ID 123: Decorative Arts and Soft Furnishings

WOOD REPORT
by Avila, Balberona and Guerra

DEFINITION Wood is a hard, fibrous material that forms the major part of the trunk of a tree. It is the starting point for any woodworking project.

PROPERTIES 1. Fibrous - Wood is composed of cellulosic fibers. 2. Durable - Wood does not wear out easily. 3. Hygroscopic -Wood takes up and retains moisture. 4. Viscoelastic -Wood becomes viscose and elastic at a certain level when undergoing deformation. 5. Doesn't corrode -Wood does not rust/oxidize in the presence of moisture. BASIC PARTS 1. Sapwood The sapwood is located at the periphery of a living tree, next to the bark, and is lighter in color than the core. It contains the living cells and takes an active part in the life process of a tree. Since it contains more organic matter than the core, it is more susceptible to insects and fungi. 2. Heartwood The Heartwood is located at the core of a living tree and is darker in color than the sapwood. It contains inactive cells and serves only as mechanical support in the life process of a tree. TYPES 1. Softwood Softwood comes from coniferous or cone-bearing trees with needlepointed leaves. It has a fine texture. It has no pores and is moistureabsorbing.

Mahogany. 4. Hickory. the terms have now become a standard in distinguishing the two types of wood. "Hard" does not always mean strength or weight while "Soft" does not always mean unreliability and lightness. Birch. Padauk. Board is a piece of wood that is less than 2 inches thick and at least 8 inches wide. Lignum Vitae. Quartersawn cuts the log into four "quarters” and produces less square feet than plainsawing making it more expensive. Beech. Molave. Oak. Basswood. Cypress. Narra. 2. Rosewood. width or thickness). Cherry. 2. Poplar. Its texture ranges from fine to coarse. However. 1. Yakal. Timber is a piece of wood with not less than 5 inches in any dimension (length. Tindalo. Zebrawood Though hardwoods are usually harder. Riftsawn is somewhere between plainsawn and quartersawn. Hardwood Hardwood comes from deciduous trees with broad leaves. Ipil. Wenge. SAWING METHODS Plainsawn is the most common cut. Apitong. CLASSIFICATION 1. Lumber is a piece of wood with more than 2 inches but less than 5 inches in any dimension. 3. It has pores and is moisture-conducting. Ash. Walnut. Pine. Common Hardwoods Alder. some softwoods like Southern Pine and Douglas Fir are harder than hardwoods like Poplar and Lauan. Lauan. 5. 3. . Tanguile. It creates many wedgeshaped scraps and results in boards with similar grain patterns . It cuts the wood into long strips along its length and creates the least waste. Maple. Redwood. Hemlock. Teak. Strip is a piece of wood that is less than 2 inches thick and less than 2 inches wide. Ebony. Spruce 2.Common Softwoods Cedar. Douglas Fir. Plank is a piece of wood that is __ thick and less than 8 inches wide.

warping along the face of a board across the width of the board Split .small holes in the wood caused by insects and beetles WOOD SEASONING 1.warping along the edge from one end to the other Cupping .pulsed microwave energy is directed into layers of timber in a manner that will drive the moisture out of the timber 5. Nominal and Actual Sizes 1. Actual size is the size of the wood after it has been dried and surfaced.a curve along the face of a board that usually runs from end to end Wane .offers a compromise between the low energy requirement of air drying and the speed of kiln drying 4. Nominal size is the size of the wood when sliced from the log.a knot that cannot be relied upon to remain in place in the piece Tight Knot.presence of bark or absence of wood on corners of a piece of lumber Crook . . Chemical Seasoning .accumulation of resinous material on the surface or in pockets below the surface Loose Knot .stacking timber and letting the heat of the atmosphere and the natural air movement remove the moisture 2. width and length. Kiln Drying . and is placed inside a chamber 3. Microwave Seasoning . It considers only the piece's length.discoloration that penetrates the wood fibre Machine Burn .WOOD DEFECTS Bow . Solar Drying . 1. S1S means surfaced one side. B.a knot fixed by growth or position in the wood structure Wormholes . 2.darkening of the wood due to overheating Pitch . Lineal foot is used for small orders.a crack in the wood structure of a piece Blue Stain . Softwoods and Hardwoods are sold either by the lineal foot or by the board foot. Board foot is the equivalent of a board that is 1 inch thick.soaking the green timber (as soon as it is cut) in a hydroscopic chemical for about a day PRODUCTION/DISTRIBUTION A.timber is stacked in much the same way as for air drying. 2. 1 foot wide and 1 foot long. It is used for volume orders. It considers the piece's thickness. Designation of Surfaced Woods depends on the number of faces or edges that are planed/surfaced: a. Air Drying .

The grain of each piece is laid at right angles to those adjoining thus increasing the strength of the wood in all directions. wood shavings. Plywood is an engineered/composite wood made of wood veneers plied together with an adhesive. 4. S1S1E means surfaced one side and one edge. d. This type is recommended for general-purpose priming on all interior surfaces. including knots and sap streaks in new wood. cover wood imperfections. 3. and adheres to slick surfaces such as glass and tile. S4S means surfaced four sides. S1E means surfaced on one edge.can be applied over bare wood or previously semitransparent stained (but not sealed) wood.b.work well as stain killers and general-purpose primers on both interiors and exteriors. The sealer penetrates the wood. and seal the surface evenly so a topcoat will have uniform gloss. . sawdust and an adhesive. g. but should only be used for spot priming on exterior surfaces. particle board) WOOD FINISHES and PRESERVATIVES Primer/sealers work to eliminate stains (including stains from water and fire damage). MANUFACTURED SHEETS 1. MDF. Particle board is an engineered/composite wood made of wood chips. Wood Veneer is composed of a thin layer of wood glued onto a core backer (ex. It is denser than particle boards. S2E means surfaced on two edges. 2. • shellac based . S3S means surfaced three sides. slowing stain absorbency for a more even color appearance and grain pattern. Wood sealer is used on soft woods to help tame wild grain patterns and even-out stain absorbency. e. h.blocks out the widest variety of stains. c. Wood stains are generally used to enhance the grain of the wood and emphasize grain contrasts. S2S means surfaced two sides. three basic types: • alkyd based and latex based . They may or may not protect the wood two types of stain: • Semitransparent . MDF or Medium Density Fiber board is an engineered/composite wood made of fiber residues and an adhesive.

low-luster finishes for furniture and other fine pieces. protective coating. protecting against decay. splitting and cracking. they do not yellow as much as phenolics . Premixed dyes are most often used by the d-i-y-er. so they are not recommended for hightraffic. Pigmented stains color the wood with the same type of pigments used in paint. types of varnishes: • Phenolic varnishes of modified phenolic oils are the most expensive of the varnishes but deliver the best performance in terms of durability. allowing the beauty of the wood to show through. but they oxidize more quickly in exterior use. previously stained and even painted surfaces in sound condition. However. usually brushed on or wiped on with a rag. Depending on its formulation. especially in exterior uses. They leave no brush or lap marks if applied properly. used for furniture and woodwork. it can leave a gloss. mildew. • Alkyd varnishes offer flexibility and hardness in both interior and exterior uses. abuse-prone applications. and then wiped off to control the depth of the stain. They are easy to apply. warping. decks. Interior stains. as well as wood deterioration. Exterior stains are used primarily on wood siding and shingles. semigloss or satin finish.be applied over bare wood. Most come in powders. Latex stains do not typically fade as rapidly as oil stains. Dye stains are more difficult to use and are more frequently used by professionals. But oils make nice. Most are highly flammable. They absorb ultraviolet light and neutralize oxidation. They are available in latex and oil-based formulas. Varnishes are typically mixed with a tung oil or linseed oil. Examples: Danish oil. However. tung oil or Swedish oil Varnish is a blend of oils and resins that coats the surface of wood and gives a transparent. oil finishes do not stand up to alcohol or water the way polyurethanes do.or latex-based stains in semitransparent and transparent finishes.• Semisolid . The downside of phenoics is that they tend to yellow faster than other varnishes. Waxing can provide water resistance with these finishes. to be mixed in a solvent. Colored oil finishes provide coloring and protection in one step. Both can have oil or synthetic bases. outdoor structures and furniture. They can be oil. Latex stains are often recommended for redo over previously oilbased stained or painted surfaces due to their excellent adhesion properties. Water-repellent preservative stains contain a fungicide and a water repellent. come in either pigmented or dye categories. They range in color from almost clear to semitransparent.

woodwork. • Latex Shellac provides a fast. but customers may object to the plastic appearance they produce. and it can be applied over old shellac. in any sheen level from ultra matte to high gloss and that can be further polished as required. hard-drying. Although toners are not to be considered a stain. For interior use. durable finish for furniture. Lacquer is a clear or coloured varnish that dries by solvent evaporation and often a curing process as well that produces a hard. cured plaster and new wood. Shellac is widely compatible with other coatings. phenolic or polyurethane stains are better for water resistance and hard use. • • • • Types: Urushiol-based lacquers Nitrocellulose lacquers Acrylic lacquers Water-based lacquers Wood Preservatives generally classified as one of three types: • clear alkyd or oil-based type without fungicide is sometimes called log oil or log-cabin finish • the second type has the same base with fungicide additives of penta. It also functions as a sealer and stain killer on drywall.• Polyurethanes are highly recommended for interior use because of their superior protection. Some water repellents also contain a mildewcide to help control mold and mildew growth. durable finish. adding color to a water repellent gives wood the benefit of ultraviolet light protection. splintering and warping. It's best to use a water repellent that is formulated for immediate application to pressure-treated wood to avoid premature cracking. splitting. Not all repellents contain ingredients that cause water to bead. Water Repellent helps minimize water damage on pressure-treated and untreated wood. Wood toners are water repellents that add color to highlight wood grain. varnish or lacquer finishes that are adhering well. Most toners on the market are designed for use on pressure-treated wood. Periodic re-applications help prevent water damage as wood ages. cuprinol or a preservative • the third type consists of a non-paintable preservative containing wax or creosote oil. hardwood floors and other wood-finishing applications. . primarily for farm use.

the widths can vary Parquet Flooring . but unlike strip flooring. .can generally be recoated and refinished several times .has the appeal of real hardwood.made up of geometrical patterns composed of individual wood slats held in place by mechanical fastening or an adhesive Engineered Wood Flooring .denoted by the thickness and width of the wood planks and has a set width. Whether it is sawn. light and decorative. wood has the advantage of being tough.a strip of material with various cross sections used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration FURNITURE Wood is the traditional material for furniture.available in both an unfinished and a pre-finished version Strip Flooring . is more durable and requires less maintenance WALLS Paneling Wainscot Paneling . Used judiciously. carved. but the thickness can vary Plank Flooring .designed for light traffic areas . turned or laminated.a paneling style applied to the lower 3' (900mm) to 5' (1500mm) of an interior wall Boiserie .only comes in two thicknesses.ornate and intricately carved wood panelling Molding .FLOORING Solid Wood Flooring . wood provides furniture with natural appeal.produced by laminating several hardwood plies together to form the planks Laminate Wood Flooring .

distinctive grain patterns and rare woods at affordable prices. Today. stretching and reforming wood fibers to the desired shape Bonding . sides and door panels. These blocks can be machined for a deep carved pattern or turned and shaped into a leg. Ply construction is achieved by adding layers. strips are carefully glued together to form the tops. Called chipboard. Shaping is achieved by gluing blocks of wood together. plywood. . pedestal or post. It’s attractive and durable but usually doesn’t provide the same benefits as the real thing. placed at cross grain.CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES Steam Bending is the process of weakening.Wide boards are often cut into long narrower planks and bonded back together. Adhesives are placed on each layer and this "sandwich" is permanently bonded under high pressure. particle board or medium-density fiberboard. Modern glues and manufacturing techniques have made ply construction very strong and resistant to warping. fiberboard or engineered wood. the appearance of a joint becomes at least as important as it's strength. Modern technology has produced a less expensive method of achieving the look of wood veneers. In many cases. Veneering allows great flexibility. particleboard. chips or flakes with resins and binding agents. These sheets are formed under extreme heat and tremendous pressure making them exceptionally strong. The interior may be of another wood. In solid wood furniture. to a solid wood or particleboard core. this material is frequently used on the backs of cabinets and doors or as cores for tops and panels. Combination wood panels are made by mixing wood particles. Veneer construction is the application of this layers of highly decorative woods on top of solid cores. stable and resistant to warping. printing and engraving offers you exceptional look on a limited budget. wood furniture in all price ranges is made of veneer construction which allows maximum use of beautiful. JOINERIES Joinery is simply the method by which two pieces of wood are connected. This beautiful furniture is easier to produce and available at a lower price than genuine wood veneers. However. Manufacturers can simulate a natural wood grain by printing or engraving a pattern on surfaces such as density fiberboard. making it possible to match grain patterns or use inlays to create designs that nature can’t produce in the solid wood.

. durable. which yields a strong. classic woodworking joint. Mortise & Tenon Joints . they are very easy to use. The joint is clamped until the glue dries. While pocket joints can be difficult to create by hand. one of the simplest and most effective methods of joinery is the biscuit joint Pocket Joinery Pocket Joints are little more than a screw driven through a diagonally placed hole. with a special pocket hole jig.Woodworking Joinery Doweling has been used for centuries as a method of woodworking joinery. a Mitered Butt Joint is often more favorable. Biscuit Joinery When your woodworking plans call for certain types of connections between pieces of stock such as edge-to-edge joints. T-joints and corner joints.Simple and Strong Mortise & Tenon joints have been employed by woodworkers for centuries Tongue and Groove Joinery When joining two boards together lengthwise. because the end grain of the two pieces of stock are hidden. Tongue and groove joints can be created on matching boards using matching router bits. is the dado. Dado One of the most useful joints. miter joints. This is especially useful on picture frames or when joining moldings. the tongue and groove joint is much stronger than a butt glue joint. particularly when building cabinets. or on a table saw Half Lap Joints Half lap joints are a basic form of joinery where half of the material is removed from two pieces of stock so that they fit together flush Doweling .A Cleaner Butt Joint While the Butt Joint is the most basic method of woodworking joinery. The principle of doweling is simple: a few dowels are glued into matching holes in corresponding boards. A dado is merely a groove cut into one piece of wood that will securely hold another piece of wood.Mitered Butt Joints .

when compared to the hollow interior • Pepper mills and candlesticks • Sculptural formsTool handles. is the rabbet. finials. Woodturning differs from most other forms of woodworking in that the wood is moving while a stationary tool is used to cut and shape it. They can be cut by hand or with a router and a special jig. especially those for files and lathe tools .spindles. Many intricate shapes and designs can be made by turning wood. or other furniture parts • Bowls . A rabbet is merely a dado cut into one piece of wood at the edge that will securely hold another piece of wood • Dovetail Blind dovetails are often used in drawer construction because of the strength the locking design provides.vessels with a large opening on top • Platters and serving trays • Hollow forms . particularly when building cabinets. table legs.Rabbet Another very useful joint for connecting two pieces of stock. Quality: Simple joints – for light loads Complex – when appearance matter Superior – part of the craftsmanship TURNINGS Woodturning is a form of woodworking that is used to create wooden objects on a lathe (see: also antique wooden polelathe). Common Woodturned Items • Furniture parts . stretchers.similar to bowls. except usually taller and with a small opening.