Chapter 5 Sensation Sensation: A process by which our sensory nervous system receives and represents stimulus energy Perception

: A process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Bottom-Up processing Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information Top-Down Processing Information processing guided by higher level mental processes As when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them ° ° ° ° Light – brightness Sound- volume Pressure- weight Taste- sweetness

Psychophysics

Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus Usually defined as the stimulus needed to detection 50% of the time Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold Experience Expectations Motivation Level of fatigue

Signal Detection Theory

Detection depends on

Stimuli detectable less than 50% of time are subliminal Weber’s Law Perceive deceive difference between 2 stimuli, must differ by constant proportion Light sensitivity – 8% Weight – 2%

a ring of muscle the forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening Lens..transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina Change in shape of lens Focuses on near objects Inner surface of eye Light sensitive Contains rods and cones Layers of neurons Beginning of visual information processing Accommodation Retina Touch Skin Sensations Pain Gate Control Theory o o o Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks plain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain “gate” opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers “gate” closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain Pressure o Cold pain Only skin sensation with identifiable receptors warmth .Vision Hue Vision ° ° ° Line frequency -.3% Diminished sensitivity Transduction Conversion of one form of energy to another Distance from peak of one wave to peak of next Dimension of color determined by wavelength of light Sensory Adaptation Wavelength Pupil – adjustable opening in the center of the eye Iris.

Taste Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Ummani – earthic (tastes like meat ) The principle that one sense may influence another As when the smell of food influences its taste Sensory Interaction Body Position and Movement Kinesthesis o o o The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts The sense of body movement and position Including the sense of balance Vestibular Sense .