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The approach to chaos at irrational winding numbers displays universal properties that however depend sensitively on the winding number (and in fact on the structure of the “continued fraction expansion”, as we will see below). At criticality the f (α) curve is universal, and the power spectrum has universal structure. A renormalization group theory [1],[2] analogous to the theory for the period doubling cascade but somewhat more complicated in technical details can be developed to explain these results. Careful experiments have veriﬁed the predictions. The 1d circle map provides the basis for the discussion, much as the quadratic map does for the period doubling cascade. Now however there are two parameters, and K. Unfortunately the simple behavior is not given by say increasing K at ﬁxed , but rather increasing K at ﬁxed winding number W of the solution (or alternatively varying the winding number at ﬁxed K). The two parameters makes the theory more difﬁcult, and only the outline will be sketched here.

**20.1 Irrational numbers
**

The onset of chaos from an quasiperiodic orbit is the object of study, but it is useful to approach the irrational winding number through a sequence of rational approximants p/q with p and q integers.

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. Fn+1 = Fn + Fn−1 are the Fibonacci numbers. . . . W2 = 1 a1 + 1 a2 .··· 2 3 5 8 13 (20. ) has also been studied both theoretically and experimentally.CHAPTER 20. The successive rational approximants to the Golden Mean are therefore 1 2 3 5 8 . . ) . since the rational approximants to this number converge most slowly. . 1. . ) deﬁne the expansion. . where the integers (a1 . √ Most attention has been focused on the “Golden Mean” G = 5 − 1 /2 0. . which has the simple continued fraction expansion (1. The nth rational approximant Wn to W is deﬁned by truncating this expansion at the nth level.4) √ The “silver mean” 2 − 1 with continued fraction expansion (2.1) . (20. . Fn+1 (20. e. .2) The quadratic irrationals (solutions to a quadratic equation) yield a sequence (a1 .61803 . F (20. a2 . ) which is periodic. 1. 2. 2.) This is deﬁned by 8 n+1 fK. This number can be thought of as the “most irrational”. . . . UNIVERSAL ONSET OF CHAOS FROM A 2-TORUS 2 Any irrational number can be uniquely written in a continued fraction expansion W = 1 a1 + 1 a2 + 1 (20.3) where F0 = 1. and has therefore only been implemented for the quadratic irrationals.g. a2 . .5) . 20. The rational approximants are Gn = Fn . The renormalization group theory makes use of this structure. F1 = 1. Deﬁne n (K) as the value of giving a periodic orbit of winding number Gn and containing the origin x = 0. . . . n (0) = Fn . (For reference look at the ﬁgure for winding number 5 . .2 Scaling for the Circle Map The following results are obtained numerically (originally by Shenker [3]) for the circle map: 1. .

9) . The distance from x = 0 to the nearest element of the Gn cycle is Fn dn = fK.6) with ˜ δ= G−2 = 2. .8) and scales for large n as dn →α ˜ dn+1 (20. n (0) − Fn−1 (20. .CHAPTER 20. 2. since after Fn+1 (8 for the ﬁgure) iterations the point returns to the starting value x = 0 but has orbited Fn times (5 for the ﬁgure).8336 . 2. for K < 1 “trivial” .618 . for K = 1 “nontrivial” (20.7) where the “trivial result” follows for a smooth map. The trivial result can be found from the result for a uniform rotation. . Then it is found for large n n (K) = ˜ ∞ (K) − cδ −n (20. UNIVERSAL ONSET OF CHAOS FROM A 2-TORUS 3 Winding number 5/8 2 7 5 4 0 1 6 3 Figure 20.1: Orbit on circle for winding number 5/8. . but the nontrivial result is obtained numerically [3].

This gives the composition rule f¯n+1 (x) = f¯n f¯n−1 (x) . for K < 1 “trivial” . are independent of the details of the map. for K = 1 “nontrivial” 4 (20.e.10) ˜ 3.13) (20. 20. Similarly the values of δ are given by ˜ linearizing about the ﬁxed point. In addition the power spectrum for n → ∞ is universal: the principal peaks occur at powers of G (i.15) and linearize as in the analysis of the period doubling ﬁxed point. a ﬁxed point function f¯∗ deﬁned by f¯∗ (x) = α f¯∗ α f¯∗ α −2 x ˜ ˜ ˜ . ..28857 . equally spaced peaks on a log plot) and the structure of secondary peaks is the same between all adjacent main peaks. ¯∗ (x) disappears.e.e. ˜ ˜ Then f¯n+1 (x) = f Fn+2 (x) − Fn+1 = f Fn+1 f Fn (x) − (Fn + Fn−1 ) = f Fn+1 f Fn (x) − Fn−1 − Fn (20.14) We now look for a ﬁxed point structure using this functional composition and rescaling i.CHAPTER 20. The scaling parameters δ and α are universal for the given winding number ˜ i. −1. In addition the f (α) curve is universal at the critical point. . and a second solution is valid For K = 1 the linear term in f ˜ with a nontrivial value of α quoted above.3 Renormalization Group Theory Motivated by the scaling of the point separation. (20.618 . deﬁne f¯n (x) = f Fn+1 (x) − Fn and the scaled version f¯n (x) = α n f Fn+1 (α −n x) − Fn . . . One solution ˜ is f¯∗ (x) = const + x which gives α = −G−1 : this is the result for K < 1.11) using the properties of Fibonacci numbers and functional composition in the second line and f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 in the third. .12) (20. UNIVERSAL ONSET OF CHAOS FROM A 2-TORUS with α= ˜ −G−1 = −1. (20.

4 Experiments Considering the delicacy of the phenomena. it is remarkable that there are a number of experiments [4][5][6][7]. on systems from ﬂuids to electronic devices. that quantitatively verify the predictions of the theory. December 17. 2. 3. or one internal and one drive oscillator) at the chosen irrational ratio. the universal f (α) at the onset of chaos. reconstructing the torus attractor and its “crinkling” at the onset of chaos. 5. It is imperative that the systems have two “knobs” to tune the system—one to increase the nonlinearity. the period doubling cascade in locked tongues. usually the Golden Mean. Many features of the theory have been illustrated: 1. UNIVERSAL ONSET OF CHAOS FROM A 2-TORUS 5 20.CHAPTER 20. the universal power spectrum at the onset of chaos. the structure of frequency locking and the Arnold tongues. 4. 1999 . and the other to maintain the frequency ratio of the oscillators (either two internal.

Glazier and A. Procaccia and J.S. and E. Heutmaker. Phys. Westervelt. Physica 5D. Libchaber.D. Gwinn and R. Siggia. 79 (1985) [5] M. I. 59. Shenker. L.J. T9. and S. Lett. S. 2798 (1985) [6] J. Libchaber. Phys. 370 (1982) [2] D. Circ. Shenker. Sethna. Lett.G. Ostlund. Feigenbaum.P.J.Fein. Lett. 132 (1982) [3] S.P.P.A. Rand. 55. L. and J.P. Rev.J. J. Gollub. Physica 5D.M. 35. 790 (1988) [7] E. Kadanoff. Scr.Kadanoff.H. Phys.Bibliography [1] M. M. A. 405 (1982) [4] A. IEEE Trans. Rev. Rev. Jensen. Stavans. Syst. 157 (1987) 6 . 49. Phys.

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