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Efficiency & eco-design

Good Practice for Energy Efficiency in Industry
May 2006
by Eric Bonneville, Dr Anne Rialhe, AERE email a.rialhe@aere.fr

Industry represents 40% of the Europe’s primary energy consumption. Depending on the industry sector, the energy savings potential varies from 30% to 65%. A general approach for improving energy efficiency is based on an equipment inventory, an assessment of the energy savings potential and an action plan with monitoring and reporting. For each system that uses energy (motors, compressed air system, boilers, fans, . . . ), cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be implemented, either during design, maintenance, or operation. Examples of such measures are presented for a compressed air system, a water pump and a heating process. The many benefits of improving efficiency justify giving it an important focus for manufacturing industries.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . .Champigneules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Motors . 10 5. . . . . . . . 10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Action plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Checklist for energy efficiency 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Pumping systems . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www. . . . . . . . . . . 5 Case histories 10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .org Efficiency & eco-design Contents 1 Introduction 2 Industrial saving potential 3 General approach for improving energy efficiency 3.4 Steam systems . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inventory . 3. . 4. . . . . . . . .1 Compressed Air System . . .4 Monitoring and reporting . . . .6 Heating Process . . . .2 Water Pumps . . . . .Pressure system reduction . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .New boiler and heat recovering . . . . .2 Estimating energy savings .Variable Speed Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amiens . . . .1 Compressed Air System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Heating process . . . . . . . . . . . . . .leonardo-energy. .Nogent-sur-Oise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6 Conclusion 11 May 2006 – Page 2 of 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Fans . . . .

and improve environmental performance. dissemination of information and staff training. • 50% for the iron and steel industry.o. regular and appropriate maintenance. Investment decisions in energy efficiency measures should be considered as strategic: in addition to saving cost. • 50% for the building materials industry. • 35% for the non-ferrous metal industry. • 60% for the pulp and paper industry.www. they have an impact on productivity and product quality. The estimated long term technical energy savings potential per sector are: • 50-60% for the food and beverage industry. purchase policy. which includes a. May 2006 – Page 3 of 12 . • 30-65% for the textile industry. It proposes for industrial companies to establish an energy efficiency action plan. • 30% for the petrochemical and inorganic chemical industry. In this paper we present some cases histories from various sectors. 2 Industrial saving potential Despite a regular improvement in energy efficiency of 1. there is still a large energy saving potential in industry: the sector represents 40% of primary energy consumption and a large portion of this could be saved through the implementation of energy efficiency measures [2]. Good maintenance.org Efficiency & eco-design 1 Introduction This paper presents good practice for energy efficiency. which is closely tied to energy efficiency.leonardo-energy.8% between 1990 and 2001 [1]. Reliable operations are a basic requirement for success in any manufacturing industry. is a key element to achieving reliability.

advice.leonardo-energy. 3. 1 May 2006 – Page 4 of 12 . Monitoring and functional test plans should be developed in order to identify the main deficiencies of the manufacturing process. In most countries. The European industry also can use the Motor Challenge Programme [3] and the ProMot [4] website for technical support to define an energy efficiency action plan. tools or incentives can be requested from the national energy agency. let’s now go through the steps to develop an energy efficiency action plan1 . Provided the site is committed to improving energy efficiency. from both the work floor and management. Step 0 is getting this commitment.1 Inventory The site assessment requires a good knowledge of both equipment and systems. Difficulties of gathering data may come from the lack of communication between different departments.org Efficiency & eco-design Figure 1: Breakdown of potential energy savings by component in the French industry Data source: ADEME 3 General approach for improving energy efficiency The implementation of energy efficiency measures can be performed in-house or by contractors. the number of units and their main characteristics might be a time consuming task. Taking an example of an industrial site.www. The collection of data concerning the type of energy consuming equipment.

Case studies show that the energy efficiency of many compressed air systems is low. 3. The economic and technical savings potential amounts to 33% on average when implementing the most cost effective measures (payback time less than 36 months) [5].org Efficiency & eco-design Nevertheless. responsible for successful implementation. The action plan consists of accepted recommendations based on the site assessment previously performed. the energy savings potential can be estimated. These gains can be classified according to their potential. 3. 4. It has to identify a key person.3 Action plan An action plan has to be set up with clear objectives and timing. Other benefits such as increased productivity and reduced operating and maintenance costs need to be identified and quantified in order to take them into account. based on case studies.4 Monitoring and reporting The implementation of the action plan requires performance indicators in order to monitor and report the results of the energy efficiency measures. 3.www.1 Compressed Air System Compressed air represents as much as 10% of the electrical consumption of the European industry. investment cost and difficulty of implementation.leonardo-energy. This classification will help to choose the most appropriate measures.2 Estimating energy savings Given the identification and characteristics of the plant manufacturing system. based on technical and economical information. May 2006 – Page 5 of 12 . this inventory phase is of primary importance as it brings insight into the energy savings which can be achieved. 4 Checklist for energy efficiency This section lists the main energy efficiency measures and best practices for different systems that are typically found in manufacturing operations. with potential energy savings in the range of 5 to 50%.

. distribution losses. filter cleaning or replacement. the mechanical transmission. air leak detection and repair can be easily performed at any time during the lifespan of the compressed air system. The efficiency of a motor system depends on the motor efficiency itself.2 Motors Motor driven systems consume about 65% of industrial electricity in the European Union. its speed control. The estimated energy saving potential is 29% of their electricity consumption [7]. and the load efficiency (pump.org Efficiency & eco-design The most important energy saving measures and their corresponding gains are [6]: • Detect and repair air leaks (20%) • Optimize air uses by eliminating inappropriate and unnecessary uses • Minimize pressure drop (3%) • Reduce system pressure • Size and control compressors to match load (15%) • Use efficient part-load controls • Optimize distribution system operation • Use outside air intake when outside air is cooler than inside air • Improve routine maintenance (2%) • Recover waste heat (20%) Measures such as improving routine maintenance. the quality of power supply. .leonardo-energy. fan. motor sizing. 4.www. ). The main energy efficiency measures are: • Maintain voltage levels • Minimize phase unbalance • Maintain high power factor • Maintain good power quality • Select efficient transformers • Reduce distribution losses • Use adjustable speed drives • Select an efficient motor for replacement May 2006 – Page 6 of 12 . . compressor.

leonardo-energy. belt tightening and replacement. air flow straightener or splitters to accomodate the air profile • Optimize the duct sizing.org Efficiency & eco-design • Optimize the motor sizing • Minimize rewind losses • Optimize transmission efficiency A regular monitoring of the motor driven system using thermography.www. the total electricity saving potential (fan and system) is [10]: • 24. motor repair or replacement. The main energy efficiency measures are : • Design the system so that the inlet and outlet ducts to and from the fan are as straight as possible • Use devices such as turning vanes. vibration analysis. Larger ducts create lower friction losses and lower operation costs. or electrical measurements prevents outages [8]. Given this critical aspect and the risk of under-performing systems.1 TWh/year) and the iron and steel industry (12. designers tend to compensate uncertainties by oversizing fan systems. the chemical industry (18. There is a large energy saving potential given the estimated electricity consumption of fans in the European Union industry (100TWh/year) and the low efficiency of fan systems in operation.3 Fans Fans are widely used in industry. Three subsectors account for about 50% of this consumption: the pulp and paper industry (20.3% for the iron and steel industry • 20. In many cases. outlet dampers or fan speed control • Perform regular maintenance (bearing lubrication and replacement. which increases system operating cost and decreases fan reliability [9]. • Adapt the air flow to accommodate demand changes using inlet vanes. motor current testing.5 TWh/year) [10].8% for the chemical industry May 2006 – Page 7 of 12 . fan cleaning) With the implementation of energy efficiency measures.4% for the non-ferrous metals industry • 20. Fan efficiency and failures have significant impact on plant operation. 4. fans play a critical role in a manufacturing process.1 TWh/year).

5% for the food. The main energy efficiency measures are: • Optimize the design of the section head of the pump • Optimize the pump flow • Optimize the design of the pump impeller May 2006 – Page 8 of 12 .9% for the engineering and other metal industry • 22.leonardo-energy. The main energy efficiency measures are: • Maintain steam traps • Reduce System Leaks • Add insulation to reduce heat loss • Tune up boilers every three to six months • Add boilers stack economizers • Maximize Condensate Return • Automate blowdown and recover heat from blowdown steam • Recover flash steam heat • Install automatic burners controls 4.5 Pumping systems Pumps represent the largest single use of motive power [12].5% for other industrial sectors 4.www. pulp and printing industry • 21. clothes and leather industry • 20. beverage and tobacco industry • 21.0% for the mining industry • 22.org Efficiency & eco-design • 22.9% for the glass.4 Steam systems The energy saving potential is estimated to be 20% for an industrial facility implementing best practice measures [11]. pottery and building materials industry • 20.3% for the textiles.8% for the paper. Pumps systems are often operated inefficiently because they are oversized and then are not functioning at their operating point.

While electricity is more expensive per kWh than gas. Gas-fired melting furnace 1-5% 310 .310 kWh/t 510 . there are applications where electricity’s high efficiency at the point of use results in primary energy saving and reduced CO2 emissions compared to thermal heating processes [15. Modern electric heating techniques are available in the range from 0 − 1012 Hz.8500 MJ/t 91 . In order to reduce waste heat losses. 14]: • Minimize exhaust gas temperature • Minimize exhaust gas volume • Use of oxygen enriched combustion air • Recover waste heat In the case of industrial heating processes.1550 kWh/t 1700 .91 kg/t Combustion loss Final energy Primary energy CO2 emissions Table 1: Comparison of characteristics for gas-fired melting furnace and induction oven for Aluminium [15] May 2006 – Page 9 of 12 .org Efficiency & eco-design • Properties of the fluid • Adapt the motor speed selected 4.3-1% 93 .www. and can in some cases save up to 80% of primary energy and up to 60% of CO2 emissions (table 1). a comparison should always be made with electric heating processes.6 Heating Process The efficiency of a thermal heating process decreases with wasted heat in the form of exhaust or flue gases.455 kg/t Induction oven 0. The design and the operation of the heating equipment directly influence these losses. the following energy efficiency measures can be considered [13. 16].1700 MJ/t 27 .leonardo-energy.

Amiens Description : the Cosserat company. the payback is 2 years.5 bars to 6. the energy saved was 311 MWh/year which represents e3 354/year saved.leonardo-energy. which manufactures aluminium elements. 5.2 Water Pumps . manufacturing textile. 5.Variable Speed Drive .Pressure system reduction . Action taken : in order to reduce the electricity consumption. Action taken : the pressure in the compressed air network has been reduced from 7. has undertaken a general audit to optimize its compressed air network. or 48% of energy consumed.1 Compressed Air System .www.Nogentsur-Oise Description : the Montupet Company. Profitability : with e45 734 invested and e22 867/year of money saved. given the energy saved for no money invested.3 bars Results : without any capital investment.3 Heating process . 5.New boiler and heat recovering . May 2006 – Page 10 of 12 . The three following examples have been taken from the ADEME ’Good Practice in the Industry Guidebook’ [17]. Other benefits were increased lifespan of machinery and noise reduction. Profitability : the return on investment is immediate. needed to reduce its emissions of two boilers. Results : 480 MWh/year was saved thanks to the VSD. The average water flow was dramatically small compared to the pump size.org Efficiency & eco-design 5 Case histories More and more case histories are available in the literature published by national energy agencies. covering all manufacturing process and all industrial sectors. a variable speed drive has been implemented on the motor driving the 3 pumps.Champigneules Description : the Kronenbourg plant of Champigneules uses three water distribution networks for beer manufacturing and installation cleaning.

[18]. energy efficiency should always be taken into account from an early stage of system design. Therefore. Guynemer F-73100 Aix-les-Bains. Authors BONNEVILLE Eric.fr.www.leonardo-energy. May 2006 – Page 11 of 12 . Investments in energy Efficiency should be considered from a strategic perspective as improved efficiency results in reduced maintenance and operating costs and a more reliable manufacturing process. tel/fax +33 4 79 54 87 23.bonneville@aere. 18 rue G. now working on energy efficiency and demand side management at the French company AERE. Results : the energy consumption has been reduced with 20%. polluting emissions have been reduced. she has participated in the developing and implementation of some European Union’s energy label for appliances. Concrete cases of energy efficiency measures show the variety of possible actions to be taken and the evidence of non-energy (productivity) benefits.org Efficiency & eco-design Action taken : in 1997. France. The general approach of implementing energy efficiency measures presented in this paper can be used and complemented with more detailed information from national energy agencies.5 years.fr. website www. Electrical Engineer from the Ecole sup´rieure d’´lectricit´ Sup´lec. e. Guynemer F-73100 Aix-les-Bains.-D in energy. a. specialized in industrial energy. engineer from the Ecole sup´rieure de l’energie et des mat´riaux. tel/fax +33 4 79 54 87 23. maintenance has been eased and the lifespan of the equipment has increased. the two boilers were replaced with one single natural gas boiler and heat recovery system. Ph. from the Ecole des Mines de Paris. e e e e specialized in energy systems. now CEO of the French company AERE. experience e e in research centers and in consulting companies.fr RIALHE Anne.rialhe@aere.aere. which are both key elements for industry competitiveness [8]. 6 Conclusion Energy efficiency is increasingly becoming an important factor in long-term planning and investment decisions. Profitability : with e320 000 euros invested and e89 488/year saved. France. the payback time is 3. In each industrial sector there is a large and cost-effective energy savings potential. 18 rue G.

. September 2000 e [18] Productivity Benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures. Hans De Keulenear et al. Technology and Society.org/ [5] Compressed Air Systems in the European Union. US Department of Energy. 2005 [9] Improving Fan System Performance.cec. Hein. Blok.A. Energiesparen mit Strom. Arvin Thekdi. Worrell.C. Utrecht University.. Wisconsin Focus on energy. Olzog. Hugh Falkner et al.leonardo-energy. European Copper Institute. 2001 [6] Compressed Air System Best Practice. 2001 May 2006 – Page 12 of 12 .US Department of Energy and AMCA. Hendriks.www.eu-promot. Savings Potential and Policy Actions.G. July 2004 [17] Bonnes pratiques ´nerg´tiques dans l’industrie : pour une meilleure efficacit´ et e e e rentabilit´.eu. EEMODS Conference.. Energy. SAVE Programme. Dept. C. Emissions. L. June 2003 [2] Efficient Electricity Use in the European Union.Save-Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. 2004 [7] Energy Efficient Motor Driven Systems.jrc. Energy Analysis Department.. Peter Radgen et al. J. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. K. BPMA [13] Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency. 1996 [3] http://energyefficiency. Frauhofer IRB Verlag.org Efficiency & eco-design References [1] Energy efficiency in the European Union 1990-2001 . E. US Department of Energy [15] Till B¨hmer et al. 2004 [12] Variable Speed Driven Pumps Best Practice Guide. SAVE Programme. W. Of Science. ADEME. And Turkenburg. April 2004 [8] Condition Monitoring to Maintain Motor Efficiency and dramatically Reduce Unplanned Motor Outages. July 2001 [11] Steam Systems Best Practice. Ernst Worell et al. Productivity and Emissions Performance.Wisconsin Focus on energy. Electricity for More Efficiency: Electric Technologies and their Energy Savings Potential. Edgar Blaustein and Peter Radgen. De Beer.G. 2001 o [16] Eurelectric and UIE.int/motorchallenge/ [4] http://www. November 2004 [14] Seven ways to optimize your process heat system. 2004 [10] Market Study for improving Energy Efficiency for Fans..