Seminar : Marketing Orientation and the learning organisation 1.

According to Kohil and Jaworski (1990), what is marketing orientation? • According to Kotler (1977), an effective marketing organization focuses on the external environment, which is said to include both customers and competitors. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) echo this point by describing market orientation as the ability of an organization to generate, disseminate, and use superior information about both customers and competitors.

2. What does a marketing orientated company differently? What is its focus? • With marketing orientation, a business revolves its strategic decisions around the wants and needs of the target market, including potential customers. A company that is marketing-orientated has the commitment to valuing customers and the customers’ needs. In fact, it can even contribute to the transformation of a company’s business culture. This marketing concept involves three essential steps in being customerfocused. First, the wants and needs of the customers are researched and identified. Then, the research outputs are studied by the marketers and new products are created based on the consumer needs. Finally, customer satisfaction is aimed after public awareness and introduction of the product is made. A marketing-orientated business is characterized by various attributes. The company makes good and extensive use of marketing research, develops new and broad products, highlights product value and benefits, uses product innovation methods, and designs supplementary services or customer benefits such as delivery, installation, warranty, and credit availability. All these are geared toward customer advantage. Marketing orientation has three common alternatives which can be adopted by a company and these are sales orientation, product orientation, and production orientation.

3. In what ways does the behavioural perspective differ from the philosophical perspective? What is the emphasis of the philosophical perspective? • “Embedded in the cognitive sphere and influenced by personal factors, leading to a certain view of reality and forming organisational characteristics such as goals, strategies, structures, systems and activities” (Dreher 1994, p155) Emphasises philosophical notions such as customer oriented values, norms and beliefs, market and customer focus, and customer commitment (Narver and Slater 1990)

Why should organisations develop a learning culture? REASONS • Competitive advantage-superior performance • Customer relations • Avoid decline • Improve quality • Understand risk and diversity • Innovation • Change management • Understanding • Committed workforce • expand boundaries • Demand of the times 8. • Those which concentrate on systems and structures which may be categorised as system focused-lack of co-ordination between functions 5. How can an organisation overcome these barriers? 6. What is a learning organisation how do you define it? • • Knowledge assets and intellectual capital can best serve to act as sources of potential incremental advantage over competitors The value of a firm’s organisational learning capabilities and knowledge assets is frequently several times that of it’s material assets (Handy 1990) 7.recognised and unrecognised constraints Reduces range of opportunities Generative learning (Senge 1990) Asda . According to Harris (1999) what are the barriers to marketing orientation? Two main types of studies: • Those which focus on employees and employee behaviour (Gummesson 1991) and in particular managers (Changani and Sambharya 1987).4. What are the different types of organisational learning and where do they look to for the development of their knowledge? • • • • Adaptive learning (Senge 1990) .

lead customers • Information dissemination. networking.consensus on the meaning of the information • May benefit from high levels of disagreement • Balance is necessary • Norms • Forums for information exchange 10.information can be seen in it’s broader context • Removal of functional barriers • Shared interpretation. How can a manager improve business performance by adopting a market based approach to organisational learning? • • Increase Sales 12. What is the level of organisational learning in the organisation where you work? • Training . strategic alliances. joint ventures.• • Toyota Forward looking 9. What are the levels in the process of organisational learning? Three levels • Information acquisition • multiple credible internal and external sources • Examples-benchmarking.shared organisational interpretation of the information • Increase information . What is the most appropriate measure of organisational learning and what are the values and behaviours that contribute to that measure? 11.