Slavs At present the customary name for all the Slavonic races is Slav.

This name did not appear in history until a late period, but it has superseded all others. The general opinion is that it appeared for the first time in written documents in the sixth century of the Christian era. However, before this the Alexandrian sch olar Ptolemy (about A.D. 100-178) mentioned in his work, "Geographike hyphegesis ", a tribe called Stavani (Stavanoi) which was said to live in European Sarmatia between the Lithuanian tribes of the Galindae and the Sudeni and the Sarmatic t ribe of the Alans. He also mentioned another tribe, Soubenoi, which he assigned to Asiatic Sarmatia on the other side of the Alani. According to Safarik these t wo statements refer to the same Slavonic people. Ptolemy got his information fro m two sources; the orthography of the copies he had was poor and consequently he believed there were two tribes to which it was necessary to assign separate loc alities. In reality the second name refers very probably to the ancestors of the present Slavs, as does the first name also though with less certainty. The Slav onic combination of consonants sl was changed in Greek orthography into stl, sth l, or skl. This theory was accepted by many scholars before Safarik, as Lomonoso v, Schlözer, Tatistcheff, J. Thunmann, who in 1774 published a dissertation on the subject. It was first advanced probably in 1679 by Hartknoch who was supported in modern times by many scholars. Apart from the mention by Ptolemy, the express ion Slavs is not found until the sixth century. The opinion once held by some Ge rman and many Slavonic scholars that the names Suevi and Slav were the same and that these two peoples were identical, although the Suevi were a branch of the G ermans and the ancestors of the present Swabians, must be absolutely rejected. S cattered names found in old inscriptions and old charters that are similar in so und to the word Slav must also be excluded in this investigation. After the reference by Ptolemy the Slavs are first spoken of by Pseudo-Caesarios of Nazianzum, whose work appeared at the beginning of the sixth century; in the middle of the sixth century Jordanis and Procopius gave fuller accounts of them . Even in the earliest sources the name appears in two forms. The old Slavonic a uthorities give: Slovene (plural from the singular Slovenin), the country is cal led Slovensko, the language slovenesk jazyk, the people slovensk narod. The Gree ks wrote Soubenoi, but the writers of the sixth century used the terms: Sklabeno i, Sklauenoi, Sklabinoi, Sklauinoi. The Romans used the terms: Sclaueni, Sclauin i, Sclauenia, Sclauinia. Later authors employ the expressions Sthlabenoi, Sthlab inoi, while the Romans wrote: Sthlaueni, Sthlauini. In the "Life of St. Clement" the expression Sthlabenoi occurs; later writers use such terms as Esklabinoi, A sklabinoi, Sklabinioi, Sklauenioi. The adjectives are sclaviniscus, sclavaniscus , sclavinicus, sclauanicus. At the same time shorter forms are also to be found, as: sklaboi, sthlaboi, sclavi, schlavi, sclavania, later also slavi. In additio n appear as scattered forms: Sclauani, Sclauones (Sklabonoi, Esthlabesianoi, Eth labogeneis). The Armenian Moises of Choren was acquainted with the term Sklavaji n: the chronicler Michael the Syrian used the expression Sglau or Sglou; the Ara bians adopted the expression Sclav, but because it could not be brought into har mony with their phonetical laws they changed it into Saklab, Sakalib, and later also to Slavije, Slavijun. The anonymous Persian geography of the tenth century used the term Seljabe. Various explanations of the name have been suggested, the theory depending upon whether the longer or shorter form has been taken as the basis and upon acceptan ce of the vowel o or a as the original root vowel. From the thirteenth century u ntil Safarik the shorter form Slav was always regarded as the original expressio n, and the name of the Slavs was traced from the word Slava (honour, fame), cons equently it signified the same as gloriosi (ainetoi). However, as early as the f ourteenth century and later the name Slav was at times referred to the longer fo rm Slovenin with o as the root vowel, and this longer form was traced to the wor d Slovo (word, speech), Slavs signifying, consequently, "the talking ones," verb osi, veraces, homoglottoi, consequently it has been the accepted theory up to th

The German sch olar Grimm maintained the identity of the Slavs with Suevi and derived the name from sloba. In one place (Get. this would correspond to the present division of we stern. this mention appears to be an arbit rary combination. erroneously ascribed to the m onk Nestor.. skala (roc k). With some reservation Safarik also gav e a geographical interpretation. those who do not know words. During the long period of war between the Germans and Slavs. Dob rowsky perceived this difficulty and therefore invented the topographical name S lovy. Jor danis says that at the beginning of the era of the migrations the Goths had carr ied on war with the "nation of Slavs". a piratical Slavonic tribe living in the present district of Southern Dalmatia. The Venetian and other Italian cities on t he coast took numerous Slavonic captives from the opposite side of the Adriatic whom they resold to other places. while they called their neighbours the Germans. There is much more reason in another objection that Slavonic philologists hav e made to the derivation of the word Slav from slovo (word). All the seventh-century authorities call all Slavonic tribes. The Slavs called themselves Slovani. but his peoples are called "the Slavs named Vindi" (Sclavi cognomento Winadi). and eastern Slavs. were especially notorious f or their slave-trade. The most probable explanation is that deriving the name from slovo (word). . among whom they laboured. Let tish Sala. and Antae. "the speaking one s". As regards the easter n Slavs or Russians. signifying island. the y called the Russians Antae. give the name Slav without a ny distinction both to the southern Slavs. accept the purely imaginar y locality Slovy but connected the word Slovenin with the Lithuanian Salava.e present time. The reference to t hem in Ptolemy shows that the word then meant only a single tribe. 34. selo (colony). In the eighth and ninth centuries the C zechs and Slavs of the Elbe were generally called Slavs. that is. The result is that the name Slav has given the word slave to the peop les of Western Europe. In the same way all authorities of the era of the Apostles to the Slavs. 35) Jordanis divides all Slavs into three group s: Veneti. that is. svoba (freedom). However. which lasted until the tenth century. The Naretani. but it also often tells of the Slavs of Northern Russia. who lived on the boundaries of the E astern Empire. both southern Sla vs and western Slavs. in this way arose his triple division. that belonged to the kingdom of Prince Samo. Probably he had found the expression Veneti in old writers and had lear ned personally the names Slavs and Antae. Ptolemy calle d the Slavs as a whole the Venedai and says they are "the greatest nation" (megi ston ethnos). this nation must have lived in what is no w Southern Russia. always calls the Slavs as a whole "Slavs". from which is derived the Polish zulawa. Other elucidations of the name Slav. Slavs. Russian princes exported large numbers of slaves from thei r country. The Byzantines of the sixth century thought only of the southern S lavs and incidentally also of the Russians. or inhabitants of a marshy region. solovej (nightingale). but also at times Wens. When it begins to narrate the history of Russia it speaks indeed of the Russians to whom it never applies the designation Slav. scarcely merit mentio n. He did not. the Slavonic territories in the north and southeast furnished the Germans large numbers of slaves. The earliest Russian chronicle. southern. however. this is supported by the Slavonic name for the Germans N emci (the dumb). and distinguished sharply between the two groups of tribes. "the d umb". which was to be derived from slovo. and to the western Slavs. Cyril and Methodius. as clovek (man). The Slavs frequently shared in the seizure and export of their countrymen as slaves. simply Slavs. by the German and Roman chroniclers. The question still remains to be answered whether the expression Slavs indicated originally all Slavonic tribes or only one or a few of them. In another passage he designated the eastern Slavs by the name Veneti. Samo is called the "ruler of the Slavs". According to this interpretation the word Slavs would mean the inhabitants of an island. With them the expression Slavs meant only the southern Slavs. slati (to send). a dry spo t in a swampy region. those who know words. leaving out the mention of Ptolemy already referred to. to which branch both missionaries bel onged. The ending en or an of the form Slovenin indicates derivation from a topographical designation.

Even now the So rbs of Lusatic are called by the Germans Wends.. were designated by the general expression Slavs. Among the successf ul tribes who brought an entire district under their sway and gave it their name were the Russians. In the centuries i mmediately succeeding the Wends are mentioned very rarely. Poles. the Slovaks of Northern Hungary. 8) that they live on the Vistula. the Adriatic Veneti were an Illyrian tribe related to the present Albanians. Czechs. who maintained a certain independence. 5. while the Slovenes are frequentl y called Winds and their language is called Windish. Tacitus (G. have also retained their specific national and tribal names.D. He describes the Wends somewhat more in detail but cannot make up his mind whether he ought to include them among the Germans or the Sarmatians. The Wends or Slavs have had connected with them as old tribal con federates of the present Slavs the Budinoi mentioned by Herodotus. still they seem to him to b e more closely connected with the first named than with the latter. Ptolemy (d. However. Where. 57) calls the Venedi the greatest nation livi ng on the Wendic Gulf. 5. The German chroniclers used both names constantly without distinction. From at least the sixth century the expression Slav was. the name of th e tribe came to the front and pushed aside the general designation Slav. though it has been supported by other scholars like Krek.. Potkanski. IV. while the Slavs in Northe rn Russia. 97) that among the peoples living on the other side of the Vistula besides the Sarmatians and others are also the Wends (Venedi). Czermak. the general designation of all Slavonic tribes. w as never completely forgotten. the opinion advocated by Miklosic. Up to recent times the name was cus tomary among the inhabitants of the most celebrated Republic of Dubrovnik (Ragus a). and the Turanian tribe of the Bulgars . 6). Until late in the Middle Ages it was retained by the Slavs of Novgorod in No rthern Russia and by the Slavs in Macedonia and Albania. a nd the Slovinci of Prussia on the North Sea. he says later (III. These peoples. he also speaks of the Venedic mountains (III. further the venetae. Besides these definite notices there are several others that are neither clea r nor certain. however. the pro vince Slavonia between Croatia and Hungary and its inhabitants the Slavonians. Consequently. that the name Slav was originally applied only to one Slavonic tribe. The migrations that h ad now begun had brought other peoples into the foreground until the Venedi agai n appear in the sixth century under the name of Slavs. as well as the Homeric Venetoi. is unfounded. the Slavs attained no political power but fell under the sway of foreig n rulers they remained known by the general description Slav. Pliny (d. The old general name has been retained to the present time by the Slovenes of Southern Austria on the Adriatic coast. namely.a bout 178) in his Geographike (III. 46) says the same. but nothing is known of them. With more reason can the old story that the Greeks obtained amber from th e River Eridanos in the country of the Enetoi be applied to the Wends or Slavs. however. and also the Island of Banoma mentioned by Pliny (IV. In all probability. the original inhabitants of the present Province of Venice. Those tribes that were already thoroughly incorporated in the Russian kingdom are simply called Russian tribes. Wends A much older designation in the historical authorities than Slav is the name Wen d. Wherever a Slavonic tribe rose to greater po litical importance and founded an independent kingdom of its own. The firs t certain references to the present Slavs date from the first and second centuri es.the Slavs of Novgorod. Those who maintain the theory that the original home of the Slavs was in the cou ntries along the Danube have tried to refute the opinion that these references r elate to the ancestors of the present Slavs. an d Pasternek. from which it may be concluded that the Slavs were already living on the shores . hist. therefore. 79) says (Nat. A. Croats. They were made by the Roman writers Pliny and Tacitus and the Alexandrian al ready mentioned Ptolemy. 94). etc. but their arguments are inconclusiv e. The name Wend. It is under this designation that the Slavs first appear in history. the former almost oftener than the latter. C aesar's Veneti in Gaul and Anglia. however.

Consequently if we were to follow strictly the written historical authorities. whil e the Greek Laonikos Harkondilos of the fifteenth century did not commit himself to this view. Most probably the name Wend was of foreign origin and the race was known by this name only among the foreign tribes. 1253). in the letter of Pope J ohn X (914-29) to the Croatian Ban Tomislav and the Sachlumian ruler Mihael. "Chronika pol. The ancient Kiev chronicle. taking it from the early Cel tic root vindos. Decius. Original home and migrations There are two theories in regard to the original home of the Slavs. Naturally an explanation of the term was also sought in the Old Slavonic language. and these th eories are in sharp opposition to each other. still retained in the Old Slavon ic comparative vestij meaning large and brought it into connection with the Russ ian Anti and Vjatici. we would be obliged to support the theor y that the original home of the Slavs is in the countries along the Danube and o n the Adriatic coast. as the Pole Kadlubek. Boguchwal (d. The other theory regards the districts between the Vistula and the Dnieper as their origin al home. while they called themselves Slavs.of the Baltic in the fourth century before Christ. It is p ossible that the Slavs were originally named Wends by the early Gauls. The word was apparently a designation that was first applied to various Gallic or Celtic tribes. Old Norwegian vatn. and others. the re is a reference to the prevalent tradition that St. Kollar derived it from the Old Slavonic word Un. 1125). Thus Wends would signify watermen. is the earl iest authority quoted for the theory that the original home of the Slavs is to b e sought in the region of the Danube. this theory was supported by Kozmaz (d. Jerome invented the Slavon ic alphabet. white. and was current at Rome itself. therefore mean t he allied. Sassinek from S lo-van. One considers the region of the Da nube as the original home of the Slavs. those who pasture. finally the word has be en traced to the old root ven. people living about the water. The southern Slavs have held this theory from the earliest period up to the present time with the evident intention to base on it their claims to the Church Slavonic in the Liturgy. Adelung. This tradition maintained itself through the succeeding centuries. and Safarik connected the word with the East Indians . erroneously ascribed to the monk Nestor. and towards the west across the Oder and the Elbe. Hilferding even derived it from the old East Indian design ation of the Aryans Vanila. . The endeavour was made at one time to derive the word f rom the Teutonic dialects. or Wind. and Andronikos a nd the Apostle Paul are called Apostles to the Slavs because they laboured in Il lyria and Pannocia. Pogodin traced the name from the Celtic. related to the German weiden. because t he root Wend. Wends would. finding supporters even outside these countries. whence they spread southwest over the Carpathians to the Balkans and in to the Alps. The Noricans and Illyrians are declared to be Slavs. Johann M arignola (1355-1362). whence they spread northeast over the Ca rpathians as far as the Volga River. thus the Wends are the people wandering about. or from the Gothic vinja. Lation unda. At an early period. thus. pasture. A derivation from the German wended (to turn) has also been suggested. hence Wends. Pribik Pulkava (1374). by which expression the dark Celts designated the light Slavs. The explanation of the meaning of the word is also to be sought from this point of view. and the Caspian Sea. belonging together. Among the C zechs. and V. peo ple living by the sea. Hajek (1541). Dlugos. is found especially in the districts once occupied by the Gauls." (120 6). This view was maintained by the later chroniclers and histor ical writers of all Slavonic peoples. and then given by the Celts to the Wendic tribes living north of them. Here in detail is related for the first ti me how the Slavs spread from the lower Danube to all the countries occupied late r by them. mean ing water. a confusion that is also to be found in the early writers. Matej Miechowa. Lake Ilmen. Perwolf from the Old Slavonic root ved. as proposed by Jordan. the shepherds. of which a number are very trustworthy.1324). as Danish wand. The Russians a lso developed their theories from the statements of their first chronicler. and others. Dalimir (d.

as they coul d have arisen without the occupation of these districts by the Slavs. k . Pic. From these regions. then various indicat ions proving that the Slavs must have been originally neighbours of the Finnish and Turanian tribes. Probably. it was necessary t o make this tribe also Slavonic. One tribe would push another ahead of it like a wave. The etymology of these names. Jerome and ev en of St. It is easy to exp lain the origin of the above-mentioned widely believed opinion. pointing to the fact that ori ginally the Slavs lived close to the Letts and Lithuanians. Safarik. It can therefore be said almost positively that the original home of the Slavs w as in the territory along the Dneiper. Racki. Filevic. Taken altogether. Some again prove nothing. however. There is no certain proof in the Balkan t erritory and in the region along the Danube of the presence of the Slavs there b efore the first century. L. which were besides of very little value . this opinion was very convenient. Bulgars. that the migration probably took place m uch earlier than is generally supposed. as Scythians. Stur.Illyria n tribes are not the forefathers of the Slavs. Opinions which are widely current yet do not correspond to facts are often adopted in historical writings. they spread to the west and southwest. and J. it took place slowly and be de grees. In the later battles of the Slavs for the maint enance of their language in the Liturgy. N. but never in the opposite direction. g iven as already mentioned by Pliny. Leopardov. Sarmatians. as well as by the German migration from northwest to southeast. Samaokvasov. further the close rela tionship between the Slavs and the Lettish tribes. however. as ap peal could be made for the Slavonic claims to the authority of St. the original home of the Slavs and the region from which their migrations began is to be sought in the basin of the Dnieper a nd in the region extending to the Carpathians and the Vistula. Because the historical authori ties place the ancient tribe of the Illyrians in this region. Consequently the Slavonic reader of these chronic les would believe that the starting point of the migrations of the Slavs also wa s the Balkans and the region of the lower Danube. H ere and there some disorder was caused in the Slavonic migration by the incursio ns of Asiatic peoples. the natural arrangement was not much disturbed. N. Dm. the contrary is the case. who journeyed from Senaar by way of Asia Minor to the Balkans. Arcybasef . Among the Slavonic historians philolo gists supporting this theory are: Kopitar. is n ot entirely certain. Those who maintain the theory that the Slavs came from the region of the Danube sought to strengthen their views by the names of various places to be found in these dist ricts that indicate Slavonic origin.west. and Ptolemy. Zakoski. and Magyars. According to this account the Europeans are the descendants of Japhet. These incursions s eparated kindred tribes from one another or introduced foreign elements among th em. were translated into Slavonic. The r easons for this belief are: the testimony of the oldest accounts of the Slavs. Paul. Historical investigation has shown that the Thraco. but form an independent family gr oup between the Greeks and the Latins.However. Avars. Tacitus. We have here an interesting proof that a tra dition deeply rooted and extending over many centuries and found in nearly all o f the early native historical authorities does not agree with historical fact. M. and farther to the northwest as far as th e Vistual. Ivan P. August Schlötzer. These chronicles give an account of the migrati ons of the nations from the region of Senaar after the Deluge. there they divided into various nations and spread in various directions. Fr. This much only can be conceded to the other view. M. In addition the direc tion of the general march in the migrations of the nations was always from the n ortheast towards the south. At present most scholars are of the opinion that the original home of the Slavs in Southeastern Europe must be sought between the Vistula and the Dneiper. On the other hand in the region of the Dneiper excavati ons and archeological finds show traces only of the Slavs. there are other names that appear only int he later authori ties of the first centuries after Christ. Drinov. and they all spread out in the wide territory from the North Sea to the Adriatic and Aegean Seas. At the beginning of the Old Slavonic literature in the ancient Kingdom of the Bulgars the Byzant ine chronicles of Hamartolos and Malala. Bielowski.

Slovene. which often play an important part. Polish and Kasube. or of t he migrations of the German tribes of the Goths. not including the extinct ones. Thus it is seen that the grea test representatives of Slavonic linguistics are not in accord upon the question of the number of Slavonic languages. Poles. In 189 8 V. Schleicher enumerated eigh t Slavonic languages: Polish. Joseph Dobrovsky. Serb o-Croat. Lusatian. Little Russian. About sixty years ago the Slovaks of Hungary be gan to develop as a separate nation with a separate literary language and must n ow be regarded as a distinct people. The case is the same from the purely philo logical point of view.indred tribes journeyed together and settled near one another in the new land. all the migrations o f the other tribes passed over them. Lusatians. In 1907 Dm. The cause of the uncertainty is that it is impossible to state definitively of seve ral branches of the Slavonic family whether they form an independent nation. Bohemian. f ormed the lower strata of the population of Central Europe. Slovak. Polish. It is only in this way that the appearance of th e Slavs in great numbers in these countries directly after the close of the migr ations can be explained without there being any record in history of when and wh ence they came without their original home being depopulated. Serbo-Croat. As early as the first century of our era individual Slavonic tribes must hav e crossed the boundaries of the original home and have settled at times among st rangers at a considerable distance from the native country. Central Europe must have been larg ely populated by Slavs. and further because often it is impossible to draw the line between one Slavonic people and another . Scientific investigation does not support the common belief. Bohemians. politics etc. Slovak. Illy rian. At the present time some eleven to fourteen languages. Great Russian. Upper Lusatian. at least this is t rue of the Ruthenians in Austria-Hungary. Great Russian. as early as the era of the Hunnish ruler Attila. Great Russian . Croat. Little Russian. Illyrian or Serb. Florinskij enumerated nine: Russian. The Great Russians. Lombards. The Little Russian s and the White Russians are trying to develop into separate nationalities. The Slovaks of Moravia also consider that t hey are of Bohemian nationality. Bohemians. Rugi ans etc. L ower Lusatian. Bulgarian. Practically the matter is even more complicated because o f other factors. and in addition scholars do not agree in their opinions on this question. The Slavs. These last-mentioned peoples and tribes formed warlike castes and milit ary organizations which became conspicuous in history by their battles and there fore have left more traces in the old historical writings. Bulgarian. recognized nine Slavonic peopl es and languages: Russian. Sreznejevskij h eld that there were eight Slavonic languages: Great Russians. The Moravians must be included in the Bohemian nation. and when the times grew more peaceful the S lavs reappeared on the surface. Lusatian Sorb and Polish. Little Russian . Lusatian. Classification of the Slavonic peoples The question as to the classification and number of the Slavonic peoples is a co mplicated one. inde ed the former have now to be recognized as a distinct people. In his "Slavonic Ethnology" (1842) Pavel S afarik enumerated six languages with thirteen dialects: Russian. Slovene. In 1822 th e father of Slavonic philology. Bohemian. Lusatian. or ethnographical reason opposes. The Lusatian Sorbs also are generally looke d upon as a separate people with a distinct language. Serb. Bohemian-Moravian. Korot anish. Gepidae. because they hold this themselves and no philological. In 1865 A. Bohemians and Bulgarians are universally admitted t o be distinctive Slavonic peoples with distinctive languages. A division of this little . Franc Miklosic counted nine: Slovene. Serbo-Croat. can be enumerated which lay claim to be reckoned as distinct tongues. Bulgarians. as r eligion. and Slovene. have to be considered. or only the dialect and subdivision of another Slavonic nation. Bohemian. Slovak. The great Russian scholar J. Serbo-Croat. Heruli. Bohemian. s o that even today the entire Slavonic race presents a regular succession of trib es. At times again these outposts would be driven back and obliged to retire to the main body. Slovene. but at th e first opportunity they would advance again. Jagic held that there were eight: Polish. Lusatian. Bulgarian. Bolgarish. Korotanish. Lechish. Polish. politica l. however.

though some distinguished Polish scholars maintain the independenc e of the Kasube language. Bohemians. religious. Stokauans. in the south this group approaches the Bulga rian. and of Croatia cannot be assigned t o a definite group. L ater historical development. * The northwestern group. They f orm a compact body only in the southwestern part of the Russian Empire. Present condition Russians The Russians live in Russia and the northeastern part of Austria-Hungary. Slovenes. or Kasube are generally regarded at present as dialec ts of Polish. The second division includes the Bohemian s. however. and probably also the in habitants of some parts of Southern Hungary. In A ustria the Little Russians inhabit Eastern Galicia and the northern part of Buko wina. and Sorb tongues. The Slavonic world in its entire extent presents philological ly a homogeneous whole without sharply defined transitions or gradations. and Slovintzi. The conditions in the south are even more complicated. the Slavonic Moslems of Bosnia. the appearance of Slavonic kingdoms. and the Lusatian Sorbs. the growth of literary languages. the Moslem population of Bosnia. the Kajkauans. Polish. Philologically the Croats and Serbs must be regarded as one nation. the Sloventzi. Istria. The first sub-division includes the Poles. Bulgarians. and political differences. and White Russian. who include all Serbs. Again. Serbs. poli tically. who live partly in Dalmatia. consequently some scholars regard the Lusatians as two diffe rent peoples. The Slavs in the Balkans and in the southern districts of the Austro-Hungarians Monarchy are divided philologically into Bulgarians. Kasubes. and various civilizing influences from without have aided in bringing about the result that sharper distinctions have been drawn in certain places. or have been drawn only of late. also the exti nct languages of the Slavs who formerly extended across the Oder and the Elbe th roughout the present Northern Germany. the nationality and extent of the Slovenes living in the eastern Alps and on the Adriatic coast cannot be settled without further inv estigation. this distinction is also evident in the literary language. that is. and on the coast o f Croatia. in the northwest the White Russian dialects show an affinity to Polish. Slovaks. the Cakauans. The population of Southern Dalmatia. Cr oats. then Little Russian. The Slavonic peoples can be se parated into the following groups on the basis of philological differences: * The eastern or Russian group. the prevailing Russia n nationality. From a philological point of view the following fundamental principles must be t aken for guidance. as in th e north and east they are largely mixed with Finnish and Tatar populations. Th e eastern group is subdivided into Great Russian. This is subdivided into the Lechish languages and into Slovak. especially in Mac edonia. but it is difficult to draw the line between the Bulgarians and the Serbian peoples. The remains of the languages of the former Slavonic inhabitants of Pomerania. Bohemian-Slovak. in Hungary they lie in the eastern part on the slopes of the Carpathians. Where these factors did not appear in sufficient number the boundaries are not s ettled even now. and ethnographically they are distinct peoples. Scattered colonies of Little Russians or Ruthenians are also to be found in Slav .nationality into Upper and Lower Lusatians has been made on account of linguisti c. According to the common opinion that is based upon a comb ination of philological. to whom must be assigned three Croatian countries and all Slovene districts. and that distinct nationalities have developed in different localities. political and religious reasons the Slavs are divided i nto the following nations: Russian. Without doubt the Bulgarians are a separate nationality. When t he Slavs settled in the localities at present occupied by them they were a mass of tribes of closely allied tongues that changed slightly from tribe to tribe. and also a large part of the population o f Croatia.

and White Russians. in Bulgaria.5 percent. Central Siberia has numerous Russians colonies. White Russians. Turkestan and the Kirghiz steppes have native populat ions with Russian colonies in the cities. different influences of civilization.576 Ruthenians. In the Russian Empire. There are large numbers of Russian emi grants. Prussia. In Prussi a the Poles live in Upper Silesia. In addition there are 3. the Oder.78 per cent. Brazil. In Austria the Poles form the population of Western Galicia and are in a large minority throughout Eastern Galicia. in Austria-Hungary Byzantine Catholics. 8 percent. the numbers given by the official statistics of Austria-Hungary may be far below reality.000. Among the White Russians the differentiat ion has not developed to so advances a stage. at the present (1911) time there are about 89 m illions.000. From the very earliest times they have lived in their ancestral regions between the Carpathian s. and on the Pacific as well as o n the Island of Saghalien. In A sia Western Siberia is Russian. Arg entina.375.000. and today this fact must be taken as a fixed factor. moreover.700. This does not include the Russian colonists in other countries . The Poles are largely represented in the C ounty of Zips in Hungary and less largely in other Hungarian counties which bord er on Western Galicia.48 percent. and the North Sea. from a large majority of the inhabitants of t . and the Podlachian. private computations of the Little Russian scholars give much higher result s. A thousand yea rs of historical development.onia and Bosnia among the southern Slavs. however. Protestants . excluding Finland and Poland. ethnog raphically the eastern group is related to the Great Russians. 77. was divided by the surrounding powers — Russia. and Huzuli (Gouzouli). and probably also the original philological differentiation have caused the Little Russians to develop as a separate nation. the Lemci. the Eastern Orthodox. the district of Teschin.000.01 per cen t.8000.447. 6. Poles The Poles represent the northwestern branch of the Slavonic race. Hrusevskij found that the Little Russians taken altogether numbered 34. as is also a large part of the population of a section of Austr ian Silesia. Classified by religion the Russian Slavs are divided as fo llows: in Russian Orthodox. A thousand years ago Boleslaw the Brave united a ll the Slavonic tribes living in these territories into a Polish kingdom. Consequently in 1900 the total number of Russians could be reckoned at about 93 million persons. mostly members of sects. the Podolian-Galician. in Canada and elsewhere in America. while Eastern Siberia is chiefly occupied by native tribes. the n gradually declined and. at the close of the eighteenth century. Finland and the Baltic provinces with the large German cities show a higher rate of literacy. The White Russians are divided into two groups.000. in Poland. but the tendency exists. This k ingdom which reached its highest prosperity at the close of the Middle Ages. Allowing for natural increase.2000.01 percent are illiterates. in Hungary 429. in Eastern Galicia the population of the cities particularly is prepon derantly Polish.000. 23. The Russian official statistics ar e naturally entirely too unfavourable to the White Russians and the Little Russi ans.567 Russians. Ethnographically interesti ng as the Little Russian or Ruthenian tribes in the Carpathians. In classi fying the Little Russians three different types can be again distinguished: the Ukrainian. Little Russians or inhabitants of the Ukraine. 69. the western to th e Poles.000 in America. and in the Dobrudja. 67 percent of the entire population of the empire . that is. There is a small Polish population in Bukowina. There are Russians. In 1900 there were in Austria 3.00 0. In 1900 the relative numbers of these three div isions were approximately: Great Russians. and the United States have many Little Russian immigrants. Karskij calculated that the White Russians numbered 8. 90. Jews .59 per cent.000 Little Russians in Austria-Hungary. living in the region of the Amur River. Little Russians. Boic i.933. 59. 95. and Austria. The Russians are divided into Great Russians. There are sma ll Russian colonies in Asia Minor and lately the emigration has also extended to Africa According to the Russian census of 1897 there were in the Russian Empire 83.08 per cent.05 percent.00 0. Old Believers 2. Catholic s 1. different re ligious confessions.6 percent. and 5000. Moslems .

17. which differ so decide dly from each other in speech and customs that some regard them as two peoples. 00.400. and 1. 3. only the Mazurian s in East Prussia and a small portion of the Kasubes are Protestant. in Aus tria 83. and also inhabit the districts of Dantzic and Marienwerder in West Prussia. Only the Lusatian Sorbs who lived nearer the borders of Bohemia have been able to maintain themselves in declining numbers until the pre sent time. in Germany they are also almost entirely Catholics.000 in America. During centur ies of combat with the Germans their numbers gradually decreased.000.he Province of Posen.200. in Austria. they also have two separate literatures. Bohemians and Slovaks The Bohemians and Slovaks also belong to the northwestern branch of the Slavonic peoples. the Masovians east of the Vistula and along the Narva and the Bug. Lüneburg. who lived on the middle course of the Elbe between the Rivers Havel and Bober.000. even in Lüneburg the last Slavs disap peared between 1750-60.664. where they are mainly owners of large estates and resid ents of cities. At present the Lusatian Sorbs numbers about 150. They are rapidly becoming Germanized. wh ere they came into contact with the Slovenes who belonged to the southern Slavon . and into the pr esent Lower Austria as far as the Danube. who lived between the Oder and Elbe. Ethnographically the Polish nation is divided into three groups: the Great Poles live in Posen. The Lusatian Sorbs are Catholics with exception of 1 5. and the southern parts of East Prussia. However. They are divid ed into three main groups: the Obotrites who inhabited the present Mecklenburg. 14. As regards religion the Poles of Russia are almost entirely Catholic. The Lutici died out on the Island of Rügen at the beginning of the fifteenth century. including the Kasubes and Mazur ians. and Holstein whence they extended into the Old Mark. the Baltic and the Varna.450. otherwise. and Prussia. to which should be added a further 130.000 for a total including those scatt ered through Germany. perhaps as far as Lake Platten.259. Acc ording to the latest investigation the Kasubes are what remains of the Slavs of Pomerania who are. The ve ry exact statistics of the scholar Ramult gives 174.000 in Upper Lusatia.7 percent are Jews. e specially in Lower Lusatia. In the middle of the sixteenth century there were still large numbers of Slavs i n Lüneburg and in the northern part of the Old Mark.213 Kasubes. The reason probably is that for some time their territory belonged to Bohemia. They are divided into two groups.831 Kasubes for the territor y where they live in large bodies. In addition they live in the neighbouring district of the Province of G rodno and form a relatively large minority in Lithuania and in the provinces of White and Little Russia.0 00. The Kasubes live on the left bank o f the Vistula from Dantzic to the boundary of Pomerania and to the sea. but the distinctions are not so striking as in Russia and historical trad ition keeps all these peoples firmly united. Accordin g to government statistics in 1900 there were in Germany 100. The Kasubes could be called a f ourth group.374.500. in Germany.8 per cent are Pr otestants.350. All these groups can be subdivided again into a large number of bra nches. In Russia the Poles fr om 71. and 200. the Little Poles on the upper Vistula as f ar as the San River and in the region of the Tatra mountains. long extinct. and in America about 1.000 persons on the upp er course of the Spree. while their numbers were less in Mecklenburg and in Brandenburg. Czerkawski reckoned the total number of Poles to be 21. Lusatian Sorbs The Lusatian Sorbs are the residue of the Slavs of the Elbe who once spread acro ss the Oder and Elbe. 4. They entered the region now constituting Bohemia from the north and th en spread farther into what is now Moravia and Northern Hungary.000. the Lutici or Velta e. The settlements of the Slovaks in Hung ary must have extended far towards the south.4 per cent are Catholics. the Sorbs. Silesia.150. Straszewicz held that they numbered from 18 to 19. consequently altogether.111. According to the census of 1900 the Poles in Russia numbered abo ut 8.95 percent of the population in the nine provinces formed from the Polish kingdom. inhabiting the whole of the present Germany. in the rest of Europe about 55.

385.000. in the northern part of Istria. to the sou thern group of Slavs.2 per cent of t the Slovaks are Catholics. in the mountainous districts north of Udine in Italy. Serbs. in Russia 55. and 23 percent a re Protestants. They still maintain themselves only in Carniola. 70. The colonists set tled along the Danube on the southern border of Bohemia and also farther on in t he Pannonian plain. It gradually brought all the other tribes under its control and gave them its name. One tribe. In America there are about 800. and Bulgarians. there is also a Bohemian colony in Ne w Zealand. which settled in the central part of the present Bohemia. a maximum of about 10. the re are smaller.000 Bohemians. in Hungary 2. They occupied at first a much larger territory than at present. however. The Bohemians did not suffer from it as they did from the l ater immigrations of German colonists who brought into the country by the Bohemi an rulers of the native Premsylidian dynasty.297 Bohemians in Austria.000 Bohemians live at Vienna. Alo ng with this name. These settlements are modern. The Slovenes have the position farther to the west in the Alps and on the Adriatic. Directly after their settlemen t in these countries the Bohemians fell apart into a great number of tribes. they did not formerly extend as far towards the eas t as now. They first appeared in this region after the departure of the Lombards for Italy and the first date in their history in 595.000.4 percent are Protestants. in the rest of Europe 20. in Poland. it comes from the old Celtic people. about Görz. and 2. In Bulgaria there are Bohemi an colonies in Wojewodovo and near Plevna.019. Carniola. bore the name of Czechs. Probably. 5. As to religion 96. a nd a large part of Friuli. the Boii. there are large Bohemian colonies in Russian in the province of Volhynia. The numbers may be decidedly higher. If. the figures for America. besides large Bohemian colonies in Hungary and Slavonia. in America there are at least 800. in .581 Bohemians.000 Bohemians. Leipzig. however. These colonists lived through the mountains which encircle Bohemia and large numbers of them settled also in the i nterior of the country. these settlements disappeared during the storm of t he Magyar incursion.955. Under German supremacy the territory occupied by them has grown considerable less in the course of the centuries.641 Slovaks and 50. According to the Austrian census of 1900 there were 5.000 .000. In Germany there were 115.ic group. German colonies sprang up among the Bohemians or Czechs. Vienna.3 percent are Byzantine Catholics. reaching the valleys of the Rivers Rie m and Eisack. Triest. But there are scattered settlements of Slov aks far into the Hungarian plain and even in Southern Hungary.000 may be accepted. the name Bohemians has also been retained. From the thirteenth century the languages of Bohemia and Moravia became distinct tongues. . In the last-mentioned c ountry there are 31. when they fought an unsuccessful battle with the Bavarian Duke Tassilo on the field of Ro blach. L ower Austria as far as the Danube. The Slovaks occ upy the southeastern part of Moravia and the northeastern part of Hungary from t he Carpathians almost to the Danube. Berlin. as is justifiable. altogether numbering 50. and from the district of the Lungau in Southe rn Salzburg through Carinthia. and the Slovaks in the eastern portion of Slovakia are really Ruthenia ns who were Slovakanized in the late Middle Ages. how ever.5 percent of t he Bohemians are Catholics. well-organized Bohemian colonies in nearly all Austrian cities. and in t he vicinity of Triest. 000 Bohemians. However. Slovenes The Slovenes belong. Consequently taking all Bohemians and Slovaks to gether there are probably over 9. and in what is called New Russia. Pesth. Styria. Nearly 400. they also occupied the larger part of what is now Upper Austria. so that since then the entire people have been called Czechs. and there are large numbers of Bohemians in the cities of Linz. The Bohemians have emigrated to various countries outside of Bohemia-Moravia. who once lived in these regions.000. Moravia. together with the Croats. On account of the barrenness of the soil of their native land many Slovaks emigrate to America. and Hungary are considered entirely too low. Soon. also in the Crimea. the crownland of Görz-Gradiska. Dresden. They exte nded along the Drave as far as the Tyrol. Silesia. besides colonies of Slovaks in Slavonia.000 Bohemians.

Serbo-Croatian tribes in Hungary who were not included with these in the census.000. The controversy results from the uncertainty as to the group to whi ch the Bosnian Moslems and the above-mentioned Schokzians. and Krashovanians.000.016. the Serbs are almost exclusively Eastern Orthodox. the g reat majority of the inhabitants of Southern Dalmatia are Catholic. Albania and t he vilayet of Scutari. They have been separated into two peoples by reli gion. belong. 350. but many con sider themselves as belonging to the Serbian nation. but use different characters. in Serbia 2. in Bosnia and Herzegovina.the southern part of Carinthia and Styria. As to religio n.700. in Hungary and C roatia. After the migration the warlike tribe of the Croats gained the mastery over the Slavonic tribes then living in the territory between the Kulpa and the Drav e. they have the same literary langu age. and which both people s are justified in claiming. about 100. political development.000 and 20.300. The original home of the Serbs was abandoned largely to the Albanians and Turks.000 Schokzians. 99 percent of them are Catholics. Others crossed the boundaries of the Croat Kingdom and settled in large numbers in Serbia and Slavonia. It was not until a later date that the tribes living to the south and east began to unite politically under the ol d Slavonic name of Serbs. Italy 5000. wher e Slavonic settlements still exist in Abruzzi. 20. Accor ding to the census of 1900 there were 1. history. Bunjevzians. the Croats reckon their number as ove r 2. Croats and Serbs In speech the Croats and Serbs are one people.000. According to Serbian computation there are about 2. Old Serbia and Macedonia.700. Decid ed movements of the population came about later. and in the form of handwriting.000. the Croats cam e under the influence of Latin civilization.839. also in S outhern Hungary.000 in Italy. the Croats Catholic. and the absorption of the other races in Hungary constantly advances. and thus there are districts and sections of population w hich cannot be easily assigned to one or the other nation. and in the Hungarians countries borde ring on the farther side of the Mur River. the Adriatic and the River Cetina. also in the civilization.000. Thus the Croat nation appeared. Carinthia is becoming rapidly Germani zed. as well as the population of Southern Dalmatia. The Serbian settlements.551.7000. where the Austrian Government granted them religious and nation al autonomy and a patriarch of their own.298. the Serbs emigrated to Bosnia and across Bosnia to Dalmatia and even to Italy. 94. America and elsew here. probably 1. and in this region the Serbian nation developed. 350. it is still undecided whether to include them among t he Croats or Serbs.382.993 in H ungary. They founded the Cro at Kingdom on the remains of Latin civilization and with Roman Catholicism as th eir religion.000 Croats in Austria-Hungary. which originally followed only a southeas tern course. 2. The branches in Hungary men tioned above are Catholic. Taking Serbs and Croats together there are: in Austria 711.987 in Croatia and Slavonia.780 Slovenes in Austria. probably 37.5000. There are. and Kras hovanians.000 persons. in Montenegro . being caused especially by the Turkish wars.192. in America 100 . the Serbs under that of the Byzanti nes. Bulgarians The Slavonic tribes living in ancient Roman Mœsia and Thrace south of the Danube a nd southeast of the Serbs as far as the Black Sea came under the sway of the Tur anian tribe of the Bulgars. Russia 2000. In addition there are about 108. Consequently the number of this bipartite people may by reckoned approximately as 8. Consequently. The Croats write with the Latin characters an d the Serbs with the Cyrillic.000. probably about 1. the difference between the Croats and the Serbs con sists not in the language but mainly in the religion.000 in other countries. 300. Some of the Serbs settled here went to Southern Russia and founded there what is called the New Serbia in the Governme nt of Kherson. and different forms of civilization.000 Slovenes int he world. which established the old Kingdom of Bulgaria in thi . taking them altogether. now turned in an entirely opposite direction to the northeast. Bunjevzians. But all these characteristic difference s are not very marked. in Southern Dalmatia.

000.50 0.217 Turks. and of the Paulicians who are Catholics. it is difficult to give the size of the Bulgarian popula tion even approximately. on the basis of earlier results. The conquerors soon began to adopt the language and customs of the subjugated people. In religion the Bulgarians are Eastern Orthodox with the exception of the Pomaks. 9862 Gagauzi (Bulgarians who speak Turkish). When the Slavs first entered the Balkan peninsula they spr ead far beyond their present boundaries and even covered Greece and the Peloponn esus.000. Macedonia. and especially on account of the slight investigation of th e subject in Macedonia. The kingdom. thanks to their higher civ ilization and superior tactics. On the other hand the emigration from Macedonia is still large. Owing to these u ncertain conditions.000. Asia Minor. hence there are altogether perhaps over 5.000. Rumania.mingling.000. 9. Bohemians and Slovaks.4 percent.000.s region as early as the second half of the seventh century.735. it may be claimed that there were about 156157 million Slavs in the year 1910. The Slavonic population also began to withdraw from the plains along the Danube where naturally great battles were often fought.864.500.000.000. already mentioned. The chief aim of the Turkish coloniz ation was always to obtain strategic points and to secure the passes over the Ba lkans. Bulgarians. is not an absolutely homogeneous nationality.550.000.874 Tatars. 150. others journeyed to Bessarabia and So uth Russia.702 Greeks in cit ies along the coast. the natural annual growth of the Slavonic p opulations is taken as 1. 8. In 1900 all Slavs taken together numbered ap proximately 136. 1.200. If. . Lusatian Serbs. 18. therefor e. The historical development was not a q uiet and uniform one. it is often doubtful whether some of these subdivisions should not be included among the Serbs. 180. Russia. and which were often tra versed by the Turkish army. 17. and the Slavs were for ced to withdraw to the limit that is still maintained. The Greeks were aided by the Turkish conquest. 1516 Serbs.000. Still. while large numbe rs of Turks and Circassians went back from liberated Bulgaria to Turkey. the Greeks drove back the Slavs.000. The Turks then began to f orce back the Slavonic population in Macedonia and Bulgaria and to plant colonie s of their own people in certain districts. and 71. Poles. The Bulgarians are divided into a number of branc hes and dialects.000. After the liberation of Bulgaria the emigrants began to return and t he population moved again from the mountains into the valleys. which seemed about to become Slavonic. there were continual migrations and remigration.000.000.000 persons divided thus: Russians. Serbo-Croats. Slovenes. Slavonic settlements continued to exist in Greece and the Peloponnesus until the late Mi ddle Ages. cons equently all enumerations of the population differ extremely from one another. 2. that is Moslems who speak Bulgarian. 531. 20. 5. 1. However. This is especially the case in Macedonia.50 0. in other countries 50.023 Rumanians. conquests and inter. 600.563 Gypsies. and from this intermixture arose the Bulgarian people. 89. 66. In Bulgaria there are besides the Bulgarian population.000.644 Pomaks.000. A part emigrated to Hungary. 94. 90. where a considerable nu mber of Bulgarian settlements still exist.800. In approximate figures the Bulgarians number: in the Ki ngdom of Bulgaria.