International Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) Short Scholarly Biography 1985-2007

Research Professor Ola Tunander

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Tunander headed PRIO:s Foreign and Security Policy Program 1995-2000. He has recently been heading a couple of PRIO:s Strategic Institute Programs on European security. Tunander has organized several international conferences and contributed to a number of projects and inquiries for ministries of foreign affairs and defence. He has lectured at universities, military staff schools and ministries and given presentations at international conferences world-wide. He has initiated projects for East-West dialogue, Norwegian-Russian dialogue and Chinese-Nordic dialogue financed by Norwegian ministries of foreign affairs and defence. He has written or edited twelve books on security politics, military strategy, geopolitics and political philosophy. Several of them have been used as text books at universities and military colleges in Europe and United States. He has contributed to numerous books and journals (including peer-reviewed journals like Review of International Studies, Geopolitics, Cooperation & Conflict, Security Dialogue and Journal of Peace Research). He has been peer-reviewer for several journals like the Harvard-based International Security (Kennedy School of Government), the European Journal of International Relations, and the London-based Millennium: Journal of International Studies (London School of Economics). He was also on the advisory board for the latter journal.


ed. was published in the Nordic Journal of Soviet & East European Studies (vol. One article: ‘Grey Zone and Buffer Zone – The Nordic Borderland and the Soviet Union’. After Asbjørn Eide at PRIO was appointed director of the new Human Rights Institute in Oslo in 1987. Among the participants were also people from the KGB and the CIA such as present Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov and former Director of the CIA Admiral Stansfield Turner. no 4. In 1989. Several of these essays had earlier been published in the Swedish literary magazine Ord & Bild. 1985) was a study about the future society. semiotics and ‘body language of states’. He was based in Stockholm up to 1987. 26. 2. no. He was also on the board of that university. He worked as a journalist/author and wrote several articles for the Swedish literary magazine Ord & Bild and for the philosophical magazine Res Publica. one research position became vacant at PRIO. he became member of the editorial committee of the latter journal. After the publication of this article. 4. 1989). on geopolitics. terrorism and complex technological systems.1. Tunander finalized his doctoral thesis on US Maritime Strategy and Northern Europe. 1987). history and security politics. He was appointed Senior Research Fellow at PRIO and given a tenure position. Tunander wrote several articles on the European borderland and the Nordic Region. Lund University Press. 1989). From 1985. 2 . ‘Avskräckningens logik’ (the logic of nuclear deterrence). In 1988. ‘The New Europe’ (within the Nordic Summer University). 1985) was a collection of essays about technology. Linköping University (Sweden) on military technology. The study group consisted of scholars and diplomats discussing the possibilities for a Europe that would be more autonomous. to a Swedish book (Håkan Wiberg. while writing his doctoral thesis at Tema. The book project was financed by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Tunander applied for this position and was ranked as number one. 4. The original manuscript was written as a report for the Swedish Institute for Futures Studies. Tunander also published an article. he defended his doctoral thesis. 1987) was an analysis written for the Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA) about the new US maritime strategy (as a draft manuscript for his doctoral thesis). ‘The Logic of Deterrence’ in the PRIO journal Journal of Peace Research (vol. In the late 1980s: Projects on Naval strategy and East-West Dialogue Tunander participated or co-organized conferences and meetings with central figures from the US Navy and the Soviet Navy on naval strategy and confidence-building measures at sea. In the mid 1980s: Doctoral Project and Appointed Senior Researcher at PRIO Tunander wrote his master thesis in History of Economics at the University of Gothenburg in 1980 after having completed his courses in Human Geography and History of Science and Philosophy. He also published three books: • • • På Autobahn mot sekelskiftet (Lund: Symposion. Farväl till Avskräckningen?. He also wrote a report on the change of Swedish defence doctrine for the Swedish Board on Psychological Defence. Den Svarta Duvan (Lund: Symposion. Tunander contributed a chapter. Also this report became part of his future doctoral thesis. more unified and less determined by a US and Soviet hegemony. maritime strategy and geopolitics of Northern Europe. Norden och USAs Maritima Strategi – En Studie av Nordens Förändrade Strategiska Läge (Stockholm: FOA. he headed a Nordic study group.

Tunander participated at a Harvard University-US Navy conference. Admiral Elmar Schmäling (Federal German Navy). no. Naval War College (Rhode Island). ed. ‘Naval Hierarchies – European ‘Neutralism’ and Regional Restraint at Sea’. He gave lectures at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey (California). In Sweden. 1991). He also gave a lecture on the book for the Swedish Defence Ministry. and a welcome relief from the stale reprocessing of commonly held information characteristic of the genre writing about the Soviet navy…. 1988). for example: • ‘Bush’s Brave New World: A New World Order . and by Professor Donald Daniel. and at a number of Norwegian conferences. and the US Naval War College Review (1992) wrote the following about his Cold Water Politics: ‘What Dr. At Naval War College. Robert Wood (Naval War College). Bulletin of Peace Proposals / Security Dialogue (vol. Tunander was received by its dean. He also discussed these issues at the State Department (the Policy Planning Staff). Admiral Carsten Lutken (Royal Norwegian Navy) and Michail Kokeev and Alexander Churilin (both from Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs). for the US Navy analysts at the Center for Naval Analysis at the Pentagon. Boulder (Colorado) and the other by Sage in London. Naval Forces – Arms Control and Confidence-Building (London. in Sverre Lodgaard. Kari Möttölä (Finnish Institute of International Affairs). at a Finnish International Affairs Institute conference. Jan Prawitz (Swedish Ministry of Defence). Newbury Park & New Delhi: SAGE Publications. about the war in Kuwait and Iraq and about the US concepts of a postCold War ‘contingency force’ and a ‘new world order’. the Pentagon (the Naval Staff) and the White House. Tunander has written is brilliant..A New Military Strategy’. and he contributed to a number of conferences. Tunander was invited to visit several US institutes and colleges. In 1989. and he presented his doctoral thesis.. the book Cold Water Politics. ed. He contributed to two books from these conferences. and Tunander was flown in to address the entire course. Tunander’s English-language book and book chapters on naval matters were favourably reviewed in English scholarly journals like International Affairs and Journal of Strategic Studies. Steven Miller (Kennedy School of Government). 1990) with contributions by former Defence Minister Johan Jørgen Holst. Robert Wood. 4. He discussed naval issues at the Kennedy School of Government (Cambridge). at Pugwash conferences for East-West dialogue and naval arms control. • Cold Water Politics – The Maritime Strategy and Geopolitics of the Northern Front (London: Sage. one was published by Westview Press. by Barry Blechman (Center for Strategic and International Studies). who told that they used his book Cold Water Politics as a text book at the War College. 1989). 22. This invaluable book will be of interest to Americans for the lessons offered in the subtleties of seapower’. In the early and mid 1990s: Projects on Norwegian-Russian Dialogue Tunander gave lectures and wrote several contributions for books and journals about the new US military strategy. in Kari Möttölä. He wrote: • • ‘Four Scenarios for the Norwegian Sea’. the Swedish Defence College (Militärhögskolan) used his book Norden och USAs Maritima Strategi as one of two major text books. The Arctic Challenge – Nordic and Canadian Approaches to Security and Cooperation in an Emerging International Region (Boulder & London: Westview Press. 3 . California) and Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington). Rand (Washington and Santa Monica.

Tunander and Bathurst had conversations with later Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Valentin Selivanov at his office in the Admiralty (Leningrad) and with Russia’s later First Deputy Prime Minister & Minister of Finance Anatoly Chubais at the Leningrad mayor Anatoly Subchak’s office (now head of Russia’s United Energy System). The Clausewitz seminar was a small study group of scholars such as Bingen at the Norwegian International Affairs Institute (NUPI). no. in Per Ahlin & Pål Wrange. Finland. then by Tunander at PRIO and after that by the Military Staff School. 1. a Chief of US Naval Intelligence Europe and former Professor at the Naval Postgraduate School and at the Naval War College. Robert Bathurst within the framework of PRIO’s Norwegian-Russian dialogue project (Bathurst was a former Assistant Naval Attaché to Moscow. Arctic Complexity – Essays on Arctic Interdependencies (Tampere Peace Research Institute. In Oslo. 22. Einar Ansteensen. He also wrote a similar article for Bulletin of Peace Proposals / Security Dialogue (vol. Estonia and Latvia. 1991). Germany and Russia. He lectured in Anchorage. Canada. Anders Kjølberg at the Norwegian Defence Research Institute (FFI) and Tunander at PRIO. former head of the Foreign Ministry’s Policy Planning Division and Sverre Jervell Deputy Head of the same Division. and he continued his work as head of the Nordic study group on ‘a New Europe’. eds. (Stockholm: Juristförlaget. at Nordic and Baltic State conferences in the Scandinavian countries. He also continued to write articles and book chapters about naval issues and geopolitical change in Northern Europe. and military officers including today’s Norwegian Chief of Defence. eds. General Sverre Diesen. murar och streck i sanden . Den eviga freden? . Jan Hallenberg (Stockholm University). Professor and retired US Navy Captain. Tunander and Bathurst established contacts between Norwegian NGOs (Bellona) and Russian counterparts for the study of environmental hazards in the North. and had conversations with Russian counterparts.Perspektiv på en ny världsordning. US Army Intelligence and US Air Force Intelligence and the CIA. in Florence in Italy and at the Kenyan Diplomatic Academy in Nairobi. Norge i det politiske kraftfeltet – Norden og USAs betydning for Norsk Politikk (Oslo: Cappelen / Europaprogrammet. Alaska. Tunander and Bathurst invited Russian retired generals and admirals to Oslo to give presentations. Scandinavia and Russia. or the East and the West?’ to a volume edited by Lassi Heininen and Jyrki Käkönen. • • Tunander and Bathurst went in 1992 on a ‘Military History’ tour to Russia with officers from US Navy Intelligence. today’s Chief of Staff. he participated at the Finnish Kuhmo Academy on the border to Russia (after 1989 also in Kostamuchsa in the Soviet Karelen) and he contributed a chapter. ‘The Two Norden: The North and the South. with contributions by Anders Stephanson (Colombia University. retired Commodore Jacob Børresen and retired Commander Roald Gjelsten. 1991). diplomats. Moscow and Murmansk) together with his PRIO colleague. Lieutenant-General Arne Dalhaug. and at Arctic dialogue conferences in Alaska. meet Norwegian counterparts and meet Norwegian defence scholars at the Defence Research Institute (FFI).• ‘Hav. and Martti Koskenniemi (University of Helsinki). Tunander made several trips to Russia (Leningrad/St Petersburg. Tunander contributed to its second yearbook: • ‘Norden och havet’ in Bent Bull & Anders Kjølberg. 1993). Novgorod. Together with Steven Millier from SIPRI and Kennedy School of Government. Jon Bingen. Tunander continued to participate at naval conferences and Baltic Sea conferences in Finland. Tunander participated in the Clausewitz seminar inititated by today’s director of the Norwegian Institute of Strategic Studies. 1992).En ny militär världsordning’. where he was the holder of the Admiral Layton Chair of Intelligence). Sweden. The seminar was first hosted by Bingen at NUPI. • • 4 .

The journal was also published in Russian. General Pyotr Barabolja. • Tunander wrote a chapter on ‘The Strategic Significance of the Nordic-Baltic Region’ for a study made at the Norwegian International Affairs Institute (Sverre Jervell et. He wrote on the Nordic relations to the EU for newspapers and journals. Also as part of the Norwegian-Russian dialogue project. 1992). He wrote chronicles for the Swedish Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet and for the Norwegian Aftenposten and Dagbladet. Bathurst) and representatives from the Norwegian Navy and Norwegian Ministry of Defence at a seminar on a former Soviet naval intelligence ship. and the former Commander of the Soviet Pacific Fleet and former Deputy Defence Minister of the Soviet Union. Tunander was appointed head of PRIO’s Foreign and Security Policy Program. Cappelen. Pertti Joenniemi. Tunander’s contribution had the title: • ‘New Russian-Norwegian Relations – A Complex Partnership’. which was agreed upon by Foreign Minister Thorvald Stoltenberg and Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev in 1992 and launched in 1993. Iver B. 43. for the Swedish International Affairs Institute journal Internationella Studier and for the Norwegian International Affairs Institute journal Internasjonal Politikk. Tunander’s opposite number was the former legal adviser to the Soviet Navy. Tunander contributed (together with Norwegian Prime Minister Thorbjørn Jagland. The Baltic Sea Area – A Region in the Making.• Tunander was in 1993 heading a Norwegian delegation of defence researchers (from FFI and PRIO incl. Oslo: The Europe Program. Norwegian Chief of Defence General Arne Sollie and the Russian and Norwegian ambassadors) to a Norwegian-Russian special issue of the Russian Foreign Ministry journal International Affairs. The initiative had its origin in the ‘New Europe study group’. no. Tunander’s chapter had the title: ‘Inventing the Barents Region – Overcoming the East-West Divide’. Other contributors were Ole Wæver. In 1995. The book included contributions by several Norwegian scholars as well as by the PRIO scholars Robert Bathurst and Pavel Baev. The Norwegian-Russian dialogue project was also extended to the early preparations for the Norwegian Barents Region initiative. al. 1997. and he wrote articles for the Bulletin of Peace Proposals (later Security Dialogue). vol. He was the leader of this program until his sabbatical in 2000. PRIO was reorganized into four programs or divisions and one leader for each program. 4. Admiral Nikolai Amelko. Neumman. The book was used as a text book at several universities in Northern Europe. Russian Foreign Minister Jevgenij Primakov. Norwegian Foreign Minister Bjørn Tore Godal. and Tunander co-edited a volume: • The Barents Region – Cooperation in Arctic Europe (London: Sage 1994) with a foreword by then former minister Thorvald Stoltenberg and with contributions by the two foreign ministers Andrei Kozyrev and Johan Jørgen Holst (this was Holst’s last contribution before he died in late 1993). International Affairs. He was on the advisory board for the latter journal. In the 1990s: Projects on European Geopolitics and the Nordic Region Tunander wrote articles and book chapters on regional cooperation and geopolitical transformation of Northern Europe. the Swedish Ord & Bild and the Norwegian Samtiden. He wrote several articles for literary magazines such as the Danish Kritik. Lena 5 .

Tunander also wrote a chapter.• • • • Jonson as well as Russian and Baltic scholars. gränslandet och historiens återkomst i 90talets Europa (‘Europe and the Wall – On the “Other”. 2nd edition in 1997). Danish Defence Minister Hans Hækkerup and former President of the Finnish Social Democratic Party Ulf Sundqvist. He lectured on Norway. where scholars and diplomats discussed the emerging structure of the new Europe. Neumann (Oslo) and now Deputy Defence Minister Espen Barth Eide. Kari Möttölä and by Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs Lena Hjelm-Wallén. As leader of the ‘Europe study group’. all from his ‘New Europe study group’. region-building initiatives and geopolitical change – on security. now Professor Kristian Gerner (Lund/Uppsala). the Nordic Region and NATO for the Norwegian Defence College and Military Staff School and for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He wrote chapters on the Nordic region for two volumes published by The Olof Palme International Centre in Stockholm. These conferences resulted in two book volumes written or edited by Tunander: • Murar – Essäer om makt. Pavel Baev. which was published on the Government website Odin and translated into several languages (Tunander’s piece replaced the article on the same topic written by Arne Olav Brundtland in the 1970s). 1996) with contributions by Alexei Arbatov. • Both books were products of his work for the ‘New Europe study group’. Security in the European North – From ‘Hard’ to Soft’ (Stockholm: Olof Palme International Center. 1995) with a collection of Tunander’s essays on ’walls’ as physical. He wrote the Norwegian Foreign Ministry text on ‘Nordic cooperation’. Kristian Gerner and Ulla Holm and with an introductory essay by Wæver and Tunander on the ‘New Medieval Europe’. 1999) with contributions by senior scholars and diplomats including the US ambassador to Sweden Lyndon L. Thomas Hylland Eriksen. Oslo: Cappelen. Ole Wæver. territory and identity – in collaboration with now Professor Ole Wæver (Copenhagen). Tunander wrote a report on the same subject for the Europe Program. Identity and Territoriality’. Europa och Muren – Om ‘den andre’. Clive Archer. Peter Burgess. Florence. He wrote the chapter on ‘Norway and the Nordic Region’ for Norway’s political science text book on Norwegian foreign policy (edited by Torbjørn Knutsen. identitet och territorialitet (‘Essays on Power. and at the European University Institute in Fiesole in 1992. He organized conferences on ‘walls’ as metaphors for dividing lines between ‘us’ and the ‘other’ – the ‘Muslim Other’ and the ‘Russian Other’ – about migration. cultural and military dividing lines and about region-building projects as instruments to overcome these divides. He organized a conference in Sala di Lorenzo il Magnifico. Tunander organized seminars and conferences on regional cooperation. Ålborg: NSU. Gunnar Sørbø & Svein Gjerdåker. Ålborg: NSU. diplomacy and dialogue. One chapter ‘Norway’s Post-Cold War Security – The Nordic Region Between Friend and Foe or Between Cosmos and Chaos?’ was written for an edited volume: Visions of European Security – Focal Point Sweden and Northern Europe (Stockholm: Olof Palme International Center. Charles Kupchan. Sweden and Nordic Cooperation’ for a volume edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. 1995) with contributions by Ola Tunander. 1995. Anders Björnsson. and about the possibility to reach beyond the tension of the cultural divide. ‘Norway. Norges utenrikspolitik. Uffe Østergaard. Olson. Iver B Neumann. the Borderland and the Return of History in Europe of the 1990s’. The former book also included a philosophical work: 6 . now Professor Iver B. Palazzo Vecchio.

27. 1997). Neumann and Østergaard. 2003). autumn. Cooperation & Conflict. Review of International Studies. Wæver. no. 2005. with contributions by the above-mentioned scholars. This chapter presented a new logic of geopolitics with European states focusing on centrality rather than on territory with several nations/states (like the Czechs) willing to cut off their less developed peripheral regions and nationalities (like the Slovaks) in order to get closer to Brussels and the EU. Tunander wrote several articles on Swedish-German versus Anglo-Saxon geopolitics published in peer-reviewed journals • • • • ‘Geopolitikes fader – Rudolf Kjelléns “Staten som livsform”’. Territory and Identity (London: Sage. 1998 (a similar article appeared in Danish in Kritik 3. no. As leader of the Foreign and Security Policy Program and leader of the Strategic Institute Program on European Security Identities. Geopolitik of the Weak – A Post-Cold War Return to Rudolf Kjellén’. 2. Tunander wrote one chapter: ‘The Informal NATO. ’Swedish Geopolitics: From Rudolf Kjellén to a Swedish ‘Dual State’. vol. Washington) and Edward Mortimer (Financial Times and later press secretary of UN General Secretary Kofi Annan). in Tunander. ‘Swedish-German Geopolitics for a New Century – Rudolf Kjellén’s ‘The State as a Living Organism’”. Internasjonal Politikk. In this volume. Tunander wrote an introductory chapter on geopolitics and a major chapter on Post-Cold War geopolitics: • ‘Post-Cold War Europe – a Synthesis of a Bipolar Friend-Foe Structure and a Hierarchic Cosmos-Chaos Structure?’. and by non-Scandinavian European scholars like Christopher Cviic (Royal Institute of International Affairs). 2001. 43. • Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe: Security. One conference in Oslo in 1996 on Post-Cold War Europe resulted in a volume that Tunander edited together with Pavel Baev and Victoria Einagel. Geopolitics. In these years. Tunander organized a Nordic conference on this very issue in 1999. Wæver and Østergaard as ‘the Nordic Imperial School’. 10. 7 . Pierre Hassner (Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches Internationales). Shireen Hunter (Centre for Strategic and International Studies. The book was used as a text book at several European universities including University of Oxford. no. et. ‘Geopolitics of the North. he edited another volume with partly the same contributors as in the former book: • European Security Identities – Contested Understandings of EU and NATO (Oslo: PRIO. Territory and Identity (London: SAGE Publications. 3. or NATO als Gemeinschaft: the Case of Sweden’ that discussed NATO and the ‘dual structure’ of the state. 166. 2008. 1997). Østergaard on European historical empires and Tunander on the EU as a hierarchical regional entity. Tunander organized international conferences on European geopolitics and European security identity. Wæver wrote a chapter on today’s metaphorical empires. vol. eds. As leader of PRIO’s Foreign and Security Policy Program..• ‘With the World Spirit on Horseback – A Round-Trip to Berlin: From the Metaphysics of the Wall to the Metaphysics of the Mirror’) also included as a chapter in a book by Peter Burgess. vol. 1997). 2000). Cultural Politics and Political Culture in Postmodern Europe (Amsterdam: Rodopi. Together with Peter Burgess. Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe – Security. which made Hassner describe Tunander. no. 56.

Russian and American texts. After interviews with US former Secretaries of Defense James Schlesinger and Caspar Weinberger. on geopolitical traditions and geopolitics of ‘walls’. See his ‘Dual State’ article for the journal of Geopolitics and his ‘Informal NATO’ (‘NATO als Gemeishaft’) chapter in Burgess & Tunander (Oslo: PRIO. and in 1999-2002 he was Norwegian representative on the board of the Nordic International Studies Association (NISA). After Tunander’s book Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe. Security Dialogue. Tunander came to the conclusion that the informal Western structures were almost as important as NATO’s formal structures. and thirdly. 1998). 4. and he participated in intelligence history conferences in Amsterdam and Oslo. three edited volumes and several articles in peerreviewed journals): firstly. Tunander had written another Swedish scholarly volume and a number of internationally recognized contributions (incl. in Anders Björnsson & Peter Luthersson. the Harvard-based International Security (Kennedy School of Government). Security Dialogue (vol. secondly. eds. he was appointed Research Professor (with qualifications corresponding to a university professor or. to one additional doctoral degree in a field different from the first one). He was also a referee for a Norwegian Defence Institute project funded by the Norwegian Foreign Ministry. former chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General John Vessey and local chiefs of defence and chairmen of the NATO Military Committee General Herman F. 1995). when it comes to Sweden. 2000). In the 1990s. military strategy and world order. He was also used as a peer-reviewer by several journals like Geopolitics and Political Geography. Journal of Peace Research and Co-operation and Conflict.Tunander also wrote about the geopolitical development in Turkey and Central Asia and about the construction of alternative Turkish identities: • ‘A New Ottoman Empire? – The Choice for Turkey: Euro-Asian Centre vs. Particularly. See also his book chapters: • ‘Den kluvna maktens ansikten’. Zeiner Gundersen and General Vigleik Eide. no. this fact was striking. on regional entities and region-building in Northern Europe. In late 1990s. In the late 1990s and the early 2000s: Empirical Studies and Generation of Theory about the Dual State and the Informal Networks of the West. Tunander wrote a draft book manuscript and several articles on terrorism and dual state that he had to put aside because of other projects. He also participated in NATO-funded conferences on security politics in Oslo. on security. 8 . National Fortress’. 26. and the London-based Millennium: Journal of International Studies (London School of Economics). In 2000. Tunander was used as a peer-reviewer on books on the Nordic Region for academic publicshers like Routledge. He participated regularly at the Cold War History seminars of the Nobel Institute and at the policy analysis seminars of the Norwegian Atlantic Committee. the Czech Republic and in Paris. after an international evaluation. He also wrote book chapters and articles about the importance of informal ties and informal structures in the world of security politics. This article was also translated into Spanish and has been cited in European. which organizes the Nordic scholars on International Relations. former directors of the CIA William Colby and Schlesinger. In 1998-99. the European Journal of International Relations. Eliterna som abdikerade (Stockholm: Carlssons. Turkish. territory and identity. he was recruited to the advisory board for the latter journal (2000). former Chiefs of Naval Operations Admiral Elmo Zumwalt. and he went with the latter on a Hercules aircraft to visit the NATO Headquarters SHAPE outside Brussels. in other words. Tunander was member of the board of PRIO.

Tunander also presented his work at the Norwegian Nobel Institute in 2003 in its series on the Cold War History. no. which was launched at a seminar at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs. Tunander’s contributions in this field (including his 2004 book. after Bathurst’s death. Gunnars Åselius. Nordic Journal of International Studies – Cooperation & Conflict. Ingemar Dörfer and Bo Huldt. 1999 (this article has been frequently cited internationally and has appeared on university reading lists). Jurgen Rohwer and Geoffrey Till. This inquiry was financed by and located at the Swedish Ministry of Defence (The official report: Perspektiv på ubåtsfrågan. Tunander wrote his own Swedish book (Hårsfjärden. vol. eds. Stockholm: SOU 2001:85). The following year he published his scholarly English volume: • The Secret War against Sweden (London & New York: Frank Cass. Nordisk säkerhetspolitik inför nya utmaningar (Stockholm: Carlssons. Stockholm: Norstedts. which also made him able to explain the covert submarine operations in Swedish waters in the 1980s. 358) with a preface written by Britain’s most eminent navy scholar. 406). 2005). • Tunander emphasized the role of NATO. 2001. Geoffrey Till. Tunander’s colleague Robert Bathurst went to the USA to get more detailed information from his extensive US Navy Intelligence network.• ‘Sveriges Relationer till NATO’. John Hattendorf. In 2000. A few months later. Ove Bring. The book was presented in all major Swedish newspapers. his three articles for the Zurich/Washington-based Parallel History Project in 2002-2005. Already in an early phase. he was approached by a former assistant to the US Secretary of Navy and assistant to the US Chief of Naval Intelligence. which was followed by demands for a government-appointed inquiry. Tunander’s conclusions were confirmed publicly on Swedish TV by former US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and by former British Secretary of Navy Sir Keith Speed. and his articles: • ‘The Uneasy Imbrication of Nation-State and NATO: The Case of Sweden’. after these revelations. Nordic Journal of International Studies – Cooperation & Conflict. 2004. and with a foreword written by Brigadier General Lars Hansson. He relied on his network of senior naval officers and intelligence officers in several countries. ‘A Criticism of Court Chroniclers’. In April 2000. no. 2. Rolf Ekèus. pp. Ulf Bjereld. the Editor of Frank Cass Navy History Series. vol. NATO was also a political entity more in line with what Carl Schmitt called a ‘Grossraum’. 2000. not only as a defence alliance strictly speaking but as something more unified that did not disappear after the Soviet threat was gone. 4. 35. This book has contributions by several of Sweden’s most prominent security policy scholars such as Kristian Gerner. in Sven Eliaeson and Hans Lödén. pp. Tunander was recruited as a civilian expert to the Swedish Governmentappointed inquiry (on covert submarine operations in Swedish waters) led by the former UN Weapons inspector to Iraq and Sweden’s ambassador to Washington. and his contributions for the Norwegian and Swedish Royal Naval Society Journals) played a significant role for the new Danish Government appointed inquiry on the history of the Cold War and for its report in four volumes: Danmark under den kalde krig (Copenhagen: DIIS. Bengt Sundelius. Tunander studied a large amount of formerly classified documents and made hundreds of interviews. the Regional Commander for the Swedish Coastal Defence forces. Frank Cass & Routledge ‘Naval Policy and History Series’ is the most prestigious series for naval literature in Europe with contributions by Milan Vego. 34. Krister Wahlbäck. 2002). In a 9 . In parallel.

pp. the co-author of the report. Arte and ZDF. 2007. After 11 September 2001. Oslo and Melbourne (Australia) in 2004-2006. Frede P. Projects on Terrorism and Transformation of World Order Tunander has given priority to his earlier projects on terrorism. Paris. In summer 2007. ‘War on Terror and US Transformation of World Order’ was presented at a NATO-funded Ankara University conference (Side. ‘Europe Looking Outwards’. • Spelet under ytan – Teknisk bevisning i nationalitesfrågan för ubåtsoperationen mot Sverige 1982 published by the research program ‘Sverige under kalla kriget’ [SUKK]. • One paper. Montreal. In 2004-2005. SAM. writes that any contribution to this field of research that does not take Tunander’s information and analysis from his 2004 book into account ‘must be characterized as irrelevant from a professional point of view’. Antalya) and was published as a chapter in a Turkish volume International Security Today – Understanding Change and Debating Strategy (Aydin & Ifantis. Danish and Norwegian volumes on Cold War history (Pekka Visuri. 282). no. by several contributions by Tunander and others in Swedish newspapers Expressen and Svenska Dagbladet and by an interview with Tunander in UK Sunday Times. led by Tunander. a Norwegian Defence Ministry project on the ‘War on Terror and Securitization of Global Politics’ and a project on the ‘Securitization of the Public Sphere’ within a Europe-wide Challenge program on ‘Liberty and Security’ financed by the EU 6th Framework Program. In feindlichen Tiefen. Northampton: Olive Branch Press. in the 1980s Chairman of US National Intelligence Estimates and of the US President’s Daily Brief. Jensen and Jacob Børresen) and by the Regional Commander Brigadier General Lars Hansson. This 50minutes documentary was shown simultaneously in Germany and France in 2005 and has been aired in large parts of Europe. 16. Jenssen (Arbejderhistorie. (Gothenburg University & Stockholm University. This latter 50-minutes documentary on the Swedish TV channel 1 was followed up by another Swedish TV-program. 2006). Forewords by the authors of the new Finnish. (‘Sweden during the Cold War’): report no. dual state and world order with a Research Council of Norway (RCN) project. Copenhagen. Ray McGovern. as ‘the most important book of our time’. 4. Paul Craig Roberts.separate article. Side (Turkey). Tunander’s work also played a significant role for the major Finnish volume on the history of the Cold War Suomi kylmässä Sodassa (Helsinki: Otava. Frede P. ‘Europe and the USA – Democracy and Security after September 11’. made a documentary film. 2006) written by Colonel and Docent Pekka Visuri. German-French TV channels. based on Tunander’s work and with interviews with Tunander. Senior Research Fellow at the Finnish Defence College. The first RCN project was part of a larger Strategic Institute Program. In 2006. The book was reviewed by US former Assistant Secretary of Treasury and assistant editor of the Wall Street Journal. Turkish Foreign Ministry. A study ‘War on Terror and Pax Americana’ was first presented at another NATOfunded Ankara University conference and was published in a US volume: 9/11 and the American Empire (Griffin & Scott. the Hague. A shorter Finnish documentary about Tunander’s work was shown on Finnish TV in 2005 and a longer Swedish documentary based on Tunander’s work was aired in 2007. Papers were presented at conferences and workshops in Washington. 2006). Visuri also wrote foreword for Tunander’s larger volume on the nationality issue. 2006). wrote that this book ‘confronts the American • 10 . the film was sold to several European countries and to Australia. the film was shown every night for one month by another German TV channel.

including contributions like • • • • The Dual State and the Sovereign: A Schmittian Approach to Western Politics. in this case.3. Ambassador Ma Zhengang. Challenge Second Annual Report for the EU Commission 2006 (7. ‘Challenge’ (on Liberty & Security) in its report for the EU Commission. for the Norwegian Foreign Ministry.• • people – indeed the people of the world as a whole – with an issue second to none in importance and urgency. Den ondeste mand i live? Lesninger om og mod Carl Schmitt. A third 2006 project is a global project organized by the Asian Law Centre in Melbourne (Australia). Peter Dale Scott (University of California). ‘Terrorism and crisis management’ (terrorist profiles and scenarios). 44). the director and scholars of the China Institute of International Studies and with directors and scholars of the Nordic institutes of international affairs and peace research. • Tunander organized a Chinese-Nordic roundtable conference in Oslo in March 2007 with diplomats. Tunander is the author of a chapter on similar problems. which is included in a Danish edited volume about the conservative German political philosopher Carl Schmitt (Mikkel Thorup. Brussels. Henner Hess (University of Frankfurt). ‘The Dual State and the Sovereign – A Schmittian Approach to Western Politics’. 44).’ Tunander’s chapter was also published in Danish (Kritik. 2007). ‘Democratic State vs. Challenge. Brussels.7 Work package 3 – Deliverable No.3. Deep State – Approaching the Dual State of the West’. London: Pluto Press & University of Michigan Press. Challenge Second Annual Report for the EU Commission 2006 (7. Prof.3. From Coalition to Collision: Neo-conservatives.3 Work package 3 – Deliverable No. [I give this book] my highest possible recommendation.8 – Deliverable No.6 Work package 3 – Deliverable No. Brussels.11 – Significance to Norway’ for the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. Terrorism. Prof Leslie Holmes (University of Melbourne). Brussels. In addition. Challenge. Challenge Second Annual Report to the European Commission (7. Securitization and a Unipolar World Order. Prof Mark Findlay (University of London) and Prof. has been Tunander’s counterpart in these discussions. 2006).3. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum. 44). 11 . Terrorism and Transatlantic Relations. with a chapter. written a 2005 report. Tunander has. for a book Government of the Shadows – Parapolitics and Criminal Sovereignty (Lindsey & Wilson. War on Terror and US Transformation of World Order. in collaboration with PRIO Director Stein Tønnesson and PRIO Security Program Leader Peter Burgess. Some reports and articles made by Tunander have been published in 2006 as contributions to a Europe-wide project. Alfred McCoy (University of Wisconsin-Madison). In 2006-2007: The Nordic-Chinese Dialogue Project Tunander is involved in a Nordic international relations dialogue with the Chinese Institute of International Studies (CIIS). 2008) with contributions by Prof. Challenge. Co-chairman of the Chinese Foreign Affairs Committee and President of CIIS. Vicenzo Ruggiero (University of Pisa). Tunander has also written a 2007 policy report ‘The Global Security System after 9.. ed. Tunander contributes. 32). Prof. The project is financed by the Norwegian Foreign Ministry. Challenge Second Annual Report for the EU Commission 2006 (7.

geopolitics and terrorism he has had an important role in initiating various dialogue projects. ‘confidence-building measures’ and UN operations. Tunander has also lectured on China for the Norwegian Defence College. China’s rapid economic growth and the increased Chinese openness and turn to Scandinavian political concepts like ‘common security’ has made this dialogue not only relevant and possible. South Korea. Japan. China’s Chief of Military Intelligence. but also increasingly important. head of the Foreign Ministry’s North-America Division and Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs) spoke at PRIO together with Tunander and Norwegian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Raymond Johansen. some of which have been politically most significant.• Tunander is co-organizing a larger Chinese-Nordic Peace Research Conference that will take place in Beijing in April 2008 to broaden the dialogue between Nordic and Chinese scholars of international relations. he is a recognized international scholar on security politics. Ambassador Ma (also a former Chinese Ambassador to London. India. there were a large number of Chinese generals and colonels as well as representtatives from the US Naval War College. the Philippines and Singapore) as well as from the UK. Rand and US Army War College. In 2006. General Zhang Qinsheng presented the concepts of ‘common security’. Tunander made a presentation on the ‘US Strategy for a New World Order’ in Beijing at the first international forum of the China Association for Military Science. naval strategy. Bangladesh. France and Sweden and Norway. At this conference. which are certainly close to the concepts of Scandinavian Social Democracy. In conclusion • • • Tunander has an important academic experience as a senior research fellow. 12 . In connection with the March conference. and senior officers and scholars from various Asian countries (Russia. research professor and leader of major research programs. Pakistan.