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Space Governance
The Journal of United Societies in Space, Inc.
d/b/a International Space Development Authority Corporation and Affiliates including: Lunar Economic Development Authority, Inc. World Space Bar Association, Space Orbital Development Authority, Inc. and a Special Interest Chapter of the National Space Society & the Mars Society Vol. 11 Space is a Place 2005

NASA image JSC2006-E-43519 (Oct. 2006) Computer-generated artist’s rendering of the completed International Space Station

IN THIS ISSUE: ■ Buzz Aldrin ■ Ray Arvidson ■ Jim Benson ■ Doug Cooke ■ Shana Dale ■ Steve Durst ■ Marianne Dyson ■ Edward Mike Finke ■ Jose Hernandez ■ Scott Horowitz ■ John Hovde ■ Brooks Jenkins ■ Stephen Hawking ■ Jack Lynne ■ Robert McCall ■ Ved Nanda ■ Dayton O’Donnell ■ Declan J. O’Donnell, J.D. ■ Gerard K. O’Neill ■ Thomas Reiter ■ Jesus Raygoza B. ■ William Henry Siegfried, PhD. ■ Steven Squyres ■ Konstantin Tsiolkovsky ■ Werner Von Braun ■ Asia Wakabayashi ■ Peggy Whitson

United Societies in Space and Affiliates
Board of Directors for United Societies In Space and/or its Affiliates: Oleg Alifanov Greg H Allison Pahlaj Bajaj Greg Bennett Brad Blair Henry Cheung, PhD Bruce Cordell, PhD Ned Dodds Steve Durst William A Gaubatz William A Good, PhD Stewart Johnson, PhD Deepak Kapadia Ronnie M Lajoie Alex Lightman David Livingston Declan J. O’Donnell, JD Omar Pensado D Raphael Ponce John Reynolds, JD Gary “Rod” Rodriguez Carol Rosin, PhD David G Shrunk, MD John S Spencer Dennis Wakabayashi Kathleen Woody, JD Director Emeritus: Philip R Harris, PhD Regents, Advisors, Observers, and Committee Members: Josh Abend Buzz Aldrin, PhD Nathan Goldman, PhD, JD Iqrar Ali Patricio Gonzalez-Quintanilla Robert E Becker Andrew Good Larry Bell Yvonne Goolsby-Spencer, Jim Benson MSN, RN Ryan Bird Paul Graham Karl "Bo" Bobka Allen K Grant Kathy P Bonham Michael P Groff, JD Michael Cerney Robert Grossman, JD Dennis Chamberlain Philip R Harris, PhD Ned Chapin Barbara Harris, MD Dingchang Cheng Albert A Harrison, PhD David Larry Clark Brian Harvey, HDE Mark Cohen John Helmick Karen Cramer Arthur Hingerty James A Cunningham Tanya D Holland Susan Dage-Ruby Alex Howerton John Davidson Diana Hoyt Frank P Davidson Nandasiri Jasentuliyana Dennis M Davidson Alan Jones, JD Pablo de Leon John J Karch Vladimir Doroshin Darla Kerkhoff Kerrie Dougherty Grigori Khozin Michael Duke, PhD Deyong Kong Brad Edwards Olivier Koslowski, JD Eric Epstein Sergey Krichevsky, PhD Bryan F Erickson Beatrice Lacoste Jonathan Ericson, PhD Charles J Lauer Judith Fielder Jeffrey G Liss Gary C Fisher Scott March, JD Marsha Freeman Thomas L Matula Michael Fulda, PhD Kevin McGee Dra Marta Gaggero Montaner John Carter McKnight Joseph Gillin David McLennan Peter Glaser, PhD Luis Miranda G J Henry Glazer, JD George Morgenthaler Richard Godwin Michael Murphy Ved Nanda Michael Newbrough, PhD Elizabeth O'Donnell Declan J O'Donnell II James M Otto Ivan Pavlovets Miguel Perez T Dimitry Pieson Linda Plush, MSN John Powell Ignacio Quesada Jesus Raygoza B John B Regnell, PhD, MLS Suzzette A Roachette Justin Rodriguez Eligar Sadeh Marshall Savage George Schuh, CPA Paul R Seitz Milton "Skip" Smith Michael D Smith Guillermo Sohnlein Madhu Thangavelu, PhD Bill Trowbridge Elizabeth J Verdisco Don Wade Mary Lou Walen G Toe Washington Richard Westfall Harold White, JD Stewart B Whitney, PhD Harvey Wichman, PhD Dale R Winke Simon P Worden Robert Wyckoff Robert Zubrin, PhD

Mission Statement
United Societies In Space, Inc. (USIS) is dedicated to the proposition that space beyond the Earth is the common heritage of mankind. It is to be settled, populated and enjoyed as the interplanetary commons of the human species, the new frontier of its reachable universe. USIS was created to encourage, foster and promote governance, legal, financial and industrialization systems for the high frontier of space. USIS aims to provide a global forum to represent, in freedom, the interests of worldwide organizations and private individuals concerned and interested with space, united for the common good of the human species. USIS communicates its message through its journal, Space Governance. To carry out the above objectives, USIS seeks to establish the International Space Development Authority Corporation, (ISDAC), and to create lunar authorities to promote development and settlement on the Moon. Under the auspices of its Council of Regents, USIS convenes national and international space governance conferences, having inaugurated the Regency for Space Governance. USIS promotes common law estates for private ownership in space and on space resources. It has extended the common law to space effective October 2000; tendered a model governance structure for space; and called for a new financing institution to pay for the development phase in space, all embodied in the ISDAC.

SPACE GOVERNANCE JOURNAL Table of Contents VOLUME 11
EDITORIAL: “Great People Contributed” By Declan J. O’Donnell ......................... USIS 2005 Space Humanitarian Award to William Siegfried .................................. Lunar Economic Development Authority: Ten Year Report.................................... Fly Me to the Moon and Much, Much Farther ........................................................... Living in Outer-Space Time: NASA’s Projected Timetable .............................. What On Earth is Space Money? ........................................................................ The International Space Station By Marianne Dyson (with pictures courtesy of NASA)...................................................................................................................... Astro Law as Common Law Extended Into the Outer Space Territory .................. The First Wonder of the Off-World Contest and Follow On ................................... International Lunar Observatory Envisioned............................................................ USIS Report 2005 ........................................................................................................ 1 3 4 11 18 19 21 28 36 37 38

VOLUME 12/13
EDITORIAL: “Just Do It” By Declan J. O'Donnell ......................................................... USIS Space Humanitarian Award to Maggie Zubrin .................................................... Finally, a Moon Base: A Report from NASA and National Space Society ................... The United Nations Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space......................... What Way Forward? By Cynda Collins Arsenault, Secure World Foundation .............. The Committee for a Positive Future By Barbara Marx Hubbard.................................. The International Space Station (Continued from Vol. 11) By Marianne Dyson (with pictures courtesy of NASA) ..................................................................................... A Space Policy Proposal Regulating Martian Water Resources By Dr. J.J. Hurtak, AFFS Corporation & Dr. Matthew Egan, UC, Berkeley ........................................... First Wonder of the Off-World: First Follow-On Design Contest ................................... USIS Report 2006 ......................................................................................................... Volume 13 EDITORIAL: “Space Colonization and Commercialization – An Alternative to the Moon and Mars” By Richard M. Westfall ....................................................................... The Heinlein Model for Lunar Habitats, Modified and Updated..................................... Life Support Systems in the Mars Cycler Orbiter ......................................................... Space Barter Bank – Groundbreaking Developments By Declan J. O’Donnell ............ Russia Started the Space Age ...................................................................................... New Board Members Named ....................................................................................... 26 27 33 38 40 40 1 2 3 4 5 10 12 16 22 23

JOURNAL CREDITS
Publisher. ........................................................................... Declan Joseph O’Donnell, PC Editor ......................................................................................... Declan J. O’Donnell, JD Managing Editor ......................................................................................Renee Gorman Assistant Editor ....................................... Gary Rodriguez, Brad Blair & Richard Westfall Website Master ...................................................................................... Richard Westfall Founding Editor Emeritus .............................................................. Philip R. Harris, Ph.D.

United Societies in Space, Inc.
777 Fifth Street Castle Rock, Colorado 80104 USA Telephone: (800) 632-2828 or (303) 688-1193 Fax: (303) 663-8595 E-mail: djopc@qwest.net Website: www.angelfire.com/space/usis and www.space-law.org Subscription Rates: $20/yr and USIS membership is $120/yr which includes this journal and all mailings and conferences and co-membership in the National Space Society of which USIS is a Special Interest Chapter. Library Edition available for $50.

10th International Mars Society Convention
The 2007 convention was held 30 Aug - 2 Sep 2007 at the University of California, Los Angeles. The International Mars Society convention presented a unique opportunity for those interested in Mars to come together and discuss the technology, science, social implications.

Visit their Website at www.marssociety.org for details.
Plenary Speakers included an exceptional line-up: Loretta Hidalgo discussing the Spaceward Bound Program and other outreach endeavors Dr. Penelope Boston on Earth Analogs for Martian Microbes Dr. Fuk Li on the Jet Propulsion Lab Mars Exploration Program Carolyn Porco presenting the latest Cassini discoveries with striking images returned form the most capable scientific probe ever sent to the outer solar system. Elon Musk, founder and CEO of SpaceX, an entrepreneurial rocket development company that just made history by reaching an altitude of 200 miles with its privately developed Falcon 1 launch vehicle. Dr. Scott Horowitz, Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems at NASA. And of course, we will have a full report on the four month mission currently underway at FMARS, including Crewmember First Person accounts and a report on the results of the scientific survey by the remote science team.

internationally during the upcoming space development phase.. in October. O’Donnell The common thread among truly great people in space activist circles is open contribution. organized LEDA with Brad Blair..” He seemed to know everything and was quick to let me know. Part of his legacy was to sponsor me for the Indira Ghandi Award of India. State Department. 1 EDITORIAL Ronnie Lajoie & Kathleen Woody Kathleen Woody. in 2005. She called to say “here I am. and more confident about the future. Schrunk pitched in on LEDA to provide most of its advanced thinking for creating a permanent base on the Moon. Dr. Robert Zubrin. and ended with our group. of Lawrence Livermore Laboratories followed. and Maggie Zubrin. consulted to our World Space Bar Association as a member. and were elected to the USIS Board of Directors. He began his space advocacy with the legendary Gerard K. Phil is an outspoken advocate of humans in space. She also taught at other law schools such as Columbia and Georgetown. My contemporaries were way ahead of me. Next came David Schrunk. Greg Allison. and observers. His critique was so good that I held up publication. Greg Allison and Ronnie Lajoie. It is richer for the dialogue. Harris Philip R. .D. Russia for our U. both members of the Board of Directors of the National Space Society. USA. discovered a bar association article I wrote in 1992: “A Basis for Government in Outer Space. M.D. Henry Cheung. Ronnie Lajoie. Harris. members. India.S. We did that in Mumbai. Rashmi suffered a stroke in 2004 in Africa at the UN Summit on Environmentalism and passed away in New York.Great People Contributed Freely By Declan J. joined our group. Ph.D.” Kate recently left the teaching faculty of Harvard Law School and an assignment in Kazakhstan. sponsored me at the International Astronautical Congress in Washington. but they slowed down to help United Societies in Space. DC. He was the first Editor in Chief of this Space Governance Journal. Esq.” He circulated it.. and has now assumed the appointed position of Chief Judge of the Supreme Court of the USIS Regency component of its International Space Development Authority Corporation. and Kathleen Woody. New York.. remained on the Board of the Space Studies Institute. better off than before. She pitched in with free and open debate. found us by reading a copy of this journal in her dentist’s office in 1995. ISDAC. O’Neill of Princeton. Rashmi liked our philosophy of advocating one rule of law and policy Buzz Aldrin. contributed openly. Philip R. “Cosmic Man Coming. editing my first book. Ph. 1998. and partnered with me to create United Societies in Space that year. Esq. Brad Blair & Rashmi Mayur Board members Brad Blair and Rashmi Mayur promoted our young organization internationally and at the United Nations. Our organization has hosted many such exemplary guests.

Cycler Orbiter Design Winners More recently. this journal sponsored a Mars Cycler Orbiter design contest. and tendered a space court with a dozen qualified jurists on board. Saucer image. Space artist David Robinson is credited with portraying this teams ideas into a viable space vessel. John Hovde 2 . Robert Zubrin. now a freshman in High School in Castle Rock. a member of the Colorado Honor Band. chairperson of the committee.D.. Brad Blair. I remain on its Board of Directors and USIS has become a chapter. now a freshman in college. Thanks for being open.) Buzz Aldrin sat on the advisory committee as chaired by Gary Rodriguez. Let me introduce the winning team: Brooks Jenkins. Esq. Virginia. This convention by USIS has amended that to include “astro law” in space courts as the extension of common law at the year 2000 A. and acumen. as well as all then known space industry relevant offices. Brooks Jenkins Thank you all for these memories. The 100++ delegates created and adopted a regency style constitution for our space authorities. (See. a President’s Award Scholar. Perhaps our most important event was the International Space Governance Convention of 2000 A.D. Alex Lightman. I was totally surprised to learn from Buzz that Mars is his preferred destination in space and that he promotes the concept of a large Mars cycler orbiter space vessel. Their work and its results are set forth later in this journal. and Renee Gorman provided leadership. Congress extended American common law to all extra territorial courts. All Nations were appropriately invited. and youngest son of Declan J. Colorado. and an A-plus student. the cover of volume 12. ending one year later in 2001 Professor Ved Nanda.(pictured above). The event is cited now as important by way of defining how astro law should develop. Gary “Rod” Rodriguez. contributory. Asia Wakabayashi Asia Wakabayashi of Virgina Beach. Dayton O’Donnell of Castle Rock. Significantly. is now a freshman in high school. a member of the Colorado Honor Band. of course. and a true space activist. William Good. O'Donnell’s family. Fifty Ph. level regents were then appointed. each one of you. this convention extended the common law into outer space. and active with Habitats for Humanity. Dayton O’Donnell John Hovde. also a freshman in Castle Rock. and great. created the “Mars Direct” program while working at Martin Marrietta and is well known as a leading authority on Mars. defined it as the Black Letter Rules asserted in Corpus Juris Secundum. is a basketball team regular starter. energy. Rafael Ponce. In 1850 the U. head of the University of Denver International Legal Studies Program sponsored us at the University of Denver Law School. called on me to assist as a lawyer in forming the Mars Society in 1997. Yvonne Goolsby-Spencer. a basketball team natural.S. Colorado. in 2004 and 2005.D. Maggie won our space Humanitarian Award for 2006.. a member of its freshman football team. an award winning debater.

By 2002 he contributed to that company’s Phantom Works as an advanced designer. Board of Directors of the Lunar Economic Development Authority. (www.AWARD FOR 2005 A. Human Exploration and Development of the Moon and Earth’s neighborhood. NSS.marssociety. His pet projects are publishing and speaking at the International Astronautical Congresses. welcome and encourage space enthusiasts to form local chapters nationally and internationally. ab initio.org). also. and lectured at the Armed Forces Management School.D. His run with the UN affiliated International Astronautical Federation matured during these years. per NASA. Siegfried also worked on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Mars Sample Return Mission. and almost anywhere space activists congregate worldwide. Again he concentrated in the field of aeronautical engineering. O’Donnell This gentle giant of the aerospace industry has a dedicated career of 55 years in leadership. as he assumed chairmanship of the International Academy of Astronautics. His volunteer work continued. Inc. 3 . space and defense projects. By 1992 he was program manager and director of the McDonnell Douglas Space Exploration Initiative group that involved a seven-company team and all NASA centers. From this educational platform he dove into the industry with early work on NASA projects such as the crew transfer vehicles. Following that he assumed chairmanship of the IAA study on Development for Infrastructure for the International Human Exploration of Space. (IAA). Later he matriculated to the University of California-Los Angeles. His retirement as head of the Humans in Space program at Boeing in 2004 gave him even more time to volunteer. He became the perennial chair of its sessions on Strategies for Lunar and Mars Colonization and Infrastructure for Human Exploration of Space. He also played tackle on the University’s legendary football team. and a member of United Societies in Space. AIAA co-chair for Space Colonization Committee. PRESENTED TO WILLIAM HENRY SIEGFRIED. Each have international chapters and wish to grow both venues.org) and the MARS SOCIETY.nss. IAA committee chair. (www. Positions of responsibility include member of the NASA RASC-AL steering committee for the USRA. the crew return vehicles. During his spare time he attended the University of Pennsylvania business school. What a career! What a guy! SPACE HUMANITARIAN AWARD Local Chapters Needed Both National Space Society. By 1998 he served as chief project engineer for Space Platforms and Exploration in Advanced Engineering in the Boeing Space & Communications Group. In 1952 he earned both a bachelor and masters of science degrees from Ohio State University. AIAA meetings. PHD By Declan J. space systems. From there he spent three years in the US Navy at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Then to Boeing. Dr. (somehow assigned to its aeronautical engineering activities).

Ten years ago the Lunar Economic Development Authority. The concept was to prepare an overall municipal development plan for the Moon. The task of planning and sponsoring resource utilization and utility development on the Moon for the use of all developers. and test out the plan for feasibility and consensus. M. with Declan O’Donnell. and settlers. Robinson III..D. a proposed interim government for the Moon was established and filed. However. Esq. it is clearly treaty compliant and not subject to the benefit sharing burden of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. LEDA The Lunar Economic Development Authority. was started in 1992. 1. visitors. Municipal projects that would come under the jurisdiction of LEDA include water treatment and delivery. If LEDA is successful on the Moon. (LEDA). D. PH. Inc... GARY RODRIGUEZ. DAVID SCHRUNK...E. and electric power grids. International Space Year. Inc. George S. The organic charter was issued by the Secretary of State of Colorado in August 1996.. Because all of its principal projects are non profit and designed for the use and benefit of all countries and humankind. California. View Graph No. Ph.E.D. Inc.C. ESTABLISHMENT By United Societies in Space.. This is the province of the Lunar Economic Development Authority... Fees are earned to repay bond holders who provide funds for these facilities. support. J. most leaders worldwide wished to await some detailed plan. (LEDA). The plan was seminared at the National Space Society’s International Space Development Conference in June 1996 in San Diego. P. The industry has been supportive of the general concept of an authority for transition purposes. O'DONNELL. a telescope park. Inc. in Washington. (USIS). Inc. This may be the first public statement by the LEDA staff and it will await leadership comment. It then reformed into the World Space Bar Association in 1994 and filed as a Colorado non-profit corporation affiliated with USIS. for a fee. BRAD BLAIR. ABSTRACT The establishment of an interim municipal government for the Moon is proposed.D. The authors were the protagonists and many well known space activists supported it over that decade. a railroad. There are plenty of investors for such basic space development projects worldwide. opine on the likely sources of economic View Graph 1 United Societies in Space. Esq. certain monument areas for preservation. and Philip R. then its form of interim governance may be transported to Mars. a building code.LUNAR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY: TEN YEAR REPORT BY DECLAN J. should be accomplished before these activities commence. Its 10-year history will be disclosed. Harris. See.D.. waste disposal.BUZZ ALRDIN. It was incorporated as a non-profit Colorado corporation in 1993. was the first substantial 4 . The World Bar Association designed and sponsored it as a space governance entity and co-sponsored with USIS the Space Governance Journal in 1993. M.

It featured a strong executive branch. The first principle it announced was that it was a 100-year maximum and clearly temporary governance unit. USIS then formed the Space Orbital Development Authority. The management technique for space governance of affiliates was created by USIS in 2000 A. (SODA). This was co-sponsored by USIS and Professor Ved Nanda of the Professor Ved Law Nanda. and space activist organizations. some sort of cooperative planning was approved so it was decided to leave the word “zoning” in the chart with the understanding it is not by fiat.D. construction. It asserts authority over likely orbits for cycler orbiters. by International Convention. and building maintenance on the Moon. 2. The Regency of USIS appointed 50 Ph. The mission was to assist with the transition to space habitats for humans. University of International Department of the Denver. industry. has sponsored four international design contests for the orbiter. a modest court system. View Graph No.D. The World Space Bar Association and LEDA felt that libertarian values would predominate and LEDA’s program could be hurt by such an assertion as “zoning. opine on economic development of the Moon. Leadership expressed reservation regarding “zoning” on the Moon. To that end. Apollo astronauts Edgar Mitchell and Buzz Aldrin lent support as board of director members and leading participants of the LEDA advisory committee. Inc. and a consortia legislative branch that sat delegates from governments. as soon as practicable within that 100 year span. See. it has delegated to LEDA the leading role in preparing the Moon for such a large project and governing its ultimate creation at a lunar base. View Graph 2 Buzz Aldrin as NBC News commentator following the Columbia shuttle tragedy Emphasis was placed on the need for venue-wide standards for development.” However. level and Because of Buzz Aldrin’s early work on cycler orbiters and likely orbits for such very large and important vessels. sponsor a political convention for a more permanent lunar governance model.expression of USIS space governance philosophy. 5 . Management The original LEDA management structure was published in 1998. respectively. and property rights issues. and plans to push for its construction on the Moon. This was filed as a Colorado nonprofit corporation during 1995. but by consensus. and. College of Law University of Denver Law School. has opined on a winning design as likely.

quality standards for the design and follow up evaluation of rules will be observed. Management of Utility Infrastructures. the USIS board of directors meeting at a Mars Society Convention in Chicago. Investorfunded commercial enterprises are expected to be the principal designers. of course. and run the century out by sponsoring a convention for a more permanent space governance unit. lunar surface. construction. and. Utility systems such as electric power. ISDAC would raise senior capital. Moon Architecture In order to support this and attendant mining and adjunct activities on the Moon. catapult. developers. Bonnie Cooper. and workers arrive on the Moon. Rather than tolerate trespass to all of the lunar surface needlessly. C. and company town. Authors: B. and the Mars Society focused on their respective municipal governance agendas. 2 B. voted to do business as the “International Space Development Authority Corporation” and caused papers to be filed in more detail in 2006. 1 A. Economic Assistance. maintain inspections and standards and safety rules for all. LEDA may conveniently maintain a property leasing system and site permitting activity as municipalities are constitutionally expected to do. LEDA endorsed the circumferential lunar railroad as its first project. The lunar railroad will play a major role in facilitating global lunar development with Title: The Moon. This is viewed as the lead space governance federation with LEDA. coordinate banking and space development efforts. If projections for the growth of the lunar power system are correct. and in the cycler orbiter space vessel and other orbiting facilities. The centerpiece is predicted to be the large shipyard. Security and Administration. LEDA will control an authority bank that sponsors a fiscal and monetary system on the Moon. and right of way. owners. Madhu Thangavelu. Burton Sharpe. LEDA will oversee protection of the lunar environment. 4 (May 1999). To assure that the rules serve the best interests of all involved parties. and operators of utility networks. The following important lunar architecture support facilities are disclosed in publications by our LEDA leadership. the Moon will become the major David Schrunk. scientific organizations. 6 . and private corporations or consortia.protection for the vast opment and Colonization. ports. LEDA will have the consensus power to create rules. and company town. at Mars. E. if not actually classical. Property Management. 3 PROJECT-DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE I. and resolve disputes and sanction outlaws in a court system. Future Devel. legislative. Venuewide rules must be tendered before the settlers. adjunct facilities are contemplated at the lunar poles. and pipeline networks will be located in the same easements as the circumferential railroad. Near Term Projects A. issue bonds. hopefully comprised of space settlers on the Moon. environmental Resources. LEDA proposes to sponsor or otherwise cause a relevant architecture. In 2004.equivalent space activists and arranged them into executive. D. The railroad will help restrict travel to pre-selected areas on the Moon. However. LEDA will set standards for safety. and along the circumference of the Moon as viewed from Earth. Circumferential Lunar Railroad and Utilities. It will arrange relevant financing out of bond revenues for developers who care to participate in construction of these facilities and utilize the Authority’s bank. a large ship. This would serve as a facilitator for those who care to build habitats. mines. SODA. and judicial departments. Illinois. catapult. Environment. factories. universities. and assume a regulatory-by-consensus role for all. tourists. in the Sea of Tranquillity. LEDA will facilitate or mediate competing interests of international projects on or near the Moon by national space agencies. communications. These lunar activities are viewed as traditional. Coordinate Competing Interests.

Long Term Project Cycler Orbiter. Third level is farming and ranching with hydroponics technology. Colorado. LEDA calls for the design and construction of an electronic catapult near the company Cislunar space (alternatively. Fourth level is accommodations for tourists and settlers in transit. The entire center from top to bottom is a cylindrical storage area for cargo and experiments and some industry. Implied in this report are many ancillary and preparatory activities recommended to bring it all together. Prior to construction of the large cycler orbiter vessel. some of which are expressed as follows. such as iron ore.. A major project for LEDA is predicted to be construction of at least one very large cycler orbiter space vessel. Buzz has published and promoted this concept for 20 years. III. or a sphere place components into formed by rotating cislunar orbit for that orbit. International cooperation is expected with condominium-style financing for participating nations and commercial entities.. The likely design of this saucershaped vessel measuring a mile in diameter is presented at View Graph No. LEDA proposes to name this vessel the “Buzz Aldrin” cycler orbiter. telescopes. and a fleet of smaller and faster tender vessels for personnel. He caused several universities to chart out likely orbits and opine on feasibility. This may become a ship yard and company town on the far side of the Moon near the solar systems largest proven deposit of titanium. The fee structure is costs plus debt amortization without profit. Ice water is stored deep at the circumference and deep enough for adequate radiation protection elsewhere. respectively (from the outer edges inward). and the Mars Direct program’s principles may be funded for human exploration so there will be a suitable base on Mars to connect with the Buzz Aldrin Mars Cycler Orbiter. Second level is permanent residents and the ship’s crew. Volumes assembly. Corporations and Individuals would participate by contract rather than by treaty. These universities include Purdue University and the University of Colorado at Boulder. managed by LEDA for [Wikapedia] the benefit of all countries and humanity. and sports facilities galore. Dr. Capacity must space) is the volume include the ability to within the Moon's orbit. Level one located at the top is command center for managing the vessel. A. 7 . when it arrives.source of clean electric power for the Earth in the mid-decades of the 21st century. Mars Exploration should be undertaken immediately and not deferred until the cycler orbiter is commissioned. tourists. It rotates while cruising to and from Mars so each level experiences. A ‘Space Governance’ consensus should be groomed for international cooperation and wide national participation in conjunction with the use of citizen supported authorities. and landing and docking technologies. Robert Zubrin’s. II. 3: The First Wonder of the Off-World It has five levels with three circumferences on each level. 6 B. and cargo. may be conducted elsewhere. the First Wonder of the Off World. port of entry. the Mars Society’s. especially as the eventual capital for space governance and headquarters for all space development industries. The cycler orbiter as promoted by astronaut Buzz Aldrin5 has compelling merit. a bevy of support systems. g. Nations. Mining for other metals. Level five is ingress and egress. Electronic Catapult. It would be within that such . C. Throughout the vessel are games.” and 1/3g. 3: The first place award design in our three year hunt for the “The First Wonder of the Off-World. cis-lunar town and the titanium mine. 7 View Graph No. perhaps in the Sea of Tranquillity. NASA’s 2006 plan for using the Moon to prepare for development of Mars is central to the theme. 2/3g. Ancillary Activities This rendition of lunar development relies on extensive work by many qualified commentators.

Schrunk. D. copyright 1999. Periodic homeowner fees would be assessed to cover the actual costs of operation of this vessel. An Orb Edition published by Tom Doherty Associates. any and all countries may contract for condominium style ownership of quarters in the large cycler orbiter. Physical Transportation on the Moon: The Lunar Railroad. Many attorneys have encouraged the use of such authority for essentially space governance purposes. Copyright 1966 by Robert A.” by Harris. and worker families required. David. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Space 2 3 4 8 . Sharpe. Three surrounding cities could be staggered among three consecutive eight hour work cycles. that of popular support in the relevant marketplace. either in rem or in persona. Each of these adds up to the only imprimatur currently available. pollution solutions. This applies to all of its projects and activities as described in this report. 10 NO BENEFIT SHARING The principal projects. no treaty burden of benefit sharing will apply to LEDA’s support activities nor to those relevant activities of its contractor and subcontractors. The Moon is a Harsh Mistress. Bonnie. chapter 6. Circumferential Lunar Utilities. Nations. An Electronic Catapult suitable for use on the Moon needs to be designed. corporations. Now developers and industry leaders rely more on contracts for the sign of approval. Cooper. and appendix F: “Facilitating Space Commerce through a Lunar Economic Development Authority. 9 E. The Moon. Governance of the Moon and the LEDA model. THE END OF CHAOS: Quality Laws and the Ascendancy of Democracy.C. That will lead to success and be imprimatur enough. 11 ENDNOTES 1 Schrunk. Resources. 2005 Heinlein.J. CONCLUSION For these reasons LEDA recommends progressing to formal approval of these concepts by the industry and the space community.. Poway. Caverns sunk to bedrock below the regolith may host lunar cities in a developed county dedicated to building the large Buzz Aldrin Cycler Orbiter. David G. Outer space has no senior in situ government. factories. F. was formed a decade prior to the existence of the space age. World Space Bar Association... chapter 5. See. engineers. and tested to see if cislunar orbits can be achieved. chapter 7. Inc. An International Citizen Astronaut Corps must be selected. Underground Cities. 8 D.. Madhu. for example. The UN is very helpful but it acts on behalf of its members. are not sponsored for profit taking.. Renewed 1994 by Virginia Heinlein. with amendments as may be deemed appropriate. No treaty is necessary. Instead it has proceeded from humble beginnings 10 years ago in reliance on contracts and memberships and bond revenues. such as construction of a large cycler orbiter for Moon and Mars attendance by all. Heinlein. Ltd.R. Burton. David G. constructed. Mining and Manufacturing. IMPRIMATUR BY CONTRACT This Authority has not relied upon any treaty or United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution or national mandate. CA. Its projects are treaty compliant as non profit and for the benefit of all humankind. trained. and public parks with rivers should be built and tested before construction on the Moon and/or on Mars. especially for long term food supply. Quality of Laws Press. and O’Donnell. and human life enhancements. Therefore. Praxis Publishing. As we move towards implementing the concepts contained in this 10 year anniversary report. Future Development. Instead they are for the benefit of all countries and all of humanity. et al. The only model of UN treaty sponsorship for imprimatur has been supplemented recently. and Thangavalu. At the end of the day most of the lunar industries in the world may be contracted in some way. For example. and maintained to meet the call for the thousands of managers. A pooling of interests of countries and corporations is managed by contracts. Robert A. Schrunk. LEDA will ask for proposals and award contracts accordingly. and individuals are free to pool their interests by contract with the Authority. and does not assert jurisdiction in space.. P.

Zubrin.” AIAA 2001-4662. There surely man must end. and THE END OF CHAOS: Quality Laws and the Ascendancy of Democracy. and Good.buzzaldrin. The Case For Mars. The Foundation of a Cislunar Economy. Publisher. Ph. 6 7 8 Rodriguez. Gary Rodriguez. “The Heinlein Model For Lunar Habitats.A5. O’Donnell. IAC.06. Albuquerque. Space 2001. 23. Declan J. Spain by Mr. Milton. and member. 5 Modified and Updated. too. may be found through his website at www. He is a regent of USIS and the author of two books: THE MOON: Resources. Buzz.. 2003. O'Donnell is an attorney practicing general trial law in Colorado. D.07. (ROUSIS). Jan.. Wells. is on the Board of Directors of LEDA.1 in Valencia. Gary “RoD” Rodriguez. Future Development. Buzz Aldrin. that will destroy not 10 or 15 or 20 per cent of the earth's inhabitants as pestilences have done in the past. American Society of Civil Engineers. and so end our race. pp 347-53.. D.D. Brad Blair.” Space Governance Journal. Reston. And I do not believe in these things because I have come to believe in certain other things--in the coherency and purpose in the world and in the greatness of human destiny..J. "It is conceivable that some great unexpected mass of matter should presently rush upon us out of space. and collide with and utterly destroy every spark of life upon this earth. 2001. At least I do not. P. Inc. That of all such nightmares is the most insistently convincing. Wm. p. p.... but 100 per cent. President of United Societies in Space. Board of Directors. American Astronautical Society. 10 Aldrin. NM. President of sysRAND Corporation.E.’98..” Space Governance Journal.. India..1. “ISDAC: Financing Capacity for In-Space Projects.. President of the World Space Bar Association. R. Freedom Press. 116. and a member of the LEDA Board of Directors. Goldman. 1902 9 . 1998. and Colonization. p.C2. that some pestilence may presently appear. Hyderabad. Board of Directors. 122. He is a regent of USIS and sits on the LEDA advisory committee. G.. “Silicon Moon. G. he lectures throughout the world on his unique perspective of America's future in space. Inc.. Inc. D. Worlds may freeze and suns may perish. and the National Space Society.. but there stirs something within us now that can never die again. 1998. Board of Directors.A. Schrunk is an aerospace engineer and medical doctor. and Harris.” Space Governance Journal. “Compliance with International Space Law of the LEDA Proposal.. O’Donnell.S. Space Orbital Development Authority Corporation. “Lawyer’s Perspective on the USIS Strategies for Meta Nations and LEDA. “ISDAC Imprimatur by Contract. M. This Ten Year Report includes all of the report delivered to the UN affiliate IAF. August 30 – September 4. 2006. Smith. is head of the Space Orbital Development Authority. AIAA Subcommittee on Space Colonization and the International Institute of Space Law. Brad Blair. He authored a book about the Apollo Program titled "Men from Earth". 16. Richard Westfall. VA.J.com and multiple sites feature the Buzz Aldrin Cycler Orbiter information by searching. And finally there is the reasonable certainty that this sun of ours must some day radiate itself toward extinction." H. 2005. Nathan. “Do the Space Treaties Need a Lawsuit. Laguna Beach. some new disease.J.J. 1999. 2007. p. July 1996. O’Donnell. and independent investigator. David G. cycler orbiter. D. Esq. 2007.R. In addition. O’Donnell. Mars Society. July 1997. and of its Regency of United Societies in Space.” Space Governance Journal. is President of Starcraft Enterprise. Lunar Economic Development Authority Corporation. July 1977.07. in passim.” 9th Annual Mars Society Convention. And yet one doesn't believe it. p. It is conceivable. lecture at Royal Institution of London. Buzz Aldrin. Deepak Kapadia. University of California. “Facilitating a New Space Market Through LEDA.” Space Governance Journal. 9.. IV. 1997. P.. 11 9 About the Authors Declan J. IAF. California. O’Donnell... G.. Vol.” IAC. Space Governance Journal. August 28-30. Inc. 16. whirl sun and planets aside like dead leaves before the breeze. and Robinson.

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to establish a base on the moon. NASA is the only Earth entity that's looking for a lunar site. "results in a much quicker path in terms of future exploration. by JACK LYNE. Corporate site selection is one of them. NASA's six Apollo moon missions between 1969 and 1972 were there-and-back ventures. is thinking beyond that. What's more. setting up another permanent operation on Mars (see accompanying "Living in Outer.com." explained NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale. But. construction. Georgia. founder of the nonprofit Lunar Economic Development Authority (LEDA). foresees "the need for venue. Searching for a Site on the Moon For the moment. 4th announcement in Houston. NASA's going back to the moon for the first time since 1972 – and it's planning to stay. O'Donnell. offers compelling advantages. From Earth . But how will the outer. the agency plans to expand well beyond its lunar base." he added. it hasn't been all that long since the notion of a permanent moon base was considered fanciful fiction.. very big decision. building maintenance and property rights. then. That marks a major shift. the official website of Site Selection magazine. But there could be one substantial disincentive: the commute.000 miles (384. SiteSelection. really. illuminates some major questions that may – and quite possibly will – emerge in outer. Yep. though. site selection and infrastructure? A long. A fixed outer." A moon economy will also need a "space bank" with "space money.space future evolve in businesscentric areas like profit. is opening up a brand-new permanent location that will have eager job applicants lining up.space development says there's a veritable Milky Way's worth of thorny lunar issues looming. "The mission is NASA's next logical step – just for this decade.space development. And O'Donnell provides a point of view that. "We know very little about the moon's poles. the current site search is centered on the polar regions. but it is a very. (See accompanying "What on Earth Is Space Money?") Notions like that may prompt some observers to dismiss O'Donnell's ideas as science. Way beyond.wide lunar standards for development."The U. NASA weighed a permanent operation against the option of flying a series of individual sorties. Much Farther NASA AIMING FOR PERMANENT MOON.lyne@conway. almost 240. The agency is now concentrating on two areas in which humankind has never set foot..) – one way.Space Time" chart)." O'Donnell told The SiteNet Dispatch.com is a property of Conway Data Inc. But Declan O'Donnell.000 km." said Dale. however unconventional. "A lunar outpost. Site Selection Executive Editor of Interactive Publishing jack. "A base on the moon doesn't sound like a big deal. While the Apollo missions all landed on the moon's equator.Fly Me to the Moon and Much. in January 2007. It's going to be a real bear.time advocate of lunar economic development weighs in. it's a very far." Literally. "In fact. But the long.com "This article was first published on SiteSelection. in Atlanta.fiction fantasy." NASA Deputy Administrator for Space Exploration Scott Horowitz said at the project's Dec. and enables global partnerships. MARS BASES It's NASA's most ambitious move ever.out project." 11 .time supporter of outer. for example. allows for maturation of in situ resource utilization.space presence. we know more about Mars than the poles. it decided. accomplishes many science objectives.making.S.

a company town and an electronic catapult to propel materials into cislunar orbit" (where the moon and Earth's gravitational pulls balance). NASA believes. the agency's deputy administrator for space exploration "There is an area on the edge of Shackleton Crater that is almost permanently sunlit a very high percentage of the time. pictured in this mosaic composed of 1. That area. The south pole locale may also contain volatile gases that could prove useful in commercial ventures." NASA Deputy Associate Administrator Doug Cooke explained. The LEDA's idea for a moon base. a rare element that could be suitable for producing nuclear fuel to power return moon missions." said O'Donnell. "That location is near the solar system's largest proven deposit of titanium. includes operations at the lunar poles." O'Donnell explained. 75 to 80 percent. not at the poles.hectare) flat tract that could serve as a natural landing pad. very big decision" for NASA. "That's not to say that [the south pole site] is the final choice or anything. "The lunar architecture's predicted centerpiece would be a large shipyard. Choosing to establish a moon base was "a very. Nearby. but only as "adjunct facilities. "But it 12 ." said Cooke. he continued. a Denver.Even so. That lode would be the LEDA site's principal economic driver.metro attorney who specializes in tax and securities law. could hold helium.3. with a strong interest in space law. "The titanium would be mined and used to build spaceships to go to Mars. one south pole area is the strong early frontrunner for the base site.500 images taken by NASA's Clementine lunar orbiter Funding Issues Could Cloud Mission's Future NASA’s lunar base location is still far from being a done deal.acre (120. as NASA knows." The current frontrunner as the moon. said Scott Horowitz. he noted. O'Donnell thinks that Earth's satellite over time could conceivably be home to both a "NASA town" and a "company town" dedicated to private-sector ventures.base site is the satellite's south pole. sits a 300. the LEDA envisions an altogether different base site. pictured in this mosaic composed of 1.base site is the satellite's south pole.500 images taken by NASA's Clementine lunar orbiter." Cooke added. "What LEDA has been proposing to sponsor or otherwise cause is a permanent base on the far side of the moon (that's always turned away from Earth)." The current frontrunner as the moon. In contrast. he added. "There could even be cometary ices that have lain there for billions of years. those two moonbase visions may not be mutually exclusive. While strikingly dissimilar.

"While the space program yielded many successes in years past. a watchdog group that targets wasteful U. The LRO will circle the poles searching for natural resources that could support the moon base. Many of the NASA ventures that have successfully secured funding have been roundly criticized for recurrent cost overruns and delays. which is scheduled to launch next year. Such exponential inflation has drawn considerable criticism from the likes of Taxpayers for Common Sense (TCS).S. Bush. That outlay was so sizable that the study was largely ignored and soon faded from view. however. Onboard sensing equipment will analyze dust from the crash's impact for evidence of water." NASA isn't projecting that it will land at the base site until 2018. led a 1989 study that estimated that establishing a permanent moon presence would cost at least $500 billion. government spending. W. taxpayers are no longer getting their money's worth from a program that focuses on repeating the deeds of 13 . Funding issues.is one that we probably know most about at this point until we fly a lunar robotic orbiter. The first is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). President George H. Critics of recurrent cost overruns on spacerelated projects often cite the International Space Station as a prime example. TCS advocates major cutbacks in NASA's budget. could crash the entire moon. the agency will fly a series of unmanned moon intelligence missions. however. NASA hasn't yet provided a price tag. the ISS has already cost almost $50 billion. NASA hopes to learn much more about the lunar poles through the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (pictured above in a NASA rendering) which has a planned launch date of 2008. In the interim. The International Space Station (ISS) is often cited as Exhibit A.base mission. The robotic craft will also carry a smaller satellite that will be deliberately crash. This painting by NASA artist Robert McCall pictures what a lunar mining operation might look like. Initially projected as a $17billion project.landed in the Shackleton Crater in 2009.

asyou-go projects. though.priority scientific research such as astrophysics.base mission] is not one integral vehicle like the space station. group Taxpayers for Common Sense is backing major cutbacks in NASA's budget. priorities have dominated the project." Dale noted." the group asserts. D. "The Vision for Space Exploration laid out a program that is supposed to be sustainable and affordable. Much of that funding. China. it would have a chance." she added." The ISS experience." added Cooke. and from the 2010 completion of the ISS and the subsequent retirement of the space shuttle. The key private. "[The moon." O'Donnell observed. Germany. "I think one of the points that has really resonated when we have talked to other countries is bringing them in so early in the process.sector issue centers on one particular section of the Outer Space Treaty of 14 "We go as we can afford to pay. Canada. Great Britain." “We have all learned through our past experiences. So there are a lot more options to work with. she explained. we feel [including] parallel developments. NASA says that it has also solicited input from experts. A number of the space station's 14 partner countries have complained that U.) Current Treaty Could Curtail Profit-Making in the Cosmos The moon. TCS says that it "should use new technologies to build a better space program at less cost. South Korea and the Ukraine. "But if they make it an international project." NASA: No Additional Funding Needed NASA. The agency anticipates significant additional revenues for the moonbase program from international project participation. TCS contends. "It is critical that we have international participation and commercial participation along the way.base initiative faces a very different problem when it comes to securing long. "Funding could end up being problematic." said TCS Vice President Steve Ellis. France." Dale said in Houston.term private. The agency has already met with the European Space Agency. The project's "open architecture. The U. as well as space agencies from Australia. should be redirected into "high. But NASA has involved other nations much earlier in the moon.base mission]." As for NASA. nongovernmental organizations and commercial interests in many other countries. Japan. "It is not an increase above our Government watchdog baseline budget. O'Donnell says. you'll end up wasting money." NASA's current annual allocation is $16. "welcomes the participation of other countries around the world as well as commercial entities. could dim some nations' eagerness to take part in the moon.S.base project.C. Earth remote sensing and aeronautics. Until funds are in place. But what if NASA finds at some point that it doesn't have sufficient funds for the moonbase mission? NASA's new plan for space exploration "is not an increase above our baseline said Deputy budget.S." Director Shana Dale. the project timetable will have to move back." said Dale. Russia.yesterday. Italy.base mission. India. (Pictured: NASA headquarters in Washington. conceived and designed the ISS.Mars outposts that President Bush first championed in 2004 will be pay. . insists that the moon.sector involvement: Existing laws.8 billion. however. could end up taking a very big bite out of space-made profits." NASA seems to be counting heavily on other nations' involvement – and private industry's as well." Dale noted." "Without a price [on the moon. "They really were here in terms of the ground floor in the development of the themes and objectives.

a member of the LEDA board of advisers and the Apollo 11 astronaut who joined Neil Armstrong in 1969 in first setting foot on the moon.6 km. A withdrawal would become official a year after notification." he contended. The LEDA is supporting another major construction project that wouldn't really be on the moon. it states." The Outer Space Treaty echoes that point. you're just looking at more wars." O'Donnell explained.) in circumference. "That's the riddle.1967. irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development. O'Donnell contends. And if you divide the moon between nations. NASA says that other nations have been involved in depth much earlier in the moon. "It needs to be defined as something other than a handcuff on anyone who would go to space to make a profit. it might become the capital for governance and the headquarters for all 15 moon there. Any profit you make you'd have to divide in some fashion with the 200. who's also president of the World Space Bar Association.space base isn't going to become part of America. a mile (1." NASA's plan calls for a "mature transportation infrastructure" to be in place on the moon by 2025. "In international treaties. It's got to be an international thing. which will limit needless trespass. Space.base project than in the often criticized International Space Station. But bailing out isn't a realistic alternative." "Redefining the treaty's definition of benefitsharing would be a better solution than withdrawing. "The orbiter would be a saucer. "including the moon and other celestial bodies is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty. If that's changed so that people can make a decent profit.8 km. it will significantly help with moon mission funding." originally championed by Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin. Much of the railroad would be underground to protect it from asteroids. It would be a "cycler orbiter. "The treaty calls for a new government as soon as space development becomes feasible – which is now.odd nations and territories on Earth.shaped vessel. "The first project should be a circumferential lunar railroad. only now in space." trample the hell out of the lunar surface. O'Donnell feels." Work on redesigning the Outer Space Treaty should've already begun.) in diameter and three miles (4. that clause means profit." he noted. “All of the nations participating in development would have operations Eventually. The pact provides that any of the accord's 124 signatory nations can withdraw by giving notice. "There are too many people who have an interest. "should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples." O'Donnell said." the treaty states." Building a Railroad and a ‘Cycler Orbiter’ NASA has said little about what might be built on the moon." explained O'Donnell. (Pictured: A NASA rendering of a lunar outpost. "But nobody's come up with a new government. "A permanent outer. space space Treatysigning Saskatoon Public Division photo: come later don't School the people who . came six years after Alan "You've got Shepard became the first to create an NASA astronaut to blast off infrastructure so for outer space (below)." O'Donnell continued. the LEDA already has several initial The signing of the 1967 Lunar developments in Space Treaty (pictured left) mind. widely regarded as the legal structure governing outer space: "The exploration and use of outer space.) Characteristi cally." Individual countries could unilaterally skirt that provision by opting out of the Outer Space Treaty.sharing.

operations control. Opportunity and Spirit. given NASA's ambitious strategy." NASA currently has two rovers.related IQ could grow substantially over the next few decades. "A lease wouldn't violate the treaty's sovereignty provision and operations on leased land wouldn't use up the moon's resources.8 meters) into the moon's surface.removing devices for lunar surface work. . and lunar rover and lander vehicles." Orbiter. And it's 70 degrees for a long way down." The LEDA's orbiter design features five different levels. On the other hand. "We are going to learn a lot from these [unmanned robotic] missions ." O'Donnell contends that current outer. boggles the human mind – at least at this point in Earth's knowledge of space. Underground moon areas could provide quality sites for industrial operations and housing." The fifth level would include ingress and egress operations. dust. "This is a living document. For the private sector. he contended. When. Those human settlements could receive oxygen seeping up from plants growing immediately below them. private crew quarters.space treaties would allow businesses to lease their lunar sites. he explained. no one is sure. some of the most promising lunar locations could lie beneath the satellite's surface. farming and ranching operations (using hydroponic technology). Separate planes would be dedicated to the ship's managerial operations.endedness of NASA's moon and Mars blueprint. "businesses are going to have to plan on digging a lot deeper than normal to access sufficient space for below-ground operations. "can escape benefitsharing. that have been exploring Mars' surface for almost four years (initially. living quarters for permanent residents and crew members.based operations. . hydroponic gardening." he continued. one of the agency's concepts is the inflatable dome pictured in the rendering above. "From a site selection perspective. as well as landing fields. of course." said O'Donnell." Packing for Mars All of this information. The earliest estimates are 2030. O'Donnell contends. The agency plans to make its first Mars launch from the permanent moon base. the habitat could house as many as 12 people. humans' cosmos. with facilities for exercise. they were expected to survive for only 90 days). that will advise and be fed into decisions. Spanning a diameter of about 53 feet (16 meters)." Horowitz said of the open. and tourists and traveling moon "settlers. The agency is also getting substantial Martian 16 . an airlock. though.development industries. it's 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius) 24 hours a day. "Leasing property on the moon shouldn't be a legal problem. clean up. Are the moon's most promising sites located beneath its pockmarked surface? "Most of the safe living will be underground. "If you go down six feet (1. Although NASA hasn't said what it might build on the moon." he said. lab work.

"You have to realize we haven't left low Earth orbit in the last 30 years. In contrast. in turn." Squyres said during an AGU conference panel discussion that also included Arvidson. "The ultimate thinking." said Ray Arvidson. "But I firmly believe that the best way to explore Mars is going to be with humans. to spread out into space for the survival of the species." he continued. a Washington University professor and the deputy principal investigator for the Mars rovers program. intimated that Mars at some point possibly accommodated some sort of life form. continues to support the lunar base. "We won't find anywhere as nice as Earth unless we go to another star system. 15th. a genetically engineered engineered virus or other other dangers we have not yet thought of." Is Outer-Space Living Essential for Human Survival? O'Donnell also favors that moonfirst. "Life on Earth is at the everincreasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster." said Hawking. "is to set up a base on Mars for the singular purpose of building a fleet of tough ships to get beyond 17 . But the bigger issue. he feels." "It would just be unfortunate to lose momentum with all these very exciting Mars discoveries toward the middle part of the next decade. may require an astonishing number of frequent flyer miles. "We need some place to flex our space deepmuscles again before we go zooming off to Mars. That information reinforced some scientists' contention that Mars offers a bigger payoff than the moon. "We need some place to flex our deep. lies in exploring much farther afield. that space of the British Council Photo: exploration is United States imperative for humanities continued existence. a Cornell University professor and NASA researcher. . Prominent scientist Hawking O'Donnell concurs Stephen successful with renowed equates scientist Stephen space exploration with Hawking's contention the continued existence human race. "Those become very difficult to do in the constrained financial environment because of the restraints noted at the American Geophysical Union's (AGU) conference in San Francisco on Dec. "You have to realize we haven't left low Earth orbit in the last 30 years. "It is important . nuclear war. however. he added. In that.second progression. a Cornell University professor and the principal scientific investigator for the Mars rovers." said Steven Squyres. and the moon is the obvious choice to do that." O'Donnell said. Mars. such as sudden global warming. That. living site.space muscles again before we go zooming off to Mars. "I'm a big fan of sending robots to Mars.information from the Mars Global Surveyor that's circling the planet." Hawking said at a Hong Kong lecture in June of 2006. Steven Squyres." NASA's Mars Global Surveyor sent back images like the one above that suggested the presence of liquid water on the planet's Finding a suitable surface. . The Surveyor craft sent back images in midDecember that suggested that liquid water was present on the planet's surface.

2030: This is space industry analysts' earliest estimate of when NASA might make its first launch for Mars. since they'll be traveling a long. That destination. in fact. LIVING IN OUTER-SPACE TIME: NASA'S PROJECTED TIMETABLE 2007: NASA begins what Deputy Administrator Shana Dale calls "extensive dialogue with other countries about the ways in which they want to participate" in the U. That's about 2. but essential for survival.000 times the distance from the Sun to Pluto. long way.the Oort Cloud.) from Earth. 2014: NASA begins a series of manned spacecraft missions. O'Donnell envisions that some of the ships would carry "thousands of people. Astronauts will begin living on the moon continually.24 dates: NASA 18 . landing might look. "we need a fleet that can also take asteroids with it to provide food and water as the ships fly. Initially. is one more big thing about outer space that the human race remains a long way from knowing. the egg shell containing billions of comets that surrounds our solar system. 2008: NASA launches the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)." said O'Donnell. Source." But to fly to where.8 billion km. with crew members staying for longer periods of time – as long as six months. agency's new space exploration plan. The missions will orbit the moon's polar regions. 2009: A smaller satellite carried aboard the LRO is deliberately crash. than from here to the moon. much farther. though. natural resources and hazards to the lunar This NASA rendering depicts how a moon vehicles that the agency is designing. near NASA's favored south pole site. initiating a new series of robotic intelligence missions to the moon. 2024: Permanent moon base will be completed. crew members will stay on the satellite for about a week before rotating back to Earth. you say? An excellent question. that no one yet has been able to actually see it. Much. working to identify possible landing sites. 2018: NASA starts sending fourastronaut crews to land on the moon (see rendering at right).) Those long.landed in the moon's Shackleton Crater. The Oort Cloud is an estimated eight billion miles (12.S." Those ships will need to be tough indeed. (The spherical envelope of comets is so far away. 2007. "To leave our solar system to go elsewhere." Others would ferry a payload that's quite different. The agency hasn't yet projected the year in which it thinks Mars flights will begin. The smaller craft is equipped with sensing equipment that will analyze dust from the landing's impact for evidence of water.distance craft would also need to be strong and roomy enough to carry heavy payloads. in fact.

S.WHAT ON EARTH IS SPACE MONEY? Unsurprisingly. the private sector annually has been outspending the world's governments in the quest for outer space. and everything would be pegged to that. topping out at about 62." Earthlings are already spending huge sums of money to get to outer space. just as Christopher Columbus did when he first arrived in America. it would suffer tremendously and unduly." O'Donnell explained. "It wouldn't work.200 kilometers). "When that happens." he continued. argues Declan O'Donnell. "It's just logical that there will be some disasters in outer. what will lunar settlers need money for in space? "It would be a lot of different things involving small fees. WHY MOON MONEY? But once they get there. "Eventually there would end up being one dominant currency in space. perhaps the U. "People in a lunar settlement at some point will have to barter with something." said O'Donnell. "And they'll have to use a totally new kind of currency: space money. In the long run. It's sort of like a new version of an Got change for a one? Here's the design that United Societies in Space came up with for a bill denoting one unit of space money.percent upsurge from the 2000 tally. dollar. the location of the first ATM on the moon isn't included in NASA's new outer-space blueprint. Earth's global economy seems to function pretty well using multiple currencies and exchanges.related projects now underway.space development. if there's one leading currency. Going (way) up: The Space Elevator (shown above in a rendering) is one of the major space. since 1998." O'Donnell said of using existing currencies. according to project supporters. Pictured on the bill is an illustration of a space habitat. Eventually. that wouldn't be equitable. Moreover. And that lunar legal tender won't be similar to any of the currencies now in use on Earth. "Sort of like the fee list that a real estate developer provides when he or she is constructing a condominium. the mechanism would reduce orbital freight costs by 98 percent." But why create a new currency for space? After all. contends the founder of the nonprofit Lunar Economic Development Authority (LEDA). It would be created specifically for use on the moon and recognized by all space-faring nations. 19 . But make no mistake.000 miles (99. Stretching 32 million stories high. the moon's economy will have to have some hard cash in order to function. Governments around the world are pouring an estimated $50 billion a year into spacerelated ventures – a 25.

WHAT’S UP. but also as possible homes for man. not taxes. According to Mr. dirt. most of the world's governments (including the U. Sharpe and David G." 20 .. It will probably be located near the South Pole (on Malapert Mountain as recommended by SGJ in vol.old saying: 'You cough on the moon." O'Donnell. not only for economic exploitation. Water is the key ingredient for supporting human life on the Moon and is needed to support NASA’s plan to build a permanent human lunar base by 2018. The goal for the solar system would seem to be that it should become an interplanetary community of very diverse worlds . address to the British Interplanetary Society. It will circle the Moon during 2008 for about a year with special viewing apparatus and the large cannonball to impact the frozen crater. the authority would find somebody else who would. 1948: "Sooner or later for good or ill. "That means that there's good news in that most of the world would recognize the space currency used for barter as normal money. The crash will churn up dust.club capital the same as their own legal currencies. Schrunk). Olaf Stapledon.. a united mankind. though. through this "commonwealth of worlds. Site selection for the NASA Moon Base will be scientifically selected after data is gathered from a lunar orbiter." he said.. Want to see water on the Moon? If so. will probably turn its attention to the other planets. look up there through your favorite telescope in early 2009.. Legally." TAXES IN SPACE? The notion of using space money isn't all that futuristic. fund space government services And that's an idea that could make space look even more like the land of opportunity.S. robotics deputy program manager at Ames Research Center northern California. This ice/water/vapor should be visible after NASA crashes an SUV sized cannonball into a frozen lunar crater (expected to harbor lots of ice beneath its surface) at about 5600 miles per hour. And if someone didn't follow through.” This project will cost $80 million US dollars.space projects. you could make sure that people followed through with their outer. entitled “Malapert Mountain Revisited” by Burton L. Creating a separate space currency would also ensure completion of outer. "But there's bad news. and ice from an impact crater one-third the size of a football field and very deep..) already treat barter. each contributing to the common experience its characteristic view of the universe. Butler Hine. Through the pooling of this wealth of experience. too." new levels of mental and spiritual development should become possible. equipped with science and power.” he said. “These resources (identified by the impact) can make future human returns to the Moon and future human occupation of the Moon much more cost-effective. levels at present quite inconceivable to man. page 16. The several advance robotic missions and the lunar base construction and astronaut injection is estimated to cost $600 million to NASA between 2008 and 2018. you catch a cold down here. Mars and other places in space. O'Donnell contends “It would be a real blight on humanity to have unfinished structures dangling around on the moon. He advocates that user fees.space commitments. because they'll want to tax it like all the other money spent on Earth. “But if you had a lunar development authority that had its own bank and issued its own money.. 7. has another idea on that front: a tax.free state in space. O'Donnell insists.

Werner von Braun (1912-77) and Gerard O’Neill (192792) as a logical and necessary part of the human expansion into space. Costs and Benefits With the assembly of the station delayed first by Russian economic problems. and what area of science will the space station benefit most?” Cabana answered. Pennsylvania asked Commander Bob Cabana. Von Braun promoted the use of low Earth orbit as a staging area for missions to the Moon and Mars. This article examines and describes Tsiolkovsky’s Plan of Space Exploration 1) Creation of rocket airplanes with wings. “How do you respond to those that say the space station is too costly? What's the most profitable advantage that will come from the space station. 6) Lengthening rocket flight times in space.” Eight years and billions of dollars later. 4) Ability to land on the surface of the sea. We're gonna learn all about the human body and the effects of long duration space flight …All kinds of areas in material science. Those answers were provided in The NASA Research and Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (see Further Reading #7) that was released to the public in June 2006. Caption: This is a computer-generated view of what the ISS will look like from the top port side upon its completion in 2010. and it's our destiny to explore in space. changing the experiments and learning. 5) Reaching escape velocity and the first flight into Earth orbit.International Space Station: Uses and Benefits By Marianne Dyson this plan and provides background and context for understanding how the ISS supports the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and the eventual human settlement of space. … with the space station we'll have a world class microgravity laboratory up there 24 hours a day. repeats of young Ryan’s questions about cost and benefits of a space station continue to be asked. with members of Congress using the NASA Authorization Act of 2005 to request detailed answers. … With the space station. NASA image JSC2006-E-25650. In November of 1998 during the first International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission. 2) Progressively increasing the speed and altitude of these airplanes. and gain experience in supporting crew and spacecraft for long periods in space were foreseen by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935). There's going to be new drugs developed. Constructing large orbital habitats around the Earth is step ten of Tsiolkolvsky’s “Plan of Space Exploration” (see Tsiolkovsky sidebar). and then by the loss of Columbia. 365 days a year. fourteen-year old Ryan Jeckel of Manheim. we can constantly monitor the Earth and its changes. “We're building a space station to learn. The need to test procedures. The delays may have actually facilitated the learning that Cabana cited as the primary purpose of a space station. 3) Production of real rockets--without wings. the cost versus benefit argument remains. Advocates of these plans have remained skeptical that the ISS will facilitate their fulfillment or meet the long-term objective of the Vision for Space Exploration “to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system. much of the utilization of the station has been delayed--or at least the use of it for scientific research. O’Neill proposed construction of orbiting cities powered by solar energy.” And of those who see its integral connection. 21 . equipment.

. 10) Constructing around the Earth. 15) Overcrowding of the solar system and the colonization of the Milky Way (the Galaxy). 16) The Sun begins to die and the people remaining in the solar system's population go to other suns. The report stated that “these reviews indicate that much of NASA’s pre-VSE utilization of the ISS was already serving to implement the Agency’s new priorities. 8) Using pressurized space suits for activity outside of spaceships. Those can be estimated and added in a number of ways to push the ISS cost up to $100 billion by the end of its lifetime in 2016. “Affordable” is defined by how much politicians are willing to assign to space exploration via the annual NASA budget. emphasizing near-term needs for a return to the Moon. interventions. and as a destination for spaceflight participants (i. Yet the ISS and Space Shuttle budgets added together are only about a third of NASA’s total budget. and development of countermeasures. the ISS is also being used for Earth observations. and for transport throughout the Solar System. These standards drive operational and vehicle requirements. To better focus the research. educational outreach. with the accumulated cost at ISS completion being about $35 billion.6 billion on ISS from 1994-2005.” Human research program requirements are developed and controlled by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO). to build experience in international cooperation. ISS research has been divided into three program categories: the Human Research Program. Ongoing research includes ground-based analog head-down bed-rest studies and collection of orbit data to define space flight “normal” for body systems. some military research. An initial set of standards are currently in development and undergoing approval based on OSHA standards and research from previous space missions and analog environments. and NASA’s budget of $16 to $18 billion is less than 1 percent of the budget of the United States. and has in fact already provided much of the data and experience necessary for its success. 11) Using solar radiation to grow food. 13) Colonization of the entire solar system and beyond. This number does not include launch costs or international partner contributions. the ISS was allocated $1. NASA has spent $25. For 2005 and 2006. decisions during missions. large orbital habitats answers that ISS research is being prioritized and focused to support the VSE.4 billion a year by 2010. In addition to these categories. tourists).7 and $1. and Operations Demonstrations and Development. 9) Making orbiting greenhouses for plants. NASA is moving away from individual investigator-driven research to an outcome-oriented approach. The NASA Research and Utilization Plan (see Further Reading #7) Human Research Program From the fall of 2004 to early 2005. Technology Development.8 billion respectively. with all research still subject to peer review. 14) Achievement of individual and social perfection. This annual cost is expected to rise to about $2. According to the 2007 budget request (see Further Reading #6).e. CHMO develops the Space Flight Health Human Performance Standards that establish what is considered acceptable medical risk for spaceflight (see Further Reading #2).7) Experimental use of plants to make an artificial atmosphere in spaceships. It will be up to future generations to decide whether or not the benefits of the ISS were worth this “affordable” amount. to heat space quarters. Human research programs are reviewed by the International Life Sciences Working Group (See Further Reading 22 . 12) Colonization of the asteroid belt. a review was conducted to align the existing human systems research and technology content to support the VSE. and procedures to amend and prevent negative effects. The second part of Ryan’s question regarding what area of science benefits most is much easier to address.

and 11-15 (see Expeditions sidebar). and Soyuz TM-34 (Shuttleworth) crews) 23 . Dezhurov. The Renal Stone experiment will determine if the risk of developing renal stones. Renal stone formation can have severe health consequences for crewmembers and compromise a mission. One current example is a study headed by Expedition 5 and 16 astronaut Peggy Whitson into the prevention of kidney stones. November 2000-March 2001. It will also assess the effectiveness as a countermeasure of potassium citrate. STS-100. and increased urinary concentrations of calcium and sodium have been observed. increases with the duration of the space flight. now leads the investigation into the formation of renal stones as a result of longduration space flight. the ISS was visited by the STS-88 crew in 1998. Caption: ISS Expedition 13 Flight Engineer Thomas Reiter of ESA processes samples for the Renal Stone investigation. NASA photo. Bursch. International Space Station Expeditions (visitors in parentheses) Prior to occupancy. STS-97 and STS98 crews) 2. March-August 2001. Shepherd. Caption: Expedition 5 flight engineer Peggy Whitson. especially calcium-based stones. altered renal function. Soyuz TM-32 (Tito) and STS-104 crews) 3. Understanding how the disease may form in otherwise healthy crewmembers under varying environmental conditions will also provide insight into stone forming diseases on Earth. Krikalev (Soyuz TM-31 this crew. December 2001-June 2002. Approximately 10 percent of Americans will develop a renal (kidney) stone at some point during their lives. Gidzenko. and STS-101. Decreased urine volume and urinary citrate. shown here exercising in the Destiny laboratory. exercise programs and procedures to counteract negative health effects from the microgravity environment—collectively called countermeasures. Similar studies were conducted on the Shuttle and Mir. Culbertson. and reduced bone mass place astronauts at even greater risk of renal stones while they are in space and immediately after landing. Helms (STS-102. Therefore final results are not yet available. STS-96 crew in 1999. STS-106 and STS-92 in 2000. a proven Earth-based therapy for reducing calcium-based stones.#9) to avoid duplication of equipment and encourage collaboration among investigations. STS-110. Reduced fluid volume. August-December 2001. Usachev. NASA photo. diets. The experiment design calls for the combination and comparative analysis of data from all ISS increments. 8. A current priority is the development of drugs. Onufrienko. Walz (STS-108. Voss. Tyurin (STS-105 and Soyuz TM-33 crews) 4. 1. and so far have been performed on Expeditions 3-6.

STS-118 crews) Upcoming: 16. Boiling is an effective means of cooling because most of the heat transfer is from the latent heat of vaporization as opposed to heating and pumping a single-phase fluid. STS-115 crews) 14. Using current spacecraft technology. September 2006-April 2007. Phillips. April 2005-October 2005. Duque-ESA) 9. Sensors in development include vehicle cabin air monitor. Kononenko. Kaleri. Spring 2008-Fall 2008. October 2005-April 2006. Kuipers-ESA) 10. April 2006-September 2006. Whitson (2nd tour). Tokarev. April 2007-October 2007. Bowersox. (Soyuz TMA-7. 2008). STS126. Sunni Williams (until STS-117 June 2007). Pettit. October 2003-April 2004. a portable system to monitor surfaces for bacteria. Budarin (STS-113 crew) 7. Volkov. October 2004-April 2005.) NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program will focus on the development of enabling technologies for the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) and lunar missions. Lu (just these two in Soyuz TMA-2 8. A twophase (liquid-vapor) energy transport system may significantly reduce the size. Sharipov (2nd tour). (STS-121. Treschev (STS-111. Shagin) 11. A water recovery system is planned for launch in 2008. a one-way trip to Mars takes about six months and coasts to Mars using a freefall trajectory. Malenchenko.5. (Artificial gravity produced via spinning has been proposed to avoid the effects of freefall. This subjects the crewmembers and systems to a weightless environment for about six months. Vittori-ESA and STS-114 crew) 12. Padalka. Fincke (2nd tour). Foale. October 2007-Spring 2008. STS-122. Lopez-Alegria. then Chamitoff (up on STS-127 in January 2009) (TMA-13. up on STS-122 in Dec. STS-123 crews) 17. then Anderson (TMA-10 (Simonyi) STS-117. then Eyharts (ESA. STS-124. The new systems will provide enough oxygen for six crewmembers and recover up to 80 percent of wastewater. Sharipov. Kotov. (Soyuz TMA-6. (Soyuz TMA-3. Korzun. Krikalev (2nd tour). (Soyuz TMA-4. colorimetric solid phase extraction water monitor (measures silver and iodide in water). Reducing spacecraft mass allows more room for scientific equipment and supplies. Anderson (until STS-120 October 2007) then Tani ( up on STS-120). and thus the mass. STS-116 crew) 15. (Soyuz TMA-5. Fall 2008-Spring 2009. Malenchenko (2nd tour). then Sunni Williams (Soyuz TMA-9 (Ansari). 2006). then Wakata (JAXA) (up on STS126 in October 2008). Magnus. the same duration as a tour of duty on the ISS. McArthur. Tyurin (2nd tour). 2008) (TMA-11. The now-cancelled centrifuge would have tested the utility of this approach. STS-112 and Soyuz TMA-1 crews) 6. then Reisman (up on STS-123 in Feb. STS-127 crews) Technology Development Perhaps the most often overlooked benefit of the International Space Station is its use as a technology testbed that will enable human trips to Mars. Jeff Williams. April-October 2003. Reiter (until STS-116 Dec. STS-119 crews) 18. Vinogradov. Reisman. June 2002-December 2002. of spacecraft radiators. then Magnus (up on STS-119 in July 2008) (TMA12. Chiao. New technologies such as carbon dioxide removal. Fincke. (Soyuz TMA-8. and air and water quality monitoring are therefore a priority for testing on the ISS. Olsen) 13. potable water. Yurchikhim. November 2002-May 2003. STS-121 in July 2006 carried a new system to generate oxygen from condensate water and urine. Pontes-Brazil) Reiter-ESA (up on STS-121 July 2006). April-October 2004. Whitson. electronic nose. Current plans involve the development of a suite of miniaturized sensors that will require minimal crew intervention. Two experiments are 24 . and lab-on-a-chip.

Structural engineering tests on ISS will have direct impact on exploration vehicle and habitat designs. A new unit was mounted in August 2005. oxygen or hydrogen. NASA photo. radical temperature swings. and being able to detect smoke particles of the appropriate size. the Micro-heater Array Boiling Experiment (MABE) and the Nucleate Pool Boiling Experiment (NPBX). Preliminary results based on two DAFT sessions performed on ISS in 2005 and presented at the Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Systems indicate very low levels of particles in the ISS environment. Stored propellants may include methane. It is also possible that DAFT is not 25 . Accurate fire detection requires the ability to distinguish dust particles from soot particles. shown here in an STS-112 photo taken in 2002. and the effects of impacts on inflatable solar sails. As the tragic Apollo 1 fire proved. Caption: One tray of the MISSE experiment. The space environment poses many hazards to exposed surfaces including ultraviolet radiation. The Dust and Aerosol Measurement Feasibility Test (DAFT) was designed to test the effectiveness of a device that counts ultra-fine dust particles. Photo credit: Lockheed Martin Corp. The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has two passive experiment carriers with approximately 900 specimens that were mounted outside the ISS airlock in August 2001 and returned in August 2005 (see Further Reading #3). Current tanks are overly heavy because of uncertainty in how the materials and fuels perform in the space environment. quantify material flammability and fire signatures in reduced gravity and monitor air and water for contamination. Two more are planned for later shuttle flights along with strain gauges and accelerometers that will be mounted on ISS trusses and modules to provide verification of structural loads during docking and other events. and micrometeoroid and debris strikes. This low particulate level may be a result of the two-person crew and/or the filtration system on ISS.planned for testing on the ISS. Propellant systems for extended stays on the Moon and for transport to and from Mars will require propellant storage tanks about ten times larger than current spacecraft tanks. Caption: An exploded view of the CEV/Orion vehicle. MISSE will also test new lightweight materials ability to shield the crew from cosmic rays. was mounted outside the Quest airlock for four years. The particulate level is expected to increase now that the number of crewmembers has returned to three after STS121. and two more went up on STS-121. the lower overall pressures and greater oxygen percentages present in the closed environments of spacecraft increase the risk of fire. Currently little is known about the size distribution of soot particles from fires in space. NASA continues to develop new technologies to detect fire. Lighterweight cryogenic tanks and new propellant transfer technologies are planned to be tested on the ISS. David Urban of NASA Glenn conducted an experiment on ISS Expedition 13 that will aid in the development of improved spacecraft smoke detectors. corrosive atomic oxygen.

Smoke detectors developed from the results of DAFT and SAME (see Further Reading #10) may also be useful in submarines or underwater laboratories where accurate detection of smoke can save lives. …The team is also demonstrating the repair of systems in space that were previously thought to be not repairable.2 microns to 1 micron. segment of the ISS easier because the Russian Orlan suits are not designed to interface with U. The repair made maintenance on the U. replaced treadmill 26 . shown here in the Quest airlock during Expedition 9. break the light beam and be counted. Sampling will also be done at more locations throughout ISS. the PTrak will be used in the Smoke and Aerosol Measuring Experiment (SAME) during Expedition 15. If the results are satisfactory. Caption: Astronaut Edward M.S. a new pump was sent up via a Progress supply ship. Periodic photographic surveys of the outside of the ISS are performed and compared with previous pictures to understand the degradation of the vehicle over time. NASA photo. The report states that “ISS is demonstrating new capabilities to sustain spacecraft operations over long time periods which will be critical for lunar/planetary habitats and Mars transit vehicles. (Mike) Fincke. SAME requires counts of particles ranging from 0. Fincke spent 4. When a droplet of alcohol condenses over an ultra-fine dust particle.) Upcoming runs of the experiment will use known dust sources to confirm that the equipment is functioning accurately on orbit. it can be used to design smoke detectors that accurately distinguish normal dust from the presence of dangerous smoke particles.5 hours replacing the part that pumps cooling water through miles of tubing inside the suit undergarment. equipment. performed the first on-orbit repair of a spacesuit. Most particle counters work by using a light beam to record instances when the beam is interrupted. the particle becomes large enough to “Today was a very nice success. (The alcohol is recycled as it condenses on the sidewalls. The Expedition crews recently successfully repaired a malfunctioning space suit. NASA photo. The DAFT Dust Trak unit tested on several ISS expeditions uses a sensor to read the percentage of light being blocked by particles. Once the average particulate level is known. Operations Demonstrations and Development The ISS utilization plan (see Further Reading #7) cites this kind of repair operation as an example of new skills learned by spending time in orbit. This method will not record ultra-fine particles that are much smaller than the wavelength of the light. Rather than return the suit to the ground.S. The handheld P-Trak device works by passing dust-laden air through a chamber of vaporous isopropyl alcohol.” Expedition 9 science officer Mike Fincke told ground controllers after completing the first in-orbit space suit repair.measuring the particulates.

the ISS has the largest solar arrays ever deployed. The library receives books and videos on humans in space from all over the world and from personnel in all industries.” Check it out at URL: http://www. and maintaining spacecraft. science. ……ARTICLE CONTINUED IN VOLUME 12 OF THE SPACE GOVERNANCE JOURNAL Caption: Shown here during STS-116 in December 2006. operating.” the report states. Not only are recycling systems critical. but also the reduction of trash and inventory management. public relations. libraries and conferences. ISS has the largest solar arrays ever deployed. quality. At HE Space Operations it’s all about people: “We provide highly educated support and technical expertise.com and/or send your resume to katwijk@hespace. administration. NASA Photo Author Marianne Dyson shares her passion for space through writing and presentations for all ages at schools. Your selection will be mailed to you and you must return it within the time allotted. and replaced an Elektron subassembly. As such.bearings. Virtual training for EVA and robotic tasks enables safer and more efficient use of crew time. “High performing crews are critical to successful long-duration missions. Members of the space community may borrow books by contacting United Societies in Space or this journal. and/or education. These repairs were thought not feasible in space and are a testimony to both ground and flight teams that developed procedures and training for these events. and uses a distributed power system instead of the “mobile home/self-contained” Russian-style modules. 27 . Understanding how these power systems perform over time is key in moving toward longer stays and building satellites to power future O’Neill cities in space. robotics and human systems displays and controls. JOBS IN SPACE Looking for a way to work in the space industry? Here’s a place to contact for a job as an engineering. She also is available as a technical editor and research consultant on space and astronomy topics. The international collaboration provides valuable insights into how our Partner countries approach building. operations.” The report also notes that “ISS provides valuable lessons for current and future engineers and managers—real-world examples of what works and what does not work in space.hespace.” One ESA experiment conducted surveys of expedition 13 and 14 crews to uncover potential problems in leadership styles. the ISS is a cornerstone in advancing knowledge about how to live and work in space for long continuous periods of time and will remain critical to our future exploratory journeys. and the testing of in-flight inspection and repair capabilities such as those demonstrated on STS-121.com BUZZ ALDRIN SPACE LIBRARY SELECTION This year we added another 100+ books into the Buzz Aldrin Space Library Selection. Other demonstration activities include autonomous rendezvous and docking.

”(2) The common law is marked from 1066 AD when the Norman Conquest of the British Isle was recognized as completed. domestic relations. workers. (3) In space settlements on the Moon.D. Robinson III and Harold M. These mimicked the King’s court in procedures but focused on equitable relief not permitted in the legal system that was headed by the King. However. principles of social order flowing from the unique natural requirements of human space existence. Its prognosis as astro law in space is discussed in detail.D.’ “The concept of planetary or human citizenship must of necessity be embodied in what some space lawyers are beginning to refer to as astrolaw. The common law is approaching a thousand years of tradition. O’DONNELL. The system evolved into a comprehensive and effective set of rules.. (per the Moon Treaty.” (1) This definition is refined by these authors recognizing the need and likelihood that astro law would take generations of evolution to represent truly space-oriented law. and by convention to outer space in 2000 A. it is very relevant and material to define astro law as that part of the new regime that exists as a common law. tourists. It was extended from England to America during the 1700s and extended to all extraterritorial courts effective in 1850 A. ABSTRACT International space treaties haven’t been amended or supplemented for 25 years. more will be involved than the experience of settlers. It would begin as some sort of Earth-made rule of law. perturbation. ‘The Envoys of Mankind. administrative. Added to that will be the interests of investors. 28 . and environmental laws applicable to individuals who settle in space are also part of the legal mosaic covered in that new regime. paragraph 5). “Laws that Impact Space. article 11. White.Astro Law as Common Law Extended Into the Outer Space Territory* BY DECLAN J. It featured not only the King’s Bench in London and lower courts in stately manors around the island. This regime should clarify that civil. long periods of stability. the body of law that governs human relations in space. but. criminal. ESQ. Perhaps that call for a new regime should include common law as extended into space to be known as astro law. This character of the genera is described prophetically: “For these reasons. the tolerance of people’s courts. however. requires that the very paradigms upon which the previous systems were based be superceded by new ones that are more holistic. and in cycler orbits. As “space development” becomes feasible. and either dissolution or complexification and transformation. also. and developers. Both systems rested on solving “cases in controversy” where one person disagreed with another person over genuine problems. and more widely accepted. a new legal regime is called for by the United Nations applicable to outer space. then acceleration. Therefore.” it is clear that competing nations will maintain a legal hold on space policy and future rules of law. INTRODUCTION Astro Law Historically Professor George S. Jr. Solutions were recorded and precedent developed. introduced us to the term “astro law. on Mars. more ecumenical. If so. (or Queen). Such transformation. evaluation of the law of the commoners in England was clearly the result of experience whether or not logical or fair.” This appears frequently in their seminal book. legal systems are subject to the same evolutionary tendencies we have been discussing— resistance to change. a body of precedent that grows and adjusts in this new venue of space law according to the needs of settlers. As reflected below under the title. Some rules were not at all logical and others did not appear to be fair.

synergy or cooperation becomes the key ingredient between public and private sectors. In contrast. a more recent UN General Assembly resolution was adopted to recast benefit sharing as just another way to effect international cooperation. between planners and policy makers. as well as among organizations and nations. and he sees it as necessary. but there is no legal system in place to ever sort this out. these five treaties represent the starting point for space law and policy. Nevertheless. (OST). (where nations must appear in space to participate). (6) The problem of benefit sharing has a similar set of legal problems. Professor Ved Nanda of the University of Denver Law School.” (4) the concept of common heritage of mankind was introduced. The “common heritage” wording reappears in the Law of the Sea Treaty of 1989. On the other hand. The term has been applied to activities of the Deep Seabed Authority successfully because America manages it. however. In situ benefit sharing may be a good idea in the future. (7) This highlights another and larger consequence of ambiguity in space regulation: “soft law proliferation”: Space lawyers and policy makers have conflicting ambiguities. as humankind struggles like infants to leave our cradle. (5) The “common heritage of mankind” and the treaty provision of “benefit sharing” represent the most controversial legal issues that haunt space lawyers. It is defined as requiring an actual sharing of proceeds generated by commercial activity at the public property site. of 1967 is respected as our constitution for outer space. between professionals and the technicians. (COPUOS). The sharing program was adopted unanimously by UN General Assembly resolution in 1966 and was mentioned in the Outer Space Treaty. However common heritage principles in outer space development are not acceptable. For human enterprise in space to succeed and flourish. Dr. These were all sponsored by the United Nations and they obtained the prior approval of the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. and for peaceful purposes only. Harris predicts a widespread cooperation. the Moon Treaty of 1979 is least respected because only France signed it of all the space-oriented nations. the Outer Space Treaty. As a group. the primary directive of that 1967 constitution level treaty. all nations to manage the site. all focused on sharing profits with developing nations. Of these. all to have access. In this case the burden of benefit sharing was deemed a good idea in 1967 and a bad idea in 1996. unless they are modified. 1967. America and Russia and the spacefaring community passed on signing it because Indirect Impact In 2002. a similar sort of case by case experience will be the bottom of this process. Department of 29 . Earth. The common law in outer space will be evolved by many interests: “The high frontier prospects in the twenty first century are only dimly perceived.the evolution of astro law will be more complex than that encountered 900 years ago in England. Philip R. (8) As summarized by a leading space law litigator in 2005: “Both the OST and the Moon Treaty have Proven to be an unworkable foundation for the creation of a usable property rights regime in space given their ambiguity and lack of support…” (9) LAWS THAT IMPACT SPACE LAW Direct Impact There are five outer space treaties that directly impact space law and policy.

The ISS is governed by an international treaty signed January 29. (but not a monument). His thesis was that this void could be solved by borrowing policies from other international treaties.a. (natural and indigenous resources in space). It has the important task of Radio frequencies and orbital positions of satellites. Canada. Here the country that owns a portion of ISS retains legal control of it. NASA Photo Gallery: International Space Station 5. and utilization of a permanently inhabited civil Space Station for peaceful purposes. The Antarctic Treaty System consists of four complex agreements commencing in 1959 and ending in 1980. operation. between the United States. 1988. Each participating country controls up to 100 percent its own user elements. Russia. organizations. spoke at the National Space Society Convention as an advocate of establishing property rights in space resources. and practices. Some lessons may be learned on how international procedures result in awarding such substantial rights by license. Japan. but never ratified by the senate. but to feature use and research rights to admitted nations. except Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty as to space objects only. development. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was created by the UN in 1982 and signed by the USA in 1994.International Law. a. This same thesis was advocated by space law litigator Rosanna Sattler at the University of Chicago Law School Symposium: Issues in Space Law. The system is now managed by 26 “consultative parties” who vote annually and continue to demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by carrying out substantial scientific activity. It is a common heritage of mankind legal structure. components. Because ISS is 100 percent space object. For example. to create any venue-wide rule of law or 30 . 2. IGA (Intergovernmental Agreement). NASA respects the rights and obligations of all who utilize the ISS by a complex system of agreements and Memorandum of Understanding. These treaty level subject matters are not treated as treaties and do not have any treaty level enabling act on the subject of space resources or space objects. particularly in reference to the creation of property rights for settlers in space and on space resources: 1. and Europe known as the ISS Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA). The paradigm is to declare no private property in real estate. 3. International Space Station (ISS). This procedure has international consensus. its rules may not impact the space resources problem. This model has been cited as having future property rights administered in space vessels and on space resources. Research must be the principle activity. 2005. (10) These scholars and others have referred us to the following five kinds of sources for building a legal regime for space. a public property. Observer nations are permitted to attend its session but cannot vote. ITU (International Telecommunications Union). which furnishes the framework for design. but it utilizes a system of licensing rights to mine sectors of the seabed.k. except one (see below). 4. (a manmade structure in space). and of the crew. an invention made in the Japanese quadrant is subject to Japan’s patent law. (11) COMMON LAW EXTENDED The “Void” Problem There has been no effort.

space venue governance paradigm for settlers. dated 12/10/1948.” The scope. 2001. also billed as the HUMAN RIGHTS. space resources. the trust estate can as the Corpus Juris Secundum as it be impressed on the king’s title and in astro law. 2000. implication by those welcomed by all nations direct legislative and all competing regimes. based on a citizen international structure that is not a Council national appropriation. by means of use or occupation. Space has been viewed as not a territory and. meaning.000 years. have that system in outer space for individuals “Section 5. in conflict. if settlers ordain a town council on Mars. RULE OF LAW. (ISDAC). 2000. should be competing interests. 2000 A. The next practical step is to determined and not otherwise. therefore. based on a citizen as a trusteeship for the benefit of Common Law to be fit movement alone. and structured Statutes of theand the of Regents. having as we will see. The rule chaos in the premises. The Common Law shall be utilized by the The treaty cannot mean to force a void of all Courts as extended by the Convention to legal structures in space and thereby force outer space. The Common Law is defined interests. “Denver Space Governance Convention. represents a cable of exclusively by this Rule of Law as so citizen level justice. or welcomed by all nations and all for the benefit of all referred to in fact or by humankind. there would be no national appropriation of anything and Article II would not be deemed to sabotage the town. and as extraterritorial Courts in 1850. their effective date: This was called the Regency of United Societies in Space and its Constitution.D. held at the University of Denver Law School and hosted by Professor Ved Nanda of the International Law Center of that school. A that is not a national provisions. At common law.D. (12) having been extended to America The common law commencing circa 1100 effective [during the 1700s]. SETTLERS RIGHTS. as then extended to America been extended by Congress to all and each of its states during the 1700s. (13)(14) Article III. That the Supreme Court of the Regency The Denver Convention shall apply the foregoing standards of law and equity with full balance and legal Commencing in August of 2000 and ending concern for the individual free person as on August 4. space governance law. Section 4.. who live and work in outer space. all now known as the International Space Development Authority Corporation. it is available to be maintained on developed in England for 1. It extended the common law from the United States of America into outer space at a cutoff date of August 4. and where all of the others all humankind. reads on August 4. [The extended to its extraterritorial courts by Regency and ISDAC] shall be guided Congress in 1850 A.D. appropriation. in England. and having A. For example. not capable of in rem governance. Here is that official wording: “Section 4. of law shall therefore That would cause conflict A space governance structure include treaty and lead to star wars. and legal enforceability of this has been questioned as not capable of literal construction. was crafted by the designers over a five-year series of committee meetings and conferences. United Societies in Space memorialized in the UNITED NATIONS conducted the internationally noticed Count UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF Down Conference No. movement alone. No reason has been sited for this except the admonitions of the Outer Space Treaty: “Article II: Outer space. along with the rest of the documents.” It was 31 . workers. is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty. 1. and developers. should be structured as a trusteeship are silent. including the moon and other celestial bodies. or by any other means. The organic documents produced at that Convention were published August 4.

It may be called assault. or heriditaments to himself and his heirs. outer space venue torts need to be litigated in space and near the venue of occurrence. and the law of the forum as to matters pertaining to remedies. particularly the lease. The fee simple absolute is excluded from consideration because for 900 plus years it has been defined as: “Fee Simple: (a). By treaty all such resources offEarth are the common heritage of mankind and treated legally as public property. another person. (15) estates. the easement. COMMON LAW TORTS What Law Governs The general rule is expressed in Corpus Juris Secundum: 24: “In General: As to transitory torts. malpractice. However. negligence. false ‘imprisonment. and without a local court system in and for space. During the development of common law from 1100 AD in England and since 1776 in America and since 1850 in America’s extraterritorial courts. and the trust 32 . forever. without any law of torts existent in space venues outside of a nations space vessel. 25: “Existence and Extent of Liability: The law of the place where the act or omission. Tort law covers a very wide range of conduct. the law of the place where the injury is occasioned or inflicted governs in respect of the right of action.which is incorporated herein as Exhibit B. they are in common use worldwide. they also extend to outer space governance. LAND FOR SALE Common Law Estates Do Work The history of the common law reveal that at least four common law estates rest on top of superior titles of the king without derogating from those legal estates. The first 20 paragraphs are deemed inalienable rights of settlers. either to the king. slander and/or derogation of title. libel. occurs determines the existence of a tort. Definition. these are basic building blocks in place. (17) These estates are denominated inferior estates at common law because they are temporary. or to the UN as beneficiary of public property in space. these estates were recognized as the law of the land unless modified specifically by Parliament in England or Congress/state legislation in America. Notwithstanding their legal sufficiency as inferior.” With this basic legal structure asserted by the 50 Regents and hearing no objection from the UN nor any member nation. and equitable only. (16) An acre on the Moon is public property so it cannot be converted unilaterally to private property and be held as an absolute estate in perpetuity. The following legal and equitable tenants are applicable in outer space as a result. These four are the lease. (b) A fee simple estate is the greatest estate a person can possess in landed property: an absolute estate in perpetuity. terminable. limited. and generally the locus delecti is the place where the last event necessary to make the actor liable occurs. The underlying legal title. 2000. interference with contract. tenements. claimed as the basis of tort. Since August 4. the mortgage. (but not the same as monuments). is not legally diminished by these titles according to 900 years of common law rulings. trespass. slander. PROPERTY AT COMMON LAW What Estates Don’t Work In outer space it is clear that title by fee simple absolute will not work in space resources.” (18) Because of this 900-year-old rule of law regarding torts. battery. redress of wrongs is practically impossible. A fee simple estate is one by which a tenant holds lands.

Countries who do document is reported in the ISDAC official business there or with citizens of those countries record: Space Governance Journal. millions of contracts will be made here on Earth and at various venues in outer space. The ISDAC court is estimated time to completion. This occurred at the cutoff date of August 4. The law of contracts grew would end up as the law of the land on the Moon out of tort law as a trespass on the case. “Agreement” is the corporations. then the usual rules will apply and dictate which state or federal court has venue and what laws will apply. subject space settlements must matter. theft. The common law has grafted many rules onto the substance of crimes. 2000 A. against governments. It has evolved CONTRACTS into a respected body of criminal procedures. mutuality of case. lawsuits among settlers. per the in America and England and its colonies. performed. (22) The formal requirements of a contract on the Moon are now the same as in America on that cutoff date. (21) As development of outer space progresses over a thousand year estimated time to completion. This including India and Australia. 33 . It is not unlikely that this paradigm venue-wide basis. and the expression of the Parties of a common individuals. In will also handle tort suits the contract sense. this category of common law will adjust to astro law most readily. entire common The whole world knows and understands law was extended from America to space. legal considerprogresses over a thousand year be sorted out. The this. and mutuexpected to deal with such millions of contracts will be made ality of obligation….wrongful death. Its range of ways to breach essentials are comthose new duties in outer As development of outer space petent parties.” (23) Effective after the cutoff date. An essential element of tort liability is the existence of a duty imposed in favor of the person injured and against the person whose conduct produces the injury.. “arrangement. What Law Governs These are far beyond the scope of this paper except to identify that astro law now has a The general rule is that a contract is definable set of crimes and procedures enforceable where it is made or intended to be applicable thereto. then venue is on the Moon and outer space law applies because the common law of contract was extended to outer space. unless the contract changes this plus the international rules of comity. agreement. In these cases the defense of intention to affect their legal relations. “Necessity for Existence. Here they are: Torts Defined The textbook definitions of tort law are broad enough to encompass these new circumstances: The elemental definitions of TORT are set forth in Corpus Juris Secundum as follows: 6. Contract law then grew much more quickly and it Criminal Procedures and Crimes is said to have eaten its mother. Common law contracts are used regularly cutoff date was August 4. If on Earth.D. venues in outer space. (20) have a degree of familiarity with this law of Torts are now cognizable in outer space on a contract. A contract is an agreeThe novel types of new duties and the wide ment which creates an obligation. It governmental immunity will become at issue is synonymous with “compact” and because all corporations and individuals “understanding” and distinguishable from currently in space are agents of a government. Denver Convention on Space Governance. case by ations. money had and received. and more. As new cases and new circumstances come forward in space settlements. If made on the Moon.D. which went extinct. trespass on the case. It here on Earth and at various “(c) Agreement. 2000 A. regardless of the efforts of USIS.” (19) “(a) Contract.

by the United Nations. This is a technical term that requires all nations to actively participate in asset management and pro rata 34 . 9.” Proceedings of the 47th IAF Congress. Ibid. Vol. The Moon Treaty of 1979. 39 12. 2005. and Organization. 5. 1881. 2003. 9. “Transporting a Legal System for Property Rights: From the Earth to the Stars. The Registration Treaty. Dr. xx. 8. Sattler. President Clinton in 1994. 1968. pp. Torts Defined. commentary. These may or may not be drawn upon as persuasive precedents during that evolution of citizen law in outer space. Contracts Defined. 1. 4.” American Bar Association Air & Space Lawyer. The Liability Treaty. “Astrolaw: The First Thousand Years. a. The Rescue and Return Treaty. regarding its meeting in Chicago. Living and Working in Space: Human Behavior. Envoys of Mankind: A Declaration of First Principles for the Governance of Space Societies. 14. 4.. Evolution is anticipated. 1994. par.a. January 27. 1996. (IISL). 1991. p. January 14. 10. 18. 17. now known as astro law. 17 C.S. p. 1975. p. It was selected for U. p. 1967. Section 6. Ltd. a. by the United Nations. Vol. 3. Culture. 16. Oliver Wendell. 31-43.. the Return of Astronauts. 3. 9. Contracts. Robinson. 13. 17 C. Holmes. during the International Mars Society Convention. to 2100 A. (3) The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects. by the United Nations. 6. The 50 Regents are private citizens and none are employed by any nation. 1986. Declan J. 6. UN General Assembly resolution 51/122: Declaration on International Co-operation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interests of All States. The five space treaties are: (1) The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space. Ellis Horwood. 15. 20. prologue by Gene Roddenbury at p.S. O’Donnell. 22. No. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967..S.J.a. H. Space Governance Journal. Space Governance Journal.” Chicago Journal of International Law. 11 et seq. 1979. by the United Nations. O’Donnell delivered this paper to the IISL meeting in Japan in 2005. Declan J.M. Philip R.: “Benefit Sharing: The Municipal Model. Including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies. and punishments. Vol. The other legal documents that affect space law directly or indirectly are therefore segregated into their own special circumstance.J. 1996.. ENDNOTES 1. 86 C. 6. remedies. (2) The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts. Rosanna.k. common law. 30. circa 1100 A.k. p. and White Jr. A trade name affidavit was so authorized. Space Governance Journal. (4) The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. and Harris. Harris.k. by the United Nations. signed by U. 3. Declan J.J. 11.N. p. Benefit sharing as a treaty burden appears to be restated as the common heritage of mankind in the UN Treaty on the Law of the Sea. 2. distribution of all revenues back to all nations.a. 11-31. The Regency was voted upon as also known as the “International Space Development Authority Corporation”: see. Beijing. The Common Law. Section 1.. Space Governance Journal. 1972.S. April 22. 1999-2000. p. (5) The Treaty Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. p.. England. Space Governance Journal. 11 et seq. Space Governance Journal. 7. Taking Into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries.D. Smithsonian Institution Press.. regarding estates in real property. Ibid. 86 C.D.S. a.. 30.a. Vol.k. George S. 19. March 29. Section 1. 21. Ibid. 23. * Mr.: “Is it Time to Replace the Moon Agreement. re the Regency. Illinois.a. 11.J. Vol. 282. A reference to “equitable sharing is provided but is not defined. O’Donnell. O’Donnell.CONCLUSION Astrolaw as common law extended into outer space allows for a continued cable of citizenlevel laws. 6. See. 9. Section 24 and 25. 9. pp. p.k. and experience. a. 2003. a. Publication. China. Corpus Juris Secundum 88 (a) and (b). 11. A judicial tradition is enabled with precedent. p. Philip R. Vol. is deemed the official reporter for the Regency of USIS [and ISDAC]. Vol. and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space..

heavy manufacturing on the bottom or exploration. 2008: Interior living.” 2. tourist tenders. The approximate plan for economical construction and management is built on the home owners association model for condominium apartments. research. Mars. As the vessel engages in long term travel it is made to rotate. John Hovde. thus creating a gravity effect. This design won our yearend 2005 design project for the First Wonder of the Off-World. 35 . 2010: Final design/architecture for the space governance authorities to execute all of the above. Management is plete with staff. maintaining common areas. and commercial areas on vessel. space development companies. The cylindrical storage area at the center is low to zero gravity. Mars Cycler Orbiter Access Portals (Image by David Robinson) A circular center from top to bottom consists of cargo storage for delivery to Moon. and farming areas for the Mars cycler orbiter. one: staff living quarters The periodic fees paid by governance authorities. Dayton O’Donnell. is to assist humankind in parking. essential services. age 14. ranching. and transportation portals. never to land here or there. Water storage is placed along the circumference where it will consist of ice at the outer edges and a river on the inner sides. 3. age 14.14 miles in level four. developers. as well as for our space governance authorities. A smooth and circular deck with magnetically controlled docking grids line the bays. and space yachts. farming. ship. one mile in diameter and 3. The given premise was to design a large space ship to cycle from Earth orbit to a larger Moon orbit and. 4. Our cover for volume 12 features the artist’s image of the very large Mars cycler orbiter. light vessel circumference. and providing guest quarters. the next level inward is comparable to Mars. and authority that built the technical advisors on level as well as for our space vessel and governs it. fees) pay for running the and hydroponics on the middle or third level. DEADLINE DECEMBER 31. and the inner most is analogous to the Moon. DEADLINE DECEMBER 31. age 13. tourists tenders. development and fifth level. age 16. making it convenient for moving cargo. The outer most interior is similar to Earth gravity (1-G). DEADLINE DECEMBER 31. The purpose of this grand explorers quarters. and Brooks Jenkins. regularly scheduled trips to Mars orbit and return. and “space yachts. 2009: Space Bank. and Space Money designs. 2007: Cargo transports. then. Each cubic meter is priced Preliminary planning “ …headquarters for all for condo marketing to features include vessel nations. cargo transports. and participating nations and captain’s quarters. conducted by the space communications. DEADLINE DECEMBER 31. along with ingress and egress bays for settlement of the solar system. cominvestors. and Earth projects. The ship is to be headquarters for all participating nations and space development companies.First Wonder of the Off-World: Follow on Design Contests… 1. The winning team consisted of Asia Wakabayashi.” and space governance participants (like offices on the second homeowner association level. working. space development crews.

Durst at 808-885-3473 in Hawaii or by e-mail to his California offices at news@spaceagepub. because we granted an extension for the Lockheed Martin team. The continued competitive use of yen. (formerly active in SpaceDev. These three space advocacy leaders will deliver if funding is committed at modest levels. This kind of extension is clearly extraordinary. Space Governance Journal is proud to support the effort and has nominated United Societies in Space vice president Brad Blair to its steering committee.000 each in Space Bank Money of ISDAC.). has amended its Lunar Economic Development Authority directive to include an International Lunar Observatory in its Moon development plan. pretty soon. (from the December 31.000. Space Governance Journal then supplements all of that with international promotion and publicity for each team.000 award to the team. ($500 each for the four member team). a single venue governance is recommended so all participants in space development play on a level field. The project is detailed on the company Website at www. (or you assert the better technique). Furthermore. Jim Benson of Benson Space Company. (or individual). rather unnecessarily if dollars are perceived as lost in that space development catastrophe. rubles. a plaque and bank certificate and an interest bearing note issue immediately. Contact Mr. second monetary system for the space development phase. Inc. 2005. the next 100 years in space. we’ll be talking about real money here. International Lunar Observatory SGJ Staff Report Thanks to Steve Durst and his Space Age Publishing Company affiliates.com. The prize of $2. ISDAC. fiscal. we may eliminate or cushion outside economic influences from or to nations and provide a stable and fluid and level playing field for the space development phase. and dollars in situ is not tolerable. Each year the prize per team member (up to five) is increased so. pounds. francs. for an additional $400. Obviously we will not release the space money component until that 2009 contest is won and done. 36 . probably at relevant universities. deadline). On the reverse side of this on Earth.By converting all competing national currencies into space money. Dynamically fluid exchange rates of the currencies lend instability to business arrangements in space. is supplemented by $100. How These Contests Work The Orbiter Contest was won on March 31. financial. The International Lunar Observatory is managed from stations on Earth and at international sites. However. Funding is about to commence.spaceagepub. 2006. supports this project with technical assistance: the project is feasible as structured. and the project. a catastrophe in space at a USA facility may adversely affect the value of the dollar on Earth. Only one other acceptable entry was timely received before the yearend deadline.com. The timely team won and that is described above and pictured on our cover. the world may soon have a powerful telescope permanently located on the Moon. CALL US TO ENTER! Landing Bay Designs (Images by David Robinson) The Space Bank Contest is our way of finalizing our 10-year debate on how to create a relevant economic.

2006. Mike Duke was nominated and approved as the 2003 winner of our SPACE HUMANITARIAN AWARD. That appears in Vol. i. please call 800-632-2828. 2005: During the Mars Society Meeting in Boulder. we have a waiting list of purchasers for our bonds when they are available after October 6. President This will report on club activities for 2005 and follow-up on several unfinished matters at year-end 2004. Space Governance Journal would continue with a double tenth year anniversary issue. During 2005 and 2006 the authority model has been published domestically and internationally. as it should be.e. a Colorado non-profit corporation. those papers were considered proposals. 9 of SGJ.D. but the wind shall break the reed.. To order. level regents are all in place with no resignations and only one death: Rashmi Mayur of India.. Here are the important highlights: 1.a. We honor Rashmi Mayur for his devotion and energy for outer space development as part of the human agenda. also of Mumbai. USIS conducted its annual meeting. United Societies in Space is financially and spiritually alive and well. India as a newer space participant was fearful of discrimination in that endeavor. 37 . 10 of SGJ. C. ISDAC: Our Board of Directors voted unanimously in 2004 in Chicago to formalize the Regency into a committee of USIS and permit USIS and its affiliates to do business as ISDAC. Since no commerce has been prosecuted to date. He died unexpectedly in 2005 amidst an otherwise progressive recovery. The proposal has never been criticized and many have praised its theoretic value. LEDA.2005 ANNUAL REPORT OF UNITED SOCIETIES IN SPACE. E. The first of these was made with the National Space Society (NSS). Our readers have all deferred to their day jobs and family requirements. a Colorado Non-Profit Corporation By: Declan J. Not only did that provide a degree of insulation from debt and possible liabilities. He entered rehabilitation in New York while staying with his sister in New Jersey. Space Governance Journal was the reason for this award because it called for a level playing field of one law in and for all space venues. with the Secretary of State of Colorado. Rashmi Mayur. He has been replaced by Deepak Kapadia. Rashmi suffered a stroke at the UN Summit on World Environmental Status in 2004 in Africa. D. 2. We hope to bridge into formal recognition as a chapter of the Mars Society also. which features USIS as one of its chapters. For example. O'Donnell. India. deceased. a. which he received in October 1998 in Mumbai. there is no debt and no known liabilities. B. as well as for his respect for International Law and Policy. Additional applications and interlocking director agreements were resolved for affiliates as follows: i) Lunar Economic Development Authority Inc. Every volunteer organization must endure these kinds of hiatus from time-to-time. "THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY CORPORATION. The 50 Ph. but it is less visible and more serene than previously." The purpose is to provide a corporate sponsor to the otherwise non-corporate association. David Livingston was nominated and approved as the 2004 winner of the 2004 SPACE HUMANITARIAN AWARD. This is available for $20 as Volumes 9 & 10 combined. This allows USIS and its affiliates to be the International Space Development Authority Corporation. India. USIS resolved to assist other organizations by offering affiliation agreements and relevant services. INC. Rashmi nominated Declan for the Indira Gandhi Award of India for International Law. Colorado. The Boulder Meeting. That appears in Vol. it also made it more conveniently identifiable as an advisory group for USIS. 3. Among the several topics covered the following are noteworthy: A. Since no business has been accomplished. USIS filed its ISDAC papers in 2006.k..

as the 2007. a Colorado non-profit corporation. (WSBA). II distribution at Valencia.000 invested is so speculative). at Valencia. 2007. (See below for LEDA agenda. The 2006 Annual Meeting will be in Valencia. or the Regency. Brad Blair has passed on his CEO position with LEDA over to Dr. F. Meetings in Las Vegas. Canada and in Fukuoka. The idea is to achieve IRS 501(c)(3) status. B. Mr. Japan. G.) D. D. Inc. Spain. and offer 100% tax deductible gift status to bond holders. This has been referred to Corporate Counsel. 4. Recommendation that ISDAC as a Regency Authority merge into USIS or incorporate itself as an affiliate. and other cases. Acceptance of Nomination of Jefferey Liss. 1978. and Brooks Jenkins. The Buzz Aldrin Space Library Collection has been disassociated from Douglas County Public Library. Acceptance of new Board of Directors member Deepak Kapadia and David Livingston. H. WB Bar Association. age 14. Thomas Matula on this subject at NSS-ISDC and is in SGJ and at IAF in Van Coover. Nevada and elsewhere with IRS Counsel leads us to believe that bond revenues may be unrecognized income to USIS and deductible to the donor. The Mexican Space Agency project was discussed as feasible at this time. Mr. I. and Space Governance Journal. USIS member Nicole McGee has coordinated with USIS to design and launch the newly incorporated "Aerospace Exchange" enterprise in Colorado. Approval of several Space Development Corporation Treaty agreements with LEDA. age 16. Committee Meetings at Headquarters have produced the following: A. Spain on October 6. Ms. This status must be reviewed this year. US Tax Court. SJG Vol. retain corporate status.ii) iii) iv) v) SPACE Orbital Development Authority (SODA). K. age 14. Buzz Aldrin and Dr. 5. A budget with realistic projects will be considered. age 13. Pablo DeLeon will remain our monitor at the Mexican Congress in Mexico City. B. Ann Deering has died and left her copyright property in her articles to USIS: Thank you. Spain. E. The Committee on the Buzz Aldrin Space Library. Commissioner. F. C. Declan to co-author with Dr.000 per each $5. This is on the agenda for our annual meeting at UCLA on August 12. Bill Good. issue bonds. Calzada from Mexico City reports that the President of Mexico has declined to accept the proposal but did establish a Space Agency with no appropriations. Dayton O'Donnell." Mr. thanks to our VP Jesus Raygoza B. The Aerospace Xchange Magazine proposal was dropped by USIS because the Committee elected to promote it as a stand alone "For Profit Corporation. Webmaster Richard Westfall has marked a trail for us to recover our original website name: USIS. Reliance is made on Zaninovich vs. and Bond Distribution Proposal. C. J. Space Governance Journal. Esq. John Hovde. 2006. has begun hearings on this timely and critically important subject. It is now a USIS project with public endorsement by NSS. 38 . a Colorado non-profit corporation. (which was done). Inc. Andrew Quiat. In 2002 the Space Bank was put on deferral by the Board of Directors. World Space Bar Association. SODA.. H. Chapter Status with the Mars Society. SPACE HUMANITARIAN AWARD WINNER. but not by LEDA. E. during the IAF convention: it will cover: A.org. Workshop on LEDA Presentation at the UN-IAC in October 2006. (because repayment in 30 years of $100. Bond issuance procedures and uses of proceeds for ISDAC.. Gary Rodriquez will report on its progress in 2006. Cycler Orbiter spaceship award winners' presentation: Asia Wakabayashi. The ISDAC structure for Space architecture should be an USIS proposal. Ms. SGJ. G.

Vol. John Reconstitution: A Space Governance Philosophy. Dec. 1998 p. 1994 p. Space is the Future of Mankind. A.32 Benaroya.89 ISDAC: Financing Capacity for In-Space Projects. Dennis M.16 G Glaser. David C. Why Space? An Anthropologist’s Response. Peter Solar Energy—The Global Energy Source Need for a Global Space Based Power Transmission (WPT) Consortium. Jan.22 Freeman. July 1997 p. C. Dec.35 D Davidson. 2003-2004 Dore. Jan. Ann Space Insurance: Don’t Leave Earth Without It! Vol. 6 39 . 2003-2004 Bode.22 Criswell. Jan. Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. 7/8. 1998 p. Marianne The International Space Station (with pictures courtesy of NASA). Jan.48 It is Time for Krafft Ehricke’s Moon! Vol. Philip R. Jan. 2003-2004 Krafft Ehricke’s Extraterrestrial Imperative.49 Davidson. 12 F Finney. 7/8. Elizabeth Ann Manhart Space Nursing.146 Conference Proceedings: First Space Interdependence Day a Success. 9/10. 126 Becker. June 1994 p. Marsha Herman Oberth: The Father of Spaceflight. 1994 p. Oleg M. Military Assistance Program.5 Policy Considerations for the Utilization of Space Resources.156 Blair. 1998 p. Pablo South American Copmpetitor in the Ansari X Prize.154 Arsenault. July 1998 p. Sarah Bode Brachet.106 Alifanov. July 1997 p. July 1997 p. 1995 p. Joshua Innovation. Sarah See Becker. two part article in Vol’s 11 & 12 E Egan.4 Durst. Nathan C. Jim Near Earth Asteroid Prospector. 1998 p. Case for Practical Visionaries. Steve For Sale Live From the Moon. 9/10. July 1998 p. Dec. 1997 p. Jan. Sarah Bode Insights From the Space Innovation Workshop. Dec. Vol.26 USIS Russia Progress Report. Vol.44 Foulkes. Ben Tsiolkovsky’s Vision for Humanity’s Future in Space. Roland Living and Working in Space -A Foreword. 2000-2002 p. 12 B Barrett. 1994 p. 9/10. Matthew A Space Policy Proposal Regulating Martian Water Resources. Rationale and Plans for a Lunar Solar Power System. Michael M. Cynda Collins What Way Forward?.112 H Harris. Dec.32 Goldman. Gerard. 1995 p. Secure World Foundation. 1998 p. July 1996 p. 2003-2004 Dodds. Lawyer’s Perspective on the USIS Strategies for Metanation and LEDA. 6 1999 p. 2000-2002 p. Haym Economically Viable Lunar Development. 1998 p. 12 C Corbett. Astronomical Art and the Internet: A New Paradigm for Creativity. Jan. UNCOPOUS Chairperson The United Nations Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPOUS). 9/10. July 1997 p. Vol. Metaworld.42 Dyson. 1995 p. The. Space & Opportunity: An Inseparable Triad.Index by Author for Volumes 1-13 A Abend. Stephen E. 1994 p. Roland A.20 Doyle. Vol.28 NEWS Focus: Solar Power from Luna & Space. 14 Challenges in the Space Environment: Personnel Deployment Systems: Part 1. Katie Space Nursing Society. The. Dec.58 Challenges in the Space Environment: Personnel Deployment Systems: Part 2. Vol. Vol. Ned Position on SettlingEarth’s Solar System.19 Deering. July 1998 P. July 1996 p. July 1996 p.16 Metanation. Vo. Dec. Vol. Brad Economic Development of Lunar Mineral Resources.158 Benson. 9/10.” Jan. 2003-2004 de Leon.86 Bernard. 1997 p.

A Space Policy Proposal Regulating Martian Water Resources. 2003.94 Montaner. Jan. The.20 Survey . Jan. 1997 p.16 Harvey. June 1995 p. June 1994 p.48 Macrothinking in Global Space Planning: Minicases of ESA. 1998 p. July 1996 p.61 Mercer-Fike. 9/10.19 To Mars and Back Safely. Jan. Marta Gaggero 1996 Space Essay Contest Winner: Establishment of an International Space Organization. David M. Jan. Jan.196 Space Law: Book Review. Jan. Brian New Russian Space Program. Alexander Space Enterprise: Children’s Space. 1995 p.112 Space Enterprise: The Slow Steady Rise of Commercial Space. July 1998 p.132 Howerton. Vol. Vol. Jan. 1998 p. UN Cases for Space Authority. Much Farther.32 Renewing the Aerospace Industry Through Lunar Development. A. Diana The NASA budget Dilemma.97 Harrison.32 Working Definition of Space law” and “Astrolaw. 2000-2002 p. Barbara Marx The Committee for a Positive Future. 1998 p.33 Space Book Reviews. Albert A.l22 How Space Helps the Earth to Be Sustainable. 10 Space Book Review. J. July 1996 p. Jan. Rashmi Space is the Place for Synergy. Vol. 1995 p. Jack Fly Me to the Moon and Much. 40 . July 1998 p.78 O O’Donnell.36 NEWS Focus: Solar Power from Luna & Space. Dimitri McGill Univ’s Institute of Air & Space Law Recently Honored by ICAO. Deyong Chinese Perspective on Space Development.6 Legal Space Frontier Challenges. Declan J.Facilitating a New Space Market Through a Lunar Economic Development Authority. Olivier Space Law Exchange.Objectives of a Lunar Base: Reevaluation 1997. 2000-2002 p. July 1997 p.166 Getting NASA out of the Business of Space Business. 1997 p. 1997 p. Sergey Cosmonautics and Civilian Society.” July 1997 p. 1997 p.38 Space Enterprise: Three Enemies of Space Development. Vol. A Code of Ethics for Off-Earth Commerce and Space Development. 1995 p. 1994 p.26 Koelle. 1997 p. 1994 p. Dec. 12 J Johnson. & FMF. Arthur M Exploration Advocacy and the Concepts of Human Freedom and Destiny. July. Dec. 1995 p. Jan. Jan.169 Livingston.11 Selling Visionary Ideas to Realistic People. 31 Strategies for Lunar Development and Port Authority.49 Hoyt. 2003-2004 Hurtak. Jeri USIS Director met with Leaders of ISU in Strasbourg. Dec. Vol. 7/8.J. Humanizing Outer Space: Some Suggestions for Metanation. 12 Huntress.54 Natural Law and a Declaration of Humankind Interdependence . 1997 p. Dec. June 1995 p. Dec. Steps Toward a Lunar Settlement. July 1997 p. 1995 p.Part 2. June 1995 p. July 1998 P. Jan. 2003-2004 Lyne.10 Mayur. France.29 Hubbard. 9/10. Vol. Wesley Testimony of Dr. USIS. 11 M Maniatis. Civil Engineer in Lunar Industrialization. Huntreess at Senate Committee Hearings Oct.24 The Space Preservation Treaty: How to Transform the War Industry into a Space Industry.170 Space Enterprise: Space Stock Surfers Blasting Off. 6 Why USIS Seeks NGO Status at the United Nations.104 Krichevsky. Jan. 1998 p.26 Johnson. July 1997 p. Dec. Jan. Anis Civil Engineer in Lunar Industrialization. 7/8.142 K Kong. June 1995 p. 1997 p. Nicolas Mateesco W-SBAAwards the First “George S. Jan. H.184 Hingerty.88 Space Societies in Britain and Ireland. H. Robinson Ill Astrolaw Award”: Acceptance Address. 1998 p.87 Matte.172.Part 1. The. July 1997 p. Stewart W. 1998 p. Vol. B. July 1997 p.34 L Lightman.14 Natural Law and a Declaration of Humankind Interdependence . 1998 p. Jan. 1998 p.18 Kozlowski. Alex Star Scores: Comparing the US vs. 1997 p. Dec.

2000-2002 p. IV.136 International Space Development Authority Corporation: Financing Capacity for In-Space Projects. 9/10. Vol. Modified and Updated.31 Space Continuing Public Education. Dec. 2003-2004 International Space Development Authority Corporation: Why. Section 2 Confers Standing Upon Future Generations By John Davidson. 13 International Diplomacy and Outer Space Policy. Vol. July 1997 p. Jesus International Branch Report: USIS-Mexico. M. 9/10.6 Survey of the Top Ten Space Policy Problems at 1995.22 Q Quiat. 1998 p. Terrorism in Space. Drafting Competition for the Metanation Constitution. 2000-2002 p.52 Meaning of Space Interdependence Day. 7/8. Vol. 6. July 1996 p. How. George S. 2003-2004 A Ten Year Plan. Jan. June 1995 p. Vol. 7/8. Vol. Vol. July 1996 p. 2003-2004 Two-Page Book Review: Origins of Int’l Space Law and the IISL of the IAF By Stephen Doyle.37 Property Rights and Space Resources Development. June 1995 p. 9/10.32 Plush.19 Renewing the Aerospace Industry Through Lunar Development. What. 1995 p. 9/10. 20032004 Mex-LunarHab: A Hispanic-Mexican Habitat for Settlement on the Moon.94 Robinson. 12 Life Support Systems in the Mars Cycler Orbiter. 6. Vol.61 41 . 7/8.2 Benefit Sharing: The Municipal Model.N. July 1997 p. 2000-2002 p. 1997 p. Vol. Vol.57 Rosin. 2000-2002 p.4 Metaspace: A Design for Governance in Outer Space. Jan. 1999 p. Rationale and Plans for a Lunar Solar Power System.144 Facilitating a New Space Market Through a Lunar Economic Development Authority. Where.66 Buzz Aldrin Space Collection for Public Libraries. 1998 p. July 1997 p. July 1998 P. Vol.150 Return to the Moon Conferences Report. Andrew L Financing Infrastructure for Space Stations and Related Business Developments.33 Space Barter Bank – Groundbreaking Developmenets. (w/Constitution for the Regency of USIS). Vol.12 Mars 1996 Russian Launch Fails.176 R Raygoza B. The.4 Fifth Force Editorial: A Mir Gift to the World. June 1994 p. Dec. 2000-2002 p. 11 Astro Law: The First Thousand Years. 2003-2004 1995 USIS Conference Report. Vol.. 7/8.J.40 Terrorism in Space. an editorial. 7/8. 1999 p. Vol. Vol. 2000-2002 p. Vol. 1998 p. 1995 p. Dmitry International Branch Report: USIS-Russia.116 Rosenberg. Jan.8 Out of the Box Ideas for NASA.120 Heinlein Model for Lunar Habitats. 9/10. Jan. July 1997 p. 1997 p.A.18 Robinson. Sanders D.76 Strategies for Lunar Development and Port Authority. 1998 p. 9/10. Lunar Resource Utilization & The Lunar Economic Development Authority. 2003-2004 P Peterson. Vol.30 Gary “Rod” Rodriguez USIS Receives “Hands-On” Experience Through the Space Orbital Development Authority.71 Property Law in Outer Space. July. Vol. 13 Space Governance.14 Property Law in Outer Space [Revised].143 Private Property in Space Resources. Jan. 13 “Mars Bucks” are Legal. 1998 p. 1998 p.22 Reconstitution: A Space Governance Philosophy. George S. Vol. Linda Space Nursing Society. Jan. Carol Military Assistance Program. 9/10. 2000-2002 p. 6.6 O’Donnell II. July 1996 p. When. July 1997 p. Do the Space Treaties need a Lawsuit?. D. 2003-2004 Just Do It. 1997 p.80 Mexico Needs a Space Agency. July 1998 p. and How Much. 9/10.122 Fifth Force Editorial. Vol. Vol.35 Pieson.4 The Space Preservation Treaty: How to Transform the War Industry into a Space Industry. Jan. 2000-2002 p. The. Vol. 2003-2004 Two-Page Book Review: Tomorrow’s Standing Today: How Equitable Jurisdiction Clause of Article III. Dec. 7/8. Jan.100 Commercialization by Evolution in the Jurisdiction of Outer Space. 1994 p. Jan. 2000-2002 p.5 1996 USIS Space Conference Proceedings. 1999 p. Vol. 7/8. 7/8. Vol.Astro Law as Common Law Extended into the Outer Space Territory. Vol. 7/8. 1997 p.

26 Schmitt. Galactic Mining Industries. 9/10.82 Millennial Project Strategy. 6. Vol. July 1996 p. Compliance with International Space Law of the LEDA Proposal.16 Shneour. 1994 p.162 Sharpe. Jan. 2000-2002 p. Inc. 9/10. Vol. 13 Historic Assessment of Water on Mars. 2000-2002 p.28 Sloan.17 Space Governance Journal Staff Greater Debater. 1998 p. Return to the Moon: A Commercial Program to Benefit Earth. 1997 p. our Webmaster and Assistant Editor 42 . 9/10.16 Reflections on the Outer Space Treaty. July 1997 p. Vol. Dec. Plans and Strategies for a California Spaceport Authority. Vol. June 1995 p..40 Siegfried. Vol. 1997 p.18 W Wasser. 1999 p. 1997 p.55 Webber. June 1994 p. James H.60 Testimony of Dr. Vol. 1999 p.118 Schrunk. 7/8. Jan.51 How Has Space Governance Journal Outlived so Many Publications on the Subject of Space. 2003-2004 Introducing Richard Westfall. Harrison Case for Establishing a Human Presence on the Moon and Mars. Vol. 1998 p. Marshall T.14 Webre.S Savage. Out of Our Backyard? Jan. Jan. Jan. 1998 p.74 Lawmaking Standards for Space Governance. Zubrin at Senate Committee Hearings Oct.132 Simon. Burt L. July 1998 p. 2003-2004 Stuster.151 Why Develop Space Resources. 2000-2002 p. Jan. July 1996 p. Concept for a Permanent Lunar Utilities System. Colonizing the Galaxy: Mars Prospectus. Plans and Strategies for a California Spaceport Authority. June 1995 p. Vol. 2000-2002 p. Jan. Malapert Mountain Revisited. The. Vol. Alan Law That Could Make Privately Funded Space Settlement Profitable.22 U USIS Documents The Constitution of the Regency of United Societies in Space. July 1997 p. Bold Endeavors: Lessons From Polar & Space Exploration. 1997 p. Richard ISDAC: Financing Capacity for In-Space Projects.4 Peter Diamandis X Prize Founder. Vol. 9/10.24 Smith. Donald O. 1997 p. Jan. Derek Privatizing Challenges of Station Mir. 6. Alfred The Space Preservation Treaty: How to Transform the War Industry into a Space Industry. 2003-2004 Military Assistance Program. Jan. Jesco 1992 Winning Essay: Space Humanization: Always a Mission to Planet Earth. 2003-2004 Space Colonization & Commercialization – An Alternative to the Moon and Mars. The. Vol. June 1994 p.61 Westfall. Michael C. International Space Enterprise Now. 2003. 1998 p.11 V von Puttkamer.21 Smith.44 Malapert Mountain Revisited. Elie A. How Will Humanity Create a Spacefaring Civilization?. Robert A. Vol. Robert Significance of the Martian Frontier. 7/8. Milton L. David G.16 Physical transportation on the Moon: The Lunar Railroad. July 1997 p.24 Z Zubrin. William H. 13 Wyckoff. 7/8. Jack W. 7/8.