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John T.

Crescitelli Instruction

– EdTech 506 Instructional Message Design –

Unit of

Grade 6

Two Dimensional Geometry

Unit Goals
Geometry and Measurement are two mathematics strands that have been of particular focus in the grade six testing protocol in the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment Survey (MCAS), the standardized state test required in response the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). JFK Middle School has adopted a mathematics curriculum that is standards based and inclusive kindergarten through grade twelve . The goals in grade six for Geometry and Measurement are for students to: • • • • • • • Understand properties of polygons, especially triangles and quadrilaterals Develop skills to determine angle sums in polygons Determine if a shape has rotational or reflectional symmetry Use benchmarks to estimate angle measures Use a protractor and angle ruler to create and measure angles Understand angle relationships when lines are intersecting and parallel Understand and explain the relationship between circumference and diameter

Relate Goals to Curriculum
The Geometry and Measurement strands as determined by the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education: 4.G.2 - Describe, model, draw, compare, and classify two- and threedimensional shapes, e.g., circles, polygons-especially triangles and quadrilaterals-cubes, spheres, and pyramids. 4.G.4 - Identify angles as acute, right, or obtuse. 6.G.1 - Identify polygons based on their properties, including types of interior angles, perpendicular or parallel sides, and congruence of sides, e.g., squares,

rectangles, rhombuses, parallelograms, trapezoids, and isosceles, equilateral, and right triangles. 6.G.3 - Identify relationships among points, lines, and planes, e.g., intersecting, parallel, perpendicular. 6.G.7 - Identify types of symmetry, including line and rotational. 6.M.1 - Apply the concepts of perimeter and area to the solution of problems. Apply formulas where appropriate. 6.M.2 - Identify, measure, describe, classify, and construct various angles, triangles, and quadrilaterals. 6.M.5 - Identify, measure, and describe circles and the relationships of the radius, diameter, circumference, and area (e.g., d = 2r, p = C/d). 6.M.7 - Find the sum of the angles in simple polygons (up to eight sides) with and without measuring the angles. 8.G.3 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships of angles formed by intersecting lines, including parallel lines cut by a transversal.

Characteristics of the Students
Mathematics in grade 6 at JFK Middle School is a heterogeneous instructional practice. All students receive math instruction together regardless of level or ability. This allows for differentiated instruction in the classroom while promoting an equal access education for all Northampton students. Students may be English Language Learners, Special Education, or in the spectrum of Autism. Students may have 1:1 instructional aides or may require modified instructional supports. Regardless of need, all students in grade 6 have math in a heterogeneous classroom setting. As of this writing, the classroom make-up for this instructional unit consists of 24 students, of which 3 are identified as receiving inclusion Special Education services, one child has an ear monitoring system, two students are ELL students without an instructional aide, and 18 students have no documented modifications.

Students’ Present Level of Performance and Knowledge
Students entering JFK Middle have received instruction at the elementary level using the Investigations Mathematics curriculum created by TERC and Pearson/Scott Foresman. Students in grades four and five receive instruction in geometry based upon the Massachusetts curriculum frameworks. Results of grade four and five MCAS testing are examined each year with regard to state standards and strands for classroom and instructional modifications.

Most fifth grade classrooms in Northampton include the use of SmartBoard technologies and the use of transponders. For those students who have not experienced the use of a SmartBoard, student use should not require prerequisite training. Those who have not used transponders, a simple 5-minute training is all that is required.

Classroom Layout and Grouping of Students
The middle school mathematics instructional model consists of small group, cooperative learning environments. Sixth grade mathematics classes contain approximately twenty to twenty-four students with students grouped in clusters of four students. Students are encouraged to work collaboratively on a myriad of problem solving activities and situations that promote constructivist growth and understandings. Small group work is then supported by whole class instruction with regard to lesson content and collaborative understandings.

Introductory Procedures
As part of the JFK Middle School instructional practice, mastery objectives and instructional agendas are posted each day for students. Daily objectives are posted on the SmartBoard to begin each class. Unit mastery objectives are posted on bulletin boards in the classroom and reviewed by the teacher so students understand the scope and sequence of the unit and expected learning outcomes. The teacher begin the unit by showing parrots flying away, either in video or photo collage. This will lead to a scrolling banner announcing that, “This is not the only way Poly is Gone!” This usually generates rolled eyes and comments by sixth graders that show investment in the class and the topic. In small groups, students will generate a list on large chart paper, identifying everything they can remember about geometry from their elementary school instruction. Each group will post their chart paper around the room and be expected to present their information to the entire class. This activity helps students tap into background knowledge. The teacher will then identify (display) the mastery objectives of the unit for the students. This will be done using the SmartBoard, but will then be posted on a bulletin board so that students always have an area where they can reference goals and objectives.

Materials and Media
The teacher will have the use of a SmartBoard for all instruction. Daily mastery objectives and agenda will be posted to begin class, and opening activities will be geared to drawing visual attention to all lessons and visuals to the forefront of instruction. The teacher will then have access to the interactive SmartBoard features like the interactive protractor, the shapes and angle tools, and the visual capture tool.

Students will have access to shape sets, protractors (180 and 360 degree), angle rulers, calculators, rulers and tape measures. Shape sets, protractors and angle rulers will be used to create angles and determine angles based on certain parameters. The calculators and tape measures will be used to determine pi.

The teacher and students will also be utilizing classroom transponders (Beyond Question software created by Smartroom Learning Solutions) for formative assessment activities. The use of classroom transponders has proven to be a strong tool for student engagement and allows for instantaneous classroom formative assessments.

Visuals
1. What is a Polygon visual: This opener will be an old Monty Python video called The Parrot Sketch. This short video is age appropriate for sixth grade students. It is a spoof on a man who buys a dead parrot in a pet shop (hence Polly Gone). Although I am not including this in the actual nine visuals I will be creating for this project, it’s being included for an effective student grabber. 2. Characteristics of a Polygon visual: A series of visuals will be created showing some shapes that are polygons and some that aren’t. The question will be posed “What makes a polygon a polygon?” 3. Quadrilateral Venn Diagram: This complex Venn diagram will distinguish characteristics of different quadrilaterals. It will show how trapezoids differ from all other quadrilaterals, and how squares are specific rectangles, parallelograms, and rhombi. 4. Lines, Rays, Segments: This visual will display the differences between lines, rays, and segments. It will also show that an angle is made by joining two rays at a common endpoint (the vertex of the angle). It will also compare parallel, perpendicular, and intersecting lines. 5. Angle measure visual: Acute, Right, Obtuse, Straight, and Reflex angles will be compared on a chart showing their relevance to angle size. Terminology will be determined based on the relevance toward a 90˚ and 180˚ angles (called benchmark angles). 6. Protractor use visual: This chart/diagram will identify the steps to using a protractor correctly – aligning the vertex of the angle with the center of the protractor, using either the left or right zero line correctly (depending on the direction of the angle), and measuring the angle using the correct zero line. 7. Supplementary and Congruent Angles: This visual will show that a line intersected by a transversal creates adjacent supplementary angles and that opposite angles are congruent. It will also show that parallel lines intersected by a transversal will create congruent angles across the parallel lines.

8. Understanding Transversals visual: This visual will show how two parallel lines crossed by a transversal creates relationships between the angles created in both intersections. The emphasis will be on angles being either supplementary or congruent. 9. Circle visual: This visual will identify the three characteristics of a circle – radius, diameter, and circumference. The symbols associated with each will be identified and the three formulas associated with their relationship (d=2r, r=d/2, and c=pi·d)

10.Determining Pi visual: Telling students that Pi is the relationship between the diameter and the circumference is confusing. When they measure and make calculations, understandings improve. This visual will help students understand that the measurement of the circumference divided by the measurement of the diameter will equal Pi, and that because of that, Pi is considered a mathematical constant.

Assessment and evaluation of learner understanding
1. Formative assessments will be conducted in two different fashions. Several small activities will focus on the fine motor skills associated with creating and measuring angles accurately. Other formative assessments will be conducted via transponder activities with the students. Transponder formative assessments will entail 5 true/false, yes/no or multiple choice questions reviewing material from the previous day (or 2). Students will answer using Beyond Question (Smartroom Learning Solutions) transponders. Results will be instantaneously viewable on the teacher SmartBoard for quick review and reinforcement. The teacher can later use these assessments to design differentiated instruction for those in need of remediation. 2. Summative assessments will be conducted using the ExamView software associated with the Connected Math 2 instructional mathematics program. Questions will be generated based on state academic standards, will be more open ended, and will require use of protractor, angle ruler, and calculator.

Relate assessment instruments to the outcomes stated in the goals.
The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment Survey (MCAS) is the state mandated test for Massachusetts public school students. Grade 6 is subjected to this test in Mathematics in May of each year. An analysis of the last 5 years of MCAS testing shows that 23% of MCAS questions are based on Geometry and Measurement. Although JFK Middle School has made measurable progress each year in meeting the requirements of NCLB, it remains under restructuring status as determined by the state of Massachusetts. Using a standards-based mathematics instructional model, we hope to make adequately yearly progress and move all JFK students forward in their successes.