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Andrew Pepel; Frank Porter; Kevin Brosnan

11/18/2010

ENGR 348

Strengths of
Materials Lab
Experiment 2: Bending Testing

.......3 Data.................................................. and then one of the resulting halves was compressed until failure........................................................................ Table of Contents Nomenclature.......................7 References..................................................................................................4 Results......................................................6 Conclusions............................................................................................. Knowledge of a material’s and ultimate bending and compression strength makes the difference between a successful..........7 Appendices.......................................... First the specimen was subjected to 3 point bending..............................................................................................................Abstract Bending and Compression tests are important to engineering design.......................8 .......................................................................4 Analysis................................................................................................................................................................................................... as well as the corresponding strains........3 Procedure.......................................... The specimen was analyzed thoroughly before the procedures....................................................................................... safe design and a dangerous product or structure.............. The resulting data from the test allowed for measurements of ultimate bending and compression strength...6 Discussion........................................................................................ In this experiment we examined a typical concrete paver.................................3 Introduction.....................................

dents. One half inch was marked on each end of the paver as well as the center for the placement of during the bending test. Once marked.Before beginning the procedure the samplewas inspected for any obvious defects. Procedure The issued specimens included 1 concrete paver. Introduction This report will present the findings of Group 2B (East) in a bending and compression experiment.Nomenclature Bending Stress (σ)–the result of a load applied perpendicular to the surface Units: PSI Engineering Stress (σ) – the average uniaxial tensile force (F) on the bar divided by the original cross-sectional area (A0) of the bar Units: PSI Engineering Strain (ϵ) – the ratio of the change in length of the sample in of the sample in the direction of the force divided by the original length of the sample σ = MyI σ= FA0 ϵ = l-l0l0 Units: in. such as cracks.) ○ Average Width (in. or cavities.) ○ .) ○ Average Thickness (in. Included was one specimen of a concrete paver that was used once more after breaking in the bending portion of the experiment. measurements were taken off the specimen and the following values were calculated Average Length (in./in.

The following is the bending stress from the sample just before breaking: M=Moment about neutral axis y=perpendicular distance to the neutral axis . The machine was then finely adjusted until the brick was tight to the testing apparatus and there was a miniscule force read on the machine. Data See Appendices C&D Analysis From the raw data supplied by the testing machine and post-procedure measurements. the first calculations to be made are thebending stress (σ). The brick failed after about 12 minutes. and compressive stress(σ).○ Average Volume (in.3) At this point the first part of the experiment was ready to proceed. For the compression test the paver was placed between two flat surfaces on the machine that would exert the force on paver. From this point the procedure was much the same as it was for the bending test. Once complete the following data for the test were downloaded from the machine’s supplied computer program: ○ Time (min.) The specimen was removed from the machine and chiseled into a 6in2 cross sectional area for the compression test.This process lasted nearly 13 minutes until the specimen broke apart. The force on the brick gradually increased and we took measurements of the deflection about every minute. divided bythe second moment of area of the specimen.) ○ Load (lbf. Slowly the bendingforce on the specimen was increased.Bending stress is the bendingmomentabout the neutral axis of the specimen multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the neutral axis. while we took a measurement of the deflection about once a minute. The data was entered into the computer program and the test was started. The computer program then stopped the procedure.bending strain (ε).) ○ Position (in.

495 lbf∙in σ=MyI= (4096.317in)3.495lbf∙in)(3. For the compression test. For example. it will return to its original shape undamaged. The fracture stress was 2986. Once the stress-strain curve is plotted.2 σ= FA0=11960lbf6in2=1993.423in4 M=Fd=1235lbf3. The ultimate stress (or tensile stress) is simply the highest stress value reached during the experiment. Besides being a graphical representation of relationship between stress and strain during the experiments. The fracture stress is the stress experience at the time of the specimen’s break. it is permanently deformed. the compressive stress just before failure: F=force on specimen in lbf. If the specimen is only deformed within its elastic region.423in4= 3969.068 psi. and its ultimate strength. Strain is represented on the x-axis.25in)312=3. The ultimate strength for the bending experiment was 3969. The ultimate stress and fracture stress can be calculated either from the stress-strain curve. and the fracture stress was 1711 psi.639 psi. while stress is represented on the y-axis. the ultimate stress was 2088. There are two major parts of the curve: the elastic region. A0=Cross-sectional area of specimen in. it also gives an idea of the size of a material’s elastic region.605in)(2. and the plastic region.317in=4096. or from the raw data itself.I=Second moment of area I=bh312=(3. The stress-strain curve is a very important piece of data in both the bending and compression strength experiments.333psi Once the stress and strain calculations are made.333 psi. a stress-strain curve can be plotted.639psi Compressive stress is simply the force appliedon the specimen divided by the cross-sectional area of the specimen. One it passes through the elastic region and into the plastic region however. . it can now be analyzed.

639psi 3969. and with an ultimate load of 1235 lbf.333psi 1711psi 12530lbf Discussion The bending portion of the experiment took a total of about 13 minutes and resulted in the paver being broken roughly in half. Conclusions Concrete is anespecially brittle material. with the only plastic deformation occurring during compression.068psi 1235lbf Compression 1993. one half of the broken paver was formed into a chunk with roughly a 6in2 surface area that the compression force was applied to. but that is because of the larger surface area the force was applied to.Results Concrete YieldStrength UltimateStrength FractureStrength UltimateLoad Bending 3969.333psi 2088. The break occurred in the center as expected. For the compression segment of the experiment. This shows that the paver can be plastically deformed. Therefore we can conclude from the data gathered that the concrete is very brittle under bending conditions such as were applied. The ultimate load for compression was much higher than that of bending. References .639psi 2986. but only by a small amount before it fails. The stress – strain graph shows very little plastic deformation before the failure of the paver. The stress – strain graph clearly shows that there is virtually no plastic deformation for the bending test.

Beer. (2006).). J. E.Bending Test Data (reduced) Partner Data Point File Bending Test Start of Test Wed 13 Oct 2010 11:23:52 Time Position Load ( lbf Stress(psi) Strain(in/i .). Appendices Appendix A – Bending Test Appendix B – Compression test Appendix C . New York: McGraw Hill. William F. (2006). R. Mechanics of Materials (5th ed.Ferdinand P. Smith. New York: McGraw Hill. Foundations of Material Science and Engineering (5 ed. H.

525 0.0710 076 475.7135 402 800.35667 0.0052 249 2.36667 0.85167 0.9991 452 909.69333 0.02 0.000654 965 0.70333 0.000366 78 0.000301 284 0.927 553 1073.000720 461 0.0055 300 3.19833 0.3566 126 584.0043 115 1.0043 131 1.0032 47 0.005 232 2.6422 176 694.0057 350 3.641 678 1234.000746 66 0.9996 851 369.005 199 2.0048 182 2.004 98 1.000497 773 0.535 0.16833 0.0038 81 1.000654 965 0.9994 151 639.0052 266 2.006 384 4.03 0.000785 958 .0055 283 3.68333 0.0035 64 0.000563 27 0.( min ) ( in ) ) n) 0 0 0 0.0055 317 3.34667 0.284 48 1288.927 283 0 0.6419 477 964.000746 66 0.000628 766 0.3563 427 854.42847 502 151.000458 475 0.3568 826 314.570 355 1124.84167 0.000419 177 0.86167 0.6424 876 421.005 216 2.0057 367 3.7140 8 260.000654 965 0.33667 0.2847 502 1018.006 401 0 44.000589 468 0.000720 461 0.2850 202 745.000785 958 0.0048 165 1.000720 461 0.0045 148 1.998 875 1179.000681 163 0.7138 101 530.0057 334 3.99995 501 96.01 0.000628 766 0.0712 775 205.000681 163 0.000746 66 0.000523 972 0.18833 0.000563 27 0.04 0.515 0.0023 14 0.87167 0.0028 30 0.17833 0.67333 0.505 0.

000916 95 0.0065 468 4.855 15 2047.001047 943 .001047 943 0.73333 0.000812 156 0.0068 519 5.000956 248 0.0077 754 7.926 203 2423.0075 721 7.0062 418 4.72333 0.05 0.000812 156 0.140 216 0.000916 95 0.001008 646 0.000890 752 0.569 006 2478.000982 447 0.20833 0.569 545 1938.000851 454 0.21833 0.000890 752 0.0065 502 5.06 0.497 953 2098.000956 248 0.000956 248 0.855 42 1774.000890 752 0.212 078 2262.555 0.38667 0.008 788 8.641 408 1504.283 94 1828.998 605 1449.497 683 2368.0062 434 4.88167 0.212 618 1722.007 586 6.926 473 2153.000916 95 0.000982 447 0.0065 485 5.0073 637 6.927 013 1613.565 0.07 0.211 808 2532.90167 0.001008 646 0.0068 552 5.39667 0.0077 737 7.570 085 1394.0068 536 5.007 603 6.545 0.91167 0.007 620 6.284 21 1558.569 275 2208.0073 653 6.212 348 1992.854 881 2317.497 413 2642.37667 0.008 822 1343.0075 687 7.4.854 611 2587.23833 0.001008 646 0.926 743 1883.40667 0.000916 95 0.000812 156 0.000982 447 0.0075 704 7.08 0.001047 943 0.0062 451 4.575 0.0077 771 7.0073 670 6.71333 0.74333 0.007 569 5.000851 454 0.24833 0.000851 454 0.569 815 1668.89167 0.22833 0.008 805 8.

211 268 3072.009 1057 10.001205 135 0.782 208 3561.001139 638 0.27833 0.497 143 2912.0082 855 8.09 0.8.001139 638 0.139 946 2966.067 543 3940.001244 433 0.0082 872 8.0087 973 9.0087 990 10.0095 1142 11.424 741 3886.425 011 3616.496 603 3452.75333 0.0092 1108 11.854 341 2857.0095 1175 11.0082 839 8.43667 0.26833 0.001244 433 0.009 1040 10.44667 0.001178 936 0.009 1024 10.77333 0.95167 0.496 873 3182.0098 1209 12.615 0.0098 1226 2696.001139 638 0.94167 0.001283 731 0.001244 433 0.139 406 3506.211 538 2802.853 801 3397.001244 433 0.595 0.0087 956 9.78333 0.12 0.001283 731 .0092 1125 11.001178 936 0.0085 923 9.0092 1091 11.585 0.25833 0.001074 142 0.710 616 3722.001139 638 0.001113 44 0.139 676 3236.781 938 3831.001074 142 0.0082 889 9.0087 1007 10.001205 135 0.92167 0.001074 142 0.001113 44 0.1 0.710 346 0.0092 1074 10.783 018 2748.42667 0.76333 0.001113 44 0.0085 939 9.0095 1158 11.001205 135 0.782 748 3018.139 136 3776.0095 1192 12.854 071 3127.93167 0.782 478 3291.001074 142 0.001178 936 0.605 0.067 813 3670.425 281 3342.001205 135 0.28833 0.41667 0.0085 906 9.11 0.

35667 0.67333 0.66 0.33 0.0013 333 55.00235 3.83 0.5 8 139.0033 1174 67 7 223.0017 501 83.33667 0.00177 1.34667 0.00111 0.16 0.0038 1679 33 9 0.69333 0.00155 1.83 0.00057 0.16 2.333 0.0035 1511 33 6 279.66 0.003 1006 67 3 195.00222 2.18833 0.00168 1.85167 0.505 0.16833 0.00097 0.01 0.5 6 0.00191 2.00155 1.16 0.0053 3026 33 6 .84167 0.004 1848 308 8 0.0035 1343 33 6 251.02 0.00235 2.83 0.515 0.0048 2353 67 3 420.00213 2.0022 669 111.00133 1.Appendix D – Compression Test Data (reduced) Partner Data Point File Compression Test Start of Test Wed 13 Oct 2010 11:50:34 Time Position Load Stress( Strain(in/ ( min ) ( in ) ( lbf ) psi) in) 0 0 0 0 0 27.0043 2016 336 1 364.17833 0.002 392.00213 2.33 0.0048 2521 67 3 448.5 8 0.03 0.525 0.0045 2185 67 0.0007 164 33 1 0.00146 1.005 2690 33 2 476.0053 2858 33 6 504.66 0.68333 0.0025 838 67 1 167.00075 0.33 0.00031 0.86167 0.

0072 5215 5.00257 8 0.006 3699 3.00355 6 0.007 5046 5.36667 0.5 560.66 67 672.66 67 700.00346 7 0.00364 4 0.5 6.73333 0.00364 4 0.00311 1 0.5 6.90167 0.00288 9 0.33 33 3.0075 5551 5.0075 5720 5.00288 9 0.0067 4541 4.009 7066 7.00266 7 0.05 0.88167 0.6 67 1177.0067 4709 616.008 6056 841 869.0078 5888 6.16 67 953.0065 4373 4.00333 3 0.21833 0.555 0.0063 4036 4.009 7235 1093.5 3.00257 8 0.6 67 1149.00297 8 0.6 67 1205.87167 0.83 33 756.00244 4 0.00355 6 0.70333 0.0065 4205 4.89167 0.0072 5383 5.39667 0.0082 6561 6.16 67 925.00377 8 0.0085 6730 6.535 0.5 1121.83 33 784.0055 3195 3.19833 0.5 644.83 33 728.0032 0.0058 3531 588.00386 7 0.0028 0.00297 8 0.06 0.006 3868 4.38667 0.0087 6898 7.545 0.72333 0.3.004 .33 33 981.37667 0.0032 0.20833 0.16 67 897.00266 7 0.00333 3 0.008 6225 1037.33 33 1009.00311 1 0.71333 0.07 0.83 33 4.565 0.0082 6393 1065.22833 0.3 33 6.04 0.23833 0.004 0.007 4878 813 5.0058 3362 532.8 33 0.

015 0.0105 8244 8.8 33 1766.6 67 1710.3 33 1542.40667 0.0142 10938 1823 11.011 8749 8.0127 9928 10.08 0.605 0.74333 0.8 33 7.00422 2 0.0125 9759 9.00435 6 0.1 0.1 0.0117 9086 9255 1374 1402.006 0.76333 0.00511 1 0.0092 7403 7.44667 11.0135 10601 10.26833 0.0102 8076 1346 8.6 67 1738.00586 7 0.1 67 1907.00546 7 0.0135 10433 10.3 33 1514.0052 0.5 9.5 1654.0123 9591 1598.91167 0.41667 0.25833 0.00555 6 0.42667 0.1 67 1430.00533 3 0.5 9.012 9423 1570.24833 0.00644 4 0.8 33 1794.0108 8413 8.1 67 1935.0048 0.93167 0.01 7908 1318 8.0132 10264 10.00631 1 0.00622 2 0.8 33 1261.00675 .00564 4 0.00444 4 0.5 9.1 67 1486.0115 0.7.006 0.0145 11106 11.09 9.1 67 1458.00577 8 0.0112 8918 9.0108 8581 8.00653 3 0.8 33 10.014 10769 1626.00488 9 0.0048 0.92167 0.11 0.0147 11275 11.27833 0.43667 0.0152 11443 11611 1851 1879.94167 0.013 10096 10.00497 8 0.0098 7740 1290 7.595 0.615 0.77333 0.00666 7 0.0095 7571 1233.585 0.575 0.00466 7 0.6 67 1682.75333 0.00453 3 0.00408 9 0.

3 33 2019.00822 2 .00733 3 0.95167 0.3 33 12.0165 12116 12.28833 0.3 33 2047.0172 12284 67 1963.0185 12453 2075.12 0.016 11948 12.00711 1 0.45667 0.1 67 1991.5 6 0.11.00697 8 0.78333 0.0157 11779 11.00764 4 0.