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WCDMA Channels

10th Aug 2007 Deepak

WCDMA Channels
Logical Channels are not actually channels but rather they can be defined as different tasks performed by the network and the UE at different times. • They describe the type of information to be transferred. •Logical channels are categorized into control channels and traffic channels. •Control channels carry the control plane information •Traffic Channels carry the user plane information Transport channels describes how the logical channels will be transferred, or it can be defined as how and with what characteristics data is transferred over the interface. It comes into two groups: Dedicated Channels Common Channels

Radio Frame Structure
In WCDMA the information is spread over 5MHz band (Wide Bandwidth). There are separate radio channels for both uplink and downlink of 5MHz. One radio frame consist of 38400 chips and 15 slots. The duration of the radio frame is 10ms which have ship rate of 3.84 Mcps. Each slots in the radio frame comprises of 2650 chips.
Radio Frame (10ms) frame #i Time Slot (2560*Tc) timeslot #0 timeslot #1 timeslot #2 timeslot #13 timeslot #14 frame #i+1

Physical Channel
In uplink and downlink direction, each slot in a radio frame is defined with a code or a set of codes that carries a set of common and dedicated channels called Physical Channel. The information rate of the channel varies from 15 kbps to 1920 kbps for downlink and 30 kbps to 1920 kbps corresponding to available Spreading Factor. In Downlink spreading factor from 256 to 4 and in downlink from 512 to 4. • Physical channels are the transmission media providing platform (radio) through which information is going to be transferred • Physical Channels means different kinds of bandwidths allocated for different purposes, its actually is the physical existence of the Uu interface between UE domain and Access domain. • Physical channel are defined by specific carrier freq, scrambling and channelization code

The CCCH is also used when UE is accessing a new cell after cell reselection. the control information transferred using DCCH. Common Control Channel (CCCH): Network may have certain tasks which are or may be common to UE in the cell. Paging Control Channel (PCCH): It transfer paging information in downlink direction. Its a bi-directional channel. Network page the mobile to discover the UE location or UE in a cell connected state. . allowed power levels in downlink direction. neighbors information. Its being used in both direction downlink & uplink.Logical Channel Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): It broadcast system control information for all mobiles in a cell like Code values in the cell. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) When there is dedicated/active connection means RRC connection between the network and the mobile.

Logical Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH): It is used transfer the user data between the network and the UE in both uplink and downlink directions. . Common Traffic Channel (CTCH): It is used to transfer the data from one point to all mobiles or a specified group of mobiles.

Transport Channels   Transport channels describes how the logical channels to be transferred Transport channel is defined by how and with what characteristics data is transferred over the interface. It comes into two groups: Dedicated Channels Common Channels    .

Several UE can use the same channel for data transfer.  Common Transport Channel : Random Access Channel (RACH): It is used to send a control information from UE in the uplink direction.Transport Channels  Dedicated Traffic Channels: Dedicated Channel (DCH): It is the channel used to send dedicated control and user data between UE and the network in both uplink & downlink directions Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH): It is a enhanced uplink transport channel. . Also may carry short user packets. Common Packet Channel (CPCH): Its an uplink shared channel used for packet data.

Transport Channels Forward Access Channel (FACH): It is a downlink common channel used to send small amounts of control and user data. Dedicated Channel (DCH) It is a channel that is used to send dedicated control and user data between the UE and the network in both directions. Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH): It is common channel used to send dedicated control and user data. . Broadcast Channel (BCH): It broadcast system information in the downlink direction for all mobile stations in a cell. Paging Channel (PCH): It’s a downlink common channel used to send paging notification messages.

Dedicated Channels: Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Common Channels: Physical Random Access Channel Physical Common Packet Channel .Physical Channels  In Uplink there are both dedicated and common physical channels.

Physical Channels Dedicated Physical Control Channel For each radio link. it carries control information like  Pilot bits (used to support channel estimation at rake receiver)  Transmit Power Control (TPC) commands (Used power control)  Feedback information (FBI) needed with transmit diversity  Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) Spreading factor is always 256. . there is one DPCCH.

10 bits FBI NFBI bits TPC N TPC bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #3 Slot #i Slot #14 Subframe #0 1 subframe = 2 ms Subframe #1 Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms .6) DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits TFCI NTFCI bits T slot = 2560 chips..Physical Channels DPDCH Data Ndata bits T slot = 2560 chips. N data = 10*2 k bits (k=0.

 Spreading factor for the DPDCH can be between 256 and 4.  DPCCH & DPDCH are time – multiplexed in downlink but uplink these are I/Q modulation. .Physical Channels Dedicated Physical Data Channel Each radio link may have no DPDCHs or several DPDCHs.

Physical Channels  Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) It carries the Random Access Channel (RACH transport Channel). UE uses when physical random access procedure is initiated. Preamble 4096 chips Preamble Preamble Message part 10 ms (one radio frame) Preamble Preamble Message part 20 ms (two radio frames) Preamble 4096 chips .

3) Data Ndata bits TFCI NTFCI bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Message part radio frame TRACH = 10 ms Slot #14 . The 20ms message consists of two consecutive 10ms message part radio frames.. Data Control Pilot Npilot bits Tslot = 2560 chips. 10*2k bits (k=0. Each slot consist of data part onto which RACH transport part is mapped and control part that carries layer 1 control information. RACH Message Part The 10 ms message part spilt into 15 slots each length of 2560 ships.Physical Channels RACH Preamble Part Each preamble is of length 4096 chips and consist of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips.

a DPCCH Power Control Preamble (PCP) and message.Physical Channels  Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) It carries Common Packet Channel (CPCH Transport Channel). Check out the Structure from ECE book. The access transmission consists of Access Preambles (AP). . one collision Detection Preamble (CDP).

920kbps.  The length of frame is 10 ms divided into 15 slots  The no.Physical Channels Downlink Dedicated Channel  In downlink there is only one dedicated channel DPCH. of bits in the data part depends on the spreading factor between 512 and 4 correspondence of 15kbps to 1. The control data and user data are time multiplexed with one DPCH. .

Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 . 10*2k bits (k=0..DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits Tslot = 2560 chips.7) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i One radio frame.

DPCCH + DPDCH .

20 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 .Physical Channels Common Pilot Channel It has pre-defined bit sequence transmitted with a bit rate of 30 Kbps (Fixed Scrambling code 256) CPICH is divided into pilot channels: Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) Secondary Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH) Reason for low bit rate as it is transmitted with high power to reduce the interference. Pre-defined bit sequence Tslot = 2560 chips . It is phase reference. must be transmitted in whole cell.

Physical Channels It has following characteristics: Primary Common Pilot channel (P-CPICH) •The same channelization code is always used •The P-CPICH is scrambled by primary scrambling code •There is only one P-CPICH per cell •The P-CPICH broadcast over the entire cell Secondary Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH) It has following characteristics: •An arbitrary channelization code is used SF256 •A S-CPICH may scrambled with primary or secondary scrambling code •There may be zero. one or several S-CPICH per cell •A S-CPICH transmitted over the entire cell or part of the cell .

256 chips (Tx OFF) Data Ndata1=18 bits Tslot = 2560 chips . 20 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 . Pilot bits and first 256 chips of the slot are used for the primary and secondary synchronization Channel. This used to carry the FACH and the PCH.Physical Channels Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) It has fixed bit rate of 30 Kbps (Fixed Scrambling code 256) There are no TPC.

P-CCPCH + SCH .

pilot bits and optional TFCI bits. 20*2k bits (k=0.6) Pilot Npilot bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 .Physical Channels Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) It has variable bit rate from 30kbps to 1.920 kbps. TFCI NTFCI bits Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips.. There are data bits. It is transmitted only to smaller are of the cell.

Physical Channels The only difference between the P-CCPCH and S-CCPCH the transport channel mapped on this can only have fixed predefined transport format combination and in case S-CCPCH support multiple transport format combination using TFCI .

It is same for cells in the network.1 Slot #14 acp acs i. Slot #0 Primary SCH Secondary SCH acp acs i.14 256 chips 2560 chips One 10 ms SCH radio frame .  Secondary Synchronization Channel It consist of the secondary Synchronization codes (SSC).Physical Channels Synchronization Channel This channel used in the cell search procedure.0 Slot #1 acp acs i. System selects the SSC to be transmitted in a slot. based on the scrambling code group and the slot number. It is divided into the Primary Synchronization and Secondary Synchronization Channel  Primary Synchronization Channel It carries primary synchronization codes transmitted in each slot of a radio frame.

The duration of CSICH is 20ms. It is used to inform the UE about CPCH existence and configuration. This is uses the free spaces that occurs in the AICH. CD/CA-ICH The collision Detection Assignment Indicator Channel is used in the CPCH Access Procedure CSICH The CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH) is associated with a CPCH. The length of slot is 40 bits. .Physical Channels Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) It is used for data transmission by one or-several simultaneous users in the downlink direction. Each frame consist of 15 slots. Each slot has a part that is no transmitted and a status indicator part that includes 8 status indicator bits.

32 real-valued signals  1024 chips      Transmission Off  a  a  a2   0 1       a  0 a  1 3 3 AS #14  AS #0  AS #1  AS #i   20 ms  AS #14  AS #0  .   AI part = 4096 chips.  Length of access slot is 5120 chips  Each access slot is further divided into 32 Acquisition indicators and one part has no transmission.  It has 15 consecutive access slots.Physical Channels Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) It is used in a random access procedure by the network to indicate that the RACH preamble was detected.

•These selection of channels in the transport and physical layer depends on the data itself and radio resource management and its parameters.Channel Mapping •The data can be sent through logical layer via different channels in the transport layer. •And also one transport channel can be sent via different physical channels. .

Transport Channels DCH Physical Channels E-DCH RACH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH) E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (EDPCCH) E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH) E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH) E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (E-HICH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) Synchronisation Channel (SCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) MBMS Notification Indicator Channel (MICH) High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HSPDSCH) HS-DSCH-related Shared Control Channel (HSSCCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for HS- BCH FACH PCH HS-DSCH .

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The no. Length of each is different in each bursts. midamble and GP.Burst Types – Dedicated Physical Channel     There are four different types of bursts All contains two data fields. of data symbol depends on SF or burst type. Spreading factor (SF) 1 2 4 8 16 Burst Type 1 1952 976 488 244 122 Burst Type 2 2208 1104 552 276 138 Burst Type 3 1856 928 464 232 116 Burst Type 4 2112 N/A N/A N/A 132 .

no.Burst Type .I     This burst type used for both Uplink and Downlink It has larger training sequence due to longer midamble field Data field has 976 chips long. Chip number (CN) 0-975 976-1487 1488-2463 2464-2559 Length of field in chips 976 512 976 96 Length of field in symbols Cf table 1 Cf table 1 Contents of field Data symbols Midamble Data symbols Guard period Data symbols 976 chips Midamble 512 chips 2560*Tc Data symbols 976 chips GP 96 CP . of symbol depends on the SF Midamble is 512 chips long and GP is 96 chips period.

of symbol depends on the SF Midamble is 256 chips long and GP is 96 chips period.II     This burst type used for both Uplink and Downlink It has shorter training sequence due to longer midamble field Data field has 1104 chips long. Chip number (CN) 0-1103 1104-1359 1360-2463 2464-2559 Length of field in chips 1104 256 1104 96 Length of field in symbols cf table 1 cf table 1 Contents of field Data symbols Midamble Data symbols Guard period Data symbols 1104 chips Midamble 256 chips 2560*Tc Data symbols 1104 chips GP 96 CP .Burst Type . no.

Burst Type . of symbol depends on the SF Midamble is 512 chips long and GP is 192 chips period. Chip number (CN) 0-975 976-1487 1488-2367 2368-2559 Length of field in chips 976 512 880 192 Length of field in symbols Cf table 1 Cf table 1 Contents of field Data symbols Midamble Data symbols Guard period Data symbols 976 chips Midamble 512 chips 2560*Tc Data symbols 880 chips GP 192 CP .III     This burst type used for Uplink only It has longer guard period suitable for initial access or accss to new cell after handover Data field has 976 and 880 chips long. no.

Burst Type .IV     This burst type used for downlink MBSFN It has longer guard period suitable for initial access or accss to new cell after handover It has two data fiels each of 1056 chips long. Length of field in chips 1056 320 1056 128 Midamble 320 chips Chip number (CN) 0-1055 1056-1375 1376-2431 2432-2559 Data symbols 1056 chips Length of field in symbols Cf table 1 Cf table 1 Data symbols 1056 chips Contents of field Data symbols Midamble Data symbols Guard period GP 128 CP 2560*Tc . no. of symbol depends on the SF Midamble is 320 chips long and GP is 128 chips period.

TPC     Transmission of TPC burst is done in the data parts of traffic burst. Data in TPC is always transmit at SF 32 irrespective SF of user data TPC information is to be transmitted immediately after the midamble Shall be transmitted with same channelization code and timeslot of TFCI TPC field Data symbols Midamble 512/256 chips 2560*Tc Data symbols GP .

independent to the SF of data bits TFCI code is applied with SF 32 TFCI is code to be transmitted directly adjacent to the midamble 1st part of TFCI code word 2nd part of TFCI code word Data symbols Midamble Data symbols GP 512/320/256 chips 2560*Tc .TFCI     Transmission of TFCI is done in the data parts of the respective physical channel. In Downlink the TFCI code word bit and data bit subjected to the same spreading procedure In Uplink.

Questions and discussion .