4/23/2009

Uniform circular motion

Chapter 5

The Direction of the Velocity Vector

Acceleration

Direction of the Acceleration Vector
• 1. The initial and final speed of a ball at two different points in time is shown below. The direction of the ball is indicated by the arrow. For each case, indicate if there is an acceleration. Explain why or why not. Indicate the direction of the acceleration. •

Direction of the Acceleration Vector
1. The initial and final speed of a ball at two different points in time is shown below. The direction of the ball is indicated by the arrow. For each case, indicate if there is an acceleration. Explain why or why not. Indicate the direction of the acceleration.

a. Acceleration: Yes or No? Explain. If there is an acceleration, then what direction is it?

c. Acceleration: Yes or No? Explain. If there is an acceleration, then what direction is it?

b. Acceleration: Yes or No? Explain. If there is an acceleration, then what direction is it?

d. Acceleration: Yes or No? Explain. If there is an acceleration, then what direction is it?

1

The initial and final speed of a ball at two different points in time is shown below. Acceleration: Yes or No? Explain. • As a bucket of water is tied to a string and spun in a circle. • Centripetal force • As a car makes a turn. the tension force acting upon the bucket provides the centripetal force required for circular motion. The direction of the ball is indicated by the arrow.4/23/2009 Direction of the Acceleration Vector • 1. the force of gravity acting upon the moon provides the centripetal force required for circular motion. indicate if there is an acceleration. Mathematics Mathematics 2 . • As the moon orbits the Earth. Explain the connection between your answers to the above questions and the reasoning used to explain why an object moving in a circle at constant speed can be said to experience an acceleration. the force of friction acting upon the turned wheels of the car provides centripetal force required for circular motion. For each case. The Centripetal Force Requirement • e. then what direction is it? 2. Indicate the direction of the acceleration. If there is an acceleration. Explain why or why not.

the mass and the kinematic information (speed and radius) must be substituted into the following equation: Substituting the given values yields a net force of 3600 Newtons. use the equation v = d / t where the d is one-fourth of the circumference and the time is 2. Fnet = 7872 N. use the equation Fnet = m•a. The solution is as follows.0 m) a = (80. 3 .71 m/s2) Fnet = 637 N • • Sample Problem #1 A 945-kg car makes a 180-degree turn with a speed of 10. Substituting 3600 N for Ffrict and 9261 N for Fnorm yields a coefficient of friction of 0.1 s Requested Information: v = ???? a = ???? Fnet = ???? To determine the speed of the halfback. Since the coefficient of friction ("mu") is given. To determine the net force. Since the force of friction is the only horizontal force. The halfback makes a quarter of a turn around the circle in 2.71 m/s2 To determine the net force acting upon the halfback. the net force can be calculated.25 • 2 • 3. Fgrav = Fnorm= 9261 N.0 m/s)2 / (25.8 m/s/s. the problem begins by identifying the known and requested information. the acceleration can be quickly calculated using the following equation. Thus.1 s) v = 8. The solution of this problem begins with the identification of the known and requested information. The solution is as follows: a = v2 / R a = (10.14 • 12. acceleration and net force acting upon the halfback. Fgrav = Fnorm= 9261 N.0 m/s. Determine the acceleration and the net force acting upon the car. Thus.850. Thus.0 m/s R = 25.25 • 2 • pi • R) / t v = (0.389.0 m/s R = 25.4/23/2009 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sample Problem #1 A 900-kg car moving at 10 m/s takes a turn around a circle with a radius of 25. The solution is as follows: v = d / t v = (0.0 m. Finally. Fnet = m • a Fnet = (900 kg) • (4 m/s2) Fnet = 3600 N • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sample Problem #2 A 95-kg halfback makes a turn on the football field.0 m Traveled 1/4-th of the circumference in 2. The solution of this problem begins with the identification of the known and requested information.0 m) / (2. So if all individual force values are known (as is the case here). then the friction force is known. the force of friction is 3600 N.coefficient of friction) The mass of the object can be used to determine the force of gravity acting in the downward direction.0 m Requested Information: v = ??? (the minimum speed would be the speed achieved with the given friction coefficient) The mass of the car can be used to determine the force of gravity acting in the downward direction. So if the net force can be determined. Since the force of friction is the only horizontal force. • • • • • • • • • • • • Sample problem #2 The coefficient of friction acting upon a 945-kg car is 0. it must be equal to the net force acting upon the object.0 m Requested Information: a = ???? Fnet = ???? To determine the acceleration of the car.0 kg)*(6. it can be concluded that the vertical forces balance each other. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Solution to Sample Problem #1 The known information and requested information in sample problem #1 is: Known Information: m = 945 kg v = 10.8 m/s/s. The solution is as follows. the force of friction can be determined using the following equation: This allows us to determine all three forces identified in the free-body diagram. The net force acting upon any object is the vector sum of all individual forces acting upon that object. This allows us to determine two of the three forces identified in the free-body diagram.1 m/s. Use the equation Fgrav = m * g where g is 9. • • • • • • Solution to Sample Problem #2 Once again. Finally the coefficient of friction ("mu") can be determined using the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to the force of friction and the normal force. Known Information: m = 95. The halfback sweeps out a path which is a portion of a circle with a radius of 12-meters.0 m) a = 6.1 seconds.0 m Requested Information: Ffrict = ??? mu = ???? ("mu" . Fnet = m*a Substituting the given values yields an acceleration of 8. use the equation a = v2 / R. The vertical forces add to 0 N.97 m/s To determine the acceleration of the halfback. Knowing that there is no vertical acceleration of the car. The known information and requested information in the sample problem #2 is: Known Information: m = 945 kg "mu" = 0.0 kg R = 12.0 m) a = (100 m2/s2) / (25. Determine the force of friction and the coefficient of friction acting upon the car. the speed at which the car could travel around the turn can be calculated using the equation for centripetal acceleration: Substituting the known values for a and R into this equation and solving algebraically yields a maximum speed of 17. Determine the speed.5 m2/s2) / (12. it can be concluded that the vertical forces balance each other. use the equation Fnet = m•a. use the equation a = v2 / R. Use the equation Fgrav = m * g where g is 9.0 m) a = 4 m/s2 To determine the net force acting upon the car. The solution is as follows: a = v2 / R a = (8.33 m/s/s. Determine the maximum speed with which the car can make the turn. Knowing that there is no vertical acceleration of the car.1 s.0 m.0 m.85 (coefficient of friction) R = 35. Thus. Known Information: m = 900 kg v = 10.97 m/s)2 / (12. Fnet = m*a Fnet = (95. The car is making a 180-degree turn around a curve with a radius of 35. Only the friction force remains unknown. it must be equal to the net force acting upon the object. Once the net force is determined. The radius of the circle through which the car is turning is 25.