Steam Turbines Introduction

Brajbhushan MISHRA
Steam Turbine Engineering & KWU Business Development

15/05/2008

POWER SERVICE

STEAM TURBINES

Introduction to Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 2
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Energy Conversion Cycle

IGNITION OF COAL/ OIL
BOILER

CV OF FUEL CONVERTED INTO HEAT ENERGY

HEATING OF WATER
HEAT EXCHANGER

HEAT ENERGY CONVERTED INTO STEAM PRESSURE

MECH. WORK TO ELECTRIC POWER

STEAM PRESSURE CONVERTED INTO MECHANICAL WORK

GENERATOR

TURBINE

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 3
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

without express written authority. All rights reserved. Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.Introduction The Steam Turbine is a Prime-mover in which the Potential Energy (in the form of Heat and Pressure) is transformed into Kinetic Energy and the latter in its turn is transformed into the Mechanical Energy of rotation of turbine shaft. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 4 © ALSTOM 2007. .31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. .Fundamental Laws INTRODUCTION: The Steam Turbine is governed by following laws: • The law of Conservation of Mass • The law of Conservation of Energy • The law of Conservation of Momentum • Euler’s Turbine Equation Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.P 5 © ALSTOM 2007. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.31/07/2008 .

Reproduction. without express written authority. is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.Earlier “Turbines” Impulse Turbine built by Giovanni Branca in A. use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved.D.1629 Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . 120 © ALSTOM 2007. .C.P 6 Reaction turbine Turbine built by Hero of Alexandria in B. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction.P 7 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . .STEAM TURBINES . use or disclosure to third parties.Typical Steam Cycle Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved. without express written authority. is strictly prohibited.

. use or disclosure to third parties.Typical TG arrangement Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES .31/07/2008 .P 8 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

without express written authority. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES Classification of Steam Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. .P 9 © ALSTOM 2007.

31/07/2008 . Reproduction.STEAM TURBINES . Radial. Regenerative Single stage. of STAGES : Based on No. of CYLINDERS/ CASING : Impulse. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Combined Axial.P 10 © ALSTOM 2007. Back Pressure Reheat. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.Classification • • • • • • Based on ACTION of steam: Based on FLOW DIRECTION of steam : Based on FINAL STATE of steam: Based on CYCLE followed by steam: Based on No. Reaction. Mixed flows Single flow & Double flow Condensing. All rights reserved. Multi stage Single & Multi Cylinder Single & Double (inner & outer) casing Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority.

on the blade causing it to move. is strictly prohibited.P 11 If steam at high pressure is allowed to expand through a stationary nozzle. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. without express written authority. the steam will issue from the nozzle in the form of a high-speed jet. If the blade is attached to the rotor of a turbine. the result will be a drop in the steam pressure and an increase in steam velocity. If this high velocity steam is applied to a properly shaped turbine blade. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES .Impulse Turbine 1: Shaft 2: Disc 3: Blade 4: Nozzle Steam Turbines Introduction . In fact.31/07/2008 . The effect of this change in direction of the steam flow will be to produce an impulse force. it will change in direction due to the shape of the blade . Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties. then the rotor will revolve. © ALSTOM 2007. .

31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. it passes through the small opening. When the balloon is filled with air. When the air is released from a blown balloon. This reactive force propels the balloon forward through the air.Reaction Turbine The principle of a reaction turbine can be explained using a balloon. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited.P 12 © ALSTOM 2007. This represents a transformation from potential energy to kinetic energy. Steam Turbines Introduction . the potential energy is stored in the increased air pressure inside. use or disclosure to third parties. Reproduction. without express written authority. When the air is let escape. The force applied to the air to speed up the balloon is acted upon by a reaction in the opposite direction. .STEAM TURBINES . it rushes out through the small opening and the balloon will shoot off in the opposite direction.

All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 13 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . In addition.31/07/2008 . It then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed thus producing an impulse force on the moving blades. the steam upon passing through the moving blades. is strictly prohibited. however. Steam Turbines Introduction .Reaction Turbine A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades alternating with rows of moving blades. use or disclosure to third parties. . without express written authority. Reproduction. again expands and further drops in pressure giving a reaction force to the blades. The steam expands first in the stationary or fixed blades where it gains some velocity as it drops in pressure. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

STEAM TURBINES .31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority.P 14 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. The gross propelling force is the vector sum of the impulse and reaction forces. All rights reserved. Reproduction. Application of Impulse and Reaction principles of operation is a practical approach. Steam Turbines Introduction .Combined type turbine • • • • • The pure Reaction turbine is not a practical type. Remaining pressure drop and change of momentum takes place in moving blades. . is strictly prohibited. Partial pressure drop and hence small increase in velocity takes pace in fixed nozzles. use or disclosure to third parties.

is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. . Reproduction.P 15 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . Steam Turbines Introduction .Axial Flow turbine • Steam flows in a direction parallel to the axis of the turbine. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

without express written authority.31/07/2008 . . use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.Single Flow Axial turbine Steam Inlet Steam Expansion Steam flows in only one direction parallel to the axis of the turbine. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.P 16 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES .

Reproduction. Axial forces developed due to steam flow are counter balanced. is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. use or disclosure to third parties.Double Flow Axial turbine Steam Inlet Steam Expansion Steam flows parallel to the axis of the turbine and in two opposite directions. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES . .P 17 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. without express written authority.

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. All rights reserved. Initially steam expands in one cylinder flowing parallel to the turbine axis and then fed back to the entry of another stage with or without reheat.P 18 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. . Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited. Reproduction.31/07/2008 . rotors of two cylinders are combined together.Reverse Flow Axial turbine Steam Inlet Steam Expansion Steam Expansion In this type of turbine.

Radial Flow turbine • Steam flows in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the turbine. Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . Reproduction. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties.P 19 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.

The condensed steam is returned to the boiler as feed-water. . is strictly prohibited.P 20 © ALSTOM 2007. the steam exhausts to the condenser and the latent heat of the steam is transferred to the cooling water. use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES . Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 .Condensing turbine Vertically down condensing type To condenser Axial condensing To condenser type • With the condensing turbine.

All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. . The process steam pressure is kept constant and the generator output depends on the demand for process steam. is strictly prohibited. the turbine acts as a reducing station between boiler and process steam header. Steam Turbines Introduction .Back Pressure turbine • Back-pressure turbines are often used in industrial plants.31/07/2008 . without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 21 © ALSTOM 2007. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties.

without express written authority. and then is fed back to the boiler. cycle heat input is increased and hence increase in thermal efficiency. Reproduction.P 22 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. The heated steam is then fed through the remainder of the turbine before being condensed (process E-F). . from and within boiler. steam at a given initial temperature is partially expanded through the turbine (process C-D) doing some some work. is strictly prohibited. • In a reheat cycle. Steam Turbines Introduction . where it is reheated to about original temperature (process D-E). But this increases capital overlay in terms of re-heater pipe-work to.Reheat turbine • In the Reheat cycle.STEAM TURBINES . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

STEAM TURBINES - Regenerating turbine

• In the Regenerative cycle, steam from different stages of turbine are bled and used for heating the feed water. There will be a small loss of work available from the bled steam not expanding in the turbine; however, this loss is out-weighed by the gain in cycle efficiency.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 23
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Single Stage Turbine

• In a Single Stage turbine, steam is expanded in only one stage. Generally these turbines are of Impulse type with exhaust pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 24
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Multi stage Turbine

• In this type of turbines, steam is allowed to pass through a series of fixed and moving blades. Total heat drop in the turbine is the sum of heat drop in each stage. They can be of Back pressure type or Condensing type.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 25
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. entire action of steam takes place in only one cylinder. . use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 26 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction. without express written authority. Steam Turbines Introduction .Single Cylinder Turbine • In a Single cylinder turbine. They can be either Single Stage or Multistage turbines.

use or disclosure to third parties. steam is allowed to pass through two or more cylinders. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Multi Cylinder Turbine • In this type of turbines. These turbines are of higher capacity and most of the time Re-heat type. Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 .P 27 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. .

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 28 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES Working Concepts of Steam Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. . without express written authority.31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties.

. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited. only part of the velocity of the steam is used up in each row of moving blades.31/07/2008 .P 29 © ALSTOM 2007. • Hence.STEAM TURBINES . • The high velocity steam leaving the nozzle passes on to the first stage moving blade suffers a partial velocity drop. • Direction of this steam is then corrected by the next rows of fixed blades and then the same is entered in next row of moving blade where again the velocity reduces partially. Reproduction. All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties. Steam Turbines Introduction . without express written authority.Compounding Velocity Compounding: This is achieved by alternate rows of fixed blades and moving blades. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

. frictional losses are also high. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Compounding The advantages of velocity compounding are: • System is easy to operate and more reliable. it means. of stages are less. • Since the total pressure drop takes place only in nozzles and not in the blades.P 30 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority. the turbine casing need not be heavily built. the all the stages are not economically efficient.e with the increase of the number of rows the power developed in successive rows of blades decreases. the economy in material cost and less floor space is required. is strictly prohibited. initial cost is lower. All rights reserved. • Blade efficiency decreases with increase in number of stages i. Hence. Reproduction. Whereas the same space and material are required for each stage. The dis-advantages of velocity compounding are: • As the steam velocity is too high. • As nos. Steam Turbines Introduction . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES .

STEAM TURBINES . the increase in velocities are not so high resulting in slow speed rise of turbine. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved. • Thus pressure drop (partial) takes place in successive stages.31/07/2008 .P 31 © ALSTOM 2007. and in lieu of that its velocity gets increased. • Similarly again a pressure drop occurs in second stage nozzle and with increased velocity steam enters in second stage moving blades where again the velocity is reduced . use or disclosure to third parties. . without express written authority. Reproduction.Compounding Pressure Compounding: This is achieved by an alternate rows of nozzles and moving blades. • The high velocity steam passes on to the first row of moving blades where its velocity is reduced partially. Steam Turbines Introduction . • The steam enters the first row of nozzles where it suffers a partial drop of pr.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. . All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES . use or disclosure to third parties.Compounding Steam Turbines Introduction . without express written authority.31/07/2008 .P 32 © ALSTOM 2007.

• The velocity of steam is again increased in the subsequent row of nozzles (due to drop in pressure) and then again it is allowed to pass onto another set of velocity compounding that brings about a stage-wise reduction of velocity of the steam.STEAM TURBINES .31/07/2008 .Compounding Pressure . . All rights reserved.P 33 © ALSTOM 2007. Steam Turbines Introduction . • This high velocity steam then enters a few rows of velocity compounding whereupon its velocity gets successively reduced. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. • Steam is expanded partially in a row of nozzles whereupon its velocity gets increased (due to pressure drop).Velocity Compounding: It is a combination of Pressure compounding and Velocity compounding. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. without express written authority.

50) (0.985) ηthermal plant = ηboiler = Energy output (at generator terminal) Energy Input (calorific value of fuel) Energy output (total increase in enthalpy of fluid in boiler) Energy Input (calorific value of fuel) Energy output (energy available for conversion to mech.95) (0.P 34 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . .90) x ηthermal cycle x ηturbine x ηmechanical x ηgenerator (0. All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction. work) Energy Input (total energy/ enthalpy available in working fluid) ηthermal cycle = Steam Turbines Introduction .35 to 0.995) (0. use or disclosure to third parties.85 to 0.75 to 0.99 to 0.98 to 0.plant = ηboiler (0. is strictly prohibited.Thermal Cycle The efficiency of a thermal power plant can be expressed as the product of efficiencies of its sub-systems: ηthermal . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.30 to 0.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority.40) (0.

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. .generator coupling ) ηmechanical = ηgenerator = Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties.P 35 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority.31/07/2008 . Reproduction. All rights reserved.Thermal Cycle ηturbine internal = Energy output(total enthalpy of fluid converted in mech work) Energy Input (total energy for conversion to mech work) Energy output (work done at turbine-generator coupling ) Energy Input (total energy of fluid converted into mech work) Energy output (at generator terminal) Energy Input (work done at turbine . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

31/07/2008 . . it is imperative that thermal cycle efficiency should be as high as possible.P 36 © ALSTOM 2007. Steam Turbines Introduction . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved. • The thermal cycle efficiency is lowest of all the efficiencies and is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. • Boiler efficiency and internal efficiency of turbine are also fairly good and these are improving continuously. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority.Thermal Cycle Typical values of these efficiencies for a modern thermal power plant employing reheat and regenerative feed water heating cycle indicates: • It is evident from the above values of efficiencies that mechanical efficiency of turbine and efficiency of generator are very high (approaching to 1).STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. In order to get highest plant efficiency.

STEAM TURBINES . internal energy is required. The saturation temperature normally rises with pressure.Vapour Phase of Water : • • • • • • Steam is the vapour phase of water. is strictly prohibited. In boilers. The value of latent heat decreases with rising pressure. Steam Turbines Introduction . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. the latent heat is absorbed by water at constant temperature. this internal energy is supplied by heat.Phase Transformation Liquid . called the saturation temperature. without express written authority. All rights reserved.P 37 © ALSTOM 2007. Under pressure less than 225 kg/cm2. Reproduction. To effect a change of state from liquid phase to vapour phase.31/07/2008 . .Thermal Cycle . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. The heat required to bring about this transformation is called the latent heat of evaporation. use or disclosure to third parties.

♦ Heating in liquid phase takes place in economiser (where installed).5 kcal/kg T E M P Evaporation phase – absorbs latent heat Liquid phase. is strictly prohibited.Phase Transformation Vapour (Superheat) phase. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. ♦ Superheat or reheat is heating in vapour phase in Superheater & reheater. ♦ Evaporation takes place in furnace. boiler bank (where present). if economiser is steaming. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. See next graph. without express written authority. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. Sp heat ≈ 1 kcal/kg Enthalpy ♦ The specific heat of water and steam & latent heat changes with pressure. Steam Turbines Introduction . evaporation of water in spray type attemperator and at times even in economiser .P 38 © ALSTOM 2007.Thermal Cycle . . All rights reserved.31/07/2008 . Sp heat ≈0.STEAM TURBINES .

Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority. T E M P Evaporation phase Pr = Hi Pr = Med Vapour (Superheat) phase. Enthalpy ♦ Note that latent heat of evaporation reduces with increasing pressure & vanishes at critical point. Pr = Low Liquid phase. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. .Thermal Cycle ( Phase Transformation) Critical point – 225 Kg/cm2g – No evaporation phase. Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 39 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES .

(means increase in saturation temp. without express written authority..9% to 1.STEAM TURBINES . at which heat is added to the cycle). . Usually 1% moisture increase in steam in a particular stage results in 0. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. with increase in initial steam pr. This will result in increase in thermal efficiency cycle.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited.2% decrease in turbine internal efficiency and also the erosion becomes so severe that life of the turbine is endangered. Steam Turbines Introduction .of feed water or in mean temp. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Initial Steam Pressure: At constant initial steam temperature : • Increase in initial steam pr. However.P 40 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Reproduction. at constant temp. thereby internal efficiency of these stages decreases. wetness of steam in the last stages of turbine increases. use or disclosure to third parties. & constant condenser pr.

shell thickness increases resulting in increased stress and low rate of speeding/ loading. Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited. blade height of initial stages decreases (cannot be designed below 25mm due to inefficiency and 3D flow & vortex formation). quicker start up) and higher steam pr.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency • With increase in initial steam pr. are used for smaller turbines (simple design.31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. without express written authority. In light of above considerations.. All rights reserved. . lower initial steam pr.P 41 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. With increase in initial pr. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. for larger turbine (higher efficiency)..

increase.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 42 © ALSTOM 2007. . Steam Turbines Introduction . • However. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.g: various grades of Cr-Mo-V(Ni) or Cr-Mo (Ni) ferrite steels.STEAM TURBINES . . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. material considerations do restrict the initial steam temp. the thermal cycle efficiency increases.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Initial Steam Temperature: The theoretical considerations of thermodynamics it is imperative that: • As initial temp.upto 4000 C Plain Carbon Steel can be used . is strictly prohibited.upto 6000 C Resistant Ferritic/ Martensitic Steel can be used e.upto 4800 C Low Alloy Steel can be used .

Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency • Hence. swings). Steam Turbines Introduction . the initial steam temp. most practical (safe) limit for initial steam temp. Further due to frequent failure of boiler tubes (resulting outages) at 5650 C.. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. . gives a limiting value of 5650 C (leaving margins for temp. which have higher coefficient of thermal expansion & lower thermal conductivity but due to poor machineability and weldability as compared to ferrite steel. Above 5400 C temp. without express written authority. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES .P 43 © ALSTOM 2007. austenitic steel is not preferred. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . austenitic steels could be used. of 5400 C is adopted in general. is strictly prohibited.

Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction. Equipment (condenser. available heat drop (for conversion to work) increases by approx 12% of unit mass of working fluid. • Re-heating reduces moisture in last stage blades thereby improving turbine internal efficiency.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. improves the thermal cycle efficiency by 4 to 5% as a more efficient cycle is added to original cycle.P 44 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority. BFPs) thus resulting in savings in investment. • With the reheat. CEPs. . resulting in almost corresponding reduction in mass flow of working fluid for generating same power output.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Reheat Cycle and Parameters: • Re-heating of steam after it has partially expanded. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. • This results in smaller aux. heaters.

is strictly prohibited. re-heating invariably complicates the design of turbine. the steam after partial expansion is usually re-heated to initial steam temp. at pr. .Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency • However. Absolute increase in thermal cycle and thermal plant efficiency by re-heating is approx. additional piping & re-heater. Reproduction.P 45 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES .30 times initial pr. All rights reserved. almost all the gain in efficiency is offset.5% to 2%.15 to 0. boiler & their controls. • Thus it involves additional investment in terms of complex design. 1. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . Hence. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Steam Turbines Introduction . 0. without express written authority. • If pressure drop in re-heater is more.

without express written authority.55 to 0. Reproduction. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.75 times saturation temp.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Regenerative Feed Water Heating Cycle: • In regenerative feed water heating part of the bled (extracted) steam after partial expansion in the turbine is used to heat up the feed water going to boiler. • Usually feed water is heated to 0. Steam Turbines Introduction .P 46 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . As a consequence of steam extraction for feed water heating. in series of heaters.STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. • In this process the latent heat of liquidation of bled (extracted) steam is utilised in heating feed water thereby increasing the thermal efficiency (would otherwise been dumped into the condenser). No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. . increased steam flow through turbine is required to generate the same power. use or disclosure to third parties.

.P 47 © ALSTOM 2007.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Usually thermal cycle employing regenerative feed water heating will have 30% higher flow at stop valves and 30% lower flow at turbine exhaust as compared to thermal cycle without regenerative feed water heating.Reduced flow at turbine exhaust demands lesser exhaust area. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved. resulting in smaller blades in last stages. . which is limiting factor in turbine design. • This makes regenerative feed water heating even more attractive to the following reasons: .Increase in steam flow in initial stages of turbine results in increased blades height thus improving internal thermal efficiency of turbine. without express written authority. is strictly prohibited.

and to some extent to cooling water flow rate.31/07/2008 . Steam Turbines Introduction . lake or sea whichever is nearby the thermal plant.STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction. is strictly prohibited. . All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. • Provide Heat Sink (Phase change of working fluid takes place) • Low Vacuum (heat rejection takes place at low temp. we can install cooling towers at our plants to further cool this available direct cooling water of river. we don’t have direct control over cooling water temperatures. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. cooling water is usually taken from river. However. Since. cooling water temp.12 ata.Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Condenser Vacuum: Condenser has triple function in “Rankine Cycle”. lake or sea and in turn can improve the condenser vacuum./ thermal efficiency) • Preserve/ store working fluid (costly demineralised water) Condenser vacuum is dependent on the cooling water temp.06 to 0.P 48 © ALSTOM 2007. ranges between 240 C (for snow fed rivers) to 360 C (sea water or river waters in hot season) giving condenser pressure of 0. In India.

is strictly prohibited. External: Bearing friction losses. Reproduction. Steam Turbines Introduction . loss due to leakage (heat loss).31/07/2008 .Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle Efficiency Turbine Losses: Losses in turbine can be divided in two groups: Internal: Frictional loss. Leaving/ residual losses. use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority.P 49 © ALSTOM 2007. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. radiation losses. All rights reserved. Auxiliaries drive power losses. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited. . use or disclosure to third parties.P 50 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES Construction of Steam Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.

All rights reserved. Reproduction. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.Construction of Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 51 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES .

without express written authority.Construction . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. use or disclosure to third parties.P 52 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES .Arrangement of blading Arrangement of Fixed and Moving Blades Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.

All rights reserved. without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES . Gland Seal system. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Governing System etc. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. C & I.P 53 © ALSTOM 2007. Reproduction.Construction Details • • Geometrical construction of Steam turbines vary from designer to designer. In general all steam turbines have the following Assemblies / Components Rotor Casing Moving blades Guide Blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Blading Materials Steam Sealing Arrangement Bearings & Bearing Pedestals Control and Stop Valves Auxiliary systems like Lube oil System.31/07/2008 . . Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited.

Reproduction. is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties.P 54 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES Steam Turbine Rotors Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. . without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Rotor configurations • • • Different configuration of rotors. ease of manufacturability. Configuration depends on type of Turbine (Impulse or Reaction type). All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. . without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES . use or disclosure to third parties. design philosophy applied.31/07/2008 . Reproduction.P 55 © ALSTOM 2007. A rotor generally has: Coupling flanges (Integral or Shrunk on) Journals Thrust Collar Gland seal Balance Piston Blades (mounted on Discs or direct mounted) Discs with Radial and Facial keys Over-speed Trip assembly MOP impeller Steam Turbines Introduction .

All rights reserved. without express written authority.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 56 © ALSTOM 2007. . Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES .Rotor configurations Parts of typical Turbine Rotor Blades mounted on Discs Thrust Collar MOP Impeller Front Gland Rear Gland Coupling Flange Over-speed Trip assembly Front Journal Balance Piston Radial Key Rear Journal Disc Steam Turbines Introduction .

31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved.P 57 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. without express written authority. Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties.Rotor configurations Built-up rotor Forged disc rotor Combined rotor Drum type rotor Welded rotor Steam Turbines Introduction . .

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES .Rotor configurations Built-up Rotor Rotors are built up with shrunk on discs. . Reproduction. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . At high temperatures of steam. Example for such rotor: 200 MW LP Turbine Rotor of LMZ design Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved.P 58 © ALSTOM 2007. but can operate only at moderate temperatures of steam. stress relaxation can result in loosening of disc fastening on the rotor. Such rotors are simpler in manufacture. use or disclosure to third parties.

without express written authority. since it is is difficult to make large size forging of sufficiently high quality.Rotor configurations Forged Disc Rotor In Forged disc rotors. All rights reserved. Example of such rotor: 200 MW HP turbine rotor of LMZ design. use or disclosure to third parties. loosening of discs on the rotor in turbine operation is improbable.STEAM TURBINES . Machining of forged rotors is more intricate and time consuming. Steam Turbines Introduction . . The diameter of the forged rotors is limited. the discs and shaft are machined from a single forging. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction.P 59 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . and therefore .

without express written authority.Rotor configurations Combined Rotor Combined type of rotors are employed in steam turbines where the temperature of steam can vary within wide range in a single cylinder. is strictly prohibited. Steam Turbines Introduction .P 60 © ALSTOM 2007. . use or disclosure to third parties. Example of such rotor: 200 MW IP turbine rotor of LMZ design. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES .31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

All rights reserved. blades are mounted on the rotor directly.Rotor configurations Drum type Rotor Drum type rotors are used in HP and IP cylinders of reaction type steam turbines. in some cases. Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 61 © ALSTOM 2007. However. In this type of rotors. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. the rotor is a single forgings. without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES .31/07/2008 . they are made by welding together a number of small sizes forging. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. Example of such rotor: 140 MW HP & IP turbine rotors of CEM design. . Steam Turbines Introduction . In most of the cases.

31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES . They are more stiffer and lighter than forged or built-up rotors. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties.Rotor configurations Welded Rotor Welded rotors consist of several discs welded together at the peripheral circumference.The rotor portions in this design are forgings of moderate dimensions. Example of such rotor: 500 MW LP turbine rotor of ALSTOM design. Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited. which makes it possible to have a homogeneous structure of metal over the volume of a rotor part and improve thermal stability. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. .P 62 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES . . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 63 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved. Reproduction. without express written authority.31/07/2008 .Couplings • Couplings are essentially devices for transmitting torque but they may also have to allow relative angular misalignment. COUPLINGS FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS SEMI-FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS RIGID COUPLINGS Steam Turbines Introduction . transmit axial thrust and ensure axial location or allow relative axial movement.

Bibby Coupling light/heavy load. Reproduction.Flexible Couplings Claw Coupling • They are capable of absorbing small amounts of angular misalignment as well as axial movement.P 64 © ALSTOM 2007. .31/07/2008 . • They need continuous lubrication. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority. • Suitable for small to medium size. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved. Steam Turbines Introduction . Multi-tooth Coupling • Double flexible couplings can also accommodate eccentricity.

• They do not require any lubrication. Steam Turbines Introduction . • They consist of a bellow piece having one or more convolutions. use or disclosure to third parties.Semi-flexible Couplings • These type of couplings Semi-flexible Coupling allow angular bending only. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority.31/07/2008 . .STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 65 © ALSTOM 2007. Reproduction.

P 66 © ALSTOM 2007. shaft alignment must be set to ensure that the coupling bending moment forces are minimised. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved. • They are used for transmitting high torque. Reproduction.Couplings Rigid Mono-bloc Coupling • Rigid couplings are either integral with shaft forging (mono-bloc) or shrunk on to the shaft. Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES .31/07/2008 . without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. • Shrunk on Coupling When using Rigid couplings. use or disclosure to third parties.

use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority.Couplings Coupling Bolt Assembly Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited. . Reproduction.31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 67 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority.P 68 © ALSTOM 2007. . use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.31/07/2008 . Reproduction.STEAM TURBINES Moving Blades of Steam Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction .

use or disclosure to third parties. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Size of the moving blades increases from HP turbine to LP turbine to accommodate expanding steam. The length of the last stage blade in LP turbine is a limiting factor for size of the LP turbine and hence the output.STEAM TURBINES . Considered as the “Heart” of the turbine. Reproduction. heat drop do occur in the case of Reaction turbine whose extent depends on Degree of reaction. All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 69 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited. no heat drop occurs in moving blades. However.31/07/2008 . Steam Turbines Introduction . In an Impulse turbine. .Moving Blades • • • • Convert Kinetic Energy and or Heat Energy of steam into Mechanical Work. without express written authority.

P 70 NECK SHOULDER © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. .31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited.Moving Blades Moving Blade Nomenclature TENON AIRFOIL SECTION PRESSURE SIDE PROFILE LENGTH SUCTION SIDE PITCH ROOT TANG Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.

Reproduction.P 71 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.Moving Blades Moving Blade Nomenclature Steam Turbines Introduction . without express written authority. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction.Moving Blades Classification of Moving Blades Based on Working Principle Based on type of Profile Based on type of Root Based on type of Shroud Based on on direction of rotation Impulse Blade Reaction Blade Constant Profile Changing Profile "T" Root Separately Shrouded Integral Shrouded Free Standing Right Hand Left Hand Without Shoulder With Shoulder Stradle Root Serrated Root Fork / Finger Root Fir Tree Root Axial Entry Radial Entry Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. . use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority.P 72 © ALSTOM 2007. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 .

use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction.Moving Blades Classification based on Working Principle • • “Bucket” Shaped Pressure side Constant flow area between two adjacent blades Impulse Blade Steam Turbines Introduction .P 73 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES . Reaction Blades .

STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction. is strictly prohibited.P 74 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority. All rights reserved.Moving Blades Classification based on type of Profile Blades with constant profile Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . Blades with changing profile .

use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES .P 75 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority.31/07/2008 . Reproduction. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited.Moving Blades Roots Classification based on type of Root “T” Root with Shoulder “T” Root without Shoulder Straddle Root Serrated Root Steam Turbines Introduction .

. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Radial Entry Fork Root Fir Tree RootAxial Entry Steam Turbines Introduction . without express written authority.Moving Blades Roots Classification based on type of Root Fir Tree Root. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 76 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. Reproduction.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited.P 77 Blade with integral Shroud Free standing Blade © ALSTOM 2007. Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES . use or disclosure to third parties. .Moving Blades Roots Classification based on type of Shroud Blade with separate Shroud Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. without express written authority.

31/07/2008 .Moving Blades Classification based Direction of Rotation Left hand blade CCW direction Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. .P 78 Right hand blade CW direction © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction.

without express written authority. is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES Blading Materials Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. All rights reserved.P 79 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. use or disclosure to third parties.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 80 © ALSTOM 2007.Blading Materials • • • • • • Shrouds Rivet pins Setting Springs Locking Piece Spacers Lacing Wires/ Damping wires Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. . use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES .

Reproduction. is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.31/07/2008 . A shroud band combines blades into packs. use or disclosure to third parties. Shrouds bands are fastened to the blades by upsetting the tenons on the blades. thus increasing in blading stiffness. . without express written authority. Substantially reduces the leakage loss. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved. Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES .P 81 © ALSTOM 2007.Blading Materials Shrouds • • • • • • Improves the stage efficiency and the steam flow conditions in the peripheral zone. Shroud band also decreases the bending stresses in blades. Some shroud bands have fins on periphery and or on inlet side to form labyrinth gland with narrow clearances.

Reproduction. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. use or disclosure to third parties. Setting Springs • Setting Spring Used for providing necessary tightness during blading. • Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES . They can be of Axial entry type or Radial entry type. All rights reserved.Blading Materials Rivets Rivet Pins • • Used for locking the blades and or Locking Pieces.P 82 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. They are placed below the blades.31/07/2008 .

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. use or disclosure to third parties. Reproduction. is strictly prohibited.P 83 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . Generally two Lock pieces are present in diametrically opposite directions Spacers Spacer • • • Used for maintaining proper gap (pitch) between two adjacent blades. .Blading Materials Lock piece Lock Piece • • In some cases.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. a wedge is inserted in the blade entry pocket to complete blading instead of a Lock blade. without express written authority. Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. They can be manufactured with material different than that for blades. Generally they are buried in the blade grooves.

• • Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . Lacing wires fitted at an anti-node provide a very effective form of dampening. They can be of solid cylinder or hollow cylinder in shape. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. However. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 84 © ALSTOM 2007.Blading Materials Lacing wire Lacing wires • • They are used to reduce stress due to vibrations in the blade excited by steam flow fluctuations as the blades pass the nozzles. Reproduction. . All rights reserved. Lacing wires are Brazed to all the blades in the packet or to the last blades in a packet. use or disclosure to third parties. the anti-node may exist at different positions for the different types of vibration so a compromise on the position has to be reached. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority.

P 85 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.Blading Materials Damping Wire Damping wires • • They are used to reduce stress due to vibrations in the blade excited by steam flow fluctuations as the blades pass the nozzles. Generally they are half round in shape. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. The disadvantage of damping wires is that heavy fretting can eventually cause the holes to widen to an extent that the rotor has to be rebladed. Reproduction. Centrifugal force throws the wire to the outside of the hole where frictional effects help dampen the vibration. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. • • Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES . A Damping wire which is 'free fitting' is free to move within the holes.

31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited.P 86 © ALSTOM 2007. Reproduction.STEAM TURBINES Special Stages in a Steam Turbine Steam Turbines Introduction . . All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. without express written authority.

STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages
Curtis Stage

The nozzles, of the convergent divergent type, produce very high steam kinetic energy, some of which is absorbed in the first row of moving blades, the remainder being deflected back by the fixed guide blades and used in the second row.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 87
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages
Curtis Stage :
It is the first stage of blades used in an Impulse or Impulse-reaction turbines. It is an impulse stage with Velocity compounding. Turbines employing Nozzle Governing arrangement, have Curtis Stage as their Regulating stage. Curtis stage permits the utilisation of a large heat drop in the nozzles and consequently helps in obtaining lower temperature and pressures in the following stages. The use of Curtis stage in an Impulse-Reaction turbine reduces the number of reaction stages and hence construction of turbine becomes simple and cheap. Curtis stage can have either Single row or Double rows of blades. Turbines with high initial pressures are built with double row Curtis stage.

• • • • • •

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 88
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages
Baumann Stage

In this design the penultimate turbine stage is divided: the steam flow through the outer annular part of the stage is led directly to the condenser, while the inner part flows through the final stage on its way to the condenser.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 89
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

These blade do not have good vibration characteristics. without express written authority.31/07/2008 . The two parts of the moving blade in the Baumann stage have different duties. The increase in power of a turbine is by a factor of 1.P 90 © ALSTOM 2007.Special Stages • • • • • • • Baumann Stage : Baumann stage is incorporated for increasing the power output of the turbine. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. hence there is a discontinuity in the blade profile. Steam Turbines Introduction . it reduces the efficiency of the turbine for the same exit velocity loss. Reproduction.5 At the same time. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. . All rights reserved. Almost 1/3rd of the entire steam flow is directed through the upper portion of Baumann stage and exhausted directly into the condenser. bypassing the last stage. Blades in a Baumann stage are complex in nature and thus they are difficult to design and manufacture.STEAM TURBINES .

. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority.P 91 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES Steam Turbine Casings Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited.

P 92 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority. They can be of Single Shell design or Double Shell design. .31/07/2008 .Casings • • Stationary parts with complicated shape often varying in diameter along its length. Generally split horizontally passing through the turbine axis. • • • • Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES . Exception being the HP inner casings of KWU design turbines which are vertically split. Reproduction. HP and IP casings are castings of special alloy steels while the LP casings are of fabricated type made with Carbon steel. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Usually top and bottom halves of the casings are held together with the help of fasteners at flanges on the parting plane. is strictly prohibited. and HP outer casings of KWU design turbines which are not at all split. Exception to this method of holding together the casing halves is HP Inner casings of ALSTOM design which are fastened with Shrink rings. Turbine casings are pressure vessels supported at each end designed to withstand hoop stresses in transverse plane and are very stiff in longitudinal direction to maintain accurate clearance between stationary and rotating components. All rights reserved.

Reproduction. is strictly prohibited. .Casings IP-LP Combined outer casings Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 93 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties.

STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited.Casings HP Inner casing IP Inner casing LP Inner casing Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.31/07/2008 . . Reproduction. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. All rights reserved.P 94 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. .31/07/2008 . without express written authority. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties.P 95 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES .Casings IP-LP Combined outer & inner casings Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved.

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES .Casings Parting Plane Fasteners PART ING PLANE FAST ENERS HP CASING IP CASING LP CASING ST UDS ST UD ST UD ST UD ST UD M 140 M 140 M 120 M 100 X X X X 4-T 4-T 4-T 4-T X X X X 810 710 760 705 ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 690 ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 705 ST UD M 76 X 4-T X 635 ST UD M 42 X 120 TURBINE TYPE K-200-130-8 ST UD M 48 X 130 ST UD M 42 X 120 DOWEL ST UDS DOWEL ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 930 DOWEL ST UD M 76 X 4-T X 870 CAP NUT S / NUT S CAPNUT M 140 X 4 CAPNUT M 120 X 4 CAPNUT M 100 X 4 CAPNUT M 100 X 4 CAPNUT M 76 X 4 NUT M 42 NUT M 48 NUT M 42 Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. Reproduction. . without express written authority.P 96 © ALSTOM 2007.

is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved.P 97 © ALSTOM 2007.Casings Shrink Rings Comparison of Shrink Rings & P/P Fasteners ALSTOM Features • • • • Light weight No mass concentration No casing distortion Horizontal separating flange • • Steam Turbines Introduction . Customer Benefits • • Good behavior during load changes Operational flexibility to grid requirements Easy maintenance.31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES . low maintenance costs .

without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES Stationary Blades of Steam Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved.31/07/2008 . Reproduction.P 98 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. . use or disclosure to third parties.

use or disclosure to third parties.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms • • • • • Convert Pressure Energy or Heat Energy of steam into Kinetic Energy. entire heat drop of the stage happens in the stationary blades. In an Impulse turbine. In impulse turbine.P 99 © ALSTOM 2007. They experience the highest temperature in the entire turbine. Static components. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. In a Reaction Turbine. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. a large heat drop occurs in the Nozzles. individual blades are assembled in the casing or Blade carrier and they are called Guide blades. However. in a Reaction turbine. Nozzles are the stationary blades of first stage. All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. Steam Turbines Introduction . Nozzle blades. generally the control stage. They are also called Stationary blades. Generally.31/07/2008 . stationary blades are embedded in Diaphragms. partial heat drop occurs and the extent depends on the Degree of reaction.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. .

is strictly prohibited. Welded Diaphragms are used in High and Intermediate pressure turbines. Steam Turbines Introduction . . use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES. All rights reserved.31/07/2008 . Cast type diaphragms are used in low pressure and large turbines. separately shrouded or with integral shrouds. Nozzles can be manufactured either by carving out material from a forged plate or by welding nozzle blades with the Nozzle body. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms • • Guide blades can be un-shrouded. Diaphragms are constructed in any of the following three methods: * * * By pinning the Nozzle blades onto a disc By welding the Nozzle blades to outer and inner rims. By sandwich casting the Nozzle blades between outer and inner rims. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. • • • • Pin type diaphragms are used in small and moderate pressure turbines. Reproduction.P 100 © ALSTOM 2007.

Reproduction.31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 101 © ALSTOM 2007. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Guide blades with Separate Shroud Guide blades with Integral Shroud Un-shrouded Guide blade Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES. . All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority.

All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Guide blades assembled in inner casing Steam Turbines Introduction . . without express written authority. Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 102 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

STEAM TURBINES. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. Reproduction.P 103 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms A typical Diaphragm Steam Turbines Introduction . . use or disclosure to third parties.

without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Nozzle for Pin type Diaphragm A closer look of Pin type Diaphragm Pin type Diaphragm Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. .31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES. All rights reserved.P 104 © ALSTOM 2007.

is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES. All rights reserved.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Welded Type Diaphragm Typical Cross Section of Welded Type Diaphragm Steam Turbines Introduction .P 105 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. . without express written authority.31/07/2008 . Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.

.31/07/2008 .Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Cast Type Diaphragm Steam Turbines Introduction . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 106 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES. without express written authority. All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties.

All rights reserved.Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms Nozzle carved out from a plate Welded type Nozzle Steam Turbines Introduction .STEAM TURBINES. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. .P 107 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. without express written authority.

is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority. Reproduction. . use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 .P 108 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES Steam Sealing Steam Turbines Introduction . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

Reproduction.Steam Sealing • • • • • For minimizing the steam leakage and for maintaining the peak efficiency Sealing systems are used. use or disclosure to third parties. . Generally Labyrinth seals are used where the shaft passes through the casing end glands and diaphragms. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. air ejector and condensate tank. Steam Turbines Introduction .P 109 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. Sealing system generally comprises of gland box. Gland condenser.STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. leak off manifold. is strictly prohibited. Water sealing system and Carbon ring packing are also used for steam sealing in some designs. Sealing materials are of relatively softer material and assembled concentric with the turbine shaft.

without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES . use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.Steam Sealing Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.31/07/2008 .P 110 © ALSTOM 2007. . is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. . use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction.Steam Sealing Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited.P 111 © ALSTOM 2007.

Labyrinth Seals INTERMEDIATE GLAND SEALING Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.P 112 © ALSTOM 2007. . without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved. Reproduction.

Labyrinth Seals END GLAND SEALING Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited. Reproduction. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 113 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES .

The rotation of rings little head.STEAM TURBINES . lubricating. Carbon Seal . This water is flung out by centrifugal action. The gland The rings are held close together by a spring which only needs to be small as large pressure drops require wrapped around the gland rings. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Water Seal Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. is prevented by key sunk into bottom of the gland housing.Other types of Sealing END GLAND SEALING This type of gland comprises a number of segmental rings of graphitic carbon. In some cases. The rings are placed in a suitable housing.P 114 © ALSTOM 2007. carbon rings are actually in The system cannot be used on reversible sets and at contact with the shaft or sleeve thereon. All rights reserved. but in some reduced revolutions. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. The material is self A wheel forged on the rotor ends runs in a water bath. cases definite radial clearances are maintained. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . All rights reserved. .P 115 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES Bearings and Bearing pedestals Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties.

together with the frictional and conducted heat. PURPOSE Bearing Pedestals The main purpose of bearing pedestals is to support the turbine rotor.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. in a fixed relationship to the cylinders so that gland clearances are maintained in all phases of operation.P 116 © ALSTOM 2007. without express written authority. They also house the Main Oil Pump and some instrumentation. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Journal Bearing The purpose of a journal bearing is to retain the rotor system in its correct radial position. All rights reserved. Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. Reproduction. and to provide a low friction support which will withstand static and dynamic loads of shaft rotation. and to remain free from maintenance except at major outages.STEAM TURBINES - Bearings & Bearing Pedestals Thrust Bearing The purpose of the turbine thrust bearing is to provide a positive axial location for the turbine rotors relative to the cylinders. relative to the cylinders. via the journal bearings.

Bearing Pedestals FRONT BEARING PEDESTAL Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 117 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. THRUST BEARING PEDESTAL . Reproduction.

P 118 © ALSTOM 2007. . Steam Turbines Introduction . Improved cast material (Spheroidal Graphite Cast) Iron is used for construction. Reproduction. At high temperature end of turbine. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Stiffness achieved with ample usage of ribs and gusset plates.Bearing Pedestals • • • • • • Cast or Fabricated rigid construction.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited. use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved. whilst maintaining a compact overall pedestal size with good resistance to impact load.31/07/2008 . • Pedestals near adjacent to high temperature components of the turbine are frequently protected by radiation shields. Fabricated construction has the advantage of increased support stiffness. provision is made either for the cylinders to expand at sliding mounting points on top of their pedestals or for pedestal to slide relative to the foundations or both. Normally pedestals in LP area are firmly bolted and doweled to the foundations.

STEAM TURBINES - Journal Bearings
• • Horizontally split at centre line. White metal linings used because of high loading capacity, reliability and absence of wear due to hydrodynamically generated films of lubricating oil. The white metal surface is either cast into a mild steel liner to form a bearing body or cast directly into the bearing body itself. Two main white metal profiles in common use are Two Lobe (Elliptical) and Three Lobe. • Journal bearings for turbines are usually force lubricated and have provision for admitting Jacking oil. The oil is continuously fed into wedge by frictional drag and leaks away axially towards the brg edges • The bearings are normally spherically seated in their pedestals on pads under which shims are placed to facilitate precise horizontal and vertical alignment of shaft line.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 119
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Journal Bearings
TYPICAL JOURNAL BEARING CONFIGURATIONS

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 120
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

STEAM TURBINES - Journal Bearings
TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION OF JOURNAL BEARING

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 121
© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

It is normally located close to the areas where blade/cylinder clearances are minimum and operating temperatures are highest. The thrust bearing is generally combined with a journal bearing. . are incorporated on the integral shaft collar.31/07/2008 .P 122 © ALSTOM 2007.e. i. This is to take care of transient reversal of thrust which occur during load reduction and following a turbine trip.Thrust Bearings • • • • Provides positive axial location for rotors relative to the cylinders.. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. • Steam Turbines Introduction . Although the net thrust on the white metalled pads in the on-load condition is always in one direction. It is designed to withstand the unbalanced thrust due to blade reaction and steam pressure acting on unbalanced areas. All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties. without express written authority. typically towards generator. termed “Surge pads”. housed in spherically machined steel shell. is strictly prohibited. a second set of pads. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction.

31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES . Reproduction. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority. All rights reserved. is strictly prohibited.Thrust Bearings TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION OF THRUST BEARING Steam Turbines Introduction .P 123 © ALSTOM 2007.

All rights reserved.31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES Steam Chest Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. . is strictly prohibited.P 124 © ALSTOM 2007.

Reproduction.Control & Safety Valves TYPICAL CONTROL VALVE & STOP VALVE ASSEMBLY: STEAM CHEST Steam Turbines Introduction . All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority.P 125 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . use or disclosure to third parties. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

P 126 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction.Emergency Stop Valves TYPICAL STOP VALVE ASSEMBLY Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties. . is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. without express written authority.

All rights reserved. Reproduction. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.Control / Governor Valves TYPICAL CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY Steam Turbines Introduction . without express written authority.31/07/2008 .STEAM TURBINES . . is strictly prohibited.P 127 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.

All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES . The Control Valves (CV) provide accurate control of the steam flow entering the turbine. is strictly prohibited. . Usually Steam Strainers are also housed in the steam chest.31/07/2008 . Reproduction. • • • • • Steam Turbines Introduction . Steam chests can be integral with the turbine casings or separate casing connected to turbine casing by flexible pipelines. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. thus controlling the generator load when the machine is synchronised to the grid. ESV remains either fully opened or fully closed. but sometimes separate casings are used to house steam strainers. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties.P 128 © ALSTOM 2007.Stop & Control Valves • Turbines are equipped with Emergency Stop Valve (ESV) to cut off steam supply during periods of shutdown and to provide prompt interruption of the steam flow in an emergency trip. CVs are operated by the governing system through servomotors to regulate steam supply as required by the load. ESVs are actuated by servomotor controlled by the protection system.

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.General Considerations Balancing: Rotors are dynamically balanced to a very high degree of precision. All rights reserved. Catenary of Rotors: Due to weight of rotor sag takes place which is compensated by bearing alignment (coupling flanges made parallel) in the sag shape of rotors also. Reproduction.to casing. This anchoring can be done at front or rear pedestals or at the mid point of LP Casing. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 129 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. Rotors are anchored at thrust bearing w.r.min. is strictly prohibited. Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . without express written authority. Anchoring: LP Casing ( heaviest part. movement/ expansion) is usually anchored to foundation.STEAM TURBINES .

without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES Material Selection in Steam Turbines Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. All rights reserved.P 130 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 .

• . manufacturability. Reproduction. weldability.STEAM TURBINES . The metallurgical considerations are Alloying elements and their effect on: Structure. fatigue life and creep resistance characteristics. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Besides the design requirements metallurgical consideration are of utmost importance in the selection of materials in order to have greater reliability and good service during operation.P 131 © ALSTOM 2007. The micro-structure stability Inter crystalline corrosion. without express written authority.Material Selection • • Steam Turbine components are highly stressed as they operate at elevated temperatures. heat treatment. pressures and high speed. is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Embrittlement. use or disclosure to third parties. Effect of delta ferrite Steam Turbines Introduction .

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. . without express written authority. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES .Material Selection Criteria for selection of materials depends on • Physical characteristics Thermal co-efficient of expansion Thermal conductivity Modulus of Elasticity Poison’s ratio Density • Mechanical properties Hot yield strength Creep & rupture strength Stress relaxation properties Cyclic loading behaviour Fracture Toughness Rate of crack growth Resistance to scaling Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 .P 132 © ALSTOM 2007. use or disclosure to third parties. Reproduction. is strictly prohibited.

taken for the case of simple tension in one direction. use or disclosure to third parties.STEAM TURBINES . All rights reserved.) and the modulus of elasticity (stress/strain) are important because these play an important role in inducting thermal stresses and ensuring the design clearance and their minimum values are favorable. Reproduction. • Density : mass (gm or kg) per unit volume (cm3 or m3 ) is density. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. thermal conductivity is important for quick dissipation/ absorption of heat thus minimising thermal stresses. • Poisons ratio : Ratio between the value of transverse compression and longitudinal elongation within the limits of elastic strain. without express written authority. .P 133 © ALSTOM 2007. Steam Turbines Introduction . is strictly prohibited.31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. • Thermal co-efficient of expansion (elongation/ diff.Physical Characteristics of Materials • At elevated temp.temp.

components in which the stress does not remain constant but decreases with time at elevated temp. under static and cyclic loading are subjected to creep fatigue due to combined stresses.STEAM TURBINES . without express written authority. . due to creep (elastic strain changes into plastic strain . Reproduction.The gradual strain is called creep strain. is strictly prohibited.Mechanical Properties of Materials *Hot Yield (0. * Creep Relaxation properties: There are certain high temp. but not in creep range 6500C( 62Kg/mm2). * Creep and Rupture Strength:The gradual deformation under the action of constant load at a constant elevated temperature is called creep. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties.31/07/2008 .hence relaxes stress require re-tightening).P 134 © ALSTOM 2007. Steam Turbines Introduction .2% proof/ yield stress): At high temp. Hot yield of a steel decreases with an increase in temp. * Cyclic Loading behaviour:The components which are working at elevated temp. All rights reserved.

Steam Turbines Introduction . .P 135 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited. * Resistance to Scaling :Scaling reduces effective thickness / area of heat transfer. All rights reserved. without express written authority.STEAM TURBINES . * Rate of crack growth : Rate of propagation of defects due to cyclic stresses during operation of turbine. use or disclosure to third parties. * Metallurgical Stability: No change in grain structure during long term operation. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.Mechanical Properties of Materials * Fatigue behaviour : Fatigue under alternative cyclic (low or high) stresses. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. * Corrosion & Erosion Resistance: To achieve the same various grades of CrMo-V or Cr-Mo ferrite steels are used according to weldability and hardness. Reproduction.31/07/2008 . * Fracture Toughness: Resistance of material to fast fracture in presence of defects.

Enthalpy: Available Heat energy per Kg of working fluid (KCal / Kg) Plant Load Factor: Ratio of generated energy to the available (rated) energy for generation. Specific Steam Consumption: Consumption of steam (Kg) for unit power generation (Kg / KWHr) Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . .STEAM TURBINES . is strictly prohibited. Availability: Unit available for rated power generation. Reproduction. without express written authority.Important Terms Heat Rate/ Specific Heat Consumption: Required heat input for per unit power generation (KCal / KWHr).P 136 © ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved.STEAM TURBINES LP Rotor Lifting at PSWS Steam Turbines Introduction .P 137 © ALSTOM 2007. Reproduction. without express written authority. use or disclosure to third parties. . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. is strictly prohibited.

No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. . without express written authority.P 138 © ALSTOM 2007.STEAM TURBINES Rotor Lifting Bush Arrangement METALLIC LIFTING SLINGS (SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION) 210 MW LP ROTOR LIFTING BUSH ASSEMBLY (ONLY A PART SHOWN) Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction.31/07/2008 . is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.

All rights reserved. . without express written authority. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.STEAM TURBINES Rotor Lifting Bush Design Design Highlights: • • • Fully fabricated structure. Reproduction. is strictly prohibited.P 139 © ALSTOM 2007.31/07/2008 . Steam Turbines Introduction . use or disclosure to third parties. High stiffness with light weight and simple construction. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Easy to manufacture and to use.

All rights reserved. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose.STEAM TURBINES Rotor Lifting Bush Design Design Highlights: • • Finite Element Analysis employed for design. . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. is strictly prohibited. without express written authority. Designed with optimum Factor of Safety.P 140 © ALSTOM 2007. Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 .

Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.31/07/2008 . No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties. Steam Turbines Introduction . without express written authority. All rights reserved. Reproduction.P 141 © ALSTOM 2007. .STEAM TURBINES Rotor Lifting Bush Design Design Highlights: • Safety of Rotor shaft also calculated. is strictly prohibited.

31/07/2008 . Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.P 142 © ALSTOM 2007. is strictly prohibited.STEAM TURBINES Rotor Lifting and Disc removal Operation Steam Turbines Introduction . Reproduction. without express written authority. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. All rights reserved. use or disclosure to third parties. .

India . UK. .Manufacturers The major players in Steam Turbine Manufacturing and their installed set rating in India are given below: . Russia . use or disclosure to third parties.Skoda. Czech Republic . France. Japan .General Electric.31/07/2008 . Reproduction. without express written authority.LMZ.P 143 © ALSTOM 2007. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. All rights reserved.Toshiba / Hitachi/ MHI/ Sihn Nippon .ALSTOM (Germany. is strictly prohibited. Germany . Poland.Siemens. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. USA . Switzerland ) Steam Turbines Introduction .BHEL.STEAM TURBINES .

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Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Switzerland Budapest. All rights reserved. DGI.STEAM TURBINES . Czech Republic : Skoda Steam Turbines Introduction .31/07/2008 . SEW : Lang. Tosi : BBC (IT. USA : Ansaldo.ALSTOM . Hungry Richmond.P 146 © ALSTOM 2007.OEM Designs * * * * * Milan. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. use or disclosure to third parties. .WH. Reproduction. G& V : GE. MFO. AC Plzen. KT). without express written authority. is strictly prohibited. Italy Baden.

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