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MB0034 Research Methodology Assignment Set- 1 Q 1. Give examples of specific situations that would call for the following types of research, explaining why – a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c) Diagnostic research d) Evaluation research. Ans. a) EXPLANATORY RESEARCH: Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E.g., RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts; comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends; and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many." b) DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how... Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words,

descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.

c) DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH: Diagnostic research has been focusing primarily on sensitivity and specificity of individual tests. In this highly interactive course we will challenge the usefulness of this so called ‘test research’, by showing that diagnostic test results can, and should, only be interpreted in the context of other diagnostic test results and clinical parameters. We will extend your horizon by proposing modern methods of diagnostic research design and analysis. You will be actively involved by designing diagnostic studies and analyzing real life data sets. At the end of this course, you should be able to directly estimate individual probabilities of the presence or absence of disease, based on integrated clinical and diagnostic information. You will be able to evaluate the true added value of any diagnostic test in a clinical context. Finally, you will be equipped with the skills to conceptualize, design and analyse modern diagnostic research. d) Evaluation research: Evaluation research is of particular interest here. The Introduction to Evaluation Research presents an overview of what evaluation is and how it differs from social research generally. We also introduce several evaluation models to give you some perspective on the evaluation endeavor. Evaluation should not be considered in a vacuum. Here, we consider evaluation as embedded within a larger PlanningEvaluation Cycle. Evaluation can be a threatening activity. Many groups and organizations struggle with how to build a good evaluation capability into their everyday activities and procedures. This is essentially an organizational culture issue. Here we consider some of the issues a group or organization needs to address in order to develop an evaluation culture that works in their context. Q 2.In the context of hypothesis testing, briefly explain the difference between a) Null and alternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 error c) Two tailed and one tailed test d) Parametric and non parametric tests. Ans.

a) The logic of traditional hypothesis testing requires that we set up two competing statements or hypotheses referred to as the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. These hypotheses are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Ho: The finding occurred by chance H1: The finding did not occur by chance The null hypothesis is then assumed to be true unless we find evidence to the contrary. If we find that the evidence is just too unlikely given the null hypothesis, we assume the alternative hypothesis is more likely to be correct. In "traditional statistics" a probability of something occurring of less than .05 (= 5% = 1 chance in 20) is conventionally considered "unlikely" b) When an observer makes a Type I error in evaluating a sample against its parent population, he or she is mistakenly thinking that a statistical difference exists when in truth there is no statistical difference (or, to put another way, the null hypothesis should not be rejected but was mistakenly rejected). For example, imagine that a pregnancy test has produced a "positive" result (indicating that the woman taking the test is pregnant); if the woman is actually not pregnant though, then we say the test produced a "false positive" (assuming the null hypothesis, Ho, was that she is not pregnant). A Type II error, or a "false negative", is the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is the true state of nature. For example, a type II error occurs if a pregnancy test reports "negative" when the woman is, in fact, pregnant. From the Bayesian point of view, a type one error is one that looks at information that should not substantially change one's prior estimate of probability, but does. A type two error is that one looks at information which should change one's estimate, but does not. (Though the null hypothesis is not quite the same thing as one's prior estimate, it is, rather, one's pro forma prior estimate.) Rejecting a null-hypothesis when it should not have been rejected creates a type I error. failing to reject a null-hypothesis when it should have been rejected creates a type II error. (In either case, a wrong decision or error in judgment has occurred.) Decision rules (or tests of hypotheses), in order to be good, must be designed to minimize errors of decision. Minimizing errors of decision is not a simple issue—for any given sample size the effort to reduce one type of error generally results in increasing the other type of error. Based on the real-life application of the error, one type may be more serious than the other.

One-Tailed Test We choose a critical region. and this may or may not be feasible. This means that only 3. If we perform the test at the 5% level and decide to reject the null hypothesis. . In many practical applications type I errors are more delicate than type II errors. Then the critical region will be to the left. but is more akin to a lapse in attention or under-active sensitivity. To state it simply. The probability of type II error is generally denoted with the Greek letter beta. however. then there is a 1% chance that the observed variation is not true.(In such cases. We can perform the test at any level (usually 1%. we reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative. A type II error could be similarly interpreted as an oversight. care is usually focused on minimizing the occurrence of this statistical error.) The only way to minimize both types of error is to increase the sample size. For example.5 standard deviations above or below the mean. While 1% might be an acceptable level of significance for one application. Note.increase or decrease). that in the one-tailed test the value of the parameter can be as high as you like. the probability for a type I error is 1% . we say "there is significant evidence at the 5% level to suggest the hypothesis is false". For example. In a one-tailed test. the critical region will have just one part (the red area below). a different application can require a very different level. Suppose. a type I error can usually be interpreted as a false alarm or under-active specificity. a compromise should be reached in favor of limiting the more serious type of error. 5% or 10%). c) There are two different types of tests that can be performed. performing the test at a 5% level means that there is a 5% chance of wrongly rejecting H0. Hypothesis testing is the art of testing whether a variation between two sample distributions can be explained by chance or not. If our sample value lies in this region. β.4 parts per million are allowed to be deficient in a normally distributed process. α. In these cases. the standard goal of six sigma is to achieve precision to 4. A one-tailed test looks for an increase or decrease in the parameter whereas a two-tailed test looks for any change in the parameter (which can be any change. This is called the level of significance. The probability of type I error is generally denoted with the Greek letter alpha. Suppose we are looking for a definite decrease.

the critical region has two parts: . Two-Tailed Test In a two-tailed test.01. . we are looking for either an increase or a decrease. however. therefore. H0 might be that the mean is equal to 9 (as before). Suppose the hypotheses are: H0:  = 9 H1:  < 9 We want to test if it is "reasonable" for the observed value of 3 to have come from a Poisson distribution with parameter 9. So what is the probability that a value as low as 3 has come from a Po(9)? P(X ≤ 3) = 0. so there is less than a 5% chance that the value has come from a Poisson(3) distribution. for example.  based upon a sample observation of 3. so we would not reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative at the 1% level. H1 would be that the mean is not equal to 9. This time. the probability is greater than 0. However.0212 (this has come from a Poisson table) The probability is less than 0. In this case. So. We therefore reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative at the 5% level.05.Example Suppose we are given that X has a Poisson distribution and we want to carry out a hypothesis test on the mean.

Anything else is non-parametric. which is what we need it to be. We want to test whether or not the coin is fair. what is the probability that X is 7 or above? P(X ≥ 7) = 1 .5 H1: p ≠ 0. parametric data has an underlying normal distribution which allows for more conclusions to be drawn as the shape can be mathematically described. If the null hypothesis is true.05 (5%).because the probability that X is at least 7 is not less than 0. p = 0. Parametric Assumed distribution Assumed variance Typical data Data set relationships Usual central measure Benefits Normal Homogeneous Ratio or Interval Independent Mean Can draw more conclusions Non-parametric Any Any Ordinal or Nominal Any Median Simplicity.1719 Is this in the critical region? No. As the table below shows. If H0 is true.5 Now. 0. because the test is 2-tailed. So the critical region contains both the top 5% of the distribution and the bottom 5% of the distribution (since we are testing at the 10% level).0. X ~ Bin(10. Suppose a coin is tossed 10 times and we get 7 heads. d) There are two types of test data and consequently different types of analysis. Half of the critical region is to the right and half is to the left.Example Lets test the parameter p of a Binomial distribution at the 10% level. So there is not significant evidence at the 10% level to reject the null hypothesis.5). If the coin is fair. Less affected by outliers . the critical region has two parts.P(X < 7) = 1 .8281 = 0.P(X ≤ 6) = 1 .5 . Put this as the null hypothesis: H0: p = 0.

What are the possible reasons for a correlation between two variables? Ans. This is an unfortunate thing for people who ever listen to a news report or read a newspaper. Essentially when you say one thing causes another. If you’ve followed the many things that have been reported as causes of cancer. you can see that there is a relationship between those two things. Understanding the difference of cause and correlation can be helped by an example. particularly the former. Q 3. but it may increase likelihood that something will occur. Cause and correlation are terms that are often confused or used incorrectly. If you see a correlation between two things. 2 groups Independent measures. Cause means that an action will always have a predictable reaction. the terms cause and correlation become easier to understand. >2 groups Repeated measures. perhaps. you are saying that there is a direct line between that one thing and the result. independentmeasures ANOVA Matched-pair t-test One-way. Explain the difference between a causal relationship and correlation. You can. there are different tests for parametric and non-parametric data. you might never eat. with an example of each. we often mistakenly assume that one thing causes the other. 2 conditions Repeated measures. or leave your home again. drink. When we hear that there might be a link between one thing and another. >2 conditions Choosing parametric test Pearson Independentmeasures t-test One-way. examine the statement: “Violent video games cause . One thing doesn’t necessarily result in the other thing occurring. When you define correlation.Tests Choosing Correlation test Independent measures. repeated measures ANOVA Choosing a nonparametric test Spearman Mann-Whitney test Kruskal-Wallis test Wilcoxon test Friedman's test As the table shows. The main difference between cause and correlation is the strength and degree to which two things are related and the certainty with which anyone can establish a causal relationship.

This is a specific cause/effect relationship that no one would dispute. among them. A correlation is a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables. Such games may influence others to act in more aggressive ways but they are not the sole factor and sometimes not even a factor for predicting violence. for instance. in limited ways. I don't think we have to worry about the . In some ways. Scientists define correlations all the time. Plenty of people were violent. Thus there’s a correlation there. cause cancer. When you hear about the causes of disease. make blanket cause/effect statements about some things. and bad parenting. poorer socioeconomic status. it’s important to be skeptical. thus if you’re deciding between cause and correlation here.” to separate the differences between cause and correlation The correlation is one of the most common and most useful statistics. it can be almost impossible.” “might increase. Yet it can be helpful to understand the difference between cause and correlation since we are often barraged with information about things that may pose health risks to us. Instead. since they then translate to a much more dramatic story.” “could have an effect. this statement is not true. Let's work through an example to show you how this statistic is computed. Alcoholism may increase your risk of getting cancer. and unfortunately. except in extremely controlled circumstances to say any one thing causes something else. height (in inches) and self esteem. abusive childhoods. What most researchers arrive at in research is that some things. Research has shown that violent video games may influence violent behavior.violent behavior. but there is no cause factor. It also shows that a number of different factors may be responsible for a person being violent. In order to make the above statement. what you can say. due to the use of the word causes in the sentence. especially when you’re dealing with human health or behavior. news media loves to call these causes. mental illness. but it does not. prior to the advent of video games. Perhaps we have a hypothesis that how tall you are effects your self esteem (incidentally. Researchers have shown that there is a connection/correlation there. heating water to a certain temperature causes it to boil. You can. in and of itself. and what has been studied. Correlation Example Let's assume that we want to look at the relationship between two variables. For example. is the correlation between violent video games and violent behavior. which should be considered.” According to all research on this matter. Read or listen carefully for qualifying words that suggest correlation like “may. alcoholism and cancer are connected or co-related. you’d have to be able to prove that everyone who ever played a violent video game subsequently exhibited violence. you must choose correlation. You cannot say violent video games are the cause of violence.

Height is measured in inches.4 4.1 4.8 4.6 .3 3. Self esteem is measured based on the average of 10 1-to-5 rating items (where higher scores mean higher self esteem).3 3.we know that the average height differs for males and females so. Let's say we collect some information on twenty individuals (all male -.2 3.4 3.1's not likely that self esteem causes your height!).7 3. Here's the data for the 20 cases (don't take this too seriously -.1 3.2 3. to keep this example simple we'll just use males).5 3.8 4.6 3.8 3.direction of causality here -.0 4.1 3.7 3.4 3.I made this data up to illustrate what a correlation is): Person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Height 68 71 62 75 58 60 67 68 71 69 68 67 63 62 60 63 65 67 63 61 Self Esteem 4.

40574 Variance Sum Minimum Maximum Range 19. here are the descriptive statistics: Variable Height Self Esteem Mean StDev 65.6 17 1.755 0.1 3. let's take a quick look at the histogram for each variable: And.181553 75.426090 0.4 4.5 3.1 .4105 1308 58 75 4.Now.

. review the section on types of relationships) because if you were to fit a single straight line through the dots it would have a positive slope or move up from left to right. in general. we'll look at the simple bivariate (i. The formula for the correlation is: .e. we would expect a positive correlation. higher scores on one variable tend to be paired with higher scores on the other and that lower scores on one variable tend to be paired with lower scores on the other.Finally. two-variable) plot: You should immediately see in the bivariate plot that the relationship between the variables is a positive one (if you can't see that. Calculating the Correlation Now we're ready to compute the correlation value. Since the correlation is nothing more than a quantitative estimate of the relationship. What does a "positive relationship" mean in this context? It means that. You should confirm visually that this is generally true in the plot above.

2 219.1 204.6 3.89 11.8 305.6 214.4 4 4.6 235. we have a negative relationship.6 Person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 x*y 278.4 3.49 13.4 3.1 4.5 3.6 278. You don't need to know how we came up with this formula unless you want to be a statistician.6 330 185.1 4.16 14. But you probably will need to know how the formula relates to real data -. the relationship is positive.56 16 you can use the formula to compute the correlation.4 233.0 and +1.8 3.24 9.81 21.36 10.6 204 252 266.61 14.3 238 214.3 3.6 x*x 4624 5041 3844 5625 3364 3600 4489 4624 5041 4761 4624 4489 3969 3844 3600 3969 4225 4489 3969 3721 y*y 16. Here's the original data with the other necessary columns: Height (x) 68 71 62 75 58 60 67 68 71 69 68 67 63 62 60 63 65 67 63 61 Self Esteem (y) 4.56 12. if it's positive.25 10.1 3.69 10.24 13. Let's look at the data we need for the formula.3 255.69 12.2 3.81 18.8 4.7 3.8 4.6 186 254.44 19.44 11.81 14.0.8 326.7 3.96 .1 3.44 16.5 254.3 3.We use the symbol r to stand for the correlation. if the correlation is negative.2 3. Through the magic of mathematics it turns out that r will always be between -1.

you can determine the probability that the observed correlation occurred by chance. when we plug these values into the formula given above. Here are the values from the bottom row of the table (where N is 20 people) as they are related to the symbols in the formula: Now. The next three columns are simple computations based on the height and self esteem data. one step at a time): So. we get the following (I show it here tediously. which is a fairly strong positive relationship.6 85912 285. I guess there is a relationship between height and self esteem. at least in this made up data! Testing the Significance of a Correlation Once you've computed a correlation.45 The first three columns are the same as in the table above.1 4937. The bottom row consists of the sum of each column.73. This is all the information we need to compute the correlation.Sum = 1308 75. you can conduct a significance . the correlation for our twenty cases is . That is.

I can now test the significance of the correlation I found. Before I look up the critical value in a table I also have to compute the degrees of freedom or df. I used a simple statistics program to generate random data for 10 variables with 20 cases (i.e. we have 45 unique correlations to estimate (more later on how I knew that!). Finally. persons) for each variable. When I look up this value in the handy little table at the back of my statistics book I find that the critical value is . Here. this is a two-tailed test) I can conclude that the odds are less than 5 out of 100 that this is a chance occurrence. I told the program to compute the correlations among these variables. With these three pieces of information -the significance level (alpha = . In this case. in this example.129 -0.test.73 is actually quite a bit higher. between all possible pairs of variables). I'll use the common significance level of alpha = . In most studies we have considerably more than two variables. you are testing the mutually exclusive hypotheses: Null Hypothesis: Alternative Hypothesis: r=0 r <> 0 The easiest way to test this hypothesis is to find a statistics book that has a table of critical values of r. since I have no strong prior theory to suggest whether the relationship between height and self esteem would be positive or negative. Then.166 0.000 0.000 -0. Here's the result: C1 C2 C3 C1 1..05)). Or we could use just about any statistics program to automatically compute all 45 with a simple click of the mouse. The Correlation Matrix All I've shown you so far is how to compute a correlation between two variables. Most often you are interested in determining the probability that the correlation is a real one and not a chance occurrence. As in all hypothesis testing.201 -0. degrees of freedom (df = 18).075 0.e..278 1. This means that if my correlation is greater than .000 . In this example. 4438 or less than -. Most introductory statistics texts would have a table like this. I have to decide whether I am doing a one-tailed or two-tailed test.269 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 1. In this instance. The df is simply equal to N-2 or. I'll opt for the two-tailed test. This means that I am conducting a test where the odds that the correlation is a chance occurrence is no more than 5 out of 100.000 -0. Since my correlation 0f .274 -0. you need to first determine the significance level.4438 (remember. I conclude that it is not a chance finding and that the correlation is "statistically significant" (given the parameters of the test). We could do the above computations 45 times to obtain the correlations. Let's say we have a study with 10 interval-level variables and we want to estimate the relationships among all of them (i. I can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative.05.000 C4 C5 0. and type of test (two-tailed) -.153 -0.134 C2 1.011 1.4438. is 20-2 = 18.

000 -0.014 1.122 0.106 1.324 0.C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 -0.352 1.304 -0.227 0.165 -0.000 .000 -0.013 0.169 1.082 -0.000 0.009 0.242 0.002 0.086 -0.193 -0.000 0.568 -0.551 -0.171 0.243 1.348 0.219 0.015 -0.122 -0.380 0.378 0.288 -0.280 -0.082 0.518 0.002 0.238 0.299 0.347 0.095 0.

OK. Briefly explain any two factors that affect the choice of a sampling technique. 1985). find the value in the table for the row and column intersection for those two variables. it can be defined as a set of respondents(people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of a survey.g.166. To locate the correlation for any pair of variables. The diagonal of a correlation matrix (i. What are the characteristics of a good sample? Ans. A correlation matrix is always a symmetric matrix. books or students. For instance. process. I had 10 variables. That's because these are the correlations between each variable and itself (and a variable is always perfectly correlated with itself).e. It lists the variable names (C1-C10) down the first column and across the first row.. or items from which samples are taken for measurement for example a population of presidents or professors. There is no reason to print both triangles because the two triangles of a correlation matrix are always mirror images of each other (the correlation of variable x with variable y is always equal to the correlation of variable y with variable x). A population is a group of individuals persons. so I know I have (10 * 9)/2 = 90/2 = 45 pairs. In every correlation matrix there are two triangles that are the values below and to the left of the diagonal (lower triangle) and above and to the right of the diagonal (upper triangle). the numbers that go from the upper left corner to the lower right) always consists of ones. correlations) there are for any number of variables: where N is the number of variables. When a matrix has this mirror-image quality above and below the diagonal we refer to it as a symmetric matrix. I find that the correlation is -. When dealing with people. Q 4. to find the correlation between variables C5 and C2. I look for where row C2 and column C5 is (in this case it's blank because it falls in the upper triangle area) and where row C5 and column C2 is and. Sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole(Webster. so how did I know that there are 45 unique correlations when we have 10 variables? There's a handy simple little formula that tells how many pairs (e. What is sampling? Sampling is the act.. or technique of selecting a suitable sample. objects. In the example.This type of table is called a correlation matrix. This statistical program only shows the lower triangle of the correlation matrix. or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining . in the second case.

What is the purpose of sampling? To draw conclusions about populations from samples. we must use inferential statistics which enables us to determine a population`s characteristics by directly observing only a portion (or sample) of the population. taking a sample requires fewer resources than a census. We will learn how to minimize these dangers. you are a . you will require $100000.00 and so on assuming you have that amount on your account. a small wisely selected sample of Cornell students can serve the purpose.00 per hour for ten hours ($50. Obviously. Some are better than others but all may yield samples that are inaccurate and unreliable. and even more rarely does one justify the expense. A sample may provide you with needed information quickly. For example.parameters or characteristics of the whole population. you will conduct personal interviews with each one of them and you want the results in 20 days only. but we should prepare ourselves to cope with the dangers of using samples. Rarely does a circumstance require a census of the population. As unrealistic as this example is. There would be no need for statistical theory if a census rather than a sample was always used to obtain information about populations. it is cheaper to observe a part rather than the whole. You want to know what all the students at Cornell think about the quality of teaching they receive. You have heard so much about the famous Cornell and now that you are there. In this tutorial. You will require 100 research assistants for 20 days and since you are paying them minimum wage of $5. These are.00 just to complete the interviews. You don`t even have to hire a single assistant. You may decide to hire additional assistants to help with the analysis at another $100000. analysis will just be impossible. The time factor. -Economy -Timeliness -The large size of many populations -Inaccessibility of some of the population -Destructiveness of the observation -accuracy The economic advantage of using a sample in research Obviously. let us assume that you are one of the very curious students around. we will investigate various kinds of sampling procedures. you know that all the students are different so they are likely to have different perceptions and you believe you must get all these perceptions so you decide because you want an indepth view of every student. We obtain a sample rather than a complete enumeration (a census ) of the population for many reasons. There are six main reasons for sampling instead of doing a census. let us assume this particular time you are doing your research Cornell has only 20. For the type of information desired. For example. you want to hear from the insiders. it does illustrate the very high cost of census.00) per person per day. but some potential error is the price we must pay for the convenience and savings the samples provide. You can complete the interviews and analysis on your own.000 students and those who are helping are so fast at the interviewing art that together you can interview at least 10 students per person per day in addition to your 18 credit hours of course work. But a census may not be practical and is almost never economical.

Like people in prison. But the big size of the population makes it physically impossible to conduct a census. To obtain a census of the quality of a lorry load of fuses. selecting a representative sample may be the only way to get the information required from high school seniors. A sample may be more accurate than a census. it must be destroyed. The partly accessible populations There are Some populations that are so difficult to get access to that only a sample can be used. the disease is contagious and it is killing within hours nobody knows what it is.Doctor and a disease has broken out in a village within your area of jurisdiction. For example. Good examples of this occur in quality control. then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. The destructive nature of the observation sometimes the very act of observing the desired characteristic of a unit of the population destroys it for the intended use. Criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique 1. A sloppily conducted census can provide less reliable information than a carefully obtained sample. a population of some events may be taking too long to occur that only sample information can be relied on. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. a group numbering 4. In such a case. only a sample should be used to assess the quality of the fuses Accuracy and sampling. Like a particular study population may be so costly to reach like the population of planets that only a sample can be used. If you try a census of those affected. Consider the population of high school seniors in United States of America. like crashed aero planes in the deep seas. you have to destroy all of them. This is contrary to the purpose served by quality-control testing. to determine whether it is defective. It has never occurred again. presidents etc. You are required to conduct quick tests to help save the situation. Purpose of the survey.000. In such a case just a few of those already infected could be used to provide the required information. The responsible agency in the government has to plan for how they will be absorbed into the different departments and even the private sector. For example natural disasters like a flood that occurs every 100 years or take the example of the flood that occurred in Noah’s days. In other cases. The inaccessibility may be economic or time related. The employers would like to have specific knowledge about the student’s plans in order to make compatible plans to absorb them during the coming year. In this case.What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. The very large populations Many populations about which inferences must be made are quite large. . For example to test the quality of a fuse.000. they may be long dead when you arrive with your results.

After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. Measurability. Where the finance is not a constraint. Hence.2. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. Then. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. Information about population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. 5.Degree of precision. 6. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method.g. probability sampling should be used. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. there is not alternative than to give up the proposed survey. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. 9. 4. Of course.. .should the results of the survey be very precise or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited. The nature of the population: In terms of the variables to be studied. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. marketing surveys. the precision has to be scarified to some extent. readership surveys etc) any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. as a compromise . heterogeneous. where the research objective requires statistical interference. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. Probability samples only allow such computation. multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements. However. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. 3. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. 7. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget.the application of statistical interference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. But if the area and the size of the population are small. stratified random sampling is appropriate. 8.

The Characteristics of a good sample: Representativeness: a sample must be representative of the population. Many a time researchers collect a lot of information. After assessing the problems and the needs of the audience. plan in advance. one should be concerned not only about the type and the amount of information but also about the quality of information. unnecessary and insignificant for the purpose. Size: a good sample must be adequate in size in order to be reliable. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. Ans. That is. Significance: It should be important. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques. Credibility: The information should be collected in a scientific manner to be believable. engage the target population in the process of information collection.The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. Researchers should be objective while gathering. and develop their profiles. The programme planners and producers will use the information only when they are sure about the quality of information. Q 5. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. Therefore. Relevance: It should be relevant to the information users. it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. Probability sampling technique yield representative sample. use more than one method/ source for the same data and develop guidelines for analysis of the data. be transparent about the methods used to obtain . Precision: The sample must yield precise estimate. the next step is to collect information. which is irrelevant. be clear and specific with regard to information needed. An accuracy sample is the one which exactly represents the population. Precision is measured by standard error. Some key criteria for quality information are given below: Accuracy or Validity: It should show the true situation. Should reflect the commitment for the cause of the community. Accuracy: accuracy is defined as the degree to which bias is absent from the sample. try to know in advance who needs what information and how it will be used. simplify your samples and research methods. analyzing and interpreting information. For this.

information and draw conclusions. Examples of primary sources include: Target population Extension functionaries of government and non-government agencies Social workers. it is easier to maintain control over quality of information and to do follow-up for any critical findings or missing information. assessment of needs and development of audience profiles. use more than source and method for the same set of information. you can have full control over what. Timeliness: Information should be available in time to make necessary decisions. However. primary data have also certain limitations: Primary sources may not be easily accessible. activists etc. This enables you to verify accuracy and gives more credence to the data. If possible. Representativeness: It should represent the entire target audience and not just some part of it. possibly for reasons other than the purposes of your present concern. when and how the information is collected. The new information that you gather from primary sources is referred to as primary data. For example. In this way. and is referred to as secondary data. Sources of Information You can collect the required information from various sources. Typically. create a schedule with deadlines and stick to it. farmers during the . For this you should plan in advance. There is little use in providing information after programming has already made a significant headway. Primary Data Primary data are obtained by going to the field to collect new information for the purpose of your specific requirement. Secondary sources refer to sources that have already gathered information. primary data are often needed for baseline study. use simple tools for collection and analysis. Other interested parties working with the same or similar populations By using primary sources. Primary sources refer to people or places where you can obtain new and raw information that does not exist. The information is already available. Sources of information may broadly be classified as primary sources and secondary sources.

Therefore. Statistical reports/digests of various government agencies and other institutions Maps and other materials Obtaining data from secondary sources is obviously cheaper and easier to access than going out to the field to gather fresh information. There may be errors of judgment in selecting the respondents or places from which to gather information e. keep your data collection sharply focused for the reasons of time and costs. gathering and using secondary data should generally be considered as a first option when it is available. Extensive interaction with them. It is more time consuming also. In fact. nothing can replace the information collected from primary sources. Costs of primary data collection can be high. yields rich dividends. Skills needed for successfully designing study and implementation of primary data collection are substantially greater than those needed for working with secondary data. . particularly the target audience themselves. You may find it useful for your purpose.g. Secondary Data The term secondary data refers to information that already exists and that has been previously gathered by some other person or organization. Despite limitations.sowing season would not be available to give you the information you need. However. contacting persons of high socio-economic status from the villages along the main road only and thereby not reflecting the issues of the target populations of lower socio-economic status who live in remote areas. You can use secondary data for various purposes: To serve as an independent piece of information. primary sources are essential and important for audience research. Secondary data include many kinds of written and visual materials such as: Previous research reports Project reports Historical accounts Books and materials describing the region and the people Documentary films/photographs.

therefore. Develop a title for the study. Nevertheless it is always a good idea to exploit the potential of the secondary data to your best advantage. which is characterized by an unwavering focus on customers. A newspaper’s most valuable asset is customer acceptance. May be inadequate. your concept of a small family may be different than what has been adopted there. every time. the information age. Newspaper publishers spend millions of dollars annually to ensure that the newspaper arrives at the newspaper stand or the subscriber’s doorstep every day. The last decade has ushered in a new era. in order to ascertain reader habits and interests. have certain inherent limitations: May be out-dated and old. However. customer service means more than delivering the newspaper on time. Therein lies the rub. Ans. Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City. To supplement the information gathered by you from the primary sources. primary data collection may be done by focusing only on most significant issues and using simple and straightforward research methods such as observations. Q 6. Reporters track down stories and editors diligently maintain the editorial integrity of the newspaper. because these. you cannot be sure of their quality. Many newspapers are transforming their organizations from manufacturingoriented enterprises to customer-centric businesses and relying on customer . in-depth inter views and focused group discussions. The definition of concepts used in the data may be different. use the secondary data with caution. define the research problem and the objectives or questions to be answered by the study.To select areas for further intensive study by you. A central principle to keep in mind for undertaking audience research. If the methods and circumstances of data collection are not recorded. The production department meticulously guarantees that advertisements make it onto the right page. It is no small feat that this daily production process has continued for centuries across every city and town in the world. too. is that after examining the available secondary data. With a resolute focus on both the published newspaper and production efficiencies. newspapers have become true stalwarts of the industrial age. For example. Today.

iii. vi. To find out the ways of increasing the marketing efficiency of Prothom Alo. ii. To cite the price determination process of a leading newspaper. The basic limitation of this article is its sole dependence on secondary data.relationship management solutions to help catapult newspapers into the new age. Secondly. To illustrate the promotional activities of Prothom Alo. To describe the marketing cost of Prothom Alo. This paper has been carried out with the following specific objectives: i. v. this article is not fully free of certain obvious limitations. For this reason the accuracy of this report depends on the accuracy of the information furnished by the secondary sources. Research Problem Despite of the level best effort of the researchers. Prothom Alo. iv. To identify the current marketing problems of a daily newspaper. To narrate the distribution channel of a national newspaper. . Objectives of the Study The primary objective of the study is to identify and describe the use of various elements of marketing mix in the newspaper industry of Bangalore through focusing the marketing practices of the highest circulated newspaper. the sources of secondary data were very limited. Relevant data is not available regarding this field.

Anderson. questionnaires are simply not suited for some people. Niebuhr.MB0034 Research Methodology Assignment Set. On the other hand. Anderson. . It is important.Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents of a study. 1986. where the those conducting the study promise not to reveal the information to anyone. Leaving space for comments will provide valuable information not captured by the response categories. some people are turned off by written questionnaires because of misuse. a written survey to a group of poorly educated people might not work because of reading skill problems. it is possible to guarantee confidentiality. Ans. By putting the most important items near the beginning. Questionnaires are familiar to most people (Berdie. The goal is to make the respondent want to complete the questionnaire.2 Q 1. p. the partially completed questionnaires will still contain important information. One criticism of questionnaires is their inability to retain the "flavor" of a response. They are cost effective when compared to face-to-face interviews. the respondent is not interrupted by the research instrument. the most important items should appear in the first half of the questionnaire. however. Unlike other research methods. to explain why the number is there and what it will be used for. Researchers should design the questionnaire so it holds the respondent's interest. they are free to complete it on their own time-table. Leaving white space also makes the questionnaire look easier and this might increase response. 1986)." (Berdie. Questionnaires should leave adequate space for respondents to make comments. One way to keep a questionnaire interesting is to provide variety in the type of items used. Respondents often send back partially completed questionnaires. For example. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive. mostly because of the costs associated with travel time. and Niebuhr. 47) It is generally not possible to conduct an anonymous questionnaire through the mail because of the need to follow-up on nonresponders. When respondents receive a questionnaire in the mail. For the purpose of followup. More frequently. An anonymous study is one in which nobody (not even the study directors) can identify who provided data on completed questionnaires. However. They are less intrusive than telephone or faceto-face surveys. Likewise. and most statistical analysis software can easily process them. Questionnaires are easy to analyze. identifying numbers on questionnaires are generally preferred to using respondents' names.

After a day or two he can collect the questionnaire method. Methods of distributing quetionnaries to the respondents. Other modes of sending quetionnaries. Alternatively. 3. 4. the questionnaires may be delivered in person and the completed questionnaires may be returned by mail by the respondent. A covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. The pre-notification letter should address five items (Walonick. Explain why the person receiving the pre-letter was chosen. Attaching Questionnaire to a product A firm test marketing a product may attch a questionnaire to a product and request the buyer to complete it and mail it back to the firm. although they are more expensive since you also pay for the non-respondents. Briefly describe why the study is being done. The respondent is usually . Explain how the results will be used. it combines the advantages of the personal interview and the mail survey. Personal Delivery The researcher or his assistant may deliver the questionnaires to the potential respondents with a request to complete them at their convenience.A good questionnaire makes it convenient for the respondent to reply. The interrogation format asks a question directly. 5. and (4) news stand insets. 2. Justify why the respondent should complete the questionnaire. They are: (1) Personal delivery (2) attaching questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a newspaper of magazine. 1993): 1. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. Mail surveys that include a self-addressed stamped reply envelope get better response than business reply envelopes. Identify the sponsors. One important area of question wording is the effect of the interrogation and assertion question formats. where the assertion format asks subjects to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with a statement.

The potential respondent completes it tears it out and mails it to the advertiser. . if the required sample size is 1000. This method may be used for large-scale on topics of common interest. Incentives: Money. Larger sample size: A large sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size.rewarded by a gift or a discount coupon. For example. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. quetionnarie and self addressed reply-paid envelope into a random sample of news-stand copies of a newspaper or magazine. 6. Covering Letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. they may be approached through some one in that organization known as the researcher. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. They are: 1. the committee of Banks customer services used this method. 2. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return mail questionarie. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. For example. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow up efforts. Improving the Response Rate in a Mail survey. Management studies for collecting information from the customers of commercial banks in India. 3. Advance Information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization or by a letter. News-stand Inserts This method involves inserting the covering letter. Quality Printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed in quality light coloured paper. 5. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. It is a desirable to address the respondent by name. 4. The response rate in mail survey is generally very low more so in developing countries like India. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. Advertising the Questionnaires The questionnaire with the instructions for completion may be advertised on a page of magazine or in section of newspapers.

personal interviews 6. 3. It is also referred to as the second moment about the mean. Q 2. 4. being more impersonal. Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewer’s bias. Mail surveys. They can cover extensive geographical areas. 2. 7. as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator. The formal definition of variance being: For computation purposes. Certain personal and economic data may be given accurately in an unsigned mail questionnaire. provide more anonymity than 5. what is the difference between measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion? What is the most important measure of central tendency and dispersion? Ans. Mailing is useful in contacting persons such as senior business executives who are difficult to reach in any other way. Hence. as cost of mailing is the same through out the country. the resulting sample will not be a representative one. The respondents can complete the questionnaires at their convenience. the formula can be used in the form shown below which allows the variance to be derived without first calculating the mean: . These are the most familiar measurements of dispersion.Advantages of Questionnaires The advantages of mail surveys are: 1. In processing data. The response rate of mail survey is low. They are less costly than personal interviews. 2. Disadvantages of Questionnaires The disadvantages of mail surveys are: 1. irrespective of distance. The scope for mail survey is very limited in a country like India where the percentage of literacy is very low. Variance is the arithmetic mean (average) of the square of the difference between the value of an observation and the arithmetic mean of the value of all observations.

04 0.1 1.5 0.2 1.21 1.01 1. In situations where the median is a more stable measure of central tendency.3 0.3 1. The normalized standard deviation is often referred to as z.60 .5 1.1 1. but this is a small price to pay for such an acronym.Standard Deviation: Standard deviation is the square root of the variance.2 0.09 0.25 0. The measures of central tendency for the sample are: Mean Median 1. This is a result of the square of the difference between a value and the mean.6 2.8 0.7 1.1 0.2 0. Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) A weakness of standard deviation as a measure of dispersion is its sensitivity to anomalous values which are a feature of real life data. The example below compares the standard deviation and the MAD for a small sample which contains an anomalous extreme value.1 2.5 1. Normalized Standard Deviation: It is often useful to express the difference between the mean and a given value in units of standard deviation. Probability tables for the normal distribution are usually based on z. it is used in place of the mean.8 Totals 0.4 1.3 0. An alternative is based the absolute value of the difference between a given value and the mean: The downside is that the use of absolute values makes the analytical treatment of functions difficult. this conveniently gets rid of negative values.0 0. but at the expense of increasing the significance of extreme ones.

however. One way would be to read each height you recorded to your friend. variance and standard deviation These are all measures of dispersion.36 0. Like central tendency. Especially if you are in a class of 200 or 300 students! Another way to communicate with your friend would be to use measures of central tendency like the mean. it is important to use the statistic which is best suited for a given analysis.57 The MAD statistics are less sensitive to extreme anomalous values. Two kinds of statistics are frequently used to describe data.44 0. They help you summarize bunches of numbers with one or just a few numbers. variance and standard deviation tell you about the spread of scores in a data set. These are often called descriptive statistics because they can help you describe your data. That’s why we use statistics. Mean. they might want to know how much the heights vary. They make telling people about your data easy. Range. But sometimes it can be hard to tell other people about what you have found.Mean Absolute Deviation Median Absolute Deviation Standard Deviation 0. They are measures of central tendency and dispersion. Easily telling people about your data Collecting data can be easy and fun. Are all the men about 5 feet 11 inches within a few centimeters or so? Or is there a lot of variation where some men are 5 feet and others are 6 foot 5 inches? Measures of dispersion like the range. . They help summarize a bunch of scores with a single number. if you were describing the heights of students in your class to a friend. median and mode These are all measures of central tendency. These help you to know the spread of scores within a bunch of scores. they help you summarize a bunch of numbers with one or just a few numbers. Suppose you want to describe a bunch of data that you collected to a friend for a particular variable like height of students in your class. median and mode. Your friend would listen to all of the heights and then come to a conclusion about how tall students generally are in your class But this would take too much time. Are the scores really close together or are they really far apart? For example.

Throughout the design construction task. this flexibility results from duplication of essential design features. multiple replications of a treatment help to insure that failure to implement the treatment in one setting will not invalidate the entire study. The sequence and timing of events are carefully thought out. demoralization. Situational. The criteria discussed below are only meant to be suggestive of the characteristics found in good research design. are anticipated. Good designs strike a balance between redundancy and the tendency to overdesign. Feasible. Where it is reasonable. This was illustrated above where a particular need of teachers and administrators was explicitly addressed in the design strategy. other. some criteria which we should try to achieve before finally accepting a design strategy. Often. additional groups or measurements are included in the design to explicitly correct for such problems. For example. A primary interpretation of design research is that it is concerned with undertaking research into the design process. intergroup rivalry. less costly. What are the characteristics of a good research design? Explain how the research design for exploratory studies is different from the research design for descriptive and diagnostic studies. Redundant. Good research designs reflect the settings of the investigation. strategies for ruling out potential threats to validity are utilized. It is thus related to Design methods in general or for particular disciplines. For example. Design research investigates the process of designing in all its many fields. Good designs can be implemented. It is worth noting that all of these criteria point to the need to individually tailor research designs rather than accepting standard textbook strategies as is Theory-Grounded. Similarly. the inclusion of both in the design improves discriminant validity and demonstrates the predictive power of the theory. goals of this sort help to guide the researcher toward a final design choice and emphasize important components which should be included. where theory predicts a specific treatment effect on one measure but not on another. Where specific theoretical expectations can be hypothesized these are incorporated into the design. Good research strategies reflect the theories which are being investigated. Good research designs have some flexibility built into them. Potential problems in measurement. it is important to have in mind some endpoint. Secondary interpretations would refer to undertaking research within the process of design. .Q 3. The overall intention is to better understand and to improve the design process. Efficient. adherence to assignment. Nevertheless. database construction and the like. Ans. and competition might be assessed through the use of additional comparison groups who are not in direct contact with the original group. This is by no means an exhaustive list of the criteria by which we can judge good research design. Where needed.

such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers who buy the product. by moving away from the notion of "design selection" and towards an emphasis on design construction. and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. projective methods. There are three types of objective in a marketing research project. Descriptive research and Causal research The objective of exploratory research is to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E. comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends. Applied research in administration is often exploratory because there is need for flexibility in approaching the problem. Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data. it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. . case studies or pilot studies. exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Given its fundamental nature. employees.g. that an emphasis on a few standard research designs has occurred. or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers.. in such a relatively recent effort. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why". It is not surprising. Exploratory Research or Formulative Research. Qualitative research methods such as case study or field research are often used in Exploratory research. data collection method and selection of subjects. Nevertheless.The development of a theory of research methodology for the social sciences has largely occurred over the past half century and most intensively within the past two decades. focus groups. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves. and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design. there is much to be gained in our understanding of design principles and in the quality of our research. In addition there are often data limitations and a need to make a decision within a short time period. RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information. major search engine search results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts." Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. "how" and "when" something occurs. The objective of descriptive research is to describe things. management or competitors.

Case study research means single and multiple case studies. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did. 2005): "The case study is a research approach. group.Q 4. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses. They provide a systematic way of looking at events. Extreme or atypical cases reveal more information because they activate more basic mechanisms and more actors in the situation studied. it is more appropriate to select some few cases chosen for their validity. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual. case study methods involve an in-depth. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence." When selecting a case for a case study. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data. and reporting the results. researchers often use information-oriented sampling. Extreme or deviant cases and Paradigmatic cases . from both an understanding-oriented and an actionoriented perspective. relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Random samples emphasizing representativeness will seldom be able to produce this kind of insight. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables. can include quantitative evidence. This is also supported and well-formulated in (Lamnek. This is because an average case is often not the richest in information. A case study is a research methodology common in social science. and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. collecting data. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. but this isn't always the case. situated between concrete data taking techniques and methodologic paradigms. it is often more important to clarify the deeper causes behind a given problem and its consequences than to describe the symptoms of the problem and how frequently they occur. Ans. as opposed to random sampling. analyzing information. longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy. an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Three types of information-oriented cases may be distinguished: Critical cases. or event. In addition. How is the Case Study method useful in Business Research? Give two specific examples of how the case study method can be applied to business research.

when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. and problems. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. issues. Yin defines the case study research method as an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context. Helen Simons. non-profit organizations. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. make use of an electronic community network. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of real-life situations. and Robert K. Social scientists. have made wide use of this qualitative research method to examine contemporary reallife situations and provide the basis for the application of ideas and extension of methods. in particular. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. This two-by-two combination can produce four basic designs for case studies. Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully. Researchers have used the case study research method for many years across a variety of disciplines. Reports on case studies from many disciplines are widely available in the literature. Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings.Yin (2005) suggested that researchers should decide whether to do single-case or multiple-case studies and chose to keep the case holistic or have embedded subcases. and in which multiple sources of evidence are used. How to use the case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. Stake. This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used to: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data . Researcher Robert K. In business research.

is the form in which the participant observer gathers it: An observation of some social event. over some length of time. Our criticisms are not relevant when analysis is restricted to interpretation of the interviewee's conduct during the interview. listening to what is said. and the kind of sensitivity to problems and data produced in him. before. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. the shortcomings we attribute to the interview exist when it is used as a source of information about events that have occurred elsewhere and are described to us by informants. observing things that happen. In general. Ans. the interviewer explores many facets of his interviewee's concerns. We begin by considering some concrete problems: learning the native language. to compare the results of intensive field work with what might be regarded as the first step in the other direction along this continuum: the detailed and conversational interview (often referred to as the unstructured or undirected interview). during. Our comparison may prove useful by suggestive areas in which interviewing (the more widely used method at present and likely to continue so) can improve its accuracy by taking account of suggestions made from the perspective of the participant observer. in this paper. In the course of our current participant observation among medical students? we have thought a good deal about the kinds of things we were discovering which might ordinarily be missed or misunderstood in such an interview.3 In this kind of interview. The differences we consider between the two methods involve two interacting factors: the kinds of words and acts of the people under study that the researcher has access to. We want. The most complete form of the sociological datum. either openly in the role of researcher or covertly in some disguised role. economy. matters interviewees are unable or unwilling to talk about. Participant observation can thus provide us with a yardstick against which to measure the completeness of data gathered in other ways. or the problem of the degree to which the interviewer really understands what is said to him. and getting . Such a datum gives us more information about the event under study than data gathered by any other sociological method.Prepare the report Q5. and questioning people. or research design for their use. the events which precede and follow it. and explanations of its meaning by participants and spectators. in which case the researcher has in fact observed the behavior he is talking about. treating subjects as they come up in conversation. and after its occurrence. after all. We simply wish to make explicit the difference in the data gathered by one or the other method and to suggest the differing uses to which they can legitimately be put. for there can always be good reasons of practicality.' By participant observation we mean that method in which the observer participates in the daily life of the people under study. pursuing interesting leads. W e have no intention of denigrating the interview or even such less precise modes of data gathering as the questionnaire. allowing his imagination and ingenuity full rein as he tries to develop new hypotheses and test them in the course of the interview. a model which can serve to let us know what orders of information escape us when we use other methods.

When he observed the movements of the vehicles. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present.  Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behavior. suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed  Observations is more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully. birds etc. in interview. their hair style. animals. It captures the natural social context in which persons behavior occur. The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. scope and objectives of his study. if any.. the respondent may not behave in a natural way. the persons sitting in them. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule. e. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. There is no such artificiality into the researched situation for instance. tribal. Observation is purposive and not casual: it is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study.information on matters people see through distorting lenses. but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature. in interviews.  Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. There is not such artificiality in observational studies. studies of children. The researcher need not ask people about their behavior and interactions he can simply watch what they do and say. Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. Furthermore verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behavior through observation. Observation has following advantages: The main virtue of observation is its directness: It makes it possible to study behavior as it occurs.g. 3. social metric scale etc. 2. For example. all such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violation are keenly observed by him. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. We then consider some more general differences between the two methods. . and precision instruments. 1. 4. etc. the respondent may not behave in a natural way. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researchers situation for instance.  Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings.

suspicion. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. facial expressions and pauses. and his environment. even confidential information may be obtained. living conditions etc. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. attitudes. Second. Fourth. Once report is established. the interviewer can do more to improve the percentage of responses and the quality of information received than other method. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully. beliefs past experience and future intentions. etc. It far exceeds mail survey in amount and quality of data that can be secured. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. First the greatest value of this method is the depth and detail of information that can be secured. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. and adopt appropriate approaches to overcome such problems as the respondent’s unwillingness. Fifth. personal interview is feasible. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. visual materials and the like in order to improve the quality of interviewing. the interviewer can use special scoring devices. There are several advantages to personal interviewing. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. incorrect understanding of questions. and then interviewing is required. values. but also learning from the respondent’s gesture. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. the interviewer can gather other supplemental information like economic level. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. It involves not only conversation. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. through observation of the respondents environment.Interview method Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. When used with well conceived schedules. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. He can note the conditions of the interview situation. the accuracy and dependability of the answers given by the respondent can . an interview can obtain a great deal of information. Third.

interview poses the problem of recording information obtained from the respondents. In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details. More headline. Fourth. 6. Situation where observation is appropriate: Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs. inability to articulate etc. conclusion and recommendations are presented. underlining pictures and graphs . Even more. and incorrect recording and also by the respondent’s faulty perception. the interview results are often adversely affected by interviewer’s mode of asking questions and interactions. Last interview calls for highly interviewers. Third. Case study. The availability of such persons is limited and the training of interviewers is often a long and costly process. Its greatest drawback is that it is costly both in money and time. After a brief introduction to the problem and the objectives of the study. faulty memory. Note taking in invariably distracting to both the respondent and the interviewer and affects the trhead of the conversation. AnsPopular Reports would be most appropriate for this study. What type of Research report would be most appropriate? Develop an outline of the research report with the main sections. and abstract of the findings of the study. Second. Such information might be supplied more willingly on mail are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore checked by observation and probing. especially if they are to be unsigned. interview is flexible and adaptable to individual situations. control can be exercised over the interview situation. No full proof system is available. certain types of personal and financial information may be refused in face-to face interviews. Situation where interview method is appropriate: to study the Reading habits of newspaper/magazines readers. in order to ascertain reader habits and interests. Last. Demerits of interview method Interviewing is not free limitations. but more interested in the findings of the study. For example only observation can provide an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation between union and management representatives. Complicated statistics are avoided and pictorial devices are used.

Sentences and paragraphs should be short. Objectives of the study/ Questions to be answered by the study: • • • • • To understand what the readers wish to see on the front page of the newspaper.may be used. To understand what proportion of politics. Title of the study: A study of Reader’s Choice of Topics on the front page and depth of coverage of various categories of news. sports. To understand the kind of images the readers like. To understand how much depth of the news is to be covered. And outline of a research report is given below: Prefatory items Title page Declaration Preface/acknowledgement Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/ charts Abstract of synopsis. Body of the report • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study . What readers want to read in the newpaper other that the current topics. cinema and health etc is to be covered in the newspaper.

conclusions and recommendations.• • • • • • • • • • • Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary. .