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SITE INFORMATION AREAS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES AIR BORNE SPORE SAMPLES SURFACE SAMPLES INFORMATION ON MOLD SPORE

LEVEL INFORMATION

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SITE INFORMATION
CLIENT AND SITE INFORMATION:

REPORT NUMBER:
0318/22-3

SAMPLE COLLECTION DATE:
03/18/2009

CLIENT NAME:
Robert Sample

INSPECTION SITE ADDRESS:
1000 Collins Ave, Sunny Isles, Fl 33160

CLIENTS E-MAIL ADDRESS:
Sample@gmail.com

CLIENT PHONE NUMBER:
666-666-6666

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AREAS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The areas and surfaces sampled by the client are as follows: AIR SAMPLES x x x x Dining room / living room Kitchen Master bedroom Master bathroom SURFACE SAMPLES x x Living room (fiberglass ductwork) Southeast bedroom (south gypsum board wall)

GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES:
x Identify and disclose instances of unusually high indoor airborne fungal spore levels in relation to outdoor fungal spore levels for the areas tested x Identify and disclose instances of microbial growth for the surfaces tested x Disclose information on the types of fungal spores found.

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AIR BORNE SPORE SAMPLES
Air Sampling limitations and disclaimers
Though spore sampling and lab report analysis are common and are often an extremely helpful tool, there is always some degree of uncertainty regarding analysis of samples and the conclusions we draw from them. Non-viable samples only allow for spore identification to the genus and not the species level; thus, comparison of levels of similar types of indoor and outdoor spore types is not exact. Some spores that are reported to be similar are not at always from the same species of mold, they may just look similar under the microscope. This is especially true for some small, round spores, such as aspergillus and penicillium spores. Viable sampling only allows for identification and enumeration of molds that germinated from live spores. Thus, many dead yet still allergenic spores may be missed in the lab results when using this methodology, resulting in low estimations of the number of actual spores present.

LAB RESULTS INTERPRETATION
LAB RESULTS INTERPRETATION GREEN= SATISFACTORY OR LOW SPORE COUNT YELLOW= HIGHER LEVELS BUT INSIGNIFICANT SPORE COUNT RED= UNSATISFACTORY OR HIGH SPORE COUNT.

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RESULTS REGARDING AIR SAMPLE 1
SAMPLE ID:
101011I001

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Outdoors

SAMPLE JUSTIFICATION:
This was an outdoor sample taken so that it could be compared to indoor levels in order for your inspector to determine if indoor levels were elevated in comparison to outdoor levels.

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
An Allergenco-D non viable spore trap with pump calibrated at 15 LPM ran for 5 minutes and produced a non viable spore trap sample for analysis at an accredited microbiology lab.

RESULTS REGARDING AIR SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE ID:
101011I002

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Dining room / living room

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
An Allergenco-D non viable spore trap with pump calibrated at 15 LPM ran for 5 minutes and produced a non viable spore trap sample for analysis at an accredited microbiology lab.

INSPECTORS CONCLUSIONS
Total indoor mold spore levels were high compared to total outdoor mold spore levels thus mold may be growing and releasing spores somewhere in or near the above mentioned test area. This condition is called amplification and is the most widely accepted method for determining if mold may be growing indoors when analyzing airborne spore levels.

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The higher the discrepancy between indoor and outdoor levels in favor of high indoor levels, the more likely it is that mold is growing indoors. Elevated amounts of Chaetomium spores were detected in the test area, Cheatomium spores are Hydrophilic (water loving) mold type(s). These are molds that grow on surfaces with a water activity level greater than .90. In layman's terms, this means some building materials are or were most likely soaking wet for a period of time. A partial list of commonly found indoor hydrophilic molds indicating likely water damaged or wetted building materials are as follows: Stachybotrys, Acremonium, Ulocladium, Fusarium, Trichoderma, and Chaetomium as well as some species of aspergillus and penicillium. Elevated amounts of Aspergillus / penicillium spore levels were were detected in the test area. Aspergillus and penicillium contain species which have the potential to produce toxic compounds known as (mycotoxins.) Scientists have proven that mycotoxins are very toxic to humans and animals if eaten in moldy, contaminated food, but scientists at the time of this written statement have not yet proven if mycotoxins are toxic via inhalation. Elevated indoor mold spore production can result in allergic reactions in persons with allergies or asthma in asthmatic persons. Exposure to mold odors in young persons have recently been linked to an increased risk of developing asthma later in life according to a six year study (Environmental Health Perspectives vol 113 # 3 March 2005). Keep in mind that aspergillus and penicillium species are especially common indoors and out so considering amounts of mold spores regardless of if they are toxic, allergenic, or non toxic may be more important than just considering the types of molds found. See lab report for additional details on numbers and types of mold found at your property. Lab report results typically expressed sample results as spores per cubic meter of air or colony forming units per cubic meter of air for the sample area at the time of sampling.

RESULTS REGARDING AIR SAMPLE 3
SAMPLE ID:
101011I003

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Kitchen

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
An Allergenco-D non viable spore trap with pump calibrated at 15 LPM ran for 5 minutes and produced a non viable spore trap sample for analysis at an accredited microbiology lab.

INSPECTORS CONCLUSIONS
Total indoor mold spore levels were high compared to total outdoor mold spore levels thus mold may be growing and releasing spores somewhere in or near the above mentioned test area. This condition is called amplification and is the most widely accepted method for determining if mold may be growing indoors when analyzing airborne spore levels. The higher the discrepancy between indoor and outdoor levels in favor of high indoor levels, the more likely it is that mold is growing indoors. Elevated amounts of Stachybotrys spores were were detected in the test area. Stachybotrys also known as toxic black mold contains some species which have the potential to produce toxic compounds known as (mycotoxins.) Scientists have proven that mycotoxins are very toxic to humans and animals if eaten in mold contaminated food, but scientists at the time of this written statement have not yet proven if mycotoxins are toxic via inhalation at levels typically encountered in indoor residential environments. Elevated indoor mold spore production can result in allergic reactions in persons with allergies, or it can result in asthma in asthmatic persons. Exposure to mold odors in young persons has recently been linked to an increased risk of developing asthma later in life, according to a six year study (Environmental Health Perspectives vol 113 # 3 March 2005). Keep in mind that many molds are toxigenic, and are especially common indoors and out, so considering amounts of mold spores regardless of if they are toxic, allergenic, or non toxic may be more important than just considering the types of molds found.

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Elevated amounts of Aspergillus / penicillium spore levels were were detected in the test area. Aspergillus and penicillium contain species which have the potential to produce toxic compounds known as (mycotoxins.) Scientists have proven that mycotoxins are very toxic to humans and animals if eaten in moldy, contaminated food, but scientists at the time of this written statement have not yet proven if mycotoxins are toxic via inhalation. Elevated indoor mold spore production can result in allergic reactions in persons with allergies or asthma in asthmatic persons. Exposure to mold odors in young persons have recently been linked to an increased risk of developing asthma later in life according to a six year study (Environmental Health Perspectives vol 113 # 3 March 2005). See lab report for additional details on numbers and types of mold found at your property.

RESULTS REGARDING AIR SAMPLE 4
SAMPLE ID:
100930L002

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Master Bedroom

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
An Allergenco-D non viable spore trap with pump calibrated at 15 LPM ran for 5 minutes and produced a non viable spore trap sample for analysis at an accredited microbiology lab.

INSPECTORS CONCLUSIONS
Total spore levels in the above indoor test area were lower than total spore levels in the outdoor test area. Specific spore type in the above indoor test area were not significantly higher than similar specific types of spores found in the outdoor test area. These findings are desirable because despite the fact that elevated spore counts were detected in other sections of the property, the lab results indicate that no cross contamination seems to be taking place, the spore levels are very typical of indoor environments that do not have a mold problem. The above comparison method does not guarantee that there is not a mold problem at the indoor test area but it is the most relied upon method of analyzing test results. These were the conditions in the area sampled at the time of sampling. Results are expressed as spores per cubic meter of air or colony forming units per cubic meter of air.

RESULTS REGARDING AIR SAMPLE 5
SAMPLE ID:
100930L003

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Master Bathroom

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
An Allergenco-D non viable spore trap with pump calibrated at 15 LPM ran for 5 minutes and produced a non viable spore trap sample for analysis at an accredited microbiology lab.

INSPECTORS CONCLUSIONS
Total spore levels in the above indoor test area were lower than total spore levels in the outdoor test area. Specific spore type in the above indoor test area were not significantly higher than similar specific types of spores found in the outdoor test area. These findings are desirable because despite the fact that elevated spore counts were detected in other sections of the property, the lab results indicate that no cross contamination seems to be taking place, the spore levels are very typical of indoor environments that do not have a mold problem. The above comparison method does not guarantee that there is not a mold problem at the indoor test area but it is the most relied upon method of analyzing test results. These were the conditions in the area sampled at the time of sampling. Results are expressed as spores per cubic meter of air or colony forming units per cubic meter of air.

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SURFACE SAMPLES
LAB RESULTS INTERPRETATION
LAB RESULTS INTERPRETATION GREEN= SATISFACTORY: NO GROWTH OR VERY LIGHT GROWTH YELLOW= LIGHT GROWTH RED= UNSATISFACTORY: MODERATE OR HIGH GROWTH

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RESULTS REGARDING SURFACE SAMPLE 1
SAMPLE ID:
101027O005*

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Living room (fiberglass ductwork)

SAMPLE JUSTIFICATION:
The client wanted to obtain information as to the types of mold that were in this area.

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
A swab sample was taken from the above suspected moldy surface with a sterile swab that was provided by a microbiology lab. The swab and its sterile test tube were sent to an accredited microbiology lab for direct exam or culture. The enclosed lab report indicates the type / genus of mold spores collected.

SPORE LEVELS OR TYPES:
Cladosporium spores: Potential allergen, hay fever and asthma effects. Grows well in damp environments, on textiles, window sills, A/C components and ductwork (this spore type is also found outdoors growing on dead leaves and other organic debris)

INSPECTORS CONCLUSIONS
The above lab result appeared to indicate the presence of what may be considered high mold spore levels or high mold fiber levels also known as mycelium fragments or hyphea. Based on the lab results it appears that this is confirmation of likely active mold growth.

RESULTS REGARDING SURFACE SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE ID:
101027O006*

SAMPLE LOCATION:
Southeast bedroom (south gypsum board wall)

SAMPLE JUSTIFICATION:
The client wanted to obtain information as to the types of mold that were in this area.

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:
A swab sample was taken from the above suspected moldy surface with a sterile swab that was provided by a microbiology lab. The swab and its sterile test tube were sent to an accredited microbiology lab for direct exam or culture. The enclosed lab report indicates the type / genus of mold spores collected.

SPORE LEVELS OR TYPES:
Stachybotrys spores: Often referred to as "toxic black mold." It has the ability to produce mycotoxins which may cause a burning sensation in the mouth, throat and nasal passages. Chronic exposure has been known to cause headaches, diarrhea, memory loss and brain damage. Found growing on water damaged cellulose, paper and ceiling tiles. Cladosporium spores: Potential allergen, hay fever and asthma effecdts. Grows well in damp environments, on textiles, window sills A/C components and ductwork (this spore type is also found outdoor growing on dead leaves and other organic debris)

INSPECTORS CONCLUSIONS
Your lab results indicated the presence of some mold spores that contain species which have the potential to produce toxic compounds known as (mycotoxins.) These potentially toxic, compound producing molds are also known as Toxigenic molds. Toxigenic molds found at your property included at least one of the following: Stachybotrys, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Memnoniella, Aspergillus, or Penicillium. Keep in mind that aspergillus and penicillium species are especially common indoors and out. Considering amounts of mold spores regardless of if they are toxic, allergenic, or non toxic may

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be more important than just considering the types of molds found. See lab report for additional details on numbers and types of mold found at your property.

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INFORMATION ON MOLD
HELPFUL MOLD INFORMATION
FUNGAL DEFINITIONS AND HEATH ISSUES: FUNGI DEFINED Fungi share some basic similarities with plants and bacteria but are neither. All 1 million to 1.5 million species of true fungi are in their own kingdom, the Fungi Kingdom. Many persons inaccurately use the term mildew to describe fungal growths that they feel are not harmful to human health. The powdery green or white growth in humid closets is sometimes considered by homeowners as "just mildew". Ironically this growth is almost always pen / asp mold. Many species of pen / asp produce offensive smelling volatile organic compounds, and may be toxigenic or allergenic when present at the correct levels. According to more reliable definitions, mildew is a powdery or downey parasitic fungal growth that attacks and grows on living plants, while molds are often fuzzy and grow on all sorts of moist surfaces. Molds, mildews, and other fungi usually reproduce by forming and releasing spores into the air. Typical indoor spores are around 3 to 15 microns across. For reference the period at the end of this sentence is 500 microns. TOXIGENIC MOLDS Mycotoxins are chemicals that are sometimes produced by various species of molds. These toxins are real and are powerful weapons used by molds in a sort of microbial warfare to help them compete against bacteria and other molds. Mold spores in residential settings, even if they are potentially toxin producing types and are at high levels, do not necessarily result in toxic effects on humans via inhalation. It takes a lot of inhaled spores to poison a person. Currently, disagreement exists as to if residential mold spore exposures levels are ever high enough to result in toxic effect on humans. However, toxic effects of mold mycotoxins in humans and farm animals leading to serious illness and even death via accidental ingestion of toxic mold, have been well documented in scientific literature. INFECTIOUS MOLDS According to a Mayo clinic study, sinusitis caused by growth of fungus fibers or balls of fungus fibers in the sinus cavities is not unusual. This is typically caused by common Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Curvularia species. Aspergillosis caused by the growth of aspergillus species in the lungs most commonly A.fumigatus, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. territus species typically occurs in persons with compromised immune systems or a history of lung disease that resulted in past lung damage. Common Candida albicans that causes yeast infections is a major cause of serious nosocomial (hospital acquired) fungal infections. Histoplasma capsulatium and Cryptococcus neoformans are very dangerous yeast like molds that should be assumed to be present in any bird droppings but are primarily a concern when spread to humans via inhalation of particles from accumulations of pigeon, starling, and bat droppings. Coccidioides immitis mold spores are spread from dusty soil in the southwestern United States, it sometimes causes valley fever but at other times the same fungus can be deadly. Nearly any fungi can cause infections in persons with severely compromised immune systems. Detection of infectious fungi such as but not limited to the above listed ones and identification of fungi to determine the species is not part of most mold inspections. ALLERGY ASTHMA AND HYPERSENSITIVITY DISEASES An allergic reaction occurs when your bodies immune system mistakes harmless proteins in mold spores or other allergins as if these proteins were harmful microbes trying to infect your body. Your bodies immune system, feeling threatened releases histamines into the blood stream and these histamines are what actually causes coughing, sneeze, and watering of the eyes. Other persons immune systems will not mistake proteins in mold spores as a microbial threat, and thus not develop allergic reactions. Asthma is a condition where the smooth involuntary muscles lining the airways contract but do not properly relax to allow the lungs to bring in new air. Mold, other bio-allergins, and gases such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone, and even stress are common triggers of asthma. Many people die every year from asthma. Mold-related allergenic and asthmatic conditions in homes are very common and very serious and should be addressed and not ignored. Many serious hypersensitivity diseases in humans, such as baker's lung, wood workers lung and others are the result of exposures to molds by persons working in industries that result in long term exposure to elevated spore levels. Hypersensitivity diseases have long been well documented in science and the medical field. According to Bioaerosols assessment and control hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a hypersensitivity disease that results from the long term repeated exposure to elevated mold spore levels or other antigens, this condition can occur at in industry or agriculture where spore levels are high, it may also occur in moldy offices or homes, it produces pneumonia like symptoms with fever, cough, tightness of chest, lung infiltrates, and difficulty breathing. Once sensitized, individuals may

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react to extremely low, often un measurable, concentrations of antigenic materials. Organic dust toxic syndrome is an flu like illness that results from a short term exposure to very high levels of spores, such as the levels that may be encountered by workers doing large mold remediation jobs without wearing protective respirators. Symptoms show up several hours or a day or so after exposure and symptoms go away after a day or a few days. Recommended Reference Materials For Additional Information 1) Bioaerosols Assessments and Controls, Janet Macher American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio (1999) 2) Damp Indoor Spaces and Health (2004) Board of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine.

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SPORE LEVEL INFORMATION
SPORE LEVEL INFORMATION
GENERAL INFORMATION ON MOLD SPORE LEVELS The below information was not provided as set health hazard specifications because reactions to mold spores will always differ from person to person. Many substances and factors including but not limited to the following may complicate matters even more: levels of dust mite and roach allergens, volatile organic compounds, gram negative bacteria, individual sensitivity to allergens, emotional stress, and general health. This information should not be relied on as any type of medical advise, see your doctor if you feel sick. Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments published in 2000 by the New York City Department of Health. The most widely accepted guideline across the nation to help determine if indoor mold spore levels are indicative of a possible mold problem is the comparison of indoor and outdoor mold spore levels. Indoor mold spore levels should be similar to or lower than levels found outdoors, and the types of mold spores found indoors should be similar to types found outdoors. Most mold inspectors, certified indoor environmentalist, and industrial hygienists also will generally support the above mentioned comparison method. The below listed organizations and governing bodies also support the above view. ACGIH 1989, Canada M&H CO. 1991, ACGIH 1993, OSHA 1994, and Brazil 2000. When reading the below quotes remember that the mathematical symbol > means greater than and < means less than. Burge 1990 If indoor microbial aerosols qualitatively differ from outdoor, and indoor levels are consistently more than double the outdoor levels and exceed 1000 cfu per cubic meter of air, investigate. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants 1995) 100 cfu or less per cubic meter of air is low. 100 cfu to 1000 cfu per cubic meter of air is intermediate. 1000 or more cfu per cubic meter of air is high. Much of the below information on studies from around the world is from Worldwide Mold Exposure Standards for Mold and Bacteria, Robert C. Brandys, PhD, MPH, PE, CIH, CSP, CMR and Gail M. Brandys, MS, CSP, CMR: Brazil Government Findings 2002 100-500 normal indoor mold spore levels per cubic meter of air, can be higher in summer. Norway Government Findings <750 acceptable. OSHA 1992 findings >1,000 Contamination ACGIH 1993 Findings >1,000 High Czech Republic 2000 Findings > 2,000 Health complaints. Recommended References Materials For Additional Information

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1) Worldwide Mold Exposure Standards for Mold and Bacteria, Robert C. Brandys, PhD, MPH, PE, CIH, CSP, CMR and Gail M. Brandys, MS, CSP, CMR 2) American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology National Allergy Bureau findings 2002

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