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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IS YOU PURCHASED COVERAGE INDIVIDUALLY AND YOU HAVE TO QUALIFY MEDICALLY, ACCORDING TO THE INSURANCE COMPANIES POLICIES. PUBLIC HEALTH INS. IS PAID FOR BY ALL THE PEOPLE OF THE COUNTRY TO BE USED BY ALL THE PEOPLE AS THEY NEED. CANADA HAS A PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM.

The Canada Health Act (CHA) is a Canadian federal legislation, adopted in 1984, which specifies the conditions and criteria with which the provincial and territorial health insurance programs must conform in order to receive federal transfer payments under the Canada Health Transfer. These criteria require universal coverage (for all "insured persons") for all "medically necessary" hospital and physician services, without copayments.

Public administration
The health insurance plans must be "administered and operated on a non-profit basis by a public authority, responsible to the provincial/territorial governments and subject to audits of their accounts and financial transactions." (Section 8). This condition is the most frequently misunderstood; it does not deal with delivery, but with insurance. However, it does reduce the scope for private insurers to cover insured services (although they are still able to cover non-insured services, and/or non-insured persons).

Comprehensiveness
The health care insurance plans must cover "all insured health services provided by hospitals, medical practitioners or dentists" (Section 9). The Act lists, in the Definitions (Section 2), what is meant by insured services - in general, this retains the restriction to hospital and physician services arising from the earlier legislation. The provinces are allowed, but not required, to insure additional services. Note that the CHA refers to "surgical dental services" but only if these must be provided within a hospital. In practice, this almost never occurs, and the annual health expenditure data published by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) confirm that Canadian dental services are almost entirely financed privately. Lobbying by other providers, including nurses, led the act to speak of 'practitioners' rather than physicians; physician services had to be covered, but provinces were allowed, but not required, to define other health professions as qualifying under the Act. To date, this provision has been used only occasionally; for example, some provinces have added Midwifery, which means that their services are also fully publicly paid for.

Universality
All insured persons must be covered for insured health services "provided for by the plan on uniform terms and conditions" (Section 10). This definition of insured persons

excludes those who may be covered by other federal or provincial legislation, such as serving members of the Canadian Forces or Royal Canadian Mounted Police, inmates of federal penitentiaries, and persons covered by provincial workers' compensation. Some categories of resident, such as landed immigrants and Canadians returning to live in Canada from other countries, may be subject to a waiting period by a province or territory, not to exceed three months, before they are classified as insured persons; this waiting period arises from the portability provisions.

Portability
Because plans are organized on a provincial basis, provisions are required for covering individuals who are in another province. The conditions attempt to separate temporary from more permanent absences by using three months as the maximum cut-off. As the above-mentioned summary clarifies, "Residents moving from one province or territory to another must continue to be covered for insured health care services by the "home" province during any minimum waiting period, not to exceed three months, imposed by the new province of residence. After the waiting period, the new province or territory of residence assumes health care coverage." The portability provisions are subject to interprovincial agreements; there is variation in what is considered emergency (since the portability requirement does not extend to elective services), in how out-of-country care is covered (since there is no 'receiving' province), in how longer absences are dealt with (e.g., students studying in another province), whether the care will be paid for at home province or host province rates, and so on.

Accessibility
Finally, the insurance plan must provide for "reasonable access" to insured services by insured persons, "on uniform terms and conditions, unprecluded, unimpeded, either directly or indirectly, by charges (user charges or extra-billing) or other means (age, health status or financial circumstances);" (Section 12.a). This section also provides for "reasonable compensation for...services rendered by medical practitioners or dentists" and payments to hospitals that cover the cost of the health services provided. Note that neither reasonable access nor reasonable compensation are defined by the CHA, although there is a presupposition that certain processes (e.g., negotiations between the provincial governments and organizations representing the providers) satisfy the condition. The CHA allows for dollar-for-dollar withholding of contributions from any provinces allowing user charges or extra-billing to insured persons for insured services. As noted below, this provision was effective in 'solving' the extra-billing issue. Roy John Romanow, PC, OC, QC, SOM (born August 12, 1939 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian politician and the 12th Premier of Saskatchewan (1991– 2001).

On April 4, 2001, Romanow was appointed to head the Royal Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson, on the advice of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. He released the Romanow Report in 2002, which outlined

suggestions to improve the health care system