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George Tsoukalas Engl 213 Professor Jeanette Novakovich December 2010 Annotated Bibliography Bee, A. (2000).

Globalization, Grapes and Gender: Women’s Work in Traditional and AgroExport Production in Northern Chile. The Geographical Journal, 166 (3), pp. 255-265. JSTOR Annotations: Anne Bee examines the geo-historical relations of female mediation processes within a global agricultural domain. The article is focused on the effects of the world trade’s impact on traditions and culture from a female perspective in Latin America. The researcher uses content analysis to provide concrete feedback supporting her study and uses various statistics to demonstrate her findings. Here the concept of globalization is examined and as a crucial impact in the evolution of gender ideologies within a culture. Chilean females workers are more inclined towards an economy which does not affect their traditions. This classical patriarchy is now a more female dependant nation especially in the agricultural industry. Various sociological and psychological perspectives have been modified in order to enable the overabundant economic dependency of a female to work and provide for their family. Various interviews are conducted to understand this change in gender ideology. Various sciences are used by Bee including sociology, history, anthropology, economy and human geography which can demonstrate the economic importance accorded to female workers within the Latin American context. Geography dictates the subtle traditional impacts within various Latin American nations in this article.

This text will help understand the impact on classic Latin American traditions within the geo-historical perspectives highlighting the changes in power distance amongst male and female power distance. Bellman, M. J. (2004). Rationality and Identity in the participation choices of female Maquila workers. Comparative Political Studies, 37 (5), pp. 563-589. Sage Annotations: This article analyzes the female workers of Nicaragua in regards to their working unions and traditional working labour conditions. Bellman uses the survey method to conduct her research using surveys sent out to various female employees working in the Maquila industry’s homes. The sample included 500 Nicaraguan female workers. Here various elements are used to point out the rugged and important factors in workers benefits in Latin America regarding their gender. The concept of Maquila is an important one highlighting the importance of making a living for a family though the garment and clothing industry. Results of the hypothesis and survey indicate more women having difficulties in their households and sexspecific problems are more likely to support unions. Here, the concept of female worker is of great importance due to the psychological struggle within a daily context at work. The sociological aspect of cultural obstacles within a women’s daily life is partly due to the sexspecificity in a working context and the result of a collective working style. Bellman uses sociology, psychology, anthropology, economy, politics and geography to help conduct her conclusion of her results. Psychology is an important element used in the survey to enable the deduction of concrete results and understanding the struggle of daily work. This text will help provide the concrete results attributed to her study to facilitate the working environment of a female Nicaraguan.

Brennan, D (2004). Women Work, Men Sponge, and Everyone Gossips: Macho Men and Stigmatized/ing Women in a Sex Tourist Town. Anthropological Quarterly, 77 (4), 705-733, 2004 from Proquest Annotations: In this article Brennan focuses on the status of women sex workers in Sosúa, Dominican Republic, and explains the shift in gender roles. The author uses the interview research method which was conducted amongst the Sosúan population. This method helps provide concrete examples deriving from everyday life and real experiences. According to Brennan, female sex workers value the concept of “motherhood” which illustrates the transitional status of women and the female gender. She explains the direct change in her status in society from a nurturing mother to the primary economic household provider. As for the males living on the island, their status is compared to that of a sponge; characterizing the male gender as the primary household consumer and the role of economic household benefactor. Ultimately, the author illustrates the transformation occurred in this classic patriarchy by identifying the changes occurring in their traditions and their economy. In this text, the author uses anthropology, sociology and economics in her analysis to help identify the major elements of her article. An interesting method used in the article deriving from an anthropological method is the concept of power status described of the female gender. This article will be used to provide concrete examples deriving from the daily lives of female and male Latin American workers and their socio-economic adaptations. Cobb, S.C. (2000). Globalization in Small Island Context: Creating and Marketing Competitive Advantage for Offshore Financial Services. Geografiska Annaler, Series B Human Geography, 83 (4), pp. 161-174. J-STOR

Annotations: This article emphasizes on the impacts of globalization within a small island context, specifically the Caribbean, and the results of financial expansion. Cobb uses the content analysis method to conduct his research and support his argument by providing concrete citations from various economists and corporate executives. The argument that capital drives globalization is important for the political and economical strategies used by the financial sector to attribute new aged work force ideologies. The concept of international trade is partly the main cause of technological and corporal evolution. The political and economic advantages of globalization indicate the ultimate struggle for cultural seclusion or traditional thinking. Geopolitics presents an important competitive advantage for small island expansion and the presence in Caribbean political affairs. Here Cobb uses economy, politics, geography, anthropology and history to deploy his argument and understand the affects of a global economy. The political science is of great importance helping the interpretation of subtle political influences within the concept of globalization. This text will be use to provide explanations of globalization as a concept and its ultimate goals within the Latin American context. Cowen, T. (2002). Creative Destruction: How Globalization is changing the World’s Cultures. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Annotations: In this book, Cowen helps illustrate the impact globalization has on the World’s cultures and focuses on the sociological concept of cultural diversity. Tyler Cowen uses the analytical research method to help him explain his argument of how globalization helps diversify culture. A key aspect of this book would be the portrayal of globalization in the less economically privileged individuals’ lives and how their cultural diversity is a result of global

exchange amongst countries. Concrete examples are provided via the media and actual aspects deriving from each culture are described. The element Cowen accords great importance to is the intrinsic value amongst cultural identities and the shift globalization creates helps accord a primarily instrumental value. The sense of a collective society is a key aspect which indicates the struggle Globalization creates within a society segregating its members. The notion of a nation, as described by Cowen, depicts an isolated society versus one who is culturally lenient and accepts cultural diversity. This concept helps illustrate a sociological output on the matter of cultural diversity versus the concept of alienation. Ultimately, the author justifies globalization as the ultimate source of cultural diversity. The author uses sociology, economy and geography to help portray his examples by using theories of culture within society and an environment of a collective nature. This article will be used to help understand the current sociological perspectives of globalization and how it affects various countries and cultures within them. Cravey, A. J. (1997). The politic of reproduction: Households in the Mexican Industrial Transition. Economic Geography, 73 (2), pp. 166-186. Sage Annotations: Cravey’s article focuses on the aspects of household disparities within industrial transition in Mexico. The author uses content analysis and analyzes various theories to understand the Latin American household and the gradual changes in a household. Key elements of the article are “single-sex dormitories” for maquila workers, extended family households, and the renegotiation of gender division. The concept of gender within the article is characterized from the transformation of the male economic provider of his family to a household who depends on the female worker to provide for the household and their children. The collective household is a necessity and female and male are both contributors for the well being of a family.

The composition of the household affects gender ideologies and brings rise to such a concept. Also, the aspect of neoliberalism is defined as an important factor implicating the newly acquired status of a Latin American maquila worker. The author uses economy, politics, anthropology and sociology to provide important arguments regarding household changes in a country’s economy within the context of globalization. The socio-political concept of the “Madero” entails the economic dependency of a nuclear household in Latin America of the father. This text will be used to provide examples and theories enabling the household relations within gender and globalization role in such changes. Freeman, C. (2002). Designing Women: Corporate Discipline and Barbado’s Off-shore Pink collar sector. In J. X. Inda & R. Rosaldo (Ed.), The Anthropology of globalization (pp. 8399). Maldin, MA: Blackwell publishing Ltd. Annotations: Carla Freemen conducts her research by annotating multiple articles and authors citations to illustrate the career roles of women in the Caribbean. In text references show the annotative research method by focusing on other ideas or thoughts. The article portrays various aspects of current female status in the workplace and grasps the current economic distribution amongst the sexes. The increase in labour change is mostly due to the internationalization of their national economy and their current financial status. Freemen identifies women living in Barbados as biologically rationale: passive, patient and dexterous. This describes the classical western structure of this nation and helps the reader understand the increase in female labour. Various salaries and psycho-social characteristics are examined to illustrate the contemporary roles of women in the workplace in Latin America. In this text, technological implementations are also analyzed to help identify the rises of globalization. “Womanhood” is examined to the

extent of the new expectations being a women entails and the impact world trade has on their social status. In the text the author uses various concepts in different sciences to help identify the problems the living style in Latin America. Such sciences are anthropology, psychology, economy, history, and sociology. History is used when she refers to Jeremy Bentham and the concept of “universal transparency,” the subjugation of every individual in the workplace and their alienation from co-workers in regards to their managers or work directors. This text will be used to help identify social status accorded to women in the workplace as a result of globalization by providing in text citations and multiple concrete examples. Harris, R. L. (2002). Globalization and Globalism in Latin America: Contending perspectives. Latin American perspectives, 29 (6), pp. 5-23. Sage Annotations: The article refers to the Latin American socio-cultural and politico-economic perspectives of globalization and its impact on poorer countries. The researcher uses content analysis to ascertain the opinions of specialists regarding the global economy and society. The key elements of this article are the concrete definition of “Globalism,” the contending perspectives of globalization and the impact on many countries. Harris shows the results of economic distribution in regards to globalization. In essence, the gap between the poor and rich seems to enlarge as the global economy proliferates; this demonstrates the key aspect of economic influence. In the article, poorer countries within Latin America receive few economic choices to be able to expand in a global context. Sociological perspectives help introduce the conflict theory which promotes the constant struggle of the poorer nations to keep up with contemporary corporal demands. Ultimately, the article provides concrete examples of politicoeconomic impacts of the global economy and the interest of globalization.

Harris uses economy, history, geography and politics to enlighten the reader in regards to the effect of globalization in Latin America and the ill economic distribution of is people. This text will be used as a reference in regards to economic conditions within the global economic context and the struggle of various ideologies in Latin America. Mendez, J. B. (2002). Gender and Citizenship in a Global context: The struggle for Maquila workers’ rights in Nicaragua. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 1 (9), pp.7-38. Proquest. Annotations: Mendez focuses her attention to the contemporary female working class and their political rights. The notion of Sandistas is intrinsically identifying when describing machismo in various in Nicaraguan trade union policies. The concept of maquila is analyzed to describe the working conditions in Latin America, specifically Nicaragua. The research method used by Mendez is document analysis to provide concrete examples to help illustrate globalization’s impact on gender and economic disparities within the sexes. Neoliberalism is used to show the economic upheaval of female workers human rights and as a tool for social disparities within male and female Latin Americans. The concept of gender difference is examined in light of the restructuration of gender differences, which are key aspects of the household and living environment. The social concept of sexism is exhibited within the article in such a way that depicts the struggle for women in regards to working rights, demonstrating key elements of this article. Ultimately, the power shift between the sexes is re-evaluated in regards to economic distribution and political power. Mendez uses politics, sociology, history, economy and anthropology to prove the gender inequality within the Nicaraguan working class. Politics are used to help attribute Neoliberalism’s relation to globalization and human rights within Latin America.

This article will be used to provide political examples regarding the political relation to the gap within gender power relations. Also, how the economy helps increase these power relations amongst the sexes leading to salary fluctuations and working rights. Safa, H. I. (1995). The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and industrialization in the Carribbean. Oxford: Westview Press Inc Annotations: In Helen Safa’s book the concept of the male “breadwinner” in Latin America is redefined helping the reader attach new meanings to Caribbean and Dominican gender roles. She illustrates the female status of such societies as economically dependent and autonomous. Although welfare is mostly attributed to male Latin Americans, most males are characterized as unproductive and unoccupied. Safa clearly states the transition of such classic patriarchies to contemporary maternally oriented nations. The author uses the research analysis method providing researcher examples and citations in her book to help direct the reader towards the effects of the global economy on Latin American gender ideologies. The concept of breadwinner is examined to help justify the drastic anthropological changes in gender characterized by the shift in female roles. The transition of gender is a result of the countries’ gender identity in the household and the typical roles. The author describes the world economy’s impact on such roles and the aftermath by clarifying the unproductive single tasked male versus the multi-tasking and autonomous female. Here anthropology, sociology, economy and politics are used to analyze industrialization in the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean. The concept of patriarchy demonstrates the concrete usage of sociology and the political notion of capitalism helps characterise the intent of industrializing such countries.

This book will be used to provide concrete examples deriving from the current economic and political status of Latin America. Also, various statistics and charts will be used to help achieve the optimal absorption of male and female socio-economic distribution within their geographical settings.