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2007. Cohen, Anne C., Dawn E. Peterson, and Rosalie F. Maddocks. Ostracoda, pp. 417-446, In: James T. Carlton, ed.

, The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. Fourth Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.



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Pleopis polyphemoides (Leuckart, 1859) ( Podon polyphemoides). Number of exopodite setae on thoracopods I–3, II–3, III–3, IV–2; Monterey Bay and North American West Coast (Baker 1938, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 23: 311–365). Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe, 1889). Number of exopodite setae on thoracopods I–4, II–4, III–4, IV–2; not yet known from the North American West Coast (T. Onbé, personal communication). Podon intermedius Liljeborg, 1853. Number of exopodite setae on thoracopods I–2, II–1, III–1, IV–2; also not yet known from the North American West Coast (T. Onbé, personal communication). Podon leuckarti Sars, 1862. Number of exopodite setae on thoracopods I–1, II–1, III–1, IV–2; Northern Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Strait (Onbé et al. 1996, Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Biol. 9: 141–152). Pseudevadne tergestina Claus, 1877. Number of exopodite setae on thoracopods I–2, II–3, III–3, VI–1; Monterey Bay and North American West Coast (Baker 1938, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 23: 311–365, as Evadne tergestina). See Uye and Onbé 1993, Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 40: 67–69 (feeding).

Saunders (1980), and King and Hanner (1998) if you are working with a species of Lepidurus, or Sassaman et al. (1997) if you have a species of Triops.

Belk, D. 1989. Identification of species in the conchostracan genus Eulimnadia by egg shell morphology. Journal of Crustacean Biology 9: 115–125. Dodson, S. I., and D. G. Frey. 2001. Cladocera and other Branchiopoda, pp. 849–913. In: Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. 2nd ed. J. H. Thorp and A. P. Covich, eds. San Diego: Academic Press. Egloff, D. A., P. W. Fofonoff, and T. Onbé. 1997. Reproductive biology of marine cladocerans. Advances in Marine Biology 31: 79–167. Eriksen, C. H., and D. Belk. 1999. Fairy shrimps of California’s puddles, pools, and playas. Mad River Press, 196 pp. Kerfoot, W. C., and M. Lynch. 1987. Branchiopoda communities: associations with planktivorous fish in space and time, pp. 367–378. In: Predation. Direct and indirect impacts on aquatic communities. W. C. Kerfoot and A. Sih, eds. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. King, J. L., and R. Hanner. 1998. Cryptic species in a “living fossil” lineage: taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Lepidurus (Crustacea: Notostraca) in North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10: 23–36. Linder, F. 1952. Contributions to the morphology and taxonomy of the Branchiopoda Notostraca, with special reference to the North American species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 102: 1–69. Linder, F. 1959. Notostraca, pp. 572–576. In: Fresh-water biology. 2nd ed. W. T. Edmondson, ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Lynch, J. E. 1966. Lepidurus lemmoni Holmes: a redescription with notes on variation and distribution. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 85: 181–192. Lynch, J. E. 1972. Lepidurus couesii Packard (Notostraca) redescribed with a discussion of specific characters in the genus. Crustaceana 23: 43–49. Martin, J. W. 1992. Branchiopoda, pp. 25–224. In: Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates. Volume 9, Crustacea. F. W. Harrison and A. G. Humes, eds. New York: Wiley-Liss. Martin, J. W., and D. Belk. 1988. Review of the clam shrimp family Lynceidae Stebbing, 1902 (Branchiopoda: Conchostraca), in the Americas. Journal of Crustacean Biology 8: 451–482. Martin, J. W., and G. E. Davis. 2001. An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series No. 39: 1–124. Mattox, N. T. 1959. Conchostraca, pp. 577–586. In: Fresh-water biology. 2nd ed. W. T. Edmondson, ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Sars, G. O. 1867. Histoire naturelle des Crustacés d’eau douce Norvége. C. Johnson, 145 pp. Sassaman, C. 1995. Sex determination and evolution of unisexuality in the Conchostraca. Hydrobiologia 212: 169–179. Sassaman, C., M. A. Simovich, and M. Fugate. 1997. Reproductive isolation and genetic differentiation in North American species of Triops (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Hydrobiologia 359: 125–147. Saunders, J. F. 1980. A redescription of Lepidurus bilobatus Packard (Crustacea: Notostraca). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 99: 179–186. Walossek, D. 1993. The Upper Cambrian Rehbachiella and the phylogeny of Branchiopoda and Crustacea. Fossils and Strata 32: 1–202.

Notostracans (plate 182C) range in size from about 2 cm–10 cm. They have an elongate body covered dorsally at the anterior end of the animal by a broad shieldlike carapace giving them a tadpolelike appearance. The head is incorporated into the anterior portion of the carapace. Their compound eyes are internalized and located on top of the head. Such positioning goes along with the generally bottom–dwelling nature of these crustaceans. The exoskeleton of the thorax and abdomen appears segmented; however, these “segments” are best referred to as “body-rings” because they do not always accurately reflect underlying segmentation (Linder 1952). The first 11 legbearing body rings make up the thorax, with the genital openings on the eleventh. The abdomen includes both an anterior leg-bearing section and a posterior legless section. There is variation within each species in the number of body rings in the abdomen and in the numbers of body rings having and not having legs. Also, the number of legs per body ring in the abdomen is variable. The abdomen ends in a telson from which extends a pair of long, thin, cylindrical, and multiarticulate caudal rami. This telson identifies membership in the genus Triops, one of the two genera in the order Notostraca. An elongate platelike process extends from the dorsal edge of the telson between the caudal rami in members of the other genus, Lepidurus. Notostracans are omnivores that readily capture and eat fairy shrimps, small fishes, and other small animals. Notostracan reproduction includes obligate sexual, mixed sexual and female self-fertilization, and unisexual modes. Both North American species of Triops, T. longicaudatus Leconte, 1846, and T. newberryi (Packard, 1871), represent complexes of bisexual and unisexual populations (Sassaman et al. 1997). Tadpole shrimps live in ephemeral inland waters ranging from fresh to alkaline or even brackish. Temporary rain-pools at the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas on San Francisco Bay are home to Lepidurus packardi Simon, 1886. Lepidurus packardi is protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and cannot be collected without a federal permit. It is the only notostracan so protected. Identification of notostracans to species is often a difficult process that ends in an uncertain conclusion. Use the key in Linder (1959) and then consult Lynch (1966), Lynch (1972),


The Ostracoda are a large and important class of small bivalved crustaceans. Because of their microscopic size (0.20 mm–2 mm, rarely to 32 mm), they are not conspicuous animals, but they are abundant and diverse in most aquatic ecosystems if sampled correctly. There are probably at least 25,000 extant species, of which roughly 12,000 have been described (3,000 freshwater,



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9,500 marine). Ostracoda have the best fossil record of any arthropod group: the carapace is usually well impregnated with calcite (calcium carbonate), so dead and molted carapaces accumulate abundantly as fossils in both modern sediments and ancient sedimentary rocks. Ostracodes are found worldwide in the ocean from intertidal to abyssal and hadal depths (7,000 m), in coastal estuaries and marshes, in most fresh waters, and in a few terrestrial habitats. In tropical coral reef ecosystems and in deep-sea faunas, the careful collector may expect to find several hundred species, whereas high-latitude and stressed environments (e.g., coastal marshes, salt lakes, and ephemeral ponds) may yield only a few species. Diversity in the littoral zone varies with the habitat but may be surprisingly high; 58 species of interstitial and meiofaunal ostracodes were collected from intertidal sandy beaches of Anglesey, North Wales; 40 podocopid species from intertidal habitats of the Kurile Islands; and 20 species in a single sample of intertidal mussels near Seto, Japan (see “References”). In seasonally freshwater rock pools in the high intertidal to supratidal zone and in the freshwater lens above the halocline of anchialine (cavern and fracture) systems, certain freshwater (some salt-tolerant) species of Cyprididae may thrive; such populations are usually parthenogenetic and are probably dispersed by wind or birds. On foggy and rainy shores, the collector can inspect water-holding plants, such as mosses and bromeliads, and leaf litter for rare semiterrestrial ostracodes. Although ostracodes are sometimes abundant, they are poorly known from the California and Oregon intertidal, which hosts more species than are reported here. The faunas of coastal estuaries, deltas, and lagoons of the accretionary coasts of North America (especially of the southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico) have been more intensively studied than those of erosional coasts, such as the rocky shores of central and northern California and Oregon. Users of this manual who collect from algae, mussel, and oyster beds; rocky tide pools; pocket beaches; seagrass; silty sand; and other appropriate habitats should expect to discover many additional unreported, and even some undescribed, species and more than a few taxonomic tangles. This section lists the ostracode species known from the littoral and immediate sublittoral (to a depth of a few meters) within the geographic range of this handbook (from Pt. Conception through central and northern California and Oregon). The list of 32 Podocopa and 10 Myodocopa includes those species reported in previous literature that are considered valid, as well as new records for this region (specimens identified by the authors). Generic assignments have been updated for many species, and some species are left in open nomenclature because they are new or not yet firmly identified. Of the 10 myodocopid ostracodes known from our region, three are also found both north and south of our region, three south only, one is a probable European introduction, and three have not yet been reported beyond our boundaries. Some of the seven additional myodocopids that have been reported from other localities on the West Coast may yet be found within our region, particularly two reported both north and south of our region (see the “List of Species”). Because of the cold California Current, the intertidal podocopid ostracodes are closely related to those of British Columbia, Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, the Kurile Islands, and northern Japan. Alaskan faunas are poorly known. Probably most of the 32 species described from Vancouver Island range south into California. The intertidal faunas of rocky shores at these latitudes are dominated by phytal dwellers,

especially species of Cytheridae, Hemicytheridae, Leptocytheridae, Loxoconchidae, Microcytheridae, Paradoxostomatidae and Xestoleberididae. Because of their small size and fragility and difficulties of identification, several of these families are greatly under-represented in the California literature, although doubtless they are abundant on California shores (see “References”). By contrast, the littoral and sublittoral faunas of southern California (south of Pt. Conception) include many podocopids in common with coastal Mexico and Central America. A greater research effort off southern California has yielded a more diverse ostracode fauna (littoral and sublittoral) with many podocopid species in common with coastal Mexico and Central America. Many of these warmer water species are also well represented in late Cenozoic fossil assemblages of California. Most ostracodes are benthic, crawling over or burrowing beneath the sediment surface, through the interstices of shelly sands and gravels, over rocks and plants, or through microalgae. Some are demersal plankton, swimming for short distances usually just above the sea floor to feed or mate (often at night). Fewer are planktonic in the open ocean. Ostracodes include detritivores, scavengers, herbivores, suspension-feeders, predators, commensals (of crustaceans, polychaetes, sponges, and echinoderms) and a single fish parasite. In turn, some are parasitized by even more minute copepods, isopods, nematodes, and ciliates. Ostracodes are important food for fish and benthic invertebrates. Their carapace remains are consistently included in inventories of gut contents of fish, although not necessarily as dominant or selected components of the diet. The biotic interactions of most ostracodes with other invertebrates and fish are not well documented, and collectors are urged to watch for evidence of such relationships. Some myodocopid and unrelated halocyprid ostracodes produce bioluminescence to deter predators. The luciferin and luciferase are exuded from glands in the upper lip (some Cypridinidae) or from epidermal glands around the margin of the carapace (some planktonic Halocyprididae). Porichthys notatus, the California midshipman fish, has been shown to be bioluminescent only in the southern part of its range where it can feed on the bioluminescent California myodocopid Vargula tsujii. Otherwise nonbioluminescent midshipman fish from Puget Sound were able to bioluminesce after being fed bioluminescent ostracodes. Additionally, a speciose Caribbean group of myodocopids has males capable of performing spectacular species-specific bioluminescent mating displays somewhat similar to those of fireflies.

General Morphology
Ostracodes can withdraw all limbs inside the enveloping bivalved CARAPACE , the margins of which may lock to form a tight seal. (There are reports of ostracode survival after passage through the guts of fish. A few may survive hours or even days of emersion, which has facilitated geographic dispersal to isolated coastal lagoons and terrestrial waters by hitchhiking on migratory waterfowl.) Ostracode valves are closed by CE NTRAL AD D UCTOR M USCLE S connecting the inner dermis of each valve through the enclosed limb-bearing part of the body. The valves are either nudged apart by appendages or opened hydraulically, as there is no complementary set of opening muscles, nor is there any functional equivalent to the bivalve mollusk

and associated receptacles. Some myodocopids are attracted to traps baited with a little fish or a light stick and anchored OSTRACODA 419 . and sometimes an internal chitinous rmaddock/ IRGO/cypris.html. oysters. external genitalia (especially complex in males). and external size. Juveniles are difficult to identify. in some cases. A Web search on “Ostracoda” will turn up numerous other sites. which communicate with nerve cells in the underlying epidermis. minute N OR MAL P OR E CANALS with chemosensory and tactile sensilla. http://userpage. the hinge structures and marginal details are fully generated only during the final molt of Podocopa. The exoskeleton of the soft body consists of a somewhat rigid head capsule (with labrum [upper lip] and MOUTH ) and a flexible cuticular integument over the posterior region. appendages (with sensory.html). Vestiges of as many as 10 or perhaps 11 segments (plus a telson) occur in the Platycopida (and fewer in the podocopid Saipanetta). at least in some cases (particularly Myodocopa). and none should be relied upon as substitutes for consulting the primary taxonomic literature of many countries and languages. not digging in more than just a few centimeters. Collect samples of algae.36M) for a few minutes. Parthenogenesis is common in some freshwater lineages but has not been conclusively verified in marine dwellers. which in Myodocopa is posterior to the anus but in Podocopa is anterior to the anus. drag a fine-meshed net (or homemade hand dredge) along the surface of the bottom. pitted rocks. To hunt for ostracodes in bottom sediment and seagrass. Many ingenious adaptations have evolved to enable copulation in spite of the enveloping carapace. The demarcation between the cephalon and thorax is indistinct.fu-ber/ ostracoda. in response to fluctuations of salinity. reservoirs and pumps). Southern California fauna are listed at www. You can wash and strain the sample water through a finemeshed net or screen (holes not more than 0. The male and female external genitalia are thought.scamit. limbs also become more complex. as in the superficially similar barnacle “cypris” larvae or in Conchostraca. but there are none for marine ostracodes of North America (except papers on Myodocopida of Western North Atlantic). There are five to seven paired limbs (six to eight if copulatory limbs included). clasping and egg-cleaning modifications). In a few taxa. How to Collect and Prepare Ostracodes for Identification Look for ostracodes in most intertidal habitats—even freshwater pools in the highest zone. Certain perhaps sensory structures have also been interpreted as the remnants of limbs. Cohen’s favorite dredge is one that Todd Oakley made by attaching pantyhose to a frame. they grow larger and acquire additional limbs. all more or less different in structure and function. Sexes are separate. and there is argument about whether it has segmental or functional significance. revive them by returning them to plain seawater. and fertilization is internal. Juveniles resemble reduced adults. Considerable information about ostracode specialists and their research can be found on the Web site of the International Research Group on Ostracoda (www. Dissection and examination must be performed under a light microscope. The abdomen is either missing or not differentiated from the thorax. It is perforated by numerous. Carapace details and primary and secondary sexual characteristics may begin to take shape in late instars but are not fully developed until the adult (terminal) instar. One sex is sometimes easier to identify than the other.02 mm for the tiniest interstitial podocopids) and flush the inverted contents with a squirt bottle into a small dish for observation. DOM I CI LI U M (in brooders). obvious dorsal trunk segmentation is found in a few Cladocopina (up to four segments) and a few Thaumatocypridoidea (probably more). Examine these samples directly under a dissecting microscope and remove the ostracodes with fine forceps (the flexible ones are good) or an eyedropper (for swimming ones). Flush seawater through the net (small running seawater hoses work) to remove fine sediment before flushing net contents into a sorting dish and picking ostracodes from the coarser sediment (stirring the sediment and quickly decanting mainly liquid may produce many but not all of the ostracodes). The body terminates in a pair of caudal FU RCAE .htm. and their homologies with other Crustacea are difficult to trace. Picking and observing lively ostracodes from a sorting dish may be easier if you slow them down by adding a little anesthetic such as MgCl2 (50% 0. Because molting requires abandonment of the calcified part of the carapace cuticle. especially in certain families of ornamented Cytheroidea. ovaries. Try adding some fresh water or a little alcohol to the seawater and shaking or soaking the algae (etc. Fossil assemblages in modern and ancient sediments include numerous molted valves and carapaces in addition to adult specimens.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 419 Techbooks (PPG Quark) ligament. probably indicate vestigial trunk segmentation. Identification of Ostracoda has been difficult for nonspecialists. a wash may help. shape and ornament of the carapace (sometimes very dimorphic). with links to other sites.5 mm for myodocopids.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. Secondary faunal compilations exist for a few other regions. as small as 0. so collectors should strive to recover large populations with complete growth series and adults of both sexes. Ostracoda never have six or more serially repeated pairs of trunk limbs. For stubbornly hidden ostracodes. The ostracode carapace varies from smooth to highly ornamented but never has the series of fine concentric “growth lines” (indicating previous molts) present on the bivalved carapaces of Conchostraca. In the Myodocopa. change function. substrate. Live ones often play possum at first but are fun to watch when they open their valves and move around after a few minutes. such as Cypris. organic carbon. The endoskeleton is a loose array of internal chitinous SCLE R ITE S . many beautifully illustrated. The details of sexual dimorphism are essential for identification at all taxonomic levels. the International Ostracoda Newsletter and Cohen’s tabular key (illustrated). the posterior body (TR U N K ) of most ostracodes appears under light microscopy to be unsegmented. and.) until more animals emerge. more setose. Ostracodes have no larval stage and no metamorphosis but hatch from the egg as a juvenile with at least three functional limbs and the enveloping bivalved carapace (less calcified than adult). Sexual dimorphism occurs in the inter- nal soft anatomy (testes. Ecophenotypic variability of carapace structure is common in podocopid species populations of the coastal zone. or mussels into buckets or stout plastic bags and then extract the hidden tiny and other poorly understood environmental parameters. Few keys exist. Use the same collecting equipment and methods that you would use for other tiny crustaceans. external transverse folds fringed with spines or small setae (most visible with scanning electron micrography [SEM]). During a fixed series (usually five to eight) of molts. to be a modified last (usually eighth) pair of limbs.

191E. Plates 184. use care in reading literature descriptions. Take field notes. Cohen uses insect minuten pins glued inside the tip of narrow wooden sticks or fine pipette tips. 195. (at least in Myodocopa) used to circulate water through the domicilium. Plates 184. some paleontologists began to study living faunas. mouth pipette. needles.” BAS I S distal part of divided protopod (separated from coxa by suture). Classification of Living Ostracoda Early classifications of living Ostracoda were based mostly on soft anatomy. B ROOD POUCH an expanded region of the female domicilium. Plates 184D. use care in reading literature descriptions. 184D. so use care). an eyedropper (don’t use much liquid). SEM reveals many important minute characters (particularly of the carapace and copulatory limbs) not otherwise visible (see “References”). 196. Start the identification process by examining a sample under a dissecting microscope and sorting the ostracodes into groups of similar ones. molecular and ecological studies should always be retained and deposited in a museum collection as verification of your identifications. Preserve and store your labeled ostracode samples in 70% EtOH until you are ready to identify them. Plates 184C. However. in an effort to reconcile the discrepancies. 189I. 191D. Plates 184A. 191D. 7 TH LI M B (7) 7th limb (and 2nd trunk/thoracic limb). but with a needle move each limb to a permanent slide. Myodocopa and Podocopa differ noticeably from each other (see tabular key below). Pry the valve off the body and cut the weak dorsal body connection to the valves. labeled “maxilla” in many papers. and the advent of SEM revolutionized the description of carapace and appendage structure. 190A. Since the mid-twentieth century. CALCI FI E D I N N E R LAM E LLA ( CI L ) calcified part of the inner (medial) lamella of valve margin.” AD D UCTOR M USCLE SCAR PATTE R N ( AM S ) rather central pattern of scars (raised or depressed) indicating where central adductor muscles attach to valves. 187. brush. Plates 184. MAXI LLU LA . 190K. whereas classifications of fossils were based on carapace features. 192D. they should be dried on paper micropaleontological slides.” “1st thoracic limb. Terms used herein (and in many other ostracode publications) are defined (some with figure references). or tiny wire loop (using a fine probe in your other hand as a pusher) are useful. controversially considered to be and labeled “3rd trunk limb” by some podocopid specialists. found between the fifth limbs in males of most Cytherocopina and some Cypridocopina. When the limb slide is fully dry. usually the 8th limb pair (see also “hemipenes”). Plates 184. COPU LATORY LI M B S ( CP ) male limbs modified for copulation. 194D. Gently transfer an ostracode into a little glycerol in a labeled depression slide (use alcohol instead if you are preparing for SEM or molecular studies) and examine it under a microscope. The valves of myodocopans will weaken only somewhat over time in glycerin. Cotton stoppered vials should be stored in a larger and wellsealed jar of alcohol. K ) posterior extension of carapace. 191E. Use a coverslip for higher powers. the limbs can be examined and drawn under high power with the compound microscope. 191E. use care in reading descriptions. Additional voucher specimens (preserved in alcohol) of species used for SEM.” or “maxilliped” by some podocopid specialists. 186G. For storage. 189J. Cohen makes permanent slides with polyvinyl lactophenol (this is very poisonous. A 2 2nd (cephalic) pair of limbs. the valves of podocopans will decalcify in alcohol and glycerin. 192F. 192G. 5 TH LI M B ( 2 N D MAXI LLA . B R US H . 191D. 8 TH LI M B (8) see “copulatory limb (CP). 193F. sketch the limb positions and shapes before removing limbs (with fine needles) under the dissecting microscope.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. Hold the ostracode in place with one tool (try the tiny wire loop) while you slide a sharp tool (fine dissecting needle or single edged razor blade) between the valve and the body to sever the central adductor muscle. Fine flexible forceps. B E LLONCI ORGAN ( BO ) organ projecting from forehead or naupliar (medial) eye of most Myodocopa. 191B. 5 ) 5th limb. CARAPACE lateral outfolds of dorsal epithelium and cuticle. remove one or both carapace valves. perhaps with labeled vials of similar ostracodes.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 420 Techbooks (PPG Quark) overnight. The classification of Podocopa remains more uneven than that of Myodocopa. use care in reading descriptions. B RANCH IAL PLATE ( VI B RATORY PLATE . Some male myodocopids are attracted to a bright light suspended from a dark dock. Plates 189A–189G. 188A–188D. Plate 189F. at least in most Myodocopa. 191E. A 1 1st (cephalic) pair of limbs. usually posterior. If you are unfamiliar with ostracodes. some molecular analyses suggest that they may actually not form a monophyletic clade. CAU DAL PROCE SS ( KE E L . 1 ST ANTE N NA . Plates 190F. and none of the newer syntheses is universally regarded as authoritative. ARTICLE see “podomere. bivalved and enveloping the entire body. 6 TH LI M B (6) 6th limb (and 1st trunk/thoracic limb). ANTE N NA . Older classifications are obsolete. 3 R D ( CE PHALIC ) LI M B see “mandible (md). 191E. 191D. Glossary This list contains abbreviations used in the plates and gives illustrative examples from among the plates. 2 N D ANTE N NA . With the slide under the dissecting microscope. 192D. Plate 184A. Retain the valves and body in the glycerin slide. ANTE N N U LA . Plates 184. cover both slides with a coverslip. You may be able to identify the subclass or order of ostracode at this point. Examine the specimen again under the compound microscope. controversially considered to be and labeled “1st trunk leg. 190L. might represent vestigial appendages. Both valves and dissected limbs can also be stored in a vial of alcohol stoppered with cotton and placed in a larger vial that also contains a permanently inked label. and they then can be scooped up with nets. Plates 184B. B P ) flat setose epipod. labeled “maxilla” in many papers. 191D. 4 TH LI M B (1 ST MAXI LLA . controversially considered to be and labeled “2nd trunk leg” by some podocopid specialists. 186H. Plates 185C. 185B. 4) 4th (cephalic) limb.S HAPE D ORGAN S small pair of lobes bearing numerous fine setae. Plates 184. not always clearly visible.” Plate 184. 192H. for protecting developing eggs and instars. Examine the ostracode under a compound microscope and perhaps sketch it (camera lucida helpful). and 420 ARTHROPODA .

GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. ENDITE medial extension (tooth. I N N E R MARG I N ( I M ) the inner or proximal edge of the calcified inner carapace lamella. ZON E OF CONCR E SCE NCE ( FUS E D ZON E . Plates 184D. Plates 184C. VE STI B U LE ( VE STI B U LU M . N E ) single medial anterior eye. it acts like an oar-lock for the rowing antennae of many swimming Myodocopa. Plates 185C. Plates 195. 185C. 184B. 190B. in which the anterior and posterior region of the median element are differentiated. 190L. forming an abrupt line or shelf in dead or fossil valves of Podocopida. overhangs incisur. 189H. RADIAL PORE CANALS ( RPC ) modified normal pores located at free margins of valves.192D. MAN D I B LE third limb (third head limb). 185B. Plates 184C. E XOP OD / E XOP OD ITE ( E X ) in distally biramous crustacean limb. 185A. “ WALK I N G LE G S ” posterior limbs that are long. Plates 189A. FU RCA ( E ) ( F ) terminal (may be ventral in position) body extensions. 193G. I N N E R LAM E LLA inner layer of epidermis and cuticle of the dorsal body fold forming the valve. 186E. may be simple (open) or covered with sieve plates. PRO ) basal podomere(s) of crustacean limb (plate 184B). Plate 191F. ROSTRAL I NCI SU R .” MASTICATORY PROCE SS see “endite. PROTOPOD ( PROTOPOD ITE . with the anterior region of the median bar or groove differentiated. Plates 184A–184D. S E M scanning electron micrography. Plate 188A. “ MAXI LLA” see “4th and 5th limbs. a marginal cavity between the outer valve lamella and calcified part of the inner valve lamella. 193H. 188A–188D. E PI POD ( E P ) extension (usually setose flat lobe) of lateral protopod. 186F. LATE RAL EYE ( LE ) paired compound eyes of most Myodocopida. Plate 184A. NOR MAL POR E CANALS ( N PC ) numerous perforations through valve with chemosensory and tactile sensilla. Plates 184A. 185F. either crenulate or smooth (family Pectocytheridae only) HOLOM E RODONT a merodont hinge in which all elements are crenulate and negative on one valve. PODOM E R E ( ARTICLE ) segment of jointed crustacean limb separated from other segments by articulated joint or inflexible suture. bar on one valve fits into groove of other valve MERODONT three-element hinge. 190B. FR E E MARG I N the perimeter of the valves (exclusive of the hinge region) where valves are in contact. 186H. formed by a flangelike outgrowth of the outer lamella and traversed by radial pore canals. 184B. 190L. Basic types mentioned in key: AD ONT single element hinge. 191D. Plates 189I. normally composed of three eye cups. 191E. Plates 184. S PI N N E R ET G LAN D ( SG ) gland (connected to 2nd antenna) secreting adhesive thread. 184D. 185D. the medial ramus. the lateral ramus. 185A. 192E. slender. usually with all elements crenulate GONGYLODONT a crenulate hinge with a systematic increase in size of teeth and decrease in size of sockets from anterior to posterior in the right valve. Plates 184C. 190B. positive on the other ANTI M E RODONT a merodont hinge in which the median element is reversed (negative or positive) from the terminal elements E NTOMODONT a four-element hinge. either directed forward and used for food manipulation.” H E M I PE N E S ( H P ) podocopan term for paired male copulatory appendages. 196. 186G. OSTRACODA 421 . housing nerve filaments that lead from tactile sensilla to nerve cells in the underlying epidermis. VI B RATORY PLATE ( B RANCH IAL PLATE . left valve complementary (family Loxoconchidae only) AM PH I DONT a modified entomodont hinge in which the four elements are well differentiated (families Hemicytheridae. or directed backward and used for clasping. KE E L ( K ) posterior extension of carapace (also called “caudal process”). I NCI SU R ( I NCI SU R E . 184B. generally used in feeding (see also “masticatory process”). in ostracodes (at least in Myodocopa) it often forms a branchial plate used to circulate water. 191D. ROSTR U M anterior projection of valves of many myodocopans. Plates 184A. lobe. E N DOPOD / E N DOPOD ITE ( E N ) in distally biramous crustacean limb. FUS E D ZON E see “zone of concrescence. 186G. 184D. used to circulate water. Plates 184C. OUTE R LAM E LLA the outer layer of epidermis and cuticle of the dorsal body fold forming the valve. may be calcified or uncalcified. H I NG E ( H ) complementary interlocking articulatory structures on inner dorsal margin of valves. 188B. Plates 184. and used for locomotion. but podocopan homologies uncertain). Plate 189H. which communicate with nerve cells in the underlying epidermis. masticatory process) of protopod. and sometimes reproductive tissues. Plates 184A.” NAU PLIAR EYE ( M E D IAL EYE . PALP term used for a podocopan armlike jointed portion (endopod or exopod plus basis) of limb. 191D. extending from the line of concrescence to the inner margin. Plates 184. and the posterior element is bifid or crenulate (Family Schizocytheridae only). has reflecting tapetal layer. ZC ) a clear marginal band extending from the free margin to the line of concrescence. 184B. 184D. Plate 189I. 190L. often divided into two (sometimes three) segments: the coxa attaching the limb to the body and the more distal basis. glandular. with anterior and posterior teeth (or sockets) separated by median bar (or groove) LOPHODONT a merodont hinge in which all elements are smooth PENTODONT a five element hinge. Z E N K E R ’ S OR GAN ( Z ) muscular sperm pump (ejaculatory pump) located dorsally within male body (Cypridocopina) or interlamellar cavity (Sigilliocopina). 188E. Plate 188C. 185H. B P ) flat plate (with marginal setae) located proximally and laterally on limb (an epipod in Myodocopa. 191E. Plates 189I. see “protopod”). housing epidermal. jointed. V ) in Podocopa. 186G.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 421 Techbooks (PPG Quark) COXA proximal part of divided protopod (separated from “basis” by suture. entirely uncalcified or calcified only around the free margin. S CLE R ITE internal chitinous struts supporting body and limbs. I ) an anterior indentation (ranging from slight to deep and even slitlike) of the valves of the carapace. MAXI LLU LA . DOM ICI LI U M the volume between the two valves of the carapace and occupied by the soft body and limbs. Plate 188A. Trachyleberididae) HOLAM PH I DONT an amphidont hinge in which all elements are smooth H E M IAM PH I DONT an amphidont hinge in which the posterior element is crenulate and the others are smooth SCH I ZODONT entomodont hinge in which the anterior and anteromedian elements are bifid. 185C. Plates 184A. LI N E OF CONCR E SCE NCE ( LC ) the proximal edge of the zone of concrescence. directed ventrally. VALVE right or left half of bivalved ostracode carapace (sometimes erroneously referred to as “shell”).

. . usually conspicuously dimorphic in adults. . . 2nd antennal exopod greatly reduced (plates 184C. . long exopod with nine podomeres (rarely less) with long setae (often used for swimming). . Myodocopida (Cypridinidae) after Morin 1986: A. . . female (redrawn by Ginny Allen). 2nd antenna geniculate. laterally compressed. . seven pairs of limbs (including at least one walking leg) (plates 184C. . . pediform. 192I. lamellar. . . Carapace elongate oblong to almost circular. . . 2nd antenna with large muscular protopod. 184D. . . valves overlap around free margin. . 184D. . . 184B. Podocopida (Cytheroidea). 1989: C. . . 189–196) . 185–188) . . . A dichotomous key by Rosalie Maddocks further identifies Podocopa from orders to families (along with just the subclass Myodocopa). posterior body only rarely transversely ridged (plates 184C. furcae mostly reduced (plates 184C.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 422 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 18 4 Ostracoda. . diagrammatic comparison of Myodocopa and Podocopa. . or compressed. . . with or without lateral eyes and Bellonci organ (plates 184A. . . . . . . 191E). 184D. . . oblong elongate. . . . . 190K. . . 191E) plus large male hemipenes (plates 184C. 184D. . . . 4th limb (and mandible) with setal combs. . . 4th limb (and usually mandible) without lateral setal comb (plates 184C. . with very small exopod with no more than two podomeres. after Athersuch. . with or without rostrum and incisur. 194H). posterior body transversely ridged. . furcae large. D. . . . . . Subclass Myodocopa ARTHROPODA — Carapace ovoid. adductor muscle scar pattern biserial. . 191D. Carapace size. . 193H. . . 2nd antenna with large setose exopod (two podomeres). large lamellar furcae posterior to anus. . valves usually not overlapping. much larger propulsive endopod with up to four podomeres. male. . . Adductor muscle scar pattern varied (but includes rows) (plates 189A. taxonomic literature should be consulted if identification is attempted beyond the family level. 191D. . . no lateral eyes or Bellonci organ (plates 184C. . female. . B. . . 190B). . . . shape diverse. no rostrum or incisur. . . . . . . . . . MADDOCKS 1. male. . . Because of the chance of encountering unreported species. not intertidal . . . . . . . 192E). right valve overlapping left all around. . . 191D). Key to Podocopa (and Subclass only of Myodocopa) ROSALIE F. . with stout claws. smaller (often much smaller) endopod with one to three podomeres. left (sometimes right) valve usually overlaps right valve. . 184D. 192D. six pairs of limbs (no walking legs) plus male large hemipenes. . marine. . 184D.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. 189–196) . . et al. variable furca anterior to anus. . Key to the Ostracoda TABULAR KEYS TO MYODOCOPA ANNE C. inflated-subtriangular. . . COHEN The three tabular keys on the following pages cover all Myodocopa from subclass to the family level (along with just the subclass Podocopa). Order Platycopida 422 . . Subclass Podocopa 2 2. . . . Order Podocopida 3 — Carapace oblong. . . . . .

. 190L. . . . global. . . . adductor muscle scar pattern of six to 12 in compact rosette. . . . hinge usually adont (otherwise macrocypridid described in couplet 7a). Carapace elongate. . . . 195C–195G. . . . . . no pincer. adductor muscle scar pattern an aggregate of 20–35 scars. . . . .g. some parthenogenetic (plates 189. adductor muscle scar pattern of five to nine discrete scars in a distinctive arrangement (plate 189). but distinctive arrangements of a smaller number of discrete scars (see descriptions further in key). . . . gut contents not usually — identifiable. . represented in all sublittoral and deeper habitats . found in all aquatic habitats. Suborder Sigilliocopina Carapace diverse. . . . swimming.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 423 Techbooks (PPG Quark) Key to the Suborders of Podocopida 3. calcified inner lamella narrow . . . . . . furcae generally absent. 10 — Carapace conspicuously (except Acuminocythere. consisting of five elements. testes and ovaries do not enter interlamellar valve cavity. . . . . . represented in all sublittoral and deeper habitats but usually uncommon . 195B) . . . smooth or punctate. extremely abundant and diverse in all aquatic habitats. Family Cyprididae 9 4. One to two balls of sediment visible in hindgut. especially dominant in brackish water. posterior body smooth. . — 5. . hinge sinuous.. . adductor muscle scar pattern (plate 189) of one cap (dorsal) scar plus about five scars in two columns. . . calcified inner lamella relatively broad (plate 189F) . 195B). schizodont (plate 191F). . adductor muscle scar pattern typically a vertical row of four (rarely. . left valve overlaps right. . . gut contents unrecognizable . . . 195J. . . 190–194. . 184D. and estuaries. . . . 191D). merodont. . with complex hinges and marginal details. . . . . . 191D. 6th. mandible without setal comb. marine benthos. anterior end narrower. . . . crawling and burrowing. also well represented in littoral and shallow-sublittoral habitats of tropical regions. . . . . 4 Carapace form and ornament diverse. . . . . 190B. . . . . . or reduced in females and modified as a recurved clasper in males. . 195A. . . . . . . . . . 7th limb with three short terminal setae. . plate 195A. . . hinge merodont. 190L. . . . . . . . . . . . . brackish and freshwater. global . . 6th limb with one terminal claw. 191D–191F. . . five) small scars (rarely some of the scars divided) (plates 190K. 194K) . . left valve usually slightly overlaps right. . sexual dimorphism may be conspicuous. . . mandible with strong trifid teeth. . . . . modified distally for cleaning. . . . many marine and most freshwater ostracodes. . . . marine. . . Carapace ovoid to elongate. rodlike with small setae. . . . . . right valve overlaps left. . . . . . . . 193J. . . testes and ovaries sometimes extend into interlamellar cavity of valves. . . ridged. . or other specialized condition. large lamellar furca with fairly stout claws. 194I–194K). 184D. asymmetrical. 5th. . 196) . right valve overlaps left. some males with brush-shaped organ. . e. left valve strongly overlapping right. 195I. . marine. . 194J. . probably cryptic and interstitial . adductor muscle scars varied. . . no Zenker’s organs (plates 184C. 195B). Zenker’s organ with numerous chitinous spikes not arranged in rosettes. none recurved. . posterior inflated as brood chamber. — Key to the Families of Cytheroidea Known to Be Present in the California and Oregon Littoral This key is valid only for the species included in the species list of this section. testes and ovaries not extending into interlamellar cavity of valves. marine. usually smooth (or punctate). . one to two balls of sediment usually visible in dorsal region of midgut. . . . amphidont. . . . intertidal and shallow sublittoral faunas (plates 184C. . . . 191E). . usually smooth. . . . . . adductor muscle scar pattern a compact circular spot with three discrete upper scars and a lower group of indistinct scars. . 193K. . circumtropical in reef habitats. 6th limb with one long and two shorter terminal claws. . males rare. Suborder Cypridocopina 7 Carapace shape varied. Superfamily Cypridoidea. . . 195C–195J. . usually smooth (but not always. mandibular palp with lateral setal comb. . . . hinge adont. . 2nd antennal exopod modified as a hollow spinning seta connected to spinneret gland (plates 184D. . often ornate. . . adductor muscle scars an aggregate or rosette of numerous scars. . coastal lagoons. . . 196) . adductor muscle scar pattern of four to nine discrete scars in distinctive arrangement (see next couplets). . . 191A. . always rare. . . . marine and nonmarine. . 193J. 193K. . furcae reduced to two tiny setae (plate 191E). . . accounting for more than 90% of all living Ostracoda. 8 8. . . . . males with spirally muscularized Zenker’s organs. global. . . . . . global. adductor muscle scar pattern of five scars in two columns. . Suborder Darwinulocopina Carapace inflated-ovoid. adductor muscle scar pattern of three pairs of scars in anterior vertical column plus posterior pair of scars. . . . . left valve usually slightly overlaps right. 195B) . Superfamily Pontocypridoidea — Carapace varied. 192J. . and in anchialine cave faunas (plates 189. or otherwise ornamented (plates 195C–195G. . . and 7th limbs are walking legs (plates 184C. Suborder Bairdiocopina Carapace extremely varied. 192J. usually smooth (or slightly punctate) (plate 195A. 195I. . . . female 5th limb unjointed. 196). . highly diverse. . . posterior body transversely ridged. . . 184D. . . hinge adont. mandible with weak simple teeth. . . freshwater to slightly oligohaline. 14 OSTRACODA 423 9. . 7th limb with long recurved pectinate seta and one to two short or long terminal setae or modified as pincer. . Superfamily Macrocypridoidea — Carapace shape and overlap variable. 5th limb endopod a small walking leg. . . Zenker’s organ with chitinous spikes usually grouped in rosettes. plate 196C) pitted. . 195A. 2nd antennal exopod a minute scale with up to three small setae. . . Zenker’s organ without chitinous spikes. . global. dominant in terrestrial waters. Carapace shape and overlap varied. . 5 Carapace elongate-ovoid. . . . . Zenker’s organ without chitinous spikes or with spikes arranged in rosettes. . . . paired brush-shaped organ in males (plate 190F). 6 Carapace with characteristic bairdioid shape (plate 195H). . . 195J. adductor muscle scar pattern of five to six discrete scars (anterior column of three scars and slightly lower posterior column of two to three scars). . furcae small. . . . . . . Carapace smooth or very faintly pitted (plates 190K. symmetrical. . Zenker’s organs in dorsal region of male body. . . 190–194. . . hinge adont. . Global. . . . . especially diverse in reef habitats but represented in most subtidal faunas from all depths and sediment types . ovaries and testes or vas deferens partly housed within interlamellar valve cavity. 7th limb recurved over posterior body. . . . marine. Suborder Cytherocopina 9 Key to the Superfamilies of Cypridocopina 7. terminal elements crenulated. . female 5th limb jointed. — 6.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. .

but not most With (often above midheight) or without (more circular valves) Ventral margin Straight. but some dimorphic 1–2 (or seta only) Exopod (plate 184) 1–3 Most with clasper 9 (rarely less) 1–3 Many with clasper (usually reflexed) 9 (rarely less) 2–3 Many with hooklike clasper 9 . none concave Yes or no Present in many None. except some with posterodorsal cornershaped process or spine Without setae Posterior keel (projecting caudal process) (plates 184–186) Anterior inner valve surface Body (plate 184) Medial eye Iateral eye Bellonci organ Bifurcate? Posterodorsal body n.g. Usually convex.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. 185D. oblong or elongate.g. sinuous (partly concave) or slightly convex n. 190–194) Subclass Podocopa Subclass Myodocopa Order Myodocopida Order Halocyprida 0.1 mm–32 mm Elongate oblong to almost circular With or without With or without Most 1 mm–3 (but up to 32) mm Elongate-ovoid or ovoid.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 424 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 2 Tabular Key to Myodocopa (and Subclass only of Podocopa) Character Carapace (valve) Adult length (approximate) Shape (lateral outline) (plates 184–187. no gills or pouches Few with some segmentation Few with some segmentation Furca (plates 184. 189–196) Anterior rostrum (plates 184–187) Anterior incisur (notch) (plates 184.1 mm–3 mm Varied. some straight. (no strongly sclerotized plates) Posterior to anus Always strongly sclerotized flat plate with claws 6–8 8 6–8 No. not circular Without (projection in some Cypridoidea) Without 0. inflatedsubtriangular. but not obvious on more circular valves 0. 192B 3–4 No clasper. 188E.1 mm–8 mm Ovoid. Setose or not With at least 1 seta With or without Absent Absent With or without Present or absent Usually present Bifurcate or not Present in most Present in most Usually present Not bifurcate Body smooth. 185H. some with gills or pouches Absent Absent Usually present Many bifurcate A few with some segmentation. of Limbs (including 7–8 (plus rudimentary male copulatory limb) brush organ in many) 2nd Antenna Best developed ramus Number of endopod articles Male endopod Number of exopod articles Endopod (plates 191D. most not platelike with claws. 186F. 191E. elongate subquadrate to almost circular Many. few rather circular Most Most with (usually not above midheight). 191E) Furcal position Furcal shape Anterior to anus Varied.

Some None None Usually present. n. 193D.g. 191E.g. none with large tooth V setae only Present in most (1 article) or absent Present as a cusped tooth Many with cusped tooth D (and sometimes V) setae Present (1 article) or absent Dimorphic in Sarsielloidea Apparently none 4th Limb (plates 184. 191D. n. 192F. Podocopida jointed Present in some Absent (?except in Cylindroleberididae) Present in some Many Jointed Reduced only in Sarsielloidea males Possibly bare proximal lobe in Cylindroleberididae Cylindroleberididae only Usually present article 2 articles 1 Apparently none Absent Probably absent Present (1–2 articles) or not 2–3 articles 5th Limb (plates 184. 190I. 192E. 194B) Sexual dimorphism Proximal setose branchial plate Lateral setose comb Proximal endite (on coxa) Basis endite Endopod: 1st article setal position Exopod n.g. flat. n. 190G. 192D.g. Present Absent Present Varied Some Present or absent Present present in few 6th Limb (plates 184.g. some males with hooklike clasper Some Limb reduced in male Sarsielloidea. 194E) Sexual dimorphism Often. 193G.g. 190H.g. varied V and/or D setae Present in some = lobe distally inserted on basis with endopod Usually present and lobelike 1 family with lobe. absent in Platycopida Platycopida only n. 191D. 188A–188D. Present in Podocopida. varied Present in some.g. 190D. Cyclasteropinae males with process epipod Compact feeding limb Cylindroleberididae only Many with strong nonterminal teeth or claws Rami unclear Rami unclear Leglike No Some with terminal claw (only) Present and jointed Polycopina only Rare Proximal setose branchial plate Limb shape With setose comb Teeth or short claws Endopod Exopod Well-developed to absent Leglike or reduced No n. 193E) Sexual dimorphism Proximal setose branchial plate Lateral setose comb Exopod Endopod n. 193C. Many Podocopida Platycopida only n. 194F) Limb present Sexual dimorphism Proximal setose branchial plate Limb shape Present Platycopida Well-developed to absent Leglike or reduced Present or absent Some Present in some = epipod Varied Present None or slight Absent Short.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. 191E. 190E.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 425 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 2 (continued) Character Subclass Podocopa Subclass Myodocopa Order Myodocopida Order Halocyprida Mandible (plates 185C. poorly jointed Present or absent Some (Conchoecia) Present in some = epipod Leglike or absent (continued) .

. hinge antimerodont. . Xestoleberididae 13. . 194G) Limb present Sexual dimorphism Proximal setose branchial plate Limb size Limb shape Present or absent n. . hinge gongylodont. . . elongate. .g. . posterior margin angulate to caudate. . . . . . 193K). . . . . . . . . . Paradoxostomatidae — Carapace strongly calcified. . . . 196C–196J) . . . . . . . . basal podomere of 5th limb (plate 190H) has small branchial plate with setae (plate 190) . . . anterior radial pore canals very numerous.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. . . . not cau426 ARTHROPODA — 14. . . . date. . . — 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .g. . . . . . — 16. . . . 1st antenna with no more than six podomeres (plate 192A). . . . 191D. . . normal pore canals inconspicuous. . . . exterior smooth. . . Hemicytheridae . . . . . . vestibules shallow or absent. . no eye scar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191D. . . . . . Carapace fragile. . 191E. . . . . 193J. . . . . Cytheromatidae In lateral view. . . . 12 — In lateral view. . . 191E. . . . . . . funnel-type. anterior carapace margin broadly rounded. . . . . . . . anterior end of carapace usually more broadly rounded than posterior end (plates 192J. . . . . 195C–195G. . 1st antenna (plate 190A) with eight podomeres. . . . . . . . 190L). 17 Hinge merodont or pentodont . Cytheridae Hinge amphidont . . . . . . . . . . . n. Paired or single Branched in many dorsal. . . internal chitinous supports (sclerites) present in knee joints of walking legs (plates 195C–195G. . 10. absent. . 15 Carapace subovate or subquadrate in lateral outline. . . . . . . . .g. . . . . . . . . . . 191E. . . . . . . . . . . V ventral. . . . . . with lightly pitted ornament (plates 191B. 16 Carapace subrhomboidal in lateral outline. 191D. . . . . . . . . mouth region (plate 193I) extended as cone with sucking disk. In lateral view. . . . hinge lophodont. . . . . . . . normal pore canals simple (plate 196B) . . . . 191E. . . . posterior margin slightly more narrowly rounded. . . 193K. . . . . . . basal podomere of 5th limb without branchial plate (plate 193C) . 195J. lightly pitted ornament with faint radial ridges. . . . hinge merodont. 192I. . . . . . . . . . . 191D. . . . . . . . . . hinge hemiamphidont to holamphidont. . . . . exterior ribbed and pitted. . . . . . 191C. . .qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 426 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 2 (continued) Character Endopod Exopod Subclass Podocopa Present Absent Subclass Myodocopa Present Present in a few Order Myodocopida Rami unclear Rami unclear Order Halocyprida Present Present in some (1 article) 7th Limb (plates 190J. 196E–196J) . . 194I–194K). . . . 194J) . . . — 17. . 193K. . . . 194J) . . . . . . . . . . Cytheruridae Carapace subrhomboidal to subhexagonal in lateral outline. . 194H) Paired or single Branches NOTE : Paired n. . . plus two to three frontal scars. anterior carapace margin obliquely rounded. . . . . . . . . . . 13 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . conspicuous sexual dimorphism. . . . 196B) . . . . . . . Adductor muscle scar pattern of five scars in vertical row (plate 190K. . . . . . . 18 Carapace elongate-oblong in lateral view. . . ventral margin sinuate. . . Bythocytheridae — Adductor muscle scar of four scars in vertical row (plates 191A. eye scar present behind eye spot. . . . 193J. . . . 193J. 11 11. sieve-type. . .g. . . . Leglike. . 194K) . or W-shaped. . hinge lophodont (plate 194K) . . . . . . . . . . . egg-shaped and ventrally flattened. . . 193H. . . . . . 196A. . . Loxoconchidae Carapace subhexagonal in lateral outline. . . 194I. . . . Reduced if present n. . . . . . . . anterior end of carapace more narrowly rounded than posterior end (plates 191A. . . . . . normal pore canals conspicuous. . . . 191C) . . . with subtle ventrolateral alar thickenings. . rather oval frontal scar (plate 191A). . . with concave posterodorsal element and slightly angulate posteroventral region. with lightly to heavily pitted to reticulate ornament (plates 191F. . . . . ventral margin nearly straight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191D. . . 191D. hinge merodont (plate 192J) . . . . . . . . . . Paired 3 lobes Single Single or 2 branches Bold major character difference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192H. 195I. mouth region and mouth parts normal (plate 194I. . with more or less distinct posterior angle at about midheight. . . . . mandibles and 4th limbs greatly reduced and transformed to hypodermic-like apparatus (plates 191A. . . deep vestibules. laterally compressed (plates 191A. inconspicuous sexual dimorphism. sieve-type and simple normal pore canals (plate 191B. . J-. . or a jointed (but not annulated) cleaning limb Present or absent Some Absent Varied Not leglike Usually long Long wormlike annulated cleaning limb Reduced or absent Lobe with few setae or limb absent Usually present Limb reduced or absent in some males Present or absent None Copulatory (8th) Limb or Hemipenis (plates 184. frontal scar V-. with caudal process located above midheight. . . . . . inflated. . 191E. . 193) . . . . In lateral view. 192J. . adductor muscle scar pattern with upper one to two scars divided. . 193E. . . . D character not given for Podocopa. . . .

1 mm–1. sometimes convex Often with spine or corner-shaped glandular process Body Bellonci organ Usually bifurcate and Formed as two setae Few with some segmentation With short triangular process between at least longest claws Bifurcate or not.4 mm–2. not formed as setae Few with some segmentation No triangular processes (few with a minute blunt peg) between claws Not bifurcate. of Limbs (including male copulatory limb) 1st Antenna No.1 mm Ovoid or almost circular Suborder Halocypridina Family Thaumatocyprididae Family Halocyprididae Family Polycopidae 0. but anteroventral margin straight or slightly concave and delimited by anterior and anteroventral processes Convex or straight With or without long spinelike process Dorsal margin Posterodorsal margin Convex Without keel Convex or straight Without keel Usually rather straight. sometimes absent Some with traces of segmentation Anterior and ventral edges forming right angle.75 mm–3.2 mm Elongate-ovate to ovate. claws on anterior margin longer and articulated at base. sometimes absent Smooth All claws articulated at base (Deeveyinae with minute glandular peg between two claws) Posterodorsal body Furca No.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 427 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 3 Tabular Key to Suborders and Superfamiliies of Order Halocyprida Suborder Polycopina Character Carapace (valve) Adult size (length) Shape (outline) 0. of articles Bend in limb 6 8 8 3–5 (inferred 8) None 3–8 Vanes 7–8 Between first and second article Absent 3–8 Distal (Deeveya also bent between first and second) Euconchoecinae only (continued) Distal filament pad Absent Present in some .GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693].3 mm Usually somewhat subquadrate to oblong. less often rather ovate (Deeveya) Usually conspicuous Usually conspicuous (often above midheight) (slight in Deeveya) Rostrum Incisur Rare (only Pontopolycope) Present in none (except overhang in Pontopolycope) Present in none Absent.4 mm–3.5 mm Almost circular 0. often sexually dimorphic. few rather circular Present in many Present in many 0. claws on ventral margin unarticulated 8 Bifurcate or not.

hinge pentodont. . . . — Carapace (plates 191F.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 428 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 3 (continued) Suborder Polycopina Character Mandible Coxal endite Basis endite Exopod Endopod—number of articles Fourth Limb Exopod Endopod Fifth Limb Endopod—number of articles Exopod Sixth Limb: presence Absent Endopod Exopod NA NA One article One article Present (one to two articles) Two to three articles Cusped tooth No tooth Present (one article) Two articles Suborder Halocypridina Family Thaumatocyprididae Family Halocyprididae Family Polycopidae Cusped tooth Cusped tooth Absent Jointed (number of articles unclear) Absent Two articles Jointed (number of articles unclear) None Present Jointed Present in few (one article). . 602: 1–55 (see pp. . . . . . coarsely pitted to reticulate. . . . few anterior radial pore canals. 32–36) and . 196D) elongate-ovate to subtriangular in lateral view. . .to J-shaped. . simple frontal scar. . . . egg care not known. . . usually absent Present (one article— except Danielopolina) Present only in Deeveyinae (one article) Seventh Limb: presence Absent Reduced (or absent). . COHEN Myodocopa are mostly subtidal and few have yet been collected intertidally within the geographic range of this book. . 196C. male right and left 6th and 7th limbs asymmetrical (plate 195I. . . . . . . . surface smooth to weakly pitted. . . knee joints of walking legs without internal supports . MYODOCOPIDA To identify juvenile instars see Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson 1999. . . 195J) . . . . Cytherideidae 428 ARTHROPODA List of Species MYODOCOPA ANNE C. identified specimens of many of the following species are in the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco). . . . vestibules shallow or absent. . Cohen. DP Dawn Peterson. without concave or angulate elements. male 6th and 7th limbs symmetrical (plate 196A) . Zool. . Schizocytheridae 18. . few radial pore canals. frontal scar V. AC Anne C. . . . . . numerous radial pore canals.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. . . . . . females brood young in domicilium. . Carapace elongate-subquadrate in lateral view. deep vestibules. . . hinge schizodont (plate 191F). . . . Pectocytheridae — Carapace elongate-oval in lateral view. most listed below have been reported slightly subtidal near shore. . . adductor muscle scar pattern with no divided scars (plate 191F). . . . . . RFM Rosalie F. Smithsonian Cont. . with one to three setae Unjointed One to two articles Male Copulatory Limb Branched or not NOTE : Two parts One to two parts Two parts One to two parts Key differences are indicated in boldface. Maddocks.

None (plate 186A. 184B.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. most Cylindroleberididae and Asteropteroninae Separated by suture Sometimes fused Fused Yes (plates 184A. 187C) Female and juvenile Sarsiellinae round or round except for keel (plate 187G. 186E) 187A) None (plate 187B. 184B) Shallow (plate 187A) Minute to deep (plate Shallow (plate 187B. 186B.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 429 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 4 Tabular Key to Families of the Order Myodocopida Subfamily Cypridinidoidea Character Carapace (valves] Outline round (except for keel) None (plates 184A. 186B. 185A) Subfamily Cylindroleberoidea Cylindroleberididae Subfamily Sarsielloidea Philomedidae Rutidermatidae Sarsiellidae Cypridinidae None (plates 185E–G. 187H) Minute (plate 186H) to shallow (plate 186G) Incisur (anterior slot or indentation) Deep (1 exception) (plate 184A. 186D. 184B). 185G) Cylindroleberidinae. 184B. Some Cyclasteropinae Asteropteroninae only All males (except Asteropteroninae) Some Many None Yes None completely smooth Most None Yes Smooth at low magnification? Ornamented with nodes. ridges. Usually Few None completely smooth All None Yes Posterior vertical row None except male Codonocera of external hairs Male more elongate? Some Body Bellonci organ Short or long Usually long Absent Long Present (few nozzles) or absent Long Absent Long Absent Present in all Upper lip with valvular nozzles? (many nozzles) (plate 185B) Posterodorsal body Most smooth (plate 184A. 187C) to deep (plate 185E) 186A. etc. 186E) (Pleoschisma or slitlike (Cylin none) droleberidinae) (plate 185F. 186D. some males with row of large lobes Smooth Usually 7–8 (some fewer) dorsal over-lapping flat leaf-like gills Smooth Smooth Furca lst claw with basal suture Other claws without basal suture 1st Antenna 3rd and 4th articles Separated by suture Usually separated by complete suture Usually little reduction Cyclasteropinae. 185D) Sometimes Yes (plate 185H) No Yes (plate 186F) No Yes No No (plate 188E) Sometimes Male 5th article Not reduced Wedged ventrally between 4th and 6th Yes Wedged ventrally between 4th and 6th Yes Wedged ventrally between 4th and 6th Yes Male seta of 5th article with bush of long filaments? No or slight (some with bushes on setae of terminal article) (continued) .

long. no claws Females and juveniles with 2 claws and various setae . males with 1–3 dial articles with 1 (-2) claw claws and all on 2nd article and (plate 188C).qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 430 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 4 (continued) Subfamily Cypridinidoidea Character Cypridinidae Subfamily Cylindroleberoidea Cylindroleberididae No Subfamily Sarsielloidea Philomedidae No Rutidermatidae No No Sarsiellidae Yes Males with terminal filaments with suckers? 7th article with clawlike a-seta None All Cylindroleberidinae. 0–1 setae 3-pronged rake in Pincer in females female and juveand juveniles nile Sarsiellinae (except Metaschismatinae) (plate 188C) Endopodial claws—number and position Not all terminal in Not all terminal in All terminal: (2-) 3 All terminal: (1-) 3 All terminal: females & juvefemales & juvefemales & juve relatively long & relatively short & niles: usually niles: claws form all on 3rd article all on 3rd article niles with (2-) 3 pincers (plate 188A) with 1 (Dantyirelatively long (plate 185C) nae 0–3) claw on claws (plate 186C). on protopod Bare lobe ?= epipod Yes No No Yes No No Females and juveniles with at least 2 claws. several setae. 2 setae Terminal group (plate 186C) Spiny lobe (plate 188A). scytheshaped branched. reduced in male (plate 188B) Absent Absent or reduced. 0–?2 setae Absent or small spiny lobe. 2 setae Terminal group (plate 185C) Spiny lobe. but in some Most with minute distal seta Always No seta Always No seta Always No seta In most Mandible Coxal endite shape Basis endite Exopod Endopodial claws form Spiny lobe.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. some Asteropteroninae None None None 2nd Antenna Protopod with seta? Male endopod a clasper? With minute distal seta Not in most. many pectinate No Yes. most Cyclasteropinae. (except each of 3 endopoMetaschisma). males on 3rd article with 1–3 terminal 1 claw on 3rd. Metaschisma with 3 Yes No No Females and juveniles with terminal row of 5 stout claws (3–5 triangular) and 1 subterminal long thin seta on each side of claw row (continued) Reduced. several/few setae. some Long. reduced in male Absent Absent or reduced. 184B) Reduced and weak No in males? With setal comb With basal epipod? Endopod—claws on 2nd article (terminal) No No At least 2 claws. reduced in male spiny Lobe with setae Short. 2 setae Terminal group Absent Short. males with 1 claws only (or plus terminal claw weaker proximal (plate 188B) claws) (plate 188D) 4th Limb (plate 184A. rarely absent Absent Short.

Smithsonian Cont. U. 89: 203–210. Nafpaktitis. Prog. 184B) Reduced in males? Terminus No Peg or tooth opposite comb No Opposing combs In a few Peg(s) opposite comb No Peg(s) or comb opposite comb Usually Small opposing combs Male 8th Limb (plate 184A) Copulatory limb Big. some/all with sclerites Small elongate with 3 lobes Small elongate with 3 lobes. Morph. 3 lobes (1 jointed) with internal sclerites Small in most males. smaller teeth on 1st article Yes No Sarsiellinae none. Com. For information on seven Northwestern American coastal species beyond range of this book. Physiol. NOAA Tech. tsujii: see Thompson. Biol. Dept. Acta Zoologica 71: 217–223. 3: 135–156. 3 lobes. weak in males? With setal comb No No No Yes No teeth or claws Yes No 1 big squarish or elongate tooth on 2nd article. Biochem. no sclerites Short to elongate. Fisheries Bull. Exp. Benthic in sand. In Bridging the Gap: Trends in the Ostracode Biological and Geological Sciences. OSTRACODA 431 . Mar. Mar. J. Smith. and J. and website of SCAMIT (South. Memorandum planktonic. reproduction and bioluminescence in Ostracoda. Calif. (also fish predation).S. 1988. Assoc. Washington 90: 218–231 ( Vargula americana [Müller. Univ. 1968. Biol. Lie. Poulsen 1965. smaller teeth on 1st article Yes No 1 big squarish tooth on 2nd article. Ser. Invert. The Paleontological Society Papers 9. specimens not extant). 1890] of Hobson and Chess 1976.htm) (plates 184A. 334: 1–35. 1998. 21: 122–126 (identifications unverified. L. Marine Biol. Baja California to south of Monterey Bay. 1993. Planktonic occurrence probably only as nocturnal demersal plankton: see Hammer 1981. Biol. Thompson and Tsuji 1989. complex. CYLINDROLEBERIDIDAE For keys see Kornicker 1981. not reported further north. Zool. htm or http://www. Smithsonian Cont. Proc. Publ. 74: 567–598). Bioluminescence in midshipman fish is related to predation on V. Dana Report 65: 1–484. J. Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC243. Taxonomists): http://www. with distal sclerotized hook NOTE : Key differences are indicated in boldface. 104: 333–338. 102: 161–165.S. Comp. small tooth on 1st article With teeth or claws Row of claws (usually 6) short peg on 1st exopodial article 6th Limb (plate 184A. 319: 1–548 (subfamilies of Cylindroleberididae. Biol.scamit. J. Park and A. E. 3 lobes. 3 m–931 m. A. taxonomic_tools. Hobson and Chess 1976 (also fish predation). Chess and Hobson 1997. Biol. 62: 275–280. Ecol. Biochem. Thompson et al. Stepien and Brusca 1985. Mar. A. 184B) Reduced. Vargula tsujii Kornicker and Baker 1977. For more on bioluminescence see Huvard 1990. Bergen 14: 229–556 (identifications unverified. unjointed. 25: 91–105 (also fish predation). serie HavUnders¢kelser. specimens not extant). and Tsuji 1988. Zool. Mar. NOAA Tech. Dantyinae with big squarish tooth on 2nd article. 185–188). Chess and Hobson 1997. CYPRIDINIDAE For summary and phylogenetic analysis see Cohen. Comp. Lie and Evans 1973. New Haven: Yale University Press. Mar. A.. 218: 181–193 (plate 185A–185D). Calif. Fiskedirektoratets Skrifter. 98: 7–13.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. scamit. see Juday 1907. Physiol. U. C. Kornicker 1992. eds. Kornicker and Myers 1981. Soc. Zool. Com. Dept. Smithsoman Cont. 531: 1–243. 184B) With well developed endites? 4 All reduced 4 4 1–4 7th Limb (plate 184A. genera of Cylasteropinae. 137: 39–52. Morin 2003. Zool. Sexual morphology.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 431 Techbooks (PPG Quark) TA B L E 4 (continued) Subfamily Subfamily Cypridinidoidea Cylindroleberoidea Character Cypridinidae Cylindroleberididae Subfamily Sarsielloidea Philomedidae Rutidermatidae Sarsiellidae 5th Limb (plate 184A.

). The species was introduced to San Francisco Bay. Euphilomedes longiseta (Juday. Univ. 1978) ( Parasterope barnesi Baker 1978. Oliver et al. comm. of Tuel et al. 1. Fish. To identify juvenile instars see Kornicker 1992. Univ. Smithsonian Cont. see Kornicker 1981. Zool. benthic sand. Publ. 1980. Caraion. Fish. Redwood City. ecology) (plates 187B. Inst. Biol. 1907) ( Euphilomedes oblonga. and at night in subtidal benthic light trap) CAS. of Kornicker 1977. Calif. in Monterey Bay off Sunset Beach. Texas J. 1907). Marina Bodega Harbor. distribution. Cycloleberis lobiancoi of Hobson and Chess. Pillar Point Harbor. See Kornicker and Wise 1962. 1906. SARSIELLIDAE PHILOMEDIDAE For keys. Zeugophilomedes oblonga (Juday. distribution. Richmond. Res. longiseta. 1976. Dana Report 57 (description). of Oliver et al. Marina. Rutiderma apex Kornicker and Nelson. 1. Pillar Point Harbor. El Granada CA. depth 1 m. 187C. 1. E. Zool. benthic. 334: 1–35 (S. Calif. 78: 437–454). Zool. Biol. distribution. Publ. 1976. Zool. Smithsonian Cont. Inst. Smithsonian Cont.. Smithsonian Cont. Kornicker 1989. AC.8 m on sand. Monterey Bay and Pilar Point Harbor. Recent Fossil Ostracoda: 159–173 [pers. Smithsonian Cont. See Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson 1997. Sarsiella tricostata Jones. Contr. Crustaceana 35: 139–141. See Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson. Zool. and near Essex. Smithsonian Cont. ecology) (plate 185F–185H) For bibliography giving synonymy. Smithsonian Cont. AC. 1981. Benthic in sand mixed with silt and clay in harbor (often in kelp bed) at Half Moon Bay. Smithsonian Cont. 6: 398–416). see Hobson and Chess 1976. Zool. 593: 1–53 (description. Bodega Harbor (males scooped from bottom. Smithsonian Cont.). 1980. San Diego to Point Conception. Euphilomedes morini Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson. 188B). Kornicker.8 m–11 m. sandy silt. Canada. 1894 of Sharpe 1908. n. Survey Pillar Point Harbor. Kornicker 1992. Calif. See Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson 1997. SARSIELLINAE Eusarsiella zostericola (Cushman. Half Moon Bay. Ecol. 9 m–14 m. 593: 1–53 (description. Tomales Bay. Biol. S. Zool. “myodocopid” in Tomales Bay. 1997 ( Philomedes longiseta of Tuel et al. Mus. including Monterey Bay. San Francisco Bay. Bull. Tomales Bay. 3: 135–156.. shallow shores of Atlantic bays from Maine to Chesapeake Bay. 531: 1–243 (juvenile instars of Rutiderma). Smithsonian Cont. 553: 1–200. benthic and planktonic habitats at Catalina Id. also general morphology of Myodocopida). 1952). 1981 ( Cylindroleberis lobianci Müller. See Kornicker and HarrisonNelson 1997. Smithsonian Cont. Benthic in 5 m–180 m from La Jolla to Ganges Harbor. NOAA Tech. Rep. J. off Pt. For subfamily Metaschismatinae see Kornicker 1994. see Kornicker 1986. Stat. see Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson 1997. ecology) (plate 186D–186F). Moss Landing. Monterey Bay (Oliver et al. 188A. Smithsonian Cont. 1980. England. 78: 437–454 (physical ecology. the Gulf of Mexico. Half Moon Bay. Baker 1974. 1976. shelf).s. Bull. on S. Half Moon Bay. ecology). Smithsonian Cont. 531: 1–243. Kornicker 1983. of Lucas. 505: 1–140. lobianci Müller]. 593: 1–53. For key to genera of subfamily Dantyinae see Kornicker and Caraion 1980. 593: 1–53 (description. Zool. Benthic in sand. RUTIDERMATIDAE CYLINDROLEBERIDINAE Postasterope barnesi (Baker. 449: 1–11.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 432 Techbooks (PPG Quark) Asteropteroninae. 1997. Monterey Bay) (plate 186A–186C). and F. CAS. Zool. in Aspects Ecol. Benthic at 1 m–3 m. Crustaceana . See Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson 1997. Euphilomedes carcharodonta (Smith 1952) ( Philomedes carcharodonta Smith 1952. nocturnal plankton. also coastal lagoons of Texas.8 m–210 m. 74: 567–598. 593: 1–53 (description. Zool. Marine Ecol. Zool. Surface plankton tows off San Diego (Juday. and Pajaro River. subtidal high energy beach. Zool. 1907) ( Philomedes longiseta Juday 1907.S. Pillar Point Harbor. For fish predation. Biol. Smithsonian Cont. Rep. Proc. Bull. Zool. 3: 135–156). Half Moon Bay. Smithsonian Cont. 425: 1–139 (some genera of Cylindroleberidinae). 35: 399-430 [not C. 1906) ( Sarsiella zostericola Cushman. Kornicker 1986. distribution. 332: 1–16 (most genera of Philomedinae). Mar. Fish. NOAA Tech. Chess and Hobson 1997. Zool. Poulsen 1962. possibly to Alaska. Kornicker]). Zool. 6 m –9 m off Monterey Bay (Oliver et al.. ecology). and Dark Gulch. of Tuel et al. Smithsonian Cont. Calif. near Vancouver Island (Lucas. Biol. Smithsonian Cont. and Bodega Bay. Can. CA). Zoogeog. and silty clay. Survey Pillar Point Harbor). 1997 ( Rutiderma sp. 415: 1–217. 20 m–90 m. Zool. Zool. 78: 437–454). Chess and Hobson 1997. Fish. Stud. Depth 2 m–146 m. and England with oysters (Crassostrea virginica) transplanted from the Atlantic coast. Watsonville outfall. Kaiser Trestle. Zool. Parasterope sp. 593: 1–53 (description. L. genera of Sarsiellinae. ASTEROPTERONINAE Asteropella slatteryi Kornicker.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. Fishery Bull. also males collected at night in subtidal benthic light trap on silty sea grass near Spud Pt. Benthic in 1. Survey Pillar Point Harbor.. Smithsonian Cont. U. 1952. biology for all Rutidermatidae as of 1986. 1980). Zool. Board Canada 9: 16–41. For keys see Kornicker and Myers 1981. 1958). 1976). and also off South Jetty and northwest of harbor entrance at Moss Landing. benthic in sediment by day. Fish. 467: 1–134 (genera of Pseudophilomedinae).. planktonic (probably only as demersal plankton at night) and benthic from Gulf of California to Monterey Bay. Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-243 (Catalina Is. also benthic on silty sea grass near Spud Pt. fish predation) (plate 187A). Zool. Calif.8 m–37 m. Half Moon Bay. CYCLASTEROPINAE Leuroleberis sharpei Kornicker. 371: 1–86 (part of Rutidermatidae). P. distribution. Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-243 (plate 185E). El Granada. distribution. Benthic on sand. Kornicker 1991. British Columbia. Surface plankton off San Diego Bay and San Pedro (Juday 1907. see Cohen and Kornicker 1986. Mendocino County. 309: 1–27. Science 25: 131–132 (abundant 432 ARTHROPODA For keys to subfamilies of Sarsiellidae. Nat.

showing circular shape and deep anterior incisur.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 433 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 185 Myodocopida. left furca showing all claws with basal suture (all but E. interior embryos. 1977: A. Cohen). Leuroleberis sharpei after Kornicker. H. G. redrawn by Ginny Allen. female. male posterior hair row on valve. E by A. left male furca showing 2nd claw without basal suture. C. B. long male setae of 1st antennae. after Kornicker and Baker. male mandible (medial view. upper lip (with nozzles and tusk). 1981: female. male. . interior brooded embryos. Postasterope barnesi after Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson 1997: F. Cypridinidae and Cylindroleberididae.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. but showing relative shortness of terminal claws). coxal endite not shown. other claws with sutures. showing slitlike incisur. D. anterior of body showing Bellonci organ attached to naupliar eye. fe- male showing deep anterior incisur. showing deep slitlike anterior incisur. Cylindroleberididae: E. Cypridinidae: Vargula tsujii.

showing long terminal claws. after Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson. C. H. male (with overhanging anterior rostrum). B. after Poulsen 1962: A. Sarsiellidae: Eusarsiella zostericola. Sarsiellidae. male. Euphilomedes morini. Philomedidae: Euphilomedes carcharodonta. female. male (more elongate valve. female mandible tip. male left furca. female. Philomedidae. female (with mostly circular shape.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. 1997: D. larger more visible lateral eye than female). anterior of valves to left: G.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 434 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 18 6 Myodocopida. after Kornicker 1967. F. . no rostrum) (all redrawn by Ginny Allen). E.

S. CYPRIDOCOPINA CYPRIDIDAE Cypridopsis vidua (O. Richardson Bay. CA. Helgoländer wiss. Smithsonian Cont. This parthenogenetic. showing shallow incisur.: 657–734). Females and juveniles in high intertidal/supratidal pools with freshwater influx. In sand dredged from shore. 186H. 1981. Zool. in Fresh-water Biology. This parthenogenetic species is abundant worldwide in permanent and temporary fresh waters. Delorme 1970. from Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson. Asteropella slatteryi female. Cylindroleberididae: A. 1959. 189I–189L). eds. 189B. Micropaleo. 65: 129–139 (spread with oysters). Can. 1868) ( Cyprinotus salinus). 4: 59–74 (description). 15: 27–40 (ecology of rockpool populations of Scandinavia) (plate 189A. Ward. 48: 253–266) (plate 189C–189E). somewhat variable species is very widely reported in brackish waters of Europe. Parthenogenetic. 593: 1–53 (distribution. Bull. Bodega Bay. Zool. Bamber 1987. 188C–188E). Females and juveniles in high intertidal/supratidal tide pools with freshwater influx. Whipple and Edmonson.). J. showing ornate valves. Point Lobos (plate 195H). from Kornicker. OSTRACODA 435 . F. and references therein). RFM. 1835).GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. C. Herpetocypris reptans (Baird. Whaler’s Cove. DP. Zool. Marin County. See Sars 1925. Kornicker and HarrisonNelson 1997. Swain (1999. Bodega Bay. female. See also Ganning 1967. MADDOCKS AND DAWN PETERSON PODOCOPIDA BAIRDIOCOPINA BAIRDIIDAE Neonesidea sp. Fossil Nonmarine Ostracoda U. Rutidermatidae: Rutiderma apex. halophile. PODOCOPA ROSALIE F.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 435 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 187 Myodocopida. See above references (plate 189F–189H). Kornicker 1975. RFM. Tressler. Russia. J. 1997: B. 48: 153–168. Paleont. the Caspian Sea and North America. common in fresh waters of Europe and North America. Cylindroleberididae and Rutidermatidae. J. An Account Crustacea Norway (Ostracoda) 9: 1–277. Heterocypris salina (Brady. Amer. Meeresunters. Females in high intertidal/supratidal tide pools with freshwater influx. Bodega Bay. See above references and Delorme 1970. male (more elongate and less ornate than female) (drawn by Carolyn Gast. Empty valves in roots of eelgrass in brackish water inlet. Can. depth 10 cm. loaned by Smithsonian Institution). 1786). RFM. 6: 57–62 (life history in Great Britain) (plates 186G. Müller.

after Kornicker and Wise 1962. Empty valves in roots of eelgrass in brackish water inlet. central Asia and Africa. female mandible (showing terminal pincer-claws). Iceland. after Kornicker 1967. 59: 344–369 (plate 195A. medial view. the Americas. Rutidermatidae: Rutiderma apex.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 436 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 18 8 Myodocopida. See above references and Delorme 1970. J. depth 10 cm. northeast Bodega Harbor. 1847) ( Cypridopsis aculeata). male mandible (long claw only on terminal podomere). Paleont. D. Richardson Bay. Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa. B. DP. 436 ARTHROPODA CYTHEROCOPINA BYTHOCYTHERIDAE Sclerochilus sp. Forester and Brouwers 1985. Can. E. Rutidermatidae and Sarsiellidae. male mandible (no pincer). It has been widely reported from Europe. medial view. after Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson. 195B). On intertidal mud and fine sand flat near Sandpiper Restaurant. . other claws with sutures (C. E. D. 48: 253–266.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. J. 1997: A. redrawn by Ginny Allen). Sarsiellidae: Eusarsiella zostericola: C. Marin County. RFM (plate 190A–190L). medial view. Zool. male right furca showing 1st (longest) claw without basal suture. medial view. female mandible (showing one long ventral claw on each endopodial podomere forming rake).

Cythere sp. Müller. Ostracoda. F. RFM. lutea and Cythere alveolivalva (part) of Swain 1969. Taxon. Cythere lutea of Swain and Gilby 1974. Morph. D. E. CYTHERIDAE Cythere alveolivalva Smith. muscle scar pattern of right valve. Cythere valentinei Tsukagoshi and Ikeya. Tide pool at Point Piedras Blancas.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. X35. of Tsukagoshi and Ikeya. X105. Taxon. OSTRACODA 437 . Cythere maia of Valentine. 20: 257–352). X175. and inner margin. Ostracoda. CA.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 437 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 18 9 Podocopida: Freshwater Cyprididae: Heterocypris salina (Brady. Valentine (1976) reported range in offshore waters as Baja California to Point Piedras Blancas. Kamchatka Peninsula. striate inner list. 20: 257–352. H. exteriors of right and left valves with traces of ovaries. Cypridopsis vidua (O. On intertidal mud and fine sand flat in Bodega Harbor. anterior margin of right valve with radial pore canals. X175 (drawn by R. 1952 ( Cythere uncifalcata Smith. anteroventral margin of right valve with minute tuberculae. 1868). Ecol. A of Valentine. C. Maddocks). 1976). lutea of Swain and Gilby 1974. in Neale (ed. CA. also fossil (Pliocene-Pleistocene). normal pore canals and granular micro-ornament indicated as dots and ovals. radial pore canals.. X60. and Alaska to California. female specimen RFM 3413F (A. 1987 ( Cythere sp. I–L): A. C. anterior margin of left valve with flange. X105. outer list. Rec. B. in Neale (ed. exterior of left valve. L. 1835). B. 1987 ( Cythere alveolivalva (part) of Swain 1969. female specimen RFM 3411F (C–E): C. Cythere sp. 1976. Rec. J. 1786). Micropaleo. X105. Herpetocypris reptans (Baird. I. Micropaleo. Cythere sp. exteriors of right and left valve.). also fossil (Pleistocene and Holocene) in Oregon and California (Tsukagoshi and Ikeya 1987) (plate 191B. Morph. B of Valentine. Oregon). aff. female specimen RFM 3412F (F–H): F. exteriors of right and left valves. also fossil (Pleistocene of Cape Blanco. 191C). This species is common in coastal regions of the northern Kurile Islands. and Swain and Gilby 1974. Ecol. muscle scar pattern of right valve. 1976). Cythere cf. G. 1952. X60. Valentine (1976) reported range in offshore waters as Point Reyes to southern Vancouver Island. K. X105.).

second antenna with spinnaret gland.qxd 5/3/07 05:29 PM Page 438 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 19 0 Podocopida: Bythocytheridae: Sclerochilus sp. widely distributed in estuaries and 438 ARTHROPODA marshes along the Pacific coast from southern Chile to British Columbia. G–L): A. also Midway and Oahu Islands in the North Pacific.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. palp and masticatory process of maxillula (fourth limb). F. exteriors of right and left valves. E. 195J). G. Geology 7: 1–178. Maddocks). 1943). Geoscience and Man 6: 1–26) (plate 195I. Sandberg and Plusquellec 1974. B.. CYTHERIDEIDAE Cyprideis beaconensis (LeRoy. Skaggs Island Naval Station. C. X120. all X430. K. DP. Shallow water among algae bloom. mouth region with forehead. probably dispersed on migratory waterfowl (Sandberg 1964. X430 (drawn by R. H–J. fifth. Stockholm Contribs. . Lake Merritt. first antenna. upper and lower lip. brush-shaped organ. Sonoma Co. salt marsh.: female specimen RFM 3408F (A–E. male specimen RFM 3403M. Oakland. sixth and seventh limbs. CA. L. mandible. D.

20: 257–352). entire female specimen RFM 3401F. with postmortem extrusion of body from carapace. 1952. Calif. On sand and rocks. Sci. as seen from left side in transmitted light. Occ. Swain and Gilby (1974) reported it from 12 m in Bodega Bay. 1950 (Calif. Acad. near Pacific Grove (plate 194K). Ambostracon glaucum (Skogsberg. CYTHEROMATIDAE HEMICYTHERIDAE Paracytheroma similis Skogsberg. redrawn from Watling 1970 (drawn by R. Paradoxostomatidae. Schizocytheridae: F. exterior of male left valve. 1957. E): D. Valentine (1976) gave the range in offshore waters as Baja California to Pt. aff. 1952. On intertidal mud and fine sand flat in Bodega Harbor. H. 15: 1–143). camptocytheroidea Hanai. Pap... Piedras Blancas (Micropaleo. Paradoxostomatidae: A. as seen from left side in transmitted light. after Smith.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. On holdfasts of algae in Carmel Bay.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 439 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 191 Podocopida: Cytheridae. 15 m in Monterey Bay. 1972. 1952 (D. X35. Schizocytheridae. 1928) ( Cythereis glaucum Skogsberg 1928. 195D). entire male specimen RFM 3400M. also on calcareous algae in tide pool just outside Hopkins Marine Station. interior of right valve. Pacific Grove. after Watling. X65.. Sci. OSTRACODA 439 . CYTHERURIDAE Howeina sp. Maddocks). RFM (plate 192A–192J). from 23 m in Morro Bay. C. 26: 483–505). all X175. 20: 257–352) (plate 195C. Spinileberis hyalina. and from 11 m–26 m in Coos Bay (Micropaleo. Paradoxostomatidae: Paradoxostoma striungulum Smith. Cythere alveolivalva Smith. exteriors of male right and left valves. X80. E. Acetabulostoma californica. Cytheridae: B. Acad. Proc.

B. The species is widely reported off southern California and Mexico. Maddocks). spinnaret gland. 1928) ( Cythereis pacifica Skogsberg 1928. 20: 257–352). 1974. Aurila laeviculoidea Swain and Gilby. D. Acad. RFM. Mus. exterior of left valve. Aurila sp.. A. also on kelp near shore and on eelgrass in Carmel Bay. camptocytheroidea Hanai. 196J). Washington (plate 195G). fifth. A. Calif. Radimella aurita (Skogsberg. Swain and Gilby (1974) reported it from sand in 12 m in Bodega Bay. Aurila montereyensis (Skogsberg. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as Baja California to north of Santa Cruz). Pap. Skogsberg. maxillula (fourth limb). male specimen RFM 3403M: A. San Mateo Co. 15: 1–143). also fossil (plate 195E. On calcareous algae in tide pool and on holdfasts of Macrocystis. RFM. San Francisco Bay. DP.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. 1943). Inst. 1980). silt with fine sand. in fairly dense seagrass. and the South Kurile Islands (Schornikov and Tsareva 1995. Valentine (1976) gave the latitudinal range in offshore waters as north of Pt. 1957. of Swain and Gilby. E. mandible..qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 440 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 192 Podocopida: Cytheruridae: Howeina sp. Valentine (1976) gave the range in offshore waters as Baja California to Cape Flattery (plate 196E. 92: 237–253) (plate 196I. outside Hopkins Marine Station on Monterey Bay. 1928). On calcareous algae. Sci. Conception to near Cape Alava. H. Bodega Harbor. aff. all X430. I. Hamburg. aff. F–H. 196F). Radimella? pacifica (Skogsberg. 1928) ( Cythereis montereyensis. also on intertidal mud and fine sand flats in Bodega Harbor. corniculata (Okubo. Aurila lincolnensis (LeRoy. 1928) ( Cythereis aurita Skogsberg 1928. 15: 1–143). corniculata is reported from coastal wa440 ARTHROPODA ters of Japan. Acad. Occ. McNears Beach. and on holdfasts of Macrocystis in 2 m. in tide pools at Carmel Bay. among roots of eelgrass. sixth. C. Korea. Pap. and seventh limbs. Calif. 20: 257– 352). Occ.. On calcareous algae in tide pool and on holdfasts of Macrocystis in 2 . first antenna. Sci. near Pacific Grove. It is likely that additional species of Aurila and related genera occur in the intertidal zone within the range of this manual (see Valentine 1976). Among shore rocks at Rockaway Beach. and in 10 m off Crescent City (Micropaleo. Aurila sp. In sand in 10 m off Crescent City. Mitt. In sand in 10 m in Bodega Bay. Zoolog. 1974 (Micropaleo. sec- ond antenna. hemipenis. 195F). X175 (drawn by R. J.

10 cm. LOXOCONCHIDAE Cytheromorpha sp. second antenna. 20: 257–352).. F. also fossil (plate 196G. I. McNears Beach. Bodega Bay in 12 m and off Crescent City in 10 m. m. first antenna. outside Hopkins Marine Station near Pacific Grove. B. DP. Empty valves in brackish water on medium-grained sand and rocks. hemipenis. also fossil. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as Baja California to Cape Flattery. J.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 441 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 193 Podocopida: Paradoxostomatidae: Paradoxostoma sp. also on kelp near shore and on eelgrass in Carmel Bay. H. McNears OSTRACODA 441 . sixth.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. 1943. upper lip. male specimen RFM 3407M: A. in less than 1 m. mandible. Loxoconcha lenticulata LeRoy. and seventh limbs. and mandible within esophagus. in brackish water on mudflat among floating algae. Maddocks). K. C–E. 1 m. Marin Co. oral sucking disk. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as Baja California to south of Cape Vizcaino. in brackish water on muddy sand. exteriors of right and left valves. X175 (drawn by R. mouth region with forehead.. 196H). of Swain and Gilby 1974. Richardson Bay. 1943) ( Aurila jollaensis. Bodega Bay. fifth. Robustaurila jollaensis (LeRoy. Marin Co. G. Empty valves in brackish water on mediumgrained sand and rocks. Bolinas Bay. Micropaleo. all X430. maxillula (fourth limb). in 5 cm..

442 ARTHROPODA Paradoxostoma striungulum Smith. 1. Biol. D. Described from Departure Bay. also fossil (plate 196B). Carlton.. on Obelia near water surface (Smith 1952. fifth. collector). fig. Washington 85: 481–488). X120. drawn by R. 1952. Paradoxostoma sp. It is likely that additional species of Paradoxostoma and related genera occur within the range of this book (plate 193A–193K). J. K. Most species of Acetabulostoma are parasitic on gammarid amphipods. Paracytheroma similis male left valve exterior.. all X430. in the zone of the red alga Corallina gracilis. male specimen RFM 3402M (A–H). living on intertidal fouled eelgrass (Zostera marina) blades in the South Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve. C. Marin Co. left exterior of female specimen RFM 3410F.. H. Conception. Maddocks). Fish. McNears Beach. CAS. sixth. with developing eggs in domiciliary brood pouch. 191E). first antenna. but the host (if any) of A. RFM. antenna. X175. Soc. DP. B. pl. I. Xestoleberis sp. Empty valves in brackish water on medium-grained sand and rocks. Bodega Harbor. Low intertidal on exposed side of Tomales Point. E–G. Xestoleberididae: A–I. Xestoleberis hopkinsi male left valve exterior. brush-shaped appendage. californica is unknown (plate 191A). Coos Bay (J. Marin Co. hemipenis. 1950. A. . One male living on mud and fine sand flat exposed at low tide. less than 1 m. redrawn from Skogsberg. Cytheromatidae: K. Marin Co. Beach. DP. 29. RFM. PARADOXOSTOMATIDAE Acetabulostoma californica Watling l972 (Proc. T. 1950. British Colombia.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 442 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 19 4 Podocopida: Cytheromatidae and Xestoleberididae.. Res. Board Canada 9: 16–41) (plate 191D.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. pigmentation and patch pattern indicated by dots. redrawn from Skogsberg. X100 ( J. J. and seventh limbs. mandibular base. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as northernmost Baja California to Pt.

GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. Neonesidea sp. Cyprididae. both X67 (SEMs by D.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 443 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 195 Podocopida: Bairdiidae. CAS 121622. 1928). right exterior of male carapace. Cyprididae: Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa. B. 1847). Hemicytheridae. X67. Bairdiidae: H. X67. Cytherideidae: I. left exterior of female carapace with heavy coating of microbial slime. 1943). 1928). Hemicytheridae: Ambostracon glaucum (Skogsberg. CAS 120522. right exterior of female. CAS 121619: I. G. right and left exteriors of female carapaces. exterior of male (?) right valve. X67. Radimella aurita (Skogsberg. Aurila montereyensis (Skogsberg. A. both X67. exterior of female (?) left valve. CAS 121627: E. J: Cyprideis beaconensis (LeRoy. Peterson). . 1928). Cytherideidae. F. D. left exterior of carapace. D): C. exterior of female (?) left valve. CAS 121629 (C. left exterior of male.. X67. F. E. J. CAS 121631.

D. Schizocytheridae. F. X100. CAS 1212630. Hemicytheridae: E. UMPC 12096. Acuminocythere sp. Schizocytheridae: C. UMPC 12220. right and left exteriors of carapaces. 1980). X100. exterior of male left valve. CAS 121628. Aurila lincolnensis (LeRoy. Loxoconcha lenticulata (LeRoy. H. X100. exterior of left valve. . X100. Loxoconchidae: B. CAS 121626. 1974. Robustaurila jollaensis (LeRoy. 1943). Acuminocythere crescentensis Swain and Gilby.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 444 Techbooks (PPG Quark) P LATE 19 6 Podocopida: Hemicytheridae. Pectocythere park- erae Swain and Gilby. exterior of left valve. Aurila aff. Pectocytheridae. Pectocytheridae: A. Peterson). I. CAS 121620. X100. right exterior of female carapace. G. 1974. 1943). 1974. J. corniculata (Okubo. X100. of Swain and Gilby. X100 (SEMs by D. A. Loxoconchidae. UMPC 12080. right and left exteriors of carapaces. 1943). exteriors of right and left valves.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693].

Monterey Bay (plate 194J). Brouwers. Barnes. E. Martens. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as Monterey Bay to Cape Flattery. Arthropoda. 1998. H. no. Pectocythere tomalensis Watling. Kamiya.. Spinileberis hyalina Watling. Empty carapace in mud and fine sand. P. R. Harrison and A. Cohen. and the Bodega Marine Laboratory for providing lab space for Cohen and Oakley during collections and for other assistance. B of Valentine. Xestoleberis sp. and J.-P. Living males of the “ancient asexual” Darwinulidae (Ostracoda: Crustacea). In 6 m on sandy bottom.. Summary of neontological and paleontological classification of Ostracoda. C. In The Ostracoda: Applications in Quaternary Research. Louis Kornicker and Elizabeth Nelson for literature and information regarding myodocopans and for the loan of the half-tone figures (drawn by Carolyn Gast) in plate 187. pp. Buchon to Little River. R. E. On bottom silt and clay. London: Blackwell Scientific Publs. and Abele. J. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (D.. F. New York: Academic Press. De Deckker. Hartmann. Jeff Spees. 1976). Taxonomy and Economic Use 1. and reproduction in ostracodes. 1950. 2 m. Lieferungen 1–5: 1–1067. Ecology of recent ostracodes of the Todos Santos Bay region. Inc. Chivas. Arthropoda. C. 336 pp. Sonderveroeffentlichungen. 1966. Oakley. Kempf. Lethaia 31: 251–265.. 1989.. J. H. Benson. Homology of Holocene ostracode biramous appendages with those of other crus- . AGU Geophysical Monograph Series 131: 5–36. A. exopod and endopod. J. Index and Bibliography of Nonmarine Ostracoda 1. K. A. Marine and Brackish Water Ostracods. Wingstrand. A of Valentine. also on sand in 12 m in Bodega Bay (Swain and Gilby 1974. M. vol. 204 and 478 pp. Bauer and J. Whittaker. Bioluminescent displays. 1963. Their Morphology.. G. Mexico. R. A. Colin and J. White Gulch. morphology and biology of Quarternary and living Ostracoda. 1970 (Crustaceana 19: 251– 263). In Arthropod relationships. Vol. 2. American Museum of Natural History.) 43: 1–343. In Dr. C. and K. Maddocks. and James T. S. RFM. J. a review. Martin eds: 1–16. Biologiske Skrifter 32: 1–149. L. the fossil record and biogeography: 221–239.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 445 Techbooks (PPG Quark) PECTOCYTHERIDAE Pectocythere parkerae Swain and Gilby. SCHIZOCYTHERIDAE Acuminocythere crescentensis Swain and Gilby. Ostracoda. F. no. 1970. In Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates 9: crustacea. A. and A. Martens. eds. 2. courtship. Horne. eds.. B of Valentine. Baja California. ed. 1976). R. Brill. 1962. T. eds. W. 442 pp. M. Some Additional References (but not cited in Faunal List): OSTRACODA OF NORTHWEST AMERICA Benson. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions. and in Coos Bay. J. 2002. RFM. and H. Cheetham. Kermack and R. R. Sex and Parthenogenesis. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Kornicker. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 70: 7–73. 55–76. Teil. We also thank Frederick M. J. Leiden: Backhuys Publ. I. G. 1990. Sonora.: pp. 20: 257–352). Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Holmes and A.. Moore. Puri 1974. Ellis and Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda. Taxonomy. Recent marine and lagoonal ostracodes from the Estero de Tastiota region. taceans: the protopod. K. Index and Bibliography of Marine Ostracoda. Comparative spermatology of the Crustacea Entomostraca. 50 (and later volumes in this series). in Bodega Harbor. Superclass Crustacea. Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1518. CA (plate 196D). Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye. 1991. New York: Wiley-Liss. Article 3: 1–34. S. and C. R. 1974 ( “Paijenborchella” sp. J. M. See Watling 1970. 1959. ed. Morkhoven. eds.micropress. 35 (and later volumes in this series). K. F. 1 Index A. Micropaleo. 1982. 169–187. Ostracoda. R. Micropaleontology Press. K. of Swain and Gilby.. Subclass Ostracoda. Paleobathymetry on the continental shelf based on examples using ostracods from the Gulf of Alaska. G. In Crustacean Sexual Biology. Kaesler. 1987. 1974 ( Munseyella sp. On sand in 11 m–36 m in Bodega Bay. D. Brouwers. off Crescent City. London: Chapman & Hall. 2002. Index A.-P. Ostracoda. Geologisches Institut der Universitaet zu Koeln. flat exposed at low tide. R. Cohen. OR (plate 196A). Part Q Arthropoda 3 Crustacea Ostracoda. 1998. Fünfter Band: Arthropoda. 1989.. R. 1967. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as Pt.. J. 1961. J. G. Crustacean phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA. Cohen. 1–13. Cunningham. 2. J. New York: Columbia University Press. G. S. Abele. Kaesler. Swain for the loan of specimens described by Swain and Gilby (1974) from the University of Minnesota Paleontological Collections. L. Journal of Crustacean Biology 10: 84–211. E. 415–442. Maddocks. G. Evolutionary ecology of reproductive modes in non-marine ostracods. S. 1986. and A. For online access go to: http://www. Patterns of reproduction in ostracodes. On holdfasts of algae in rocky tide pool full of brown algae. Lawrence: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press. C. Acuminocythere sp. W. Carlton for assistance and for providing new collections of Ostracoda. 1983. L. Kempf. E. Pamphlet. 1963. H. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: 10 pp. In The biology of crustacea. and D. Boardman. Fortey. Geologisches Institut der Universitaet zu Koeln. C. A. New York: E. F. G. just outside the Hopkins Marine Station. ed. Occurrence and distribution chart of ostracodes from the northeastern Gulf of Alaska. T. Crustaceana 19: 251–263 (plate 191F). Geological Survey. G. Martin.S. IV. Morin. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions. Rowell. R. Peypouquet. It is likely that additional species of Xestoleberis occur within our range (plate 194A–194I). Smith. In Ostracoda in the earth sciences. XESTOLEBERIDIDAE Xestoleberis hopkinsi Skogsberg. I: systematics. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Todd Oakley. and L.. epipod. On mud and fine sand flat exposed at low tide. 1980. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Horne. OSTRACODA 445 References GENERAL REFERENCES ON OSTRACODA Athersuch. 1988. 1974 ( “Paijenborchella” sp. In Fossil invertebrates: 241258. Sonderveroeffentlichungen. P. eds. Ginny Allen for redrawing many myodocopid figures. D. in Tomales Bay. Cohen. Horne. Post-Palaeozoic Ostracoda.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. and R. 2006. Buch. 1988. G. E. Article 1: 1–80. eds. 1975. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 99: 1426–1430. 1998. Hartmann. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as San Diego to Cape Lookout. Morro Bay and off Crescent City and Coos Bay in 10 m–26 m. T. L. 1992. C. Bodega Harbor. U. H.. Spears. Morin. 1968. Mexico (northeastern Gulf of California). Tomales Bay. K. 1976). Abteilung. M. Valentine (1976) reported the range in offshore waters as north of Point Conception to Cape Flattery (plate 196C). and J. and R. H. systematics association special volume series 55. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Thomas.

J. M. McKenzie. including herring. Brouwers. and the shallow subtidal. 1969. 1924) reported on marine plankton of San Francisco Bay and the San Diego region. Copepods have developed two basic body plans. Ecology of the Ostracoda from selected marine intertidal localities on the coast of Anglesey. and introduced species. Unfortunately. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1531: 1–47. Second Series (Geology) 46: 11–26. Paracytherideidae. 1974. Kizucheniuo ostrakod (Crustacea. 47 pp. In most harpacticoids. which are defined by the position of the major body articulation between prosome and urosome (plate 197). Huys et al. Cytheridae. 1997. Gilby. U. M. However. 1974. Williams. Schornikov. etc. (1996) provide a key to world harpacticoid families. Morin. Myodocopid Ostracoda (Cypridinacea) from Scammon Lagoon. the Poecilostomatoida. this is not the case. A. and to genera of many copepod families. they have successfully occupied an astounding diversity of habitats and modes of life (see Huys and Boxshall 1991 for a summary of copepod habitats). M. Ishizaki. Cyclopoida. including those from salt marshes. and rockfish feed on planktonic copepods during some or all 446 ARTHROPODA Of the nine copepod orders currently recognized. Ostracoda of the Family Cytheruridae from the Gulf of Panama. Even though coastal and estuarine ecosystems have undergone and continue to undergo rapid changes and increasing stress due to land use. and Harpacticoida—contain most of the free-living individuals likely to be found in nearshore habitats.: pp. and their relationship to some other assemblages of the Pacific Coast. 373: 1–23 (anesthetics. Baja California. C. ed. Gunther. taxonomic compendia of copepods for the Pacific coast are few.. Rastitel’n’ii i Zhivotn’ii Mir Litorali Kuril’skix Ostrovov (in Russian). three— Calanoida. M. the Harpacticoida. and J. of their life history stages. EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THREE ORDERS OF FREE-LIVING COPEPODA Copepoda JEFFERY R. By way of their conversion of detritus and phytoplankton into animal biomass. and J. Esterly (1905. R. to genus or species levels. CORDELL Free-Living Copepoda (Orders Calanoida. I. Baja California. G. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Leptocytheridae.. E. Gunther. this articulation is behind the fifth pedigerous somite (plate 197A). Sendai. the primary taxonomic literature usually must be used to identify the most common intertidal copepods.. it is between the fourth and fifth pedigerous segments (plate 197B). estuaries. U. mudflats. 1965. Systematic paleontology of Quaternary ostracode assemblages from the Gulf of Alaska. The prosome consists of the cephalosome that bears the first six pairs of appendages together with three or four free prosomites. EXAMPLES OF DIVERSITY IN LITTORAL ZONES Schornikov. J. 1975. and F. In The taxonomy. Ishizaki. C. Cohen. Swain. McKenzie. one would expect to find a number of ecological and taxonomic studies of copepods of coastal California and Oregon. marine benthic. 1911. Second Series (Geology) 45: 1–50. G.qxd 5/3/07 05:30 PM Page 446 Techbooks (PPG Quark) Brouwers.S. Limnocytheridae. morphology and ecology of recent ostracoda.. G. fouling communities. However. and J. 1986. the role of copepods cannot be overstated. Likewise. Families Trachyleberididae. Recent Ostracoda from Corinto Bay. Science Reports of the Tohoku University. urbanization.GRBQ188-2777G-CH27[411-693]. there have been no long-term studies of plankton or meiobenthic dynamics in this region. because. has been placed into the Cyclopoida (Boxshall and Halsey 2004). sandy beaches. there are several publications that have keys to higher taxonomic levels. K. Crustaceana 9: 57–70. K. 1967. External Anatomy of the Female Genital (Eighth) Limbs and the Setose Openings in Myodocopid Ostracodes (Cypridinidae). Publications Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 22: 1–30. Neale. 197B). E. Part 1. rocky shores. Many commercially important fish. Acta Zoologica 78: 85–96 (SEM. Sendai. In the gymnoplean plan (Order Calanoida). Morin. Many species remain undescribed. 1967. Swain. copepods often form the first link between primary and secondary consumers. and F. of which 81 were new. Zoogeography of Holocene Ostracoda off western North America and paleoclimatic implications. Loxoconchidae. Three new luminescent ostracodes of the genus Vargula from the San Blas region of Panama. and in the podoplean plan (Orders Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida). Eucytheridae. gymnoplean and podoplean. and Gardner and Szabo (1982) give keys and an annotated bibliography for pelagic marine copepods of British Columbia.. Cushmanideidae. Recent Ostracoda from Scammon Lagoon. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1510: 1–43. K.). Thus the taxonomy of the copepod faunas of many California nearshore habitats remains little-studied. Ostracod fauna of the intertidal zone in the vicinity of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory. E. F. Valentine.. and F. Benthic and epibenthic harpacticoid copepods often dominate the diets of flatfish and several species of Pacific salmon during their early life histories. PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS Cohen. seagrass beds. Journal of Paleontology 41: 306–334. P. and Harpacticoida) (Plates 197–206) Copepods have been compared to insects. and Boxshall and Halsey’s An Introduction to Copepod Diversity (2004) contains keys to families of marine planktonic. Journal of Paleontology 41: 281–305. 1993. Cyclopoida. C. Lang (1965) produced what remains one of the finest treatments of a local fauna for harpacticoid copepods from interstitial waters and tide pools near the Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove and the now-gone Pacific Marine Station (formerly located in Dillon Beach). which are sometimes referred to as the metasome and bear four or five pairs of swimming legs (plate 197A. Ostracoda) litorali Kuril’ckix ostrovov: 137–214. K. He described 98 species of harpacticoids. In terms of their importance in marine food webs. the somite bearing the first pair of legs is also fused to the cephalosome and together they form the . G. W. Given their importance in nearshore and estuarine food webs. Hemicytheridae. 1976. 1990. Science Reports of the Tohoku University. and fish parasite copepods. Great care must be exercised in attempting identification of copepods from these habitats. like their terrestrial counterparts. Systematic paleontology of Quaternary ostracode assemblages from the Gulf of Alaska. western Nicaragua. and an unknown number of introduced taxa remain undetected. 1976. Dawson and Knatz (1980) published a list and keys of the planktonic copepods of San Pedro Bay. M. Bairdiidae. part 2. 1906.S. The latter book is also an excellent starting point for anyone wanting to study copepod classification. A fourth order. E. anchovies. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 916. J. Families Cytherellidae. and references therein). Krithidae. I. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. 299–329. A. Contributions in Science. Ostracoda of the Family Loxoconchidae from the Gulf of Panama.