque.

E ¥ S ¦ ¤#  F 2¨ ¢ U T' §6 ¨ H ¥\$£   ¢ DA \$£ ¢ V £ " V RG§§¨ H £ £  v "

2. Which DC current and DC voltage must be adjusted so that the universal motor at a DC voltage supply can be operated at the nominal speed with the same thermal loading of the windings? Which rotational torque is given by it? How is the magnetic utilization campared to a)?

3. The series winding is replaced by a permanent magnet, so that the ﬂux as under b)is obtained.The total inductivity of the machine is therefore much reduced to 0,3 times the measured value.How big is the no-load speed at 220V DC voltage? Determine the armature time constant, the nominal starting time and the mechanical time constant. The nominal current determined under b) is essential.

4. Determine time characteristic of the speed while the machine after c) is running at no-load from standstill, when an ideal armature current converter is adjusted to 4 times the nominal current? After which time it will reach 1000 rotations/minute? How much kinetic energy is stored at the end of the run-up? Which compensation capacitor is equivalent to the rotating armature?

8 3 2¨¨ 96 50G§§§¨ C £
¢

5

2 # ¨ &¨ §# A T£
¢

¡ ¦

£
¡ 

  D 9  © § G 2 6 S S 503 6 2 G 8 4G 5S3 @8 G B
¢

¢ 

£
¢

¡ ¢

£ £ £

¦

¢ £503 S

£ ¤    £ t D s¤   B v t D s¤ V v ¡  B   £ s¤ D ¢ V v " V B V £ £ £ s¤

b)

a)

Solution

=3A (same effective value)

6

0

£

0

¢ £

S G2 @ A §# C  2 # &¨ §# A ¨ ¢ §¡ ¦ ¤ 5042 e §# (@ ¤  ¥ ¤ U S ' §6 ¨ H ¥# £ X 0 ¤  ¥ ¤  3 ¥ H £

£ a `

£

E " V ¢ DA S 2 G©¥ H £ G§©¥¨  £   F 2 #A  H 3 ¨¨ 0 G2 e §# (@ £ Q©©§#¥ ¤ 50G2 e §§¨ C 3 ¥ H ¨§ ¥ X 0 £  ¤  ¤ X 0 0 ¤ 0 S C ¨¨ C S ¤ Q§§# ©H £ §¨ Q# e A §§¨ H £  ¤  § 0 ¤  ¤  # A  §# 
¦ § ¦ ¦ §

£ u0 X  9 £ ¡      ¡ £ ¡
¤ ¥

F 2¨ G§©¦£  A ¨ ¤ G§§¨ H F 2¨ £

¢ £

£

"

A# H A  \$v © ¤ ¢ E H  ¦ Q# § £Q# §#   Q# A §# H £
¡

£

mechanical time constant:

" `

t & 8

Nominal starting time:

from b):

c)

Magnetic utilization:

7

b c` £ b c`

t D ©¥ B H E A ¨  U 6 ¨ ¤  \$£  ¤ C §¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ t   9 H ¥ £ s¡  ' S ¤ Q (C §¥ ' A ¥ S C '¦ ¤ U S I§6(¨ H ¥# ¤ t D §¨ B  ¥ H §# (@ ¤ t ¥  ¤ tX 0 ¤ t  \$£ t D X 0  ¥ B 9H ¥ ¥ H (@ SG2©# A §¥\$£ H P ¤ SG2 @ A §# C ¤ §#§¨ H   ¥§¨ ¨ H ¢s¤ P a ` §#  ¤ ¤ ¥ (H@ ¨¨ §§¨ ¢   a `  ¤ 5 ¤ ¤X0
¦ § ¢ £

linear:

d)

8

£ 9 £ £ £
¤ ¥

W !b '

£ s¡  '
¢ £

£ £ 85
D £ E5 B 0

¢ £

¡

Exercise P3
An 8-pole salient pole synchronous machine has the following nominal data: (line to line)

In the test ﬁeld, the three phases of the stator of an unexcited machine is supplied with nominal frequency and the machine is driven with a slip of 0,1%. Therefore the following current and voltage (line to line) are measured:

The effective value of the sudden short circuit current at half the no-load excitation and nominal frequency amounts to current amounts to

. A damper winding is not existing. The no-load excitation

Saturation and all losses are to be neglected.

1. Determine the per unit reactances 

,

and

! Which value has the total leakage ratio

?

2. Determine the displacement angle, the ﬁeld current and the working torque of the turbine at nominal operation. 3. The machine is loaded suddenly at the nominal voltage and nominal speed, from no-load with star connected reactances whose phase value are equal to the d-axis reactances of the salient pole machine. Determine the terminal voltage after switching and after a long time? 4. The machine is operated at continuous short circuit with no-load excitation.Suddenly the short-circuit is switched off. Calculate the terminal voltage immediately after switching and after a long time. Determine the time characteristic of the effective value of the terminal voltage.

9

9G

`

. The short-circuit time constant amounts to

¤¨ C F
.

S A ¨ £

£
¢

a
¦§

¡£  D ¢B @ A ¨ 

¨¨ R§©   R"¨ C 

£
¢

W S X9 

£ s¡  b  "R¨ E P   £ s¡  b   R"§fP   ¨¨ 

¤ 

 

 

¨ E £ X ¨ §  ¨ 4§¨ C £ ¦¥ ¤

W !b   



£ W !b 

R B"fQ¥  % ¨P

£

¢

E ¨ £ DA Tu3  £
£ 

¤

(

AH # A H § A \$£ §¥ ©TH v §¥ ©H £  ¨ #

#¨ ¨ ¥ C # A f©# A T£ § DA ¨ £ §¥ ©H £ 3  £ £  v X9 W H£  P ¨ A v H £ §¥ ©H £ 30 S ¤  g S # A ¥ C ¨ § DA T£ ©© ¨ H £ u3 £

¥ 

¤

¤ 

£ ¤ ¥
,

¥ 

£  ¥
. 

£ 

¤ 

W 503 S ¤  3 v S X9  \$£ 50DS 3 3  £ ¨ £ Tu3 8 96 S C£  2  &¨ §# @ H £ @ A ¨ £ R¨ (fQ¥ ¥ £ P  % ¨P 

 v X9 £ g £ SW £ ¤ ¤ 3  d ©\$£ T£ ¨ ¨ H £ ¤g £ £ g £ £ £  ¢ a ¥ W S X9 ¢   \$ £ ¢ £
and
¢

¥

£

¢ 

 3 v S X9 £ £ g £ W v d¥A H £ £ 503 S © X9  3 v £ £ ¢ 0 6 5 S W © 3


E ¨ H £ X§  g £ £ ¢§  ( H ¥ IA \$£ d # A P C 503DS £ #§¥ ©H £ \$v d ¥ A  H S X9 £ H £ 50DS A H W 3 CA d # A P C £ d D(E P H @ ( # PQ A T£ (@ A @ ¨ A £ £ §@ §A@ @ ¨ A v H £ ¢ d¥A H £ ¢ ¨ ¨ ¨ H uT£ £ £3 A ©H   PQ§¥ A T£ §# ¥ A ¨ £ ¤  £   ¨  ¨ ¤§¨ C £  3 ¥ H ¢ # IA T£ ¨ £  ¨# "©§  ( ¤  A \$£ ¤  ¨ U &t g £ ¤   @ ¨ © §@ A T£  (

¦¤ Q¥    3 e ¥  £ ¤   ¢

¡ ¢

# A §¥ ©H £   ( 

W !b  E ¢ C P A T£  3 ¤¨ P ¨ C  £  3 e s¡   b   £ ©   ¨ e  b  ¨© ¨ @  W ¢ §@ A T£  3 "§ §fP £  3 s¡e   !b   £    ¨ e  ¨¨

¢

Solution:

1. With 

% ¨P C ¨ ¢ DA T£ t D (fQB¥ £ ¢t ¢     £  ¨# ¤©§

3. Before Switching:

£

¡

2. For the nominal operation it is

After long time:

and therefore:

After Switching:

Nominal torque:

§¨£¦ ¥ £ ¤

With

Sudden short-circuit experiment at half-the no-load excitation (

we get:

and

:

:

10

¥

W 50DS   g v S X9  Y3 3 £ £ 

£ ¤

):

A S @ ¥ ©H £  e

¦§

` £ X§ `

"\$

¡ ¢

6

GD R!g
£

y ¤g £ B v g
£

£
£

¥ 

£

P ¨ Q§¥ A T£ H £ g£

H £ g£ £ £ g P ¨ Q§¥ A T£ ¤ £ £ £  g W # @ A ¨ £  A ¨ v \$£ 503 u3 ¤  v S X9 £ £ ¤ £ ¨ S # @ A T£   e H u3 d ©\$£ \$£ T£ £ ¨ £ ¨ ¨ ¨

¥

£

4. Before Switching:

After long time:

with

Exponential transition from 0,234 to 1:

After Switching:

,

.

.

,

.

,

11 and .

Exercise P4
For a 16 pole salient pole synchronous machine known:

The displacement angle in nominal operation amounts to plies an inductive reactive power of experiments were carried out.

When the mechanically unloaded machine is loaded with nominal excitation current, so it sup-

into the supply. Further the following

I. The machine runs at no-load and is excited with nominal voltage. Then the excitation windings are short-circuited and the terminal voltage is oscillographed. The evaluation of the oscillograms gave the decay time constant of

II. The stator terminals are short-circuited in 3 phases and the rotor is running with synchronous speed. The excitation is so adjusted that nominal current ﬂows. Then the excitation winding is short-circuited and the delayed stator current is oscillographed. One ﬁnds the decay time constant as 0,544 s.

3. Starting from the nominal operation the machine is suddenly overloaded. Which rotatiothe ﬂux linkage of the excitation winding stays constant? 4. Which excitation current is reached under c) when

?

12

H

nal torque is developed, when the displacement angle reaches

and it is assumed that 

2. Calculate the no-load excitation current and the transient reactance

¤

D

1. Determine the synchronous reactances of the d and q axis

A   B   B

H £

£

£ 



¡

# §§# A ¨ £

H

(Line to line)

.

.

! . 

 "§§¥

£ ¡ §   ¡£ # A ¨

¡¨©\$£ ¡  W £ ¡ S X9 "  

D 96 E r B 8 S ¨ £ a

, the following nominal data is

¡

£ ¡
¢
 

A (%  (C

£ ¢  ¡ 

3 AC CA HAE ¤ P C #\$£   @ # (§C 503 S £  P D©H  £ ¢ # I(§C v   ©YS X9 £ ( (C ¨ W % A  3 ¡ 503 S £  £    v 7 S X9 £ ¡   £ ¡   £    v ¡ ©   ¡ ¡ W

¥

¢ CDA §\$£ )¦ ¨ ¤¡  £ AC D B%¤ A(C £  3 B e   ¡ #§§# A ¨ y   @ # (§C 503 S £ fP D©H     CA WX9 £ ¢ # HIA(E§C £ £   % A   ¨ ¡© S  3 e (% (C y  3 e ( (C  A D ¡¢  3 B e ¢ y ¡ 503 S £   ¡ W ¡7 S X9 £  3 e ¢  y  3 e ¢  £   ¡ ¡  3   v ¡   £ ¡£    v ¡©    3 ¡ g  \$£ g   A ¢  ¡ ¨ T£ ©  § ¨ £ £ £ £ ©   £ ¡
and therefore: :

¡   3 £ 
¢

@ (§C W AC CA   # S X9 £  P D©H  £  3 A ¢ E ¥ DA ¨ E £ £   ¨ ¡© 30 S B  W % (C   ¡ ¢S X9 £ ¡  £  3 ¡ 7 503 S £ ¢  ¡  3 W   ¡ ¡S X9 £ ¡  £ ©   £ ¡ 503 S £ ¢  § ¡ ©  £ ©   ¡

£

@ (§C AC A £   @ # (C  v   # @ (C  A   # \$£ % A (Q (C £ CA   P D©H \$£   ¡ H

Solution:

2. For the excitation voltage in nominal operation:

¡¦

£

¨ £   ©\$"¡ § ¡  3 ¢  ¡

£

v ¡ 7 A £ # ¨  3 ¡

1.

referred to the nominal impedance

¦ ¤ § ¥U & £

¡

£ 

£

¥

£ ¡ W £ ¡ S X9 £  ¡

So

The machine operates at no-load with nominal voltage and nominal excitation. i.e.:

At nominal operation:

13

£ £ ¡g

£  £

¥

§ § £ ¡g   

W Y S X9 £   y ¤g   S H v

r d ¤  ¡  6  ¡
¤
¨

¤

£  

 £    v S X9 £   W

£

£ g
4. It is essential that: 

H 2 ¤ ¢ IH(§C £ H IHA ¢ ¢DE¨ A # H E ©¢¨  §H AE £ ¨fPQ¥ 30 S £  ¥ £ £# H # ¨ y £¥ H ¨ v t  t §© C ¨¨ HAE H ¢ # I(§C £ H # IA ¨ £  3 ©£ 96 RP H  ¨ 8 S£ ¨ H 0 £   ©¥ 53 S  ¨¨ C£ P H ¤¥ t ¤§© §P P  #  ¥ © ¤ ¤ ¢ H   y H   £v 503 S £ £ g  \$   ¤  ¡  £

¦ ¥ §£ c50D3S £

¥ £ t

£

C 3  A §P§P H P £   @ # A(§C 50DS £ fP CD©H  £ # I(§C £ ¢ HAE ¡   503 S £ ¡  £  ¡ ¤g T£ ¤g

£

H # IA ¨ v   © S X9 £  3 H ¨ W % A B¤ (C g v ¡ W  3 7 S X9 £ ¡   £ ¡ ¤   £ 

g W ¤ 5 S 0 X9 £ ¤   § 

@ §¥ A T£ ¥ P D©H £ H # IA T£   £ X §  CA H ¨  ¨

£
¤

` H H # IA \$£ §P  DA ¨ £ X §§ ` ¨ P E
¢ ¢

£ X§  

E £ SfP§P DA ¨T& § ` S ©\$£ X § ` g  Q P C # £  3 £  E ¨ "# DA §¨ H £  ¥ §§¦£ X¡ g    £ ¡ §  ¨¨ ©§© C
; and from Experiment II: 

3 f¡ T£ X g   e

3. constant rotor ﬂux linkage 

Also:

£ X§ 

Therefore we get:

In this case the machine is working in transient state:

Also it is:

Output state is the nominal operation, Therefore:

So:

From Experiment I we get:

14

£ S XW9 £

£ g

with

£

Q £ r ¡W
¡

£
¤

g

C  P A ¨ C ¦x©§§¥ £ DA \$£ ¡ §  £ DA  # £  C  C DA \$£ D   ¨© S X9 y   ©¥ H S X9 B  P W ¨ W W W D ¡ S X9 y S X9 B

£ 

Y 7 S X9 £   y ¤g   S H v 7 S X9 £   ¡ W ¡ W

£

by equating the transient and stationary torque equations.

Comment: The relation for the excitation current in the transient case can also be found

£ £ r ¡ W ¡ § Q  § 

C H IA H #£  3 £ H # I#A ¨ ¨ y H y H H ¨§© C ¨ ¡g   £  H ¡g   y H y £ g     

¡g

£ ¡g
resp. at nominal operation:

Also it continues:

Subtracting the last two equations and dividing by

15

Q £ r ¡W §

we get:

C £ ¡   30 S @!6 98   P @ A ¡    W R§¥ A §¥ H £ D d ¨fP S WX9 y ¢ P A  ¥ B P   3 ¨  e §¨ C £ ¡ C S X9 ¡   y ¡ g   §¨  3 ¢   3 ¨ ¡  Q A §P H £  B©¨ IH £ ¡   P P % E A H P A \$£  P E ¥ ¨ £ X¡ §§  ¥

EIH E ¨ §¨ H E¨  E@ ¢ @  A PT£ EDA ¥ H £ ¨§¨§IH £   3 e  ©fE ¢£§  £ 0 £ ' ¦  10  3 e   ¡
¦§

¨ E E@ §¨ IH ©fE E " P A ¨ H £ §§¨ H £ §¨ C £  IH ¨¨ ¨ ¡ 0 £   £ § 0 ¢  ¡

¨ T£ § 

CH ¨ IIA T£    e ¤

X§  E 8 3 2 ¨¨ £  E ¦£ ' ¦   DA ¥ H £ §  96 50G"§§¨ H 40 @ E 8 3 2 ¨¨  E©fE £¦   IH £ §  96 504"§§¨ H £ 0 £ §  £ \$  F §  "¨ E £ ¡ a  ¨ Q¡fP   £ ¡ §   D ¤ % 8 G ¡B ¤§¨ C £ ¡   R B"¨ IH  ¨  % E  (¥  " E ¥
; ; ! ; ;

For a salient pole synchronous machine, whose stator windings are star-connected, the follo-

Exercise P5

Solution:

wing data is known:

Short-circuit experiment:

2. Determine

3. Which breakdown torque is given at

2. From the short-circuit experiment:

1. From the no-load experiment it follows:

1. Determine the no-load excitation current

4. The machine, starting from nominal operation, is disconnected from the supply. Calcu-

late the voltage and the excitation current immediately after the switching!

is found with the help of the vector diagram:

und

!

and at which displacement angle it appears?

16

£ &  § ¡ £ ¡ £ £ ¡ ¡ ¢  ¡g

£    § £    £ X§  § £ X§ 

(Line to line)

£ ¡ £ ¡

£

E  @§@ A(§E ¦£TR§¥ A §¥ H £ ¢ @  A P £ CIHIA ¨ v d fuS X9 £   3 e §¨ C  ¨P W ¨  g ¡   ¤   v 7 S X9 ¢T£ ¡ ¤   ¡ W ¡

4. Immediately after the switching there is only the transient excitation voltage at the ter-

¤

2 &¨ H ¨ A # C £ &¨ 2

£
¦

£ c503 S ¥

¤ 

@ A E A £ £ E  H P y P H  ¢ t §¨ ¥ C £ ¨ ¥ £  ¥ ¨ E £   P ¤ ¥ ¢ ¥£ t   \$ £ ¡
¦

£

¨ T£ § 

¢ E P A \$£ D H ¥ A ¨ y H B    H ¥ A T£ ¨

£A H    ©§H PA ¥ £

§      y 

3. For

minals. Therefore:

From the formula it is given:

From the vector diagram one reads:

we get:

and by replacing the value:

17

£

£

£ D ¨ v £ 5B

¡

C AE  @ A ¨ H ¦¤ P A ¨ H £  3 £ §§¨@¨ @ (§E  £ X §  £ ¡ ¡ g   £  ¤
. Therefore it follows for the excitation cur-

¡ ¤g   £ g

Immediately after the switching

rent:

18

£ D ¨ v £ 5B ¢3

Exercise P6
Given is a salient pole synchronous machine with the following data:

at the excitation current of 30% of the no-load excitation current. The saturation and all losses can be neglected.

1. Give

,

and the displacement angle at the operation with

and

and with the nominal voltage and frequency!

2. Starting from the operating point in a) the machine shall bring a transient torque at transient reactance!

, that has three times the value of the nominal torque. Calculate the

4. Determine the excitation current in the transient state after b), referred to the nominal excitation current!

Solution:
1.

Antiexcitation experiment:

;

;

E ©H g H   A D £ y B P©¨ A©H £ ¥  A©H £ ¤ H  £ ¨ T£ YS X9 H y ¥ W

19

£¥

30 S

¤ 

  © H y H

E ¥ ©H £ # AH ¨ £ H % A

£

¢

D

3. Which overexcited reactive power

the machine supplies continuously wi-

H ¦ S X9 £ W

£

£





¡

¨C

H¥ v

¡£

¨ £

£ 503 S g 

¨

C A¨ ©      T£ ©  H v g y £ H £ 

H

W S X9 B 

¢ v X9 £SW 

£

£ 

H £

£

£

¨ T£

2 T£ ¡

g

£

£

¡

§ § & £ 2& A ¨ y £ g

¡

¨

Further it is known that

. At no-load at nominal voltage the stability border is found 

¡£ # A ¨

8 S 96 "¨ E W £ ¡ S X9 R(# (C  % A

£ ¢  "  ¡  £ ¡a
¡

# A £ % ¨ 

D 5

W ¤ S 0 X9 £ ¢ B ¥ e 

£ ¡ £

£

\$
£ 



¥ 


¡

C DA ¨ C £x  ¡ E©@ £ f©# A Tw £ A   #¨ ¨ £ E ¡ ©H £ ¢ A £ £R#f©# A T£ H ¥ ©H Y3 ¨ ¨ H ¨ A \$"¡ g ¨ £ £ g £ ¥ £

3£  v H £

¥ 503 S £ 3 £   v ©S XW9 £

£

¨ T£

£

¨ T£

W S X9

£

¥

§

§ ¨

A y A E IH P A ¨T£ #§# P § ¨ @ A ¨ P ¥   #A ¨£ ¤ £ 

H A g £ §   § (E \$"7 £ § # A ¥ £ ¡ C ¨ ¥\$£¤¡ @ # P A ¨T£ DA ¨ A £ C £  CA ¨ A v H £ ¡ 30 S X9©W  v H £ 7 0 6 5 ¡ ©  @ A(C # ¨  ¨ ¡ 50DS  ¡  S v 7 S X9 £ ¡ g £ 3 ¡ W   # \$£"¡ H 3 ¡g£ g £  £ ¤ §  EA EA  W ¥ DB@  503 S £ ¤  £ # A ¨ v   ¥ DB@ YS X9 £

and



EA ¥ DB@  30 S £ A £ ¤  v
¤

EA DB@

#A ¨
W X9

W £ ¡ S X9

£
£

¥©3# 503 ¨S £ 3 £   v ¥ ¤S XW 9 S £ £

£

g

¤ £ ¤ £ 

¦£¥
30 S

¤

£

£
¡ 

© ¤  y  H H

¢ 

W X9 ¤  § ¥ ¦£ g £ ¡ H S ¤ £  W ¤ ¡ H S X9 H¥ v

£ 503 S g  ¡
¤ £

£ r ¡ ¡W  Q ¡

£

£

EA  DB@ \$£ §   ¥ £ £ ©  v H C W # ©@ A ¨\$£"# A ¨ £ C  A ¨\$u3 £  £ 503 SS X9 3 £ 3 £ ©  £ © £ 065 W # A TY3 § H £ £  H £ S X9 (# A ¨ £ X ¨ £ 

¦¥¤££ ¦ ¡£ ¢  ¨
\$

3. Condition:

2.

overexcited,

By introducing the determined relations into one another, we get :

For

we get:

. This case is not permitted, So:

,

20

§ § § ¡g
£

d

E ¥ A \$£ g ¥
£

£ g

£

g

¤ £

H A A  P ©H £ ¨  ¥ £ ¡ § §   E IH A  \$£ E § A ¨ E ¥ P ©H ¨  A  g £ ¤   £ 30 S £ 3 £  

¥e  £

£

E § A ¨T£   ¥ DB@  053 S £ # A ¨ £ IH P A ¨ v EA E 6 W 503 S 6 W 3 £ ¤

¥

¥ £

£

¥ 503 S £ 3 £

£ £ £ £ £ g
¤ £

EA DB@  W YS X9   ¥ W  v 6 W S X9 B 053 S £ 3 £ ¤    v X9 SW ¤ W ¤ 5 S 0 X9

4.

For

also it is needed that:

21

§

¥

£ £ g
£

Exercise P7
A 30 pole hydraulic driven synchronous generator has the following nominal data: (Line to line)

The following measurements are taken from the test ﬁeld: Line to line 0 10,5 and I/kA 24,75 33

100 200 Except that

— 1

is known. The effect of the damper winding,

saturation and all losses except the ﬁeld winding resistance are to be neglected.

1. Calculate the referred reactances

,

and

!

2. Determine the displacement angle, the ﬁeld current and the driving torque of the turbine in nominal operation. 3. The machine is at no-load,nominal voltage and nominal speed is suddenly loaded with a star-connection of inductances, whose phase value are just equal to the quadrature reactances of the salient pole synchronous machine. Determine the terminal voltage and the current immediately after switching and after a long time. 4. The salient pole synchronous machine is in continuous short-circuit at 1,33 times the noload excitation current. Suddenly the short-circuit is switched off. Determine the terminal voltage directly after the switching and after a long time. Determine the time characteristic of the effective value of the terminal voltage!

22 

¨ ¤§¨ C £ d ¢ !§  "¨ E £ ¢ a (# A T£   F  ¨
— 45 

e ¢

& @8 ¡e 6

£

W S X9

¢

W S X9 
¤ 

S E¥A ¨ £ 

 

B% e

¦ 

E B% DA ¨ H £
¢ `

8 3   96 0 G2 e 0

EH IIA ¨ £ ¢ 

R   

¡

¨ §¨ C £

¢

600 —

¨ \$£

H £   §  

£

£

¥

¢

£ £ £ £ £
¢

"
¡

¢

A¥ 2 r ¢¨ £ ¡   §¥ X XX t ¥ #  A ¨ £   ¡ §¨ C ¨ ¢ 0 ¥ ¢ 0 ¥ W S X9 £ ¢   £ ¢  "¨ E ¥ H 29 E £  ¨ C 2 9 P A ¨ H "§¨

¢

@ \$£ ¥
¢

£

A   (C \$£

¢ 2 9 E £H £ £ £

£

Solution: 

¥ A TR§ ©H £ IIA T£   £ ¢   £ ¤  ¨ £ Q A E H ¨  ¨ H © £ H £ H £ £ ¢   £  Q ¨  ¢  ¥  £ 0 6 5 £  ¢ ¢ Q  ¨ 65 H £ S X9 W ¢ ©  £ © £ 0 ¢    Q E ©@ A P  ¨  A ¢¥  £ Q   § ©H £  % Q¥  % § £ £  ¨  ¥  £  ¢ ¢   E (% DA ¨ H £  3 ¢©  £  3  % §\$£   ¡ §¨ C £ ¢   £  ¢ ¢ E Q¥ A ¨\$£  Q ¨   ¥  £    P ¨ ¢ d¢ £ ¢

D D B ¡B 0 a  £ 

Q  ¨

¢

\$£

(

1. Measurement 1:

Measurement 2:

£

3.

2.

Before switching:

£

H £

23
£

¨ T£ 3 H £

¤ £

A G #£ § ¦ ¤ ¨¥\$ ¦ ¥£ 6  H (% D IA # y ¥ ©H B v B% IA #  H EH IIA  CCA S §D©H £ S E ¥ A ¨ ¨ £ ¢ ¢ ` ¦  3 H B% IA \$£ B% DA ¨ H § ©H £ ¢   #  E  A  A § ©H  3 % A B¤¥ ©H £ B% DA ¨ H £ ¥ A T£ d   ¨ ¥A ¨  E £ £

¤ £ £

H Y3 £ § 

¥ A \$u3 £ ¤  ¨ £  A £ § ©H u3 £  

£ 

¨ £ §¥ P A TW Y3 £   H £ ©Tv H £ H AH 3 £   v S X9 £   §¥ P A ¨T£ § H £ 50DS £  503 S £ ¤  ¥A ¨  §# A ¨T£  W  §§# A ¨ y H £ S X9 £ d £ y ¤ £   ¡ W H £ t 8 v H 503 S £ ¤  v S X9 £ £  §# A T£  ¨ HX £

£ £ 

¤ £

¥
¨ T£

£

£ 
¤ ¤

£

¥30 S 50D3S d £ 3 £   £

¤ £

v

v £ S WXW9 £ d v £ S X9 £ d ££¥

H £

4. Continuous short-circuit:

£ d3 £ d
£

¤ £

After switching:

Immediately after switching:

before switching:

(or sketch with all the known values)

24

£   £ d¢ ` £ £ d
£ ¢ £

¢ £ ¢

3

Exercise P8
For a 4-pole induction machine with short-circuited rotor the following rating-plate data is given: (Line to line)

The breakdown slip amounts to neglected.

and the ratio

point is not the optimal point. Saturation and all losses except the rotor copper losses are to be

25

g P A ¥ £ ¢ ¡ e qg   ¦   F ¡R¨ E £ ¢ a (§# A T£ # ¨

8 3 ¨ 96 5042 §¨ C

¡

¢

EH IIA ¨ £ ig   S g ¦ W S X9 " C §\$£    ¥ ¢ 

. The nominal

stator frequency.

appears? Determine

r tX  ¥ # §# A ¨ £  C §¥ £ ¤©§ £  3 £   ¨#

E  §C £ d  ( b" E E A#¥    §\$£ ¢  ¢ !£ ¨ £ ¤2 £ W "§ P R§# A ¨ £  C §¥ £ P A \$£ ¢ S X9 £ £ £ P A \$£ ig   ¦ ¢ # £ # ¥ ¢ ¥ g ¡ 2 ¢¨ ¨ @ # d0 ¥ ¢0 ¥ rt ¥ W X S X9  ¥§ 3 £ ' £ ¢ ¢ ¢
¨

¥

¢

¥

Solution:

1.

Drawing a circle diagram with

£ t   £ £
¢ §¡

ø

26

¤ EH ¢   ¤¨ E £ IIA ¨ A £ H C ¨ A ¨ £v H £ F   P ¡F Q ¥ t ¤ ig  g ¦ t a £  ¢ v t H t a t E  # £ E v §C A § HI(C £ § P  ¥ §C  S C   F PQ A ¥§¦¢ ¡F Q A ¥ v ¥ £ "¨ ¨ C £ ¥ £ P ¨ §A g E# A   RPQ A ¥\$£ ¡F¤¨ E £ ¥ ig   ¦ S £ D©H P £ F   g i  g ¥ £ gig   ¡ £ ¥ £ t ¦ ¦ A EA g ig P  ¥ ¡ £ D©H
(From Exercise)

¥

gq  g ¦¥ £ ig   g t

¦

¡

£ ¥ \$£ ¡ dt   £ t

8 a £ \$£ t a S

¨@# £ £ £

" "
¢ ¢ ¡

9 IA H 2¢¨ @  C £ 2 2 9  P £ ¢¨ 2  R¨ 8 3 EA 96 50G2 DB@ EA  § D(C ¦£ ¢ ¦ ( §

C¨H P§P H E DA 

£

S

0
2.

3.

¥ 899503G2 @ A §¥ E £ D @ ¥ HIA ¨ y H B £ ¡"©¥ £ 0 6    F ¨ 9 (E A H £   RP DA ¥\$&  ¤¨©¥ £ @ ¥ IA ¨T¢  F"©¥ £ ¨©E¥ £ IIA ¨ £ 2 2 9  ¥ £ F E £ F ¨ ¨ EH  3 £ ¤©§ £ P A T£ 8   ¨  ¨# 2 ( £ a  d ¥ d £ d 8   £  8   £ 8   £ 

Q  ¨

d ¥ d £   £ 

3 E  ¥ IH 2 A£ d £ d ¥ d £   £ 
¡

Q  ¨

¢ ¥

8

4.

Then we get:

const.

27 

§§ # E  §C
£ d

£ £  £ 8 £ 

¢ £ d 

8a

t § a A EP A g D©H ¥ £ ig
¦

¡

§
¡

¦

£

¢ §¡

remain the same

(Phase value)

Exercise P9
A 3 phase salient pole synchronous machine is used as reactive power machine. It has the pole pair number p = 3, the nominal reactive power winding is star connected. It is also known, that kV (Line to line) and the nominal frequency

With (negative) excitation current of 100A the machine is just unstable, it is working practically

90 MVA.

All losses, the saturation as well as the effect of damper winding can be neglected.


2. Determine the excitation current at nominal operating point! 3. Due to a switching operation, subsequently at the nominal operation the voltage has an angular displacement of and the amplitude falls to torque in the machine immediately after the switching operation. 4. Which excitation current appears in the case of c) also directly after the switching?

Solution
1.

28

£ c503 S £ ¥

¤

£

¤ © H y H ¢ £ t£ ¤    © W ¥ S X9 £ H y H ¢ £ t £ v    © H y H ¢ £ t £ £ H ¥ v 503 S

¡  £ A ¨

HHA §I©H £  AH ¨ ©   y H  A ¨ £   y H Y3 £   y H £ £ ¨T£  ¨ w A T£ §©¨¨¨  ¤ ©   y H ¢ £ £ v g  £  "¨ £ £ £  W S X9 £ g £ £ £  £ g££ £ £ 2

£

£

§ ¨ ¨£ T£

£

£

£

£

£

£

£

©  ¨£ §  A ¨ £   y H ¨£ §

g

g

¡

¡r

£ &&

2

£

£

¡

¡

£ u3

§¨£ ¥ X ¦    

£

& 2 & 

H £

termine

!

g

1. Calculate

at the stability border with negative excitation current in terms of

. Determine the rotational  

X

¥ ¦  

exactly at the stability border

. It is then taking an inductive reactive power of

8 96 S ¨ E £ ¡ a

D ¢B ¡£

E ¨ A T£     ¨ t¢ 



¡

¨ §¨ H £ ¡

EH ¨    IIA \$£ 8 £ ¢

, the nominal voltage and the three phase

§ ¨

¨ T£

EC ¨    §DA \$£ ¡©    
  


¡

¤

£ 

E AE ©@ (IH £ ¢  ¡
£

. De-

¨ C 503 S £

¤

2 ¨ @ A &§¡ §@ ¨ ©H Q £ 2 E &¨ % §E  £ §¥ I©H "¡ r ¡ Fr ¡ W  ¥ 2 # HA £ 8 96 S H 2 E  £ &¨ % §E \$¦  ¡ §¨ H £ "P  ¤¡   £ \$ ¨ £  HA I©H v   © 30 S £ ¨

£

C A H A  ED©H £ H ¥ @ HIA ¨ y §IHH ©H ¢ £ t D  A ¨ B £ H ¥ ¤ ¤  ©  £ ¥ 503 S £ H y H ¢ £ t £ 2H ¥ E A ©@ ¥ ©H £ H £ C  D©H £ ¥ @ EA E ©H £ II©H H A EHA H y ¥ @ IA ¨ £ ¨ H

£ ¡§  £ ¡§  £ £ g
£

P C C  P DAE A ¨  ¥ ¤§¨ H ¨ A ¨£
. 

g P R A Q E y £ £  ¨ ¤§¨ H y £ ¡ g £ £ §  £ § § ¨£ P C  P A ¨ y C  D©H y H u3 £   y £ EA £

£ ¤¡ g

£

C  DA \$£ C  D©Tv H Y3 £   v H Y3 £   v £ E ¥ EAH £ £ ¨ \$£ © 3  \$Y3   ©\$£ T£ 3 £ ¨ ¨ C D©H £ EA E CA v H E A ©@  P ©H £ §DT¨ ¢¢IIAEH IA ¨ £ H v I ¨ E       ©  v     8 ¢    ¡©  v 8 ¢  He \$v     e £   v 8¢ £ e8¢    ©  v 8 ¢  £ ©    v 8¢   £ E ¨ A T£ §  £     EH ¨ ¨  IIA \$£ r  £ t¢
; ; ; .

£ 

©    ¨£ §      8¢ 

3.

2. Calculation of

Reactive power machine:

Anti excitation experiment:

Nominal operation:

:

29

Q

£

£ r ¡W ¡ Q £ r ¡W ¡ £ ¡r ¡ £ £ r £ r ¡¡W  Q ¡ ¡ £ £ 

v 503 S £ g ¤ H IA ¨ v H £ £
D
§ 

g

¤ £

v H B r D H

# C E A §¥ H ©@D©H©H£ £ ¥ @ A IA ¨ E A  ¥  Q¨ ¤  r W £ £ £ ¡ 2 £ 3 £   £  v £ v HB H y 

g #  ¤# A §§# C DA E £ §C DA ¥ £  A P E ¡ £ C  " Q £ g £ §D¡ A §  CC  W X9 £ W  A T£  3 £   v  S X9 £ £ ¨ H ¤  ¥ @ IA E ¨ A W ¨ y ©@ ¥ ©H £ S X9 £ £ y ¤g £

4.

30

£ § £ § £ g £ ©£ § £ g£ £ 3

Exercise P10
A salient pole synchronous generator has at with the star connection of the stator winding and 110 A. At 90 A and at a speed of At the nominal real power and displacement is time constant is 0,85 s. The saturation, the losses and the effect of damper winding can be neglected.

the nominal speed (Line to line);

. The excitation current for nominal voltage and frequency at no-load is

the continuous short circuit current is 2025 A.

and at nominal voltage and frequency the angular

. The no-load time constant of the excitation winding is 3 s, the short-circuit

1. Calculate

,

und

!

2. Give the active and reactive power of the machine (under or over excited?) during the operation with nominal voltage and frequency when the angular displacement is permitted)! 3. Determine the time characteristic of the effective value of the terminal voltage, when the machine is suddenly disconnected from the supply through the load case given in b)! and the excitation current amounts to 200 A (This operating point is not continuously

supplied with nominal voltage and frequency at the angular displacement of starting from the operating point after b), the rotor ﬂux remains constant.

Solution:

Short-circuit:

31 

E B% DA E R¨ ©@ ¥\$£   ¢ E ©¥ A \$£ ¨ ¥

HHA §I©H   E¥¨ ££ H ¢ E H ©¥ A ¥ £ ¨ §H £  f©¥  3 ¨ ¨ ©  E B% DA £ ¨ H   3 H¡ £ X § §   £ ¦ ¡   ¡ H £ 0 £ 10 £ £ X §  £  3 £ ¦ H  ¡ ¡ 10 0 §  ¡

¨ H £  3 ¢  £ ¡ E £ ¡ ¡ ¨   ¡ ¨E t D (% DA ¨ H B £  E



3

¡  t¡

£

£

£

§

£ ¡

£  ¡ 

1.

£

4. Give the relative torque developed in the machine (in terms of

) when the machine is if



 ¡ ¨E £ ¡ 8 3 2 ¨ 96 50Gx§¨ E ¨C

¡

¡ 

§¨ E ¨ H £ ¤  ¨ ¡ 8 S 96 \$¨ E T¡ a £

;

H x S X9 £ W 8 3 96 5042 ¨ E P

¤  



W  A ¨ £ ¡ S X9

P Q



 ¡ P A ©¥ y £ ¢ ¨ E D A H B £ 0  E £  DA ¨ H £  3    P y 53 S ¤# P P (% 503 S £  £ ¡   £  3 ' ¡ ©\$£ ¨# W D A H B X9 £  ¤# P E P £ (% DA ¨ H £  3  E    P y S W S X9 £  £ ¡   £  3 A H C @ (E A P £ y    P y £   ¨ y   E © @ (E P £ §@E H  6 5 @!6 £ ©  6 5 @!6 A 98 98 C   ¥ § 0  0  E C  ¤# P E PT£T t ©@ H  v t §E §   £ t©  v t  ¡ ¥ E E ¨ A £ ©@ A E ¨ E   ©@ H \$£ ¡¨ C ¢50DS £ ©¥  ¥3 e B% DA ¨ H   3 
(underexcited)

E H H A 503 S C  ¨ A £ E §I©H  §E ¥§\$£   ¨ C S X9 £ ¢  3 ©¥ (¥% DA ¨ H y W e     W S X9 £ ¡ 8   H  3 ¨ §H  H (% §H £ §©¥ £ B% DA ¨ H £ X § §   ¨¨  E

§ § £

E ¨ A  3 £  A ¨ £ "¨ ©@ ¥  E P 5 Q¢0 6 H£ ¢ H ©¥ ¥ £ £  E (% DA ¨ H

£

£ 065

E ©@ A ¨  © W X9 £ T£ ¡ © 0 6 5H£ ¡ H £ ¡ S  £  ¡   ¡   ¡  3 £  £ ©   W S X9 H £

E ¨ IH  A T£ ¤  HHA §I©H £ # ¨ §§¥ A T£   £  ` # ¨ §§¥ A T£ E #  A ¨ £ X § § ` ¦
we get:

§  £ ¤ £  S E # A \$£ ¨

¦§

S ¦£ X § ` 

With

und

`

2.

From the experiment with

and pure real power it is needed:

32

£ £ £ £ £ §

§
¢

£ ¥
£ £ £

¥ 

£ 

£

£ 8 ¡

£ £ £  g

£

H (% §H y g
£  3

¡ ¢

¤

Q #f¨ A  £ r ¡ W  2 § E IH  A ¨ £  A ¨ £ r ¡WQ 2 P@#A ¨ H  8 ¦£ P @ # A \$£ ¦¦ U  ¥X¤ U & £ ¤ ¨ ¥¥
¢ ¢

£ ¤

£ ¥ 503 S £ 

© ¤  y  H H

¢

H¥ v

£ 50D3S £
g 

¤

¥¥

¡¡
£

¤ £

¡

£

¤ £ ¢

W ¡ H S X9

Q £ ¡ ¡ er ¡W

§

rU Q rU Q 6

G   £ 6 #£ B% @ # A  y B% E ¨ A  H \$  G#£FD  H (% §H y ( (E B v B% §H % A  H G£ D Q 6 #Fg   y X ¤g   B v g   "

¡

¡

g T¦    £ X ¤g \$\$  D ¨ v £ 5 B   £
: 

A (%  (E C ¥ E W E  §E § £ ¢ E ¨©¥ A ¥ £ IH  A ¨ v C X9 £   DA H 3 e (% ¨   ¨ S   £ ¤   v S X9 £ ¡ 8   W £ £

4. The rotor ﬂux linkage is constant.

£ £

§
For

) 0( 5

£

g £ X¤
3. Before Switching:

with

The no-load time constant is working, also:

After Switching

:

und

transient Torque is working!

33

g

we get: (Line to line)

Exercise P11
A 6-pole induction machine with slip ring rotor and both star connected windings has the following data:

By supplying the stator with nominal frequency and half the nominal voltage one measures, 1) At standstill with open rotor the voltage measured between the slip rings is 250V. 2) At synchronous run a stator current intake of 7,5A. Saturation and all losses except the rotor copper losses are to be neglected. a) Determine the nominal slip, nominal power and nominal torque (the nominal point is not the optimal point). b) Calculate all the components of the equivalent circuit diagram when the stator stray reactance vanishes and give the corresponding transformation factor. c) The machine running at nominal voltage, nominal torque, nominal speed and nominal frequency is disconnected from the supply. Determine the time charcteristic of the effective value of the terminal voltage after the switch-off, when the speed remains constant during the reversal operation and the slip rings are short-circuited. d) The machine is operated by the short-circuited rotor through ﬁeld oriented regulation with constant rotor ﬂux-linkage, which is equal to the no-load ﬂux-linkage. Which frequency appears by loading with double the breakdown torque? Which stator frequency is adjusted, so that a speed of 500

is given. Determine the stator current!

34

8 3 2  96 0 G§¨ C \$£
¢

0

¥ ¨ §# A T£
¢

W ¢ S X9 

E P " £ ¡ 8 3 96 50G2 

£
¢

¡

¢

¢

C  ©H C £ C  A ¨ ¥§# A ¨ ¤  E sP¤ A ¤¥
¥

¢

£
¢ 

S C C  2&¨  A ¨ H C £ §¨ e C ¨ A  ¤ ¥ ¢ 0 ¥  ©H C £ ¢ H ¥ H ¢ X9 ¢ ¢ W D ¤ 3 £ ¢ S y B ¤ ¢ ¥S s¤ H ¥  ¤  3 8 96 3 2 §¨ ¨ § P £ 96 0 G§¨ C  50Gy §96§¨ 50G§§§¨ H 8 3 2 8 3 2¨¨ £

¢

S

b)

Solution

a)

35

¢

E  E P H £ t f§P HTv t  IH   P X tX  v tX  ¡   ©¥ A §\$£   ©¥ B@ v   F E ¥ F ¥ F A   F ¡©¥ ¥ AB@ £"¥   §¨ E ¤ P§P HIA ¨ F g X a ¤  ¥ ¤ ig   S\$£ \$¦\$ 3(% £ t § gig   ¡ ¥ X
¢

¡

£

¢

£   £ g

3 " § \$ )) 6 G ¤ C  A ¨ ¥ A ¨ ¤ H ¤ ¥ \$)   6 G ¤ X 0 ¥ A ¨ ¤ X £ ¤ ¢ 0 A (E X ¤ ¨ &  ¥ A T£ # (E ¤ &  A X r H g ¨ ¥ P H §P IA ¨ ¤ X H ¤  ¥ ¤ IA ¨ ig   S H X ¤  £

¥

¢

£ t `
c) 

v HB¤ t V §

¢

£ tD8  £ t £ £ 
 

t D ©§ B ¥ E # ¤ £ ¢ # DA ¨ £ P©¨ A T£ C ¨  A©H C y §# A ¨ ¤  E sP¤ ¥ H ¤  3 ¢ S ¥ 8  v H t D 8  v H B t ¢ S V ¤ t D t  B ¥\$£ ¢ y ¢ ' ¤ # §¥ A P H IA ¨ £ 2 9 !¥9 DAE ©P H H A ¥ E ¤ DAB@ ¥¥ ¤  3 2 X s¥ 3 ¤

y H 8 ¤

E # DA §\$£

H

£

¥
¢

£ 8

d)

36

£ £ 8 £ 8a £ ta £ £
¢

¡ 

Exercise P12
For an induction machine with short-circuited rotor all losses except the rotor copper losses as well as the saturation and current displacement are to be neglected. The machine has 4 poles with star connected stator winding and has a nominal voltage of has a current of The machine working at no-load with nominal voltage and nominal frequency

. Such a no-loaded machine is suddenly disconnected from the supply

through an ideal switch, so that the effective value of the voltage follows this relation with time

.

1. Calculate the breakdown torque of the machine at nominal voltage and nominal frequency! 2. Determine the appropriate break down slip in a)! 3. Give the starting torque of the machine! 4. The no-loaded machine is suddenly short-circuited at the maximum phase voltage. Give the time characteristic of the current in the relevant phase!

Solution:
1.

From the time characteristics of the voltage it follows:

2. For the no-load rotor time constant the following relation is known:

Therefore it follows: 

37

# ¨ f¨ A T£

¥ E DA ¨ £ ¨ E H  ¥ £ f¨ A ¨ £ X t ` £ H 8 £ #

g ig   S £ 8 ¥ £ ¦ H

For the real current at the breakdownpoint,

. Also:

8 96 S ¨ E £ r a

# ¨ ¨# f¨ A T£ ¨©E§ y H £ ¡     y H £

A £ E  2¢¨ §¥ @ £ #ff¨# ¨ A ¨ ¨ y ¥ H £ ¤© £ "©§ £  3 ¨ ¥ ¥   ¨  ¨# 8S   ¥ £ H X  £ ¡  3 £ a \$ ¥    y t X £ ¢ ¢ 6 8 "  £ E S DA ¨ £ X t ` 

(Line to line).

¦  

£ Xt `

§

D 

y HB ¡

g £ qg   ¦ S

g £ ig

£

£

¦ 

¡

r  X   Q 6 G "¨ E \$\$    £

¥

3. The kloss formula is needed.Also with s=1:

4. The current can be determined from sudden short-circuit of full pole synchronous machine. Since the ohmic resistance of the stator winding is neglected, the induction machine has no continous short-circuit current and the switching instant lies at the voltage maximum, because of the constant rotor ﬂux-linkage we get :

H H g g ig \$v ig g # A Tv # A 2  2 EH &¨ I§H £ f¨ ¨ e ¥ f¨ ¨ £ ¢¨ §¥ @ £   ¦ S e ¥   ¦ S ig
¤ 5 896 S¤¨ E  ¥ ¢ 30 S £ ¦ X  X   Q 6 G £ "§# P  # #A A ¤ ¥5 8 S 96iR¨ E  ¥ ¢£503 S £ 6 r  X ¤    4   Q 6 G#£ #f¨ f¨ ¨ ¨ y H £ ¤© £ ¥ 3  ¨ ¥ ¡X X  58 G 30 S £ " )   ¢   Q 6 H£  y H £  £ ¥ ¥ 3 X £  £ 8   8 y H  3e¡  £ ¥ 3

38

¥ 58 50DS £ " ) 3

¥

¢

G Q 6 #£ 

¦
¡

D £ E5 B 3

£

£

£

£
¦

¡

Exercise P13
For a position drive, an induction motor having the following nominal data is applied:

The breakdown torque is

1. Determine the breakdown torque at nominal stator ﬂux-linkage as well as the rotor breakdown frequency and the rotor time constant! With the help of a coordinate transformation, the motor is represented as seperately excited DC machine. The converter is controlled such that the rotor ﬂux linkage is constant in each operating state. Therefore the general reference axis A, the transformed winding systems ( and ( ,
¤ ¢
¤ ¡ ¤

) shall coincide with the direction of the transformed rotor ﬂux-linkage.
¤

b) Which transformed DC current

the converter must supply in the stator winding at

no-load, if nominal ﬂux linkage shall exist in the stator? c) Starting from no-load the machine shall bring up double the nominal torque for a shorttime. Give the currents in the stator winding system ! d) Give the time characteristics of the current in stator phase u before and after the sudden load in c) whereas it is assumed that the sudden load occurs in the current maximum of the phases. The speed is approximately taken as constant (
¤

).

39 



E ¡ ¡ £ DA ¥ W  ¨ £ §# A TR¡ S X9  9750GR©# P H ¡ 0 )(&\$"! c9iR¨ E ¡ a  "©§\$¢  8 6 3 2 ¨ £  '%  £ ¡  8 6S £  ¨# £ ¡
. The leakage ratio amounts to 0,088.

,

)

8 3 2 ¨¨ 96 50GR§©¥ H   

¤ 

2 A £ ¢¨ P # P E S ¨ C e ©# P H £  ¥ £ DA ¨ ¡ 2 E ¥ 10 ¡ ¥ £ DA '% B @ A £ \$£ £ ! £ ¥ # § ¨ §# A ¨ ©§  3   ¨# CEA  §D(E £ ' ¨ ¨W ¨ D y H B £ ¤§§©£ ¡S ¡ S X9 ¡   £  3 ¡ P  E" § £  §# A ¨   Q\$IH ¡  § H ¨ A \$£ ©# P H §¨ y §¨ IH £ ¡ 0 X y 0 X 0 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ E £

Solution

1.

40
¢

¡
¢

g £ ig   g £ ig

¡

£ ¡ W £ ¡ S X9 £ ¡S

W ¤ 5 £ ¨ £  896 S¤fP 2 ¥ ¢ S X9 £ ¥ A ¥ £ S 896 ¤¨fP £  ¥ ¥¦£ 0 £ \$ £ W S X9 £ X  £ 58

¨ T£ 5 

H #A  £

¤

3

¥ " EE  A £ " B@ H ¦ H # A  £ §DA T£ ¤£ 3 £ t ` £ t P E E E DA ## EE §DA P £ §f¨ A ¨ H £ DA ¥ £  DA 
H ¥ £ H £ H¥ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ £ t `£ t ¥

g ig

¢

¡

£

£ ¤£ 3 ¥ £ t `£ t £
¡  

¨ T£ ¤£ 3
Torque building component:  

¥ £ X ¤¥ A \$"¡ 

1 ¦
¢

W 2 §8
¨

"  H # A \$£ ¤£ 3 ¨£  § " ¡ X  £  3 £ ¤£ 3
2. magnetising component:

E S DA g £ "# ¨ 8 H 96 S IA  £  ¥ £ §f¨ A ¨ qg   a 2 ¥ £  H ## H £
¢ ¢

£ t ` £ t `

¢

¢

8 S 96 ¤¨ E £ ¥ C ¨ A T£ § H ¨ A ¨ £ ¨ 

8 H 96 S IA  g ¥ C ¨ A T£ 8 a £ ig   S ¨ E ¥ ¥ A  "¡ S £ E ¥ ¥ A  £

g £ ig   a g £ ig   a g £ ig   S
¢

3.

Rotor ﬂux linkages are kept constant:

From circle diagram:

:

.

41

¥ 3 ¥ 3 

¥

D £ E5 ¥B h 3 ¨£ §

£ 8 £ h3

¨ c 5

(see Exercise FB1)

¤

A £ W   P A ¨ v #£ 96 S E ¥ ©H P 2 ¥ ¢ S X9 £ "¥ A ¨ H £ ¥ 3 £ E5 B h 3 5 D 8  "
¤£

CA@  £  P A T£   DB§@ £ ¨

:

A phase shift appears which can be calculated directly from the currents in the 

" "¥ A ¨ H £ ¥ 3 £ t ¤£ 3 v t ¤£ 3 ¡ £ ¥ E A S §E DA E 896 S E ¥ ©H P £  ¥T£ "# DA P ¨ ¥ v 96 ¤fP £ 8 S ¨ t v 0£ \$£

! ¥ ¥ £

£ £ ¥ 3 £ 8
¥

two-axis system. 

33
¤£

98 0 6 5 E!6 £

So:

42

¨ ¡5

Exercise P14
An induction motor with the nominal data (line to line)

is used as a servomotor and it is supplied such that, the available rotor ﬂux linkage remains constant at all operating points at no-load with nominal voltage and nominal frequency. The saturation, the losses and the effect of damper winding can be neglected. 1. Determine the leakage constant and rotor time constant of the motor. 2. For the determination of the supplied current a transformation of the stator winding is to be carried out, so that the current in rotor magnetising component building component can be analysed. Give for the no-load case the time characteristics of the supplied current in phase u at there is maximum ﬂux in phase u).
¤£

and in torque and determine (At t = 0

3. Starting from no-load in b) the motor is brought to the nominal torque. Give in this case the current in both the transformed winding axes. 4. Give for the loading after c) the time characteristics of the current in the three phases supplied from the converter! Give a physical explanation, why the effective value of the current is slightly lower under the operation with constant voltage!

43

¡ ¡£ ¥ 

§# A ¨ "£
¤ ¤£

896 503G 2 3 §¨§¨" ¨ 3

3

g 8 3 2 ¨P £ ig   ¦ ¡  96 50G"f§P H W 8 S 96 ¤¨ E £ ¡ S X9  H £ 0

£ ¡a  £ ¡0  

3

¤£

' (% ¥ H 

£ ¢  ¡ £ ¡

" E  DA  H £ ¤£ 3  A ¤# B@ £  3 £  £  3 X ¨

£ t ` £ 

EH IIA ¨ £ 896 ¤¨ E £  ¥ £ §f¨ A ¨ ig   S £ 8 ¥ £  g S H  S"§¥ A ¨T£ t ` ¨£ § £ ¦ H A g £ v # £ A v B@ qg X §f¨ A T£  §¨£ § ¥# B@ # £   ¦  X  ¥   ¨ EH ¨ g IIA \$£ ig   S  A # B@ £ X  ¦
and .

£ §# A ¨ W £ ¡ S X9 £


# £ §\$¤¡  £ \$£ qg   ¦ ¥ g  §# A ¨ £ "©§  ¨# " A §\$£ ¥¥ E ' IH (% P ¨ ¨P ¨ ¨ E ©¨ A T£ f§P H §¨ y §¨ IH 

H £  £ C ¤A   3  ¨ ¥H £ 10 X y 0 u0 ¡ X

£ ¡S

W  A ¥ ¥ £ £ X9 £  "¡  ¡ £ £ " §\$"¡ S ¡   £  3 FD ¡ S y H B £ ¡ ¤ ¡     A §\$"¡  £

Solution

1. Solution using circle diagram:

From circle diagram:

44

¤ ¤£ 

3

3

£ £ 

£ 

3
¤£

A " (C  £ £  £ "  A £ E C  DA  H £  DA ¥\$£ ¤£ 3 £ §f¨ H ¨ P £ " ¡¤£ 3 £ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¥ " g ¥ 3 £ t ` £ ig   ¦ £ ig £ g   ¡ ¥ ¦
¤£ 

3
¤£

g qg ¥ 

3
¤£

£ ¡ ¡ ¨£ § "£ £ t ` £ t ¥ ¤3

¥ £ qg   ¡ £ \$£ ¡ ¡ £ ¡ g ¥ t ¦ ¦ " E  DA  H cX  £  3 £ ¤£ 3 £ § ¨£
£ £ W  ¥ ¢ S X9 W  ¥ ¢ S X9 

A ¤# B@ £ ¥ 3  A ¤# B@ £ ¥ 3 £

¤ 5 ¥#£ 8 S  A £ ¤ #5£ 96 "C § § 8 ¨¨ 96 S §¨§¨ H £ ¥ £

£ h 3 ¨£ § £ h3
Maximum ﬂux at t = 0:

D E5 £ £ \$ £  B X9 £ £ 0 ¥ S W  ¥ 3 X

4.

3. Magnetisation stays

direction of A and B axis. Therefore the reactive power demand during the operation is

The magnetisation of the machine is succeeded by the ﬁeld-oriented operation only in

the A–axis. By the operation with power supply however it will be magnetised in the

A @ H y H£ 9i"¥ (E  2 ¥ ¢ S X9 £  P A §¥ £ ¥ 3 £ ¡ 3 W ¤ 5 8 6S A £ ¥   P ¨ ¤ A E #£ 96 ¤¥ (E  £  ¥ ¢ S X9 £ RP A §¥ £ ¥ 3 £  3 W 5 8 S A  ¥   P ¨ y W 5 ¤ CDA C v #£ 8 6S A 9i¤¥ (E  £  ¥ ¢ S X9 £ RP A §¥ £ ¥ 3 £ h 3  ¥     ¥ RP A §¥ £ ¥ 3 C A C t  DA ¥ v t H   £ # B@ £ ¥ 3 £ t  DA ¥ v t H   £  £ ¥ 3 X v " £  3 £ t ¤£ 3 t ¤£ 3 ¡ H ¥ ¥ 3 ¥ 896 S¤¥ A(E  £  ¥\$£ 9iSR DA©§HTv 9iR§ A § £  \$£ t v " 8 6 C H 8 6S   ¥  A CA C ¥ t ` ¤£ 896 SR D©H§H £ 896 S §¥ H ¨ £  DA \$£ H £ ¤£ 33 8 6S   9iR§ A § £  \$£ 0 £ \$ £  ¥ ¥

higher which results in increase in the effective value of current.

45

§©£ £ ¢ £ £ £ £ £ ¢ ¥ 8 t
¥ ¥  

Exercise P15
For an induction motor with short-circuited rotor the following nominal data is given:

(Line to line)

At no-load with nominal voltage with a frequency of 60 Hz a no-load current of 33,3 A is measured. Saturation, current displacement and all losses except the rotor copper loses are to be neglected. 1. Determine the short-circuit current , the breakdown slip

and the total reactance

for the nominal voltage and nominal frequency.
¤ 

in terms of stator winding number

in no-load and in nominal operation!

3. The machine is operated under ﬁeld-oriented regulation with constant rotor ﬂux linkage equal to the rotor ﬂux linkage in nominal operation and loaded with 1,5 times the nominal torque. Which rotor frequency appears? Calculate the stator current. 4. What is the stator voltage and stator frequency, so that by the operation after c) a speed of

is attained? Calculate the power factor.

46

t `

2. Calculate the total leakage ratio , the rotor time constant

#A ¨

£
¢

g qg   S ¦

8 S 96 ¤¨ E W S X9 R¤©¥ H   ¨

£ £

¢  ¢

a ) ¢ 78 ) 8
¢ 



8

¢

8 3 2  96 50GR¨ C  

¨¨ "§§¨ H

8 3 2 ¨¨ 96 50GR§©¥

£ £

0 8

¢

¢

t ) 78 8 A S  C P ©H £ &¤¥ D©H £  X 8 £ ¢ ) S  CA ) 8 ) 8 X 8t £ " ¢ ) 78 £ ¢ ) 78

¢

£

£ X8   £ t ` £ 

A H £ £ S ¥ DA©H £ S §# ©H £©D @ H§IA ¨ y H B £ X 8   ¢D  y H B £ X  £ 8   TD  y H B  C ¥ 8 896 E £  S §# A©H \$"fP £ S¤¨ P A P H ¥ £ X  £ 8 ¥   £  £ 8    £ ¨ X ¢H H g 896 E  £ E IA £ @ H§IA ¨ 8 £ ig   ¦ S £  H SR©¥ A T£ S"¨ ¥ H  ¨ ¨ ¨ £ ¢ @ §IA HH ¨ ¤ T£ "ffQPP¨¨  £    X  ¨P ¢ P A P H £  3 e ¤f§§¨ H £  3 eX  ¢ 8    "¨ ¨
¢

t v H X t¤

£ 8
From the circle diagram:

E  ¨ ¤fP £ C £ ¤ A §¦£  

E  IA T£ ig   S A ¤fQ\$ 8  H ¨ g  ¨P £ ¦ ¥ £ ¦¤" ¦ D ¥ £ ¥ £ B ¦¤" ¦ ¨ E £ ¦¤" ¦ ¥ £   a e   £   ¡X  £ ¦¤" D   ¡X  ¨C  ¢ a e   B

£

¥ £ ¦¤"

¢¡

X

Solution:

2.

1.

Also:

From the circle-diagram:

47

S&RQ A T£  P ¨ 8 A E 96 S E  H ¨  ED(©@ H £ ¢ "P ¨ A P H ¥ £ @ §H ¤ T£ 8£ 8  £ 
Determination of the voltage graphically:

¢

£ 8a

¦¥¤ ¢ ¤

¡

¡

£ ta £ 8
F¨ r u

8 @ ¤ 96 S §@ ¥ H £ 96 S 8 @ H HH g 896 S §@ A \$£ 896 SR¨ E £ E  IA ¨ £ @ §IA ¨ £  8 U 8 £ ¢ a £ ig    tC E AH  ©@ ©(@ H £

¢

@ §@ A r  v X X X t £ \$£ t a v 0 £ \$  " " £  £ £ ig £  £ £ £ g   ¦a ¦ S £ £ v EAH ¢ t D©(@ H   £ tX  v t  ¡ EA EA  D©H £  ¢ ¡ D©H £ ¡ ¡ ¥  E  DA  C \$£  £  X
:

£ £

¢


H P §H ¨ ©¥ #H

¢ 

X

4.

3. From the circle-diagram:

From CD:

48

E ©@ A W ¨ \$£ S X9 § dHP C ¤# A P IH 8 @ 96 S §@ A  H £  ¥ £ S&¤ ©H  A S  A &¤ ©H

£

£ 8   § £ 8  ¥ § 8 £ 8

Exercise P16
A 4 pole induction machine with slip ring rotor (Y-connection) with the nominal data (Line to line) and and a no-load current of 75 A is given. The no-loaded

machine is suddenly disconnected from the supply. Immediately after the switching, one measures an effective voltage of 350 V (Line to line) at the stator terminals, when the rotor current of

in Phase w of

ﬂows. The saturation and all losses except the rotor copper losses(exception d)) can be neglected. 1. Determine the breakdown torque of the machine supplied with nominal voltage! 2. Calculate the breakdown slip corresponding to a). 3. The machine is operated as synchronous machine by supplying DC current of 300 A between the 2 slip rings.(3rd slip-ring open).Which breakdown torque is developed in the machine at nominal voltage? 4. During the operation as synchronous machine with supply accross the two slip rings at no-load, time characteristics of the excitation current under the assumption

is adjusted. Then the machine is suddenly short-circuited. Give the

49

¢ E f¨ A T£ 8 V ¥ ¨

¥

£ 

in Phase v of

¥

in Phase u of

and

!

£
¢

G r t  Q #£ X   G6 r t  X   Q 6 H£  G r t  X   Q 6 H£

¥

A  C ¨ (C ¥ y ¨ H © A P §H y  C  A fP H ¨

£ 3 £ h3

8 96 S ¨ E £ ¢ a
¡

3 

©¥ H £ §  ¨ 

E R¨ IH

¨ \$£ 5

¡ 

3 3 h3

£ ¥ 3 W S X9

£ ¥e £ £ £     ¤T£

¥

¤ 

¤

£

¤T£ g
So:

\$  ¨ W ©YS X9 £  £ ¥ £ P £ I¢t  t¡ £
.

¤

\$   £ ¥ 3 £ ¥ £ P £ I¢t  t¡ £

S E¥A ¨ £ t `

g 2 P &¨ Q§# H £ £  ig   ¦ ¡ 8 ¨ E C e 96 R§¨ IH 2 ¥ S ¨ E £ g Xu0 ¥  DAB@  P £ ©§ £  3 £ ig   £ ¢   £  3  ¨# ¦  E ¥  DAB@  P ¦ ©@ y ¥ £ E ¨ E  @ £ AX  y ¢   ¤¨ E \$£   ¨ ©@)£  E ¨ X  ¢  @ ¨ A \$£ "¨©E§ y H £ D ¨ v ©£   5 B   y H £  ¨ "¨ # D y HB

Solution:

3. Considering the ﬂux-linkages (Peak value of the fundamental wave):

8 96 S "¨ E  ¥ £ S H E ¥ A ¨ £ ¥ 8 £ 

CH IIA ¨ £ ig   S g ¦  @ ¨ A ¨ £ ig   S g ¦ t ` £  ig g H ¥ £   ¦S g 8 £ ig £  H  ¦ S

§ £ £ £

g ig
¦

¡

g ig    ¦ 

¢

§ £
D v 

¨

¢

£ 5B
1.

2.

Flux linkage due to DC power supply: 

 3 e ¨ E \$£ g TY¡     £

§ § § £ t `

From

provided

, ,

for

we get:

50

£ £ ¥ 3

H D G Q H£  ¨ ¨ Tv  ¨ H 8 96 S"¨ E £  ¥ B S WX9 £ r U Q G £ ¨ ¨ H y X  X   6 R§fP r t X  X   6 "§fP @ A "©¥ ¨D W G 8 S 96i¤¨ E £  ¥ B S X9 £ r U X  X   Q 6 H£  @  ¨ A ¨ ¨ ¨ y H y @ A G r t X  X   Q 6 #£ @  A ¨ ¨ y H v H ¡ £ §©¥ H ¨  ¨ ¨ S ©f¨ A ¨ E 8 ¢ E ¥f¨ A ¨ £  ©@ £ 96 S¤¨ E £  ¥ £ 8 V £  £ 8 a £  ¥ X ¨ ¡ 8   £ V & 3 e ©#§ £  @ ¨ A ¨ V 8 £ 8 £  a ¥ £  8 £  £ 8   8   S ¨ ¤¥f¨ A \$£ S E ¥ A ¨ £  @ ¨ A T£ t ` £  ¨ @ ¨A ¨  v H ¡ £ X§3 y H £ £
¨ 5 ¥ X9 £ W

S

§ ¡

G Q 6 #£ 

¥
¥

¡

£ £ £

§ g ig   g
¦
¡

g 2 E C ¢¨ DA # §C £ qg   ¦ 8 @CA C E 96 S E £   fD(§C P £  ¥ ©@ £ ¤¨ £  ¥ g   £ X  £ 8\$ £ g   £ 8  £   \$ E   3 @CA C  X IH £  W  fD(§C P £ ¡©YS "¨ 9 £ ¥ £ ¥ e R§© £ ¤¨ E   ¨   ¨¨   

4. With EM II, Gl. 4.93:

so that:

51

£
§

3

§

3

£ £
¦

8 ` `

£ £ 
§

¦§ 

y H y

¡

¡

¡

Q 6G£ 

£

3