Andrew Pepel; Frank Porter; Kevin Brosnan

11/18/2010

ENGR 348

Strengths of
Materials Lab
Experiment 2: Bending Testing

........................................................... The specimen was analyzed thoroughly before the procedures.....................6 Discussion........................................................................4 Analysis.......................................................................................................................................6 Conclusions.......... safe design and a dangerous product or structure.................................................. and then one of the resulting halves was compressed until failure......................8 ................4 Results..............................................................................................................................................................3 Procedure..................................................................................3 Data... First the specimen was subjected to 3 point bending.............................. as well as the corresponding strains..................................................................................7 Appendices............................................... Table of Contents Nomenclature................................. Knowledge of a material’s and ultimate bending and compression strength makes the difference between a successful...................................7 References................................. The resulting data from the test allowed for measurements of ultimate bending and compression strength................................................................................................................................................................ In this experiment we examined a typical concrete paver.....................3 Introduction...................................................................Abstract Bending and Compression tests are important to engineering design........................

) ○ . or cavities. One half inch was marked on each end of the paver as well as the center for the placement of during the bending test.) ○ Average Thickness (in./in. Once marked. measurements were taken off the specimen and the following values were calculated Average Length (in. Procedure The issued specimens included 1 concrete paver. Included was one specimen of a concrete paver that was used once more after breaking in the bending portion of the experiment.Nomenclature Bending Stress (σ)–the result of a load applied perpendicular to the surface Units: PSI Engineering Stress (σ) – the average uniaxial tensile force (F) on the bar divided by the original cross-sectional area (A0) of the bar Units: PSI Engineering Strain (ϵ) – the ratio of the change in length of the sample in of the sample in the direction of the force divided by the original length of the sample σ = MyI σ= FA0 ϵ = l-l0l0 Units: in. dents. such as cracks.) ○ Average Width (in. Introduction This report will present the findings of Group 2B (East) in a bending and compression experiment.Before beginning the procedure the samplewas inspected for any obvious defects.

divided bythe second moment of area of the specimen.bending strain (ε).) The specimen was removed from the machine and chiseled into a 6in2 cross sectional area for the compression test.) ○ Position (in. Once complete the following data for the test were downloaded from the machine’s supplied computer program: ○ Time (min. The data was entered into the computer program and the test was started. and compressive stress(σ).This process lasted nearly 13 minutes until the specimen broke apart. For the compression test the paver was placed between two flat surfaces on the machine that would exert the force on paver. Data See Appendices C&D Analysis From the raw data supplied by the testing machine and post-procedure measurements. while we took a measurement of the deflection about once a minute.Bending stress is the bendingmomentabout the neutral axis of the specimen multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the neutral axis. The brick failed after about 12 minutes. The force on the brick gradually increased and we took measurements of the deflection about every minute.) ○ Load (lbf. The machine was then finely adjusted until the brick was tight to the testing apparatus and there was a miniscule force read on the machine.3) At this point the first part of the experiment was ready to proceed. Slowly the bendingforce on the specimen was increased. The computer program then stopped the procedure. The following is the bending stress from the sample just before breaking: M=Moment about neutral axis y=perpendicular distance to the neutral axis . the first calculations to be made are thebending stress (σ). From this point the procedure was much the same as it was for the bending test.○ Average Volume (in.

Strain is represented on the x-axis. For the compression test. it can now be analyzed. it will return to its original shape undamaged. it is permanently deformed. If the specimen is only deformed within its elastic region.317in=4096.333psi Once the stress and strain calculations are made.495 lbf∙in σ=MyI= (4096. One it passes through the elastic region and into the plastic region however. The stress-strain curve is a very important piece of data in both the bending and compression strength experiments.495lbf∙in)(3.639 psi. a stress-strain curve can be plotted. and the plastic region. A0=Cross-sectional area of specimen in. The fracture stress was 2986. The ultimate strength for the bending experiment was 3969.I=Second moment of area I=bh312=(3. There are two major parts of the curve: the elastic region. or from the raw data itself.068 psi. while stress is represented on the y-axis. it also gives an idea of the size of a material’s elastic region. The ultimate stress (or tensile stress) is simply the highest stress value reached during the experiment.605in)(2.317in)3.25in)312=3.423in4 M=Fd=1235lbf3. Once the stress-strain curve is plotted.423in4= 3969. Besides being a graphical representation of relationship between stress and strain during the experiments.639psi Compressive stress is simply the force appliedon the specimen divided by the cross-sectional area of the specimen.333 psi. For example. The fracture stress is the stress experience at the time of the specimen’s break. and the fracture stress was 1711 psi. and its ultimate strength. the compressive stress just before failure: F=force on specimen in lbf. .2 σ= FA0=11960lbf6in2=1993. the ultimate stress was 2088. The ultimate stress and fracture stress can be calculated either from the stress-strain curve.

068psi 1235lbf Compression 1993. References . with the only plastic deformation occurring during compression. but only by a small amount before it fails. one half of the broken paver was formed into a chunk with roughly a 6in2 surface area that the compression force was applied to. The stress – strain graph shows very little plastic deformation before the failure of the paver. For the compression segment of the experiment. The stress – strain graph clearly shows that there is virtually no plastic deformation for the bending test. but that is because of the larger surface area the force was applied to. and with an ultimate load of 1235 lbf. The ultimate load for compression was much higher than that of bending.Results Concrete YieldStrength UltimateStrength FractureStrength UltimateLoad Bending 3969.639psi 2986. This shows that the paver can be plastically deformed.333psi 2088. Therefore we can conclude from the data gathered that the concrete is very brittle under bending conditions such as were applied. The break occurred in the center as expected.639psi 3969.333psi 1711psi 12530lbf Discussion The bending portion of the experiment took a total of about 13 minutes and resulted in the paver being broken roughly in half. Conclusions Concrete is anespecially brittle material.

Beer.). William F. Foundations of Material Science and Engineering (5 ed. E.Bending Test Data (reduced) Partner Data Point File Bending Test Start of Test Wed 13 Oct 2010 11:23:52 Time Position Load ( lbf Stress(psi) Strain(in/i . Mechanics of Materials (5th ed. J.). Appendices Appendix A – Bending Test Appendix B – Compression test Appendix C . H. New York: McGraw Hill.Ferdinand P. Smith. R. (2006). New York: McGraw Hill. (2006).

0057 350 3.0048 165 1.005 232 2.3568 826 314.3566 126 584.0028 30 0.35667 0.004 98 1.2850 202 745.0057 367 3.005 199 2.005 216 2.000563 27 0.000785 958 .85167 0.70333 0.6422 176 694.0032 47 0.000746 66 0.19833 0.16833 0.7138 101 530.000681 163 0.02 0.0055 317 3.42847 502 151.0052 266 2.0045 148 1.34667 0.000301 284 0.000458 475 0.000654 965 0.03 0.515 0.9991 452 909.18833 0.0055 283 3.0055 300 3.9996 851 369.7140 8 260.17833 0.0057 334 3.7135 402 800.000497 773 0.000654 965 0.0043 131 1.87167 0.0023 14 0.99995 501 96.000785 958 0.000746 66 0.284 48 1288.6424 876 421.000589 468 0.000720 461 0.0038 81 1.505 0.525 0.01 0.0710 076 475.006 401 0 44.000654 965 0.2847 502 1018.000720 461 0.36667 0.000681 163 0.000628 766 0.927 553 1073.006 384 4.000746 66 0.000419 177 0.84167 0.998 875 1179.67333 0.000628 766 0.3563 427 854.68333 0.04 0.69333 0.0043 115 1.535 0.86167 0.000720 461 0.570 355 1124.000523 972 0.0052 249 2.( min ) ( in ) ) n) 0 0 0 0.000366 78 0.0712 775 205.33667 0.0048 182 2.927 283 0 0.9994 151 639.000563 27 0.6419 477 964.0035 64 0.641 678 1234.

38667 0.855 15 2047.22833 0.0075 704 7.89167 0.545 0.284 21 1558.0062 418 4.497 683 2368.88167 0.72333 0.926 473 2153.001008 646 0.0062 434 4.641 408 1504.569 545 1938.000956 248 0.570 085 1394.23833 0.000851 454 0.0065 485 5.007 586 6.211 808 2532.008 788 8.0073 653 6.000812 156 0.855 42 1774.854 611 2587.001047 943 .000851 454 0.0065 502 5.565 0.854 881 2317.212 618 1722.926 743 1883.212 348 1992.0073 670 6.007 603 6.0068 552 5.000890 752 0.926 203 2423.569 006 2478.001008 646 0.000916 95 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.0068 519 5.000916 95 0.000982 447 0.20833 0.37667 0.000982 447 0.24833 0.497 413 2642.39667 0.000956 248 0.001047 943 0.569 815 1668.0068 536 5.0075 687 7.008 822 1343.0075 721 7.000956 248 0.000812 156 0.000982 447 0.212 078 2262.569 275 2208.0077 771 7.73333 0.0077 754 7.000890 752 0.90167 0.000851 454 0.40667 0.91167 0.555 0.4.497 953 2098.283 94 1828.927 013 1613.001047 943 0.008 805 8.001008 646 0.71333 0.000812 156 0.007 620 6.0065 468 4.21833 0.575 0.0077 737 7.07 0.007 569 5.998 605 1449.000916 95 0.0062 451 4.000890 752 0.74333 0.000916 95 0.0073 637 6.140 216 0.

139 946 2966.067 813 3670.496 873 3182.009 1024 10.001074 142 0.139 136 3776.0095 1175 11.001178 936 0.782 208 3561.001205 135 0.0087 990 10.44667 0.782 478 3291.425 011 3616.0085 939 9.11 0.0092 1108 11.001074 142 0.95167 0.76333 0.425 281 3342.0082 855 8.75333 0.001074 142 0.92167 0.001205 135 0.001113 44 0.0095 1142 11.001244 433 0.067 543 3940.28833 0.77333 0.0092 1091 11.0085 906 9.595 0.009 1040 10.1 0.78333 0.0095 1158 11.0087 973 9.710 616 3722.0087 956 9.43667 0.001244 433 0.781 938 3831.001283 731 .27833 0.41667 0.001205 135 0.26833 0.001178 936 0.0092 1074 10.0082 839 8.001205 135 0.854 071 3127.211 538 2802.0098 1226 2696.853 801 3397.001139 638 0.854 341 2857.94167 0.0082 889 9.139 406 3506.139 676 3236.211 268 3072.001113 44 0.001244 433 0.8.001113 44 0.0092 1125 11.09 0.001283 731 0.0087 1007 10.001139 638 0.0085 923 9.497 143 2912.12 0.0082 872 8.615 0.009 1057 10.0098 1209 12.001244 433 0.0095 1192 12.496 603 3452.710 346 0.605 0.783 018 2748.782 748 3018.25833 0.424 741 3886.001178 936 0.42667 0.93167 0.001074 142 0.585 0.001139 638 0.001139 638 0.

33 0.35667 0.17833 0.02 0.0048 2353 67 3 420.004 1848 308 8 0.83 0.5 8 0.005 2690 33 2 476.83 0.002 392.00057 0.85167 0.00213 2.525 0.0033 1174 67 7 223.34667 0.Appendix D – Compression Test Data (reduced) Partner Data Point File Compression Test Start of Test Wed 13 Oct 2010 11:50:34 Time Position Load Stress( Strain(in/ ( min ) ( in ) ( lbf ) psi) in) 0 0 0 0 0 27.00031 0.66 0.0043 2016 336 1 364.66 0.515 0.5 6 0.0053 3026 33 6 .16 2.00155 1.00168 1.0013 333 55.00146 1.00177 1.0007 164 33 1 0.00191 2.00235 2.0045 2185 67 0.33 0.16833 0.0035 1511 33 6 279.333 0.01 0.00097 0.0022 669 111.16 0.003 1006 67 3 195.00222 2.00111 0.00213 2.0017 501 83.0048 2521 67 3 448.69333 0.0053 2858 33 6 504.00235 3.84167 0.86167 0.00155 1.83 0.33667 0.67333 0.00133 1.505 0.33 0.5 8 139.18833 0.16 0.0035 1343 33 6 251.66 0.0025 838 67 1 167.00075 0.0038 1679 33 9 0.03 0.68333 0.

00346 7 0.37667 0.71333 0.009 7235 1093.33 33 1009.36667 0.07 0.0032 0.73333 0.0072 5215 5.00297 8 0.0082 6561 6.0085 6730 6.008 6056 841 869.72333 0.06 0.5 644.008 6225 1037.0055 3195 3.0058 3531 588.0032 0.0078 5888 6.555 0.5 560.5 6.0058 3362 532.83 33 728.87167 0.3.00333 3 0.16 67 953.0065 4373 4.6 67 1177.006 3699 3.0067 4709 616.88167 0.66 67 700.0063 4036 4.83 33 4.83 33 756.6 67 1205.33 33 981.89167 0.3 33 6.00355 6 0.00364 4 0.00244 4 0.05 0.00311 1 0.00297 8 0.004 .007 5046 5.22833 0.00288 9 0.535 0.0065 4205 4.8 33 0.16 67 925.0028 0.0072 5383 5.5 3.00333 3 0.006 3868 4.00288 9 0.19833 0.0075 5720 5.545 0.5 1121.00355 6 0.00266 7 0.20833 0.66 67 672.23833 0.00386 7 0.90167 0.21833 0.0075 5551 5.0067 4541 4.04 0.33 33 3.6 67 1149.00266 7 0.39667 0.16 67 897.38667 0.007 4878 813 5.00311 1 0.70333 0.00364 4 0.00257 8 0.565 0.0087 6898 7.004 0.0082 6393 1065.5 6.00257 8 0.00377 8 0.83 33 784.009 7066 7.

014 10769 1626.1 0.11 0.76333 0.012 9423 1570.0145 11106 11.0048 0.615 0.00577 8 0.011 8749 8.00622 2 0.43667 0.93167 0.0127 9928 10.0152 11443 11611 1851 1879.27833 0.0147 11275 11.6 67 1682.3 33 1542.00631 1 0.00586 7 0.77333 0.0098 7740 1290 7.575 0.00444 4 0.00511 1 0.6 67 1710.8 33 7.74333 0.08 0.00497 8 0.5 9.0108 8413 8.0135 10433 10.00466 7 0.6 67 1738.1 0.40667 0.0117 9086 9255 1374 1402.0102 8076 1346 8.92167 0.42667 0.41667 0.00488 9 0.0125 9759 9.1 67 1486.5 9.91167 0.24833 0.7.006 0.0092 7403 7.0142 10938 1823 11.585 0.0048 0.006 0.25833 0.0105 8244 8.26833 0.5 1654.00453 3 0.0132 10264 10.5 9.0123 9591 1598.1 67 1907.00546 7 0.0108 8581 8.8 33 1794.8 33 1261.00533 3 0.3 33 1514.00675 .00644 4 0.1 67 1458.8 33 1766.00422 2 0.595 0.015 0.01 7908 1318 8.1 67 1935.00564 4 0.0112 8918 9.09 9.013 10096 10.00666 7 0.94167 0.0115 0.0135 10601 10.00653 3 0.44667 11.8 33 10.0095 7571 1233.00408 9 0.00435 6 0.605 0.1 67 1430.00555 6 0.0052 0.75333 0.

12 0.78333 0.5 6 0.0157 11779 11.00764 4 0.95167 0.3 33 2047.28833 0.3 33 12.00822 2 .00697 8 0.45667 0.1 67 1991.3 33 2019.11.00711 1 0.0172 12284 67 1963.0165 12116 12.00733 3 0.016 11948 12.0185 12453 2075.

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