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Unit I Communication Fundamentals

What is Communication?

COMMUNICATION We live in a world of communication: a world in which people react violently or peacefully to a statement, an action, or a concept. Pick up the newspaper, snap on the radio, or flip on the TV for proof. A world leader directs a statement of hostility to another (communication), and tanks begin to roll! A president or p rime minister steps down (communication), and peace settles over a torn and batt ered nation. A representative speaks in the United Nations (communication), and fifteen minutes later, rioting and bloodshed take place six thousand miles away. Nations, companies, families, and individuals in today’s world constantly act and react as a result of communication. Sigband and Bateman 1981


WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? Can we ever agree on the true nature of communication? Here are some description s of human behavior. Does communication take place in all of them? (A) _______Yo u yawn, but no one sees it. (B) _______You yawn, and your friend later realizes that you were tired even though she didn’t pay any attention to it at the time. (C ) _______You yawn, and your friend says, “Am I that boring?” (D) _______You wave at a friend, but he doesn’t see you. (E) _______Your friend later says, “I’m sorry I didn’t wave back, but I was thinking about something else and didn’t realize you had wav ed to me until after I turned the corner.” What is communication?

(F) _______You wave to a friend, and she waves back. (G) _______You send a lette r to a friend, but it gets lost in the mail. (H) _______Your dad lectures you fo r having a messy room, and although you know he is talking to you, you really ar en’t paying much attention. (I) _______You give a speech to a group that is eager to hear what you have to say. Adapted from Littlejohn 2002: p. 8 What is communication?

Communication • Communication is the transferring and understanding meanings • The best idea, or s uggestions, or plans cannot take form without communications • Communication can t ake many forms: – Oral vs. written – Verbal vs.non-verbal – Interpersonal vs. organizational

the receiver assigne d the same meaning to the message as you intended. Communication is complete when feedback is received. .COMMUNICATION Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages. and action taken. message is understood.

Achieving success in today’s workplace depends on effective communication among employees and their managers as well as with peopl e outside the organisation such as customers. government.and stakeholders (various groups you interact with) . suppliers. NGO(nongove rnmental organizations).

e-mail. voice mail.Communication challenges in today’s workplace • Advances in technology: Use of new technological tools (internet. extranet. frequency. • Market Globalization: Incr easing tendency of the world to act as one market driven by technological advanc es in telecommunication • Workforce Diversity: Workforce is made up of people with diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. intranet. e-commerce) incr ease the speed.and reach of communication. . faxes. • Team-based Organizations:Organizations use teams and collaborative work groups to make fast decisions required to succ eed in a global and competitive market place.

Communication: The Role of ICT In business. communication can be: • between individuals • between individuals and o rganisations • within a business • between a business and an external organisation .

Communication Communication takes place within networks. These are some of the types of networ k: chain circle wheel all-channel • • • • .

Communication • A chain network e.g formal contact .

g. between people at the same level .Communication • A circle network e.

g.Communication • A wheel network e. sales teams report to head office .

brainstorming .g.Communication • An all-channel network e.

because of: • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) .Communication Communication in the business world is very different today compared to twenty y ears ago.

Examples of ICT Use • • • • • Mobile telephones Video and tele-conferencing Lap-top computers E-mail Multi-med ia communications .

it can fail if: jargon is used i nappropriately badly written messages are transmitted the message goes to the wr ong receiver information overload takes place the communication channel breaks d own • • • • • .Communication Failure No matter what medium of communication is used.

Communication Failure In the UK until recently, firms wanting to move into e-commerce have been: • preve nted due to slow connection speeds • affected by lack of broadband services Go to the Activity for more on this.

Communication in Business

Communication • Transferring information from one part of the business to another that leads to some outcome, changed behaviour or changed practice • Formal Communication – establi shed and agreed procedures • Informal Communication – channels not formally recognis ed – ‘the grapevine’

Communication Finance Dept Change in payment systems E-mail Sender or Instigator Channel Medium Feedback Receiver

Communication • Methods: – – – – – – – – Verbal – face to face Written Electronic Visual Audio Group meetings Notice Text!

Communication • Medium: – Letters – Memo – Report – Notice board – Faxes – Telephone – E-mail – Face to f y language – Video/video conferencing – Internet

Communication • Choice of Medium affected by: – – – – – Need for record Direction of the information flow Number of people to be reached Confidentiality Nature of the information – length, complexity, speed of transfer – Cost of the medium

The Communication Process Encoding Message Channel Message Decoding Sender Noise Receiver Feedback .

COMMUNICATION PROCESS The six steps of communication process: 1) The sender has an idea 2) The sender encodes the idea 3) The sender transmits the message 4) The receiver gets the me ssage 5) The receiver decodes the message 6) The receiver sends feedback .

.(Comm.The sender has an idea You have an idea/information and want to share it.Process cont.) 1. Express the idea.

facial expression. and style.The sender encodes the idea When you put your idea into a message form that your receiver will understand. your audience. length.) 2.Process cont.all of which depends on your idea .(Comm. ge sture). and your personal style or mood. You decide on the message’s form (words. organization. tone. y ou are encoding it. .

report. letter. memo. Process cont. your need for speed.(Comm. face-to-face exchange).) 3. your audience’s location. you select a communication channel (spoken or written) and a medium (te lephone. e-mail. formality required. and the media available to you. fax.The sender transmits the message To physically transmit your message to your r eceiver. . This choice depends on your message.

your receiver has to read it before understanding it.The receiver gets the message For communication to occur your receiver must first get the message. If you send a letter. Process cont.(Comm. . If you are givi ng a speech.) 4. your receiver has to hear you and has to pay attention.

Process cont. The decoded mess age must then be stored in the receiver’s mind.The receiver decodes the message Your receiver must decode (absorb and understand) your message. .) 5.(Comm.

. Process cont. the receiver may respond in some way and signal that response to you.(Comm.The receiver sends feedback After decoding the message. This response (feedback) enables you to evaluate the effective ness of your message.) 6.

Example Write out the steps of communication process and use these steps to communicate to Mr. Akshay that his application for the position of Project Manager has been accepted by the company. .


Communication Channels Written Communication Verbal Communication The Grapevine Nonverbal Cues Electron ic Media .

Identifying barriers Communication is about overcoming barriers. State all the barriers that you can think of that impact on your day-to-day comm unication. .

Message from external stakeholder ignored due to ‘groupthink’ Message fro m organisation misinterpreted by members of a particular group Message from inte rnal stakeholder not sent because individual is marginalised Message not availab le to a public sector organisation due to lack of resources Message not delivere d due to technical failure Message cannot be heard and visual aids cannot be see n by some members of the audience Common barriers to communication: probing for ‘c auses’ .Common barriers to communication: Apparent ‘cause’ Physiological Psychological Cultural Political Economic Technologic al Physical Practical Example Message in an internal report not received due to blindness.

Communication Barriers Filtering Selective Perception Apprehension Language Emotions Information Overload .

Communication Barriers 1)Perceptual and Language Differences 2)Restrictive Environments 3)Deceptive Com munication Tactics 4)Distractions .

Barriers 1) Perceptual and LanguageDifferences: Perception is people’s individual interpretation of the sensory world around them. if a detail doesn’t quite fit. . Selective perception: As a sender you choose the details that seem important to you. As a receiver.Comm. you’re inclined to distort the information rather than re arrange your pattern.a process known as selective perception. you try to fit new details into your existing pattern.

Comm. 1)Perceptual and Language Differences: Language: is an arbitrary (random) code t hat depends on shared definition . Barriers cont.

2)Restrictive Environments Restrictive environment is when information flow is l imited. .Comm. blocked by an authoritarian style of management. Barriers cont.

displaying grap hic data unfairly.) manipulates receivers.quoting inaccurate statistics. and leads to failure. hiding negative or positive information. blocks comm . (exaggerating benefits.Comm. . leaving out crucial info. Barriers cont. 3)Deceptive Communication Tactics Deceptive comm.

Barriers cont. poor lighting. poor air conditioning . poor accoustic s. illegible copy. 4)Distractions • Physical Distractions: Background noise. bad connection on phone.Comm. uncomfortable chair. health problems.

Barriers cont. or fearful. 4)Distractions • Emotional Distraction: When you are upset.Comm. you have hard ti me shaping your message objectively. hostile. .

voice mail. • Round the clock accessibility: To be accessible immediately wherever whenever. so rt out what is useful/not useful information. • Information Overload: Too much information make it difficult to discriminate. e-mail. Barriers cont.Comm. Technology demands instant answers. Professionals are constantly tied to work by cell phones. . 4)Distractions cont.

Physiological Barriers • Physiological barriers to communication are those that result from the performan ce characteristics and limitations of the human body and the human mind. .

Perception – object recognition Perception – object recognition .

What’s your perception? .

Optical illusion (1) .

Docklands. 1010 LaTrobe Street. 3008 .Optical illusion (2) Port 1010 building in the Docklands region of Melbourne. Australia. VIC. Australia. Melbourne.

Human memory processes Human memory processes: a three-stage model .

this limit is often identified as 6–7 separate pieces of informa tion.Human Memory • The sensory memory acts as a kind of temporary collectionpoint for incoming stim uli of all kinds. • Consider the three out of ten best slogans of all time according to Inc. m agazine: .

w hich often arise where individuals in one social group have developed different norms. Cultural barriers to communication. Ethic al barriers to communication. values and behaviours of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. these occur when individuals working in an organis ation find it difficult to voice dissent. even though their organisation is acti ng in ways they consider to be unethical. cultural and ethical barriers • Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity.Social. or behaviours to individuals associated with another group. values. a process in which the norms. • • .

all share a tendency to devel op distinctive cultures. teams and other social groupings. • Nations. occupations . • They can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication.Cultural barriers • Cultures shape the way we think and behave. organisations. .

com/l ifestyle/culture.indoindians.5 The iceberg metaphor for culture Source: http://www.The iceberg metaphor for culture Figure 2.htm .

a Scottish missionary working in Malawi. in the late 1800s: “The influence of culture and environment can have an effect on our visual percep tion.” Where are they? What is above the woman s head? • •   . What you see will largely depend on where you live in the world. Africa.Culture and environment Robert Laws.

• ‘mo ral blindness’. • ‘moral deafness’. failure to hear or attend to moral concerns raised by others. failure to recognise the moral implications of actions.Barriers to ethical behaviour Three communication-related barriers to ethical behaviour in business organisati ons are: • ‘moral silence’. (Bird 2002 ) . failing to speak up about issues that are known to be wron g.

Your first draft is as follows: “this first layoff is part of a continuin g series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years. but a small layo ff will certainly start next month. You are in charge of writing a letter on thi s issue. In fact. the company plans to reduce staffing by as much as 50% over the next 3 to 5 year s.Ethical choice (1) Your company has been a major employer in the local community for years. but shi fts in the global marketplace have forced some changes in the company.” . The size and timing of future layoffs have not been decided.

” Do you think this suggested wording is ethi cal? .” Your boss is concern ed about the negative tone of the language and suggests the following sentence: “t his layoff is a part of the company’s ongoing efforts to continually align its res ources with global market conditions.Ethical choice (2) Your first draft is as follows: “this first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.

we anticipate further red uctions in the future.” (Unethical) The company should be as specific as possible without causing itself unnecessary damage.” • • . “Unless business conditions change.Ethical choice (3) • “This first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years. but we are currently unable to identify the timing or ext ent of such reductions.” (Too Negative) “This layoff is a part of the company’s o ngoing efforts to continually align its resources with global market conditions.

Sales representative Workforce. Wor kers Artificial. Manufactured Gender bias Salesman Manpower Man-made Ethnic bias Jim Wong is an Jim Wong is very tall unusually tall Asian Workers with physical disabilities face many barriers on the job Disability bias Crippled workers face many barriers on the job .Overcoming Bias in Language Example Unacceptable Preferable Salesperson.

Overcoming the barriers Taking the receiver more seriously Thinking more clearly about the message Deliv ering messages skilfully Focusing on the receiver Using multiple channels and en coding Securing appropriate feedback .

Guidelines for overcoming communication barriers: 1)Adopt an audience-centered approach 2)Foster open-communication climate 3)Comm it to ethical communication 4)Create efficient messages .

Overcoming communication barriers 1)Adopt an audience-centered approach:Make your message meaningful for those who will receive it. 2)Foster Open-Communication Climate:Get everyone participate s hare their ideas and feelings freely with everyone else. .

fair. Ethical communicatio n includes true accurate information. . not deceptive. 3)Commit to ethical communication Ethics are principles of conduct that govern a person or a group. respecting the rights of others. Ethical people are trustworthy.Overcoming communication barriers cont.

4)Create efficient messages: Minimize ph ysical distractions Minimize emotional distractions .Overcoming communication barriers cont.

Overcoming Communication Barriers • Constrain emotions • Watch nonverbal cues • Use feedback • Simplify language • Listen ac tively .

Unit I Types of Communication .

Internal communication a nd External communication 3. Formal communication and Informal communication 5. Upward communication and Downward communication 4. Mass communication 8.Types of Communication 1. Grapevine . Inte ractive communication 7. Personal communication and Business communication 2. Lateral communication 6.

Communication in organizational settings Internal • Formal communication network • Informal communication network External • Formal communication network • Informal communication network .

Internal Communication The exchange of information and ideas within an organisat ion .

and across an organisation’s formal hierarchy. . Formal Communication Network: Information may travel down.Internal Communication cont. up.

Informal Communication Network: People have casual conversations with friends in the office about anything (personal and business matters) .Internal Communication cont.

.External Communication External communication carries information into and out o f the organization.

Formal Communication Network: (letter. website. phone. internet. videotape) Marketing or public relations team’s job is to create and manage the flow of form al messages to outsiders. fax.External Communication cont. .

. Informal Communication Network: (Networking) Informal contacts with outsiders are important for learning about customer needs .External Communication cont.

Effective Business Communication • • • • • Provide practical information Give facts rather than impressions Clarify and con dense information State precise responsibilities Persuade others and offer recom mendations .

6. 2. 4. Oral communication Written communication Non-Verbal communicat ion Visual communication Audio-Visual communication Silence . 3. 5.Forms of Communication 1.

Unit I Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication .

Defining Verbal & Non-Verbal Before we turn our attention to a detailed explanation of non-verbal communicati on (NVC). we need to be very clear about our understanding of the term ‘verbal’ Quic k discussion – what do you think ‘verbal’ means? .

we use the word ‘verbal’ in a slightly different and more technica l way .Verbal Communication • We often use the term ‘verbal’ to mean ‘spoken’ eg. “I gave her a verbal warning” • In Co cation & Culture.

actions or behaviour) Verbal communication is restricted to language .Definition of Verbal Verbal = communicating with words and language (as opposed to images.

‘Design Features’ of Language • Language enables us to communicate about events beyond our immediate sensory exp erience • The capacity of language is infinite .

eye co ntact … – our non-verbal behaviour is mostly subconscious .Introduction to non-verbal communication – in communication with others only 30 % of the communication is verbal. facial expressions. 70 % is n on-verbal – non-verbal communication involves gestures.

For our purposes we will use a more restricted definition: “Bodily communication. other th an words and language” .Definition of NVC “All communication other than that involving words and language” • This is fine but co uld include everything from animal communication to films to gardening.

Comparing verbal and non-verbal communication • both are symbolic. communicate meaning and are patterned • all societies have diff erent non-verbal languages • the non-verbal communication is more than just body l anguage. our voice etc. the use of time and personal space. .

Forms 1. The functions (or uses) of NVC Befo re we do this. Different categories (or types) of NVC 2. we need to establish some general points about NVC and its relati onship to language and culture .

on the whole. we do not.Relationship between NVC. make the assumption that everyone will understand our first and preferred language • Most of us accept we must either le arn a new language or rely entirely on verbal signals for communication • We assum e we will have no difficulty in decoding nonverbal clues • We need to be aware of the enormous range and diversity of non-verbal behaviour . Language & Culture • When travelling.

What emotions do these facial expressions portray? .

NVC. care is needed in the interpretation of non-verbal clues • Jumping to conclusions about meanings of non -verbal clues can be dangerous . Language & Culture • Even in the secure territory of your own familiar culture.

whi lst paying due regard to the influence of context and culture and context • Your o wn culture and context has an impact on the deciphering of NVC • Interpretations a re both relative and subjective .Your Approach to NVC • You should suggest possible meanings and interpretations when analysing NVC.

IT INCLU DES: The way we speak (also known as prosodic features) Volume. ‘Ahhh’. rhythm The sounds we make other than languag e Laughter. pitch. speed of delivery. coughing Filled pauses such as ‘Mmmm’.Categorisation of NVC – Paralanguage PARALANGUAGE CONSISTS OF THE NON-VERBAL ELEMENTS THAT ACCOMPANY SPEECH. articulation. sighing. screeching. crying. ‘Ummm’ Unfilled pauses . intonatio n. yawning.

1987) . And there is no equivalent in English to the use of strongly nasalised speech to convey a range of emotional nuances in Portuguese” (Crystal. but in Finnish. David Crystal points out some cultural differences: A ‘creaky’ or ‘gravely’ tone of voice is often used in English to convey unimportance or disparag ement.Categorisation of NVC Paralanguage There are clear variations both within and between cultures in the use of parali nguistic features. it is a normal feature of many voice qualities.

especially for those young people who were sent to ‘finishing school’ as a preparation for ‘polit e society.Accent & Paralanguage Elocution lessons were once very popular amongst the middle classes. .

make-up. facial hair. jewellery. body adornment. accessories such as bags • You only have to think of the huge in dustries associated with the above examples to recognise the cultural significan ce of physical appearance . glas ses.Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Clothing. tattoos. piercing. hairstyle.

but also the shape and size of our bodies • It is the body’s capacity to communicate aspects of an indi vidual’s identity which makes us so aware of our physical appearance .Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Includes the things with which we cover or adorn our bodies.

Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Self expression is a fairly recent development in historical terms • Many societie s had (and some still do have) highly regulated codes of dress. often linked to rank and status .

such as Elizabeth I.Tudor monarchs. . only royalty were permitted to wear ermin e trims while fox and otter trims were restricted to members of the nobility. used Sumptuary Laws and Statutes of Apparel to control what people could wear eg.

Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Self expression in contemporary culture is also limited by requirements to wear uniforms or to observe dress codes • Not necessarily restricted to schools and pub lic services • Many corporations and organisations expect employees to communicate a corporate rather than an individual identity .


Further Categories of NVC Activity Body movement (kinesics) Closeness (proxemics) Touching (haptics) Eye movement ( occulesics) Smells (olfactics) .

orientation • Emblems – gestures with specific cultural meanings attached • Illustrators reinforce words of speaker s • Adapters are unconscious gestures to relieve stress or boredom • Posture is heav ily laden with value judgements .Kinesics • Gesture. facial expression.Body Movement . head nodding. posture.

Proxemics • Study of how we use space and distance • Includes seating arrangements. ‘invasion of personal space’ and ‘comfort zon s’ • Use of objects as ‘markers’ to indicate ownership of space .Closeness . queuing an d territoriality • Ideas of ‘personal space’.

Haptics • Physical contact such as holding. hitting. stroking. kissing. shaking hands. gui ding • Linked to proxemics • Touch is very important in our early development • Many r ules and taboos regulating physical contact .Touching .

Occulesics • Eye movement. length and direction of gaze. changes in pupil size • We are hyperse nsitive to information imparted by eyes • Can be argued eyes reveal the truthfulne ss of what is being said .Eye Movement .

Smell .Olfactics • Humans do not have a particularly welldeveloped sense of smell compared with oth er species • Perfumes and deodorants send powerful messages. as can the natural bo dy odours we try to suppress • A rapidly growing industry has developed around the use of smells .

or sep arately from language • We create and perceive messages using signs from a range o f verbal and non-verbal codes • To make this even more complex.Complex Messages • Rare for these non-verbal codes to operate in isolation from one another. these signs and co des to not always pull in the same direction .

A competent communicator will: .Recognise and use different verbal and n on-verbal styles as they are suited to different social situations .Communicative Competence This idea refers to our ability to use language not just accurately but appropri ately.Recognise t he subtle interplay of verbal and non-verbal elements in communication .Compens ate for possible misinterpretations in communication with others .

emotions and attitudes • Replacing and regulating language • Other Functions .The Functions of NVC • Communicating feelings.

changes in orientation allow ot hers to know what sort of relationship we want to have • We use NVC to establish a mutually acceptable level of intimacy . glances. otherwise known as an affective function • We rely more heavily on NVC in thi s area of personal communication • Looks.Communicating Feelings. Emotions and Attitudes • NVC has a particularly important role in establishing and maintaining relationsh ips.

emotion and attitude • Puts a lot of power in the hands of a skilled communicato r • Interpersonal attitudes can also be indicated by body closeness and orientatio n .• Non-verbal leakage – messages ‘slipping out’ in spite of our attempts to control them – ensures that high credibility is given to non-verbal cues in the area of feeling .


positions within the hierarchy are clearl y signalled by uniforms.Communicating Power & Status • Within organisations such as the army. but they are just as carefully observed . badges and behavioural codes such as saluting • In other organisations the non-verbal rules of the pecking order may not be so overt.

Peter Collett’s Handshake Theory • • • • • • • • The Bonecrusher The Limp Handshake The Firm Handshake The Limpet Handshake lammy Handshake The Reinforced Handshake The Relocated Handshake The Upper Hands hake .

Like their hand.” (Collett. as Collett’s more detailed explanation reveals: “A limp handshake occurs when someone offers a hand that is totally relaxed. Strong people often do the same. almost tender hand when he greets people outside the boxing ring – the complete opposite to what happens inside the ring. It do esn’t exert any pressure on the other person’s hand and it doesn’t contribute to the m utual production of the handshake. in more senses than one.The Limp Handshake may seem the most likely to offer evidence of submissiveness. doesn’t connect with the other person. but this is not necessarily so. they remain passive and detached – they’re simply not focused on the person t hey’re greeting. It’s said that Mike Tyson offers a relaxed. This often happens with people who are selfimportant or who have to shake hands with a lot of people…Women who want to cultivate an impression of l anguid femininity often present a rather limp hand to the person they’re greeting. but in their case it’s to emphasise their streng th. A person who offers a limp handshake is someo ne who. 2003) .

I really enjoyed the party la st night. .Replacing & Regulating Language • The role of NVC in inflecting the meaning of a sentence can be explored by ‘perfor ming’ the following sentence in different ways Well.

such as pitch.Replacing & Regulating Language • Paralinguistic features. tone and emphasis • Throw in other non-ver bal cues such as eyebrow lifting or illustrators such as the use of the index an d first finger of both hands to indicate inverted commas around a word • Number of potential meanings rapidly increases .

Replacing & Regulating Language • Non-verbal cues also make a significant contribution of conversation management • Rules of turn taking allow us to have coherent discussions without constantly ta lking over the top of each other • Paralanguage. gaze. eye contact and head moveme nt all play a part • It’s a set of rules that takes some time to grasp • Women typical ly have a more cooperative conversational style whereas men tend to provide less non-verbal feedback .

Other Functions • Many other uses to which we put our nonverbal codes including: .indicating role .self expression .group membership .persuasion and rhetoric .

Power/status .Emotion/feeling .Activity 1 Write and stage a brief scenario to show NVC at work in one of the following are as: .Attitude/Identity .

Watch again with sound. How much of a contrib ution has the performance of non-verbal codes made to the meaning of the scene a nd the identity of the characters? .Activity 2 Watch a scene from a television drama with the sound turned down. paying particu lar attention to non-verbal clues.

m. In each case try to identify a verbal form. . a verbal function. A JUDGE addressing a member of the jury who is not pay ing attention An upset and lost child approaches YOU in a busy supermarket YOU w ant to get past the doorman and into a crowded pub A MOTHER wants her teenage da ughter to come home before 9 p.Activity 3 Look at the following situations. a non-verbal form and a non-verbal function that could be assoc iated with the situation.

substitute for or contradict verbal behaviour • we often tru st our non-verbal behaviour to reveal our true feelings .Comparing verbal and non-verbal communication • non-verbal communication is learnt through relations with others • non-verbal beha viours can reinforce.

anger and surprise • but what causes the non-verbal behaviours can vary • there are also variations in the rules for non-verbal behaviour . disgust. fear. especially in facial exp ressions • six basic emotions are communicated by facial expressions in much the s ame way in most societies: – happiness. sadness.The universal use of non-verbal communication • there is some universality in non-verbal communication.

hand gestures. to keep someone at the right distance – contact cultures and non-contact cultures • KINESIC BEHAVIOUR body posture.Non-verbal codes • PROXEMICS how people use personal space. facial expressions and eye contac t • CHRONEMICS the use of time – M-time (Monochronic) and P-time (Polychronic) .

pitch.Non-verbal codes • SILENCE the use of silence in conversations • HAPTICS the use of touching – high-tou ch cultures and low-touch cultures • VOCAL CUES rate. articulatio n. loudness. objects. • ARTEFACTS things. tone. decorations etc. . accent. pronunciation etc.

Unit II Oral Communication .

and he can mould and adjust his message accordingly. • Spee ch is a powerful means of persuasion and control and the executives often prefer to transmit messages orally. it is advisable to t ransmit a message orally to save time. • Oral communication also saves money. • The speaker can get an effective and immediate fee dback if the speech or oral statement given makes a favorable impressing on the receiver or antagonizing him. or whether the receiver has clearly under stood his meaning or is feeling perplexe d or baffled. . whether the receiver will acquiesce or protest.INTRODUCTION • In most of the cases where immediate action is to be taken.

• A conversation in a telephone is oral but it cannot be called a face to face communication. • In som e cases face to face communication is not a oral communication .CHARACTERISTICS OF FACE TO FACE EXCHANGE • Face to Face to communication may seem to be similar to Oral communication howev er. there are certain situations which distinguishes the two.


Conviction comes from careful planning and thinking.ORAL STATEMENT • An important prerequisite of effective oral communication is that words should b e pronounced clearly and correctly. • When people take pleasure in talking then te nd to over communicate. so an effective statement is made only if the message delivered is arra nged in a logical sequence. • Precision makes oral communication very effective. • Jumbled ideas create co nfusion. . Sayin g “Can you come to office early tomorrow?” is not as good as “Can you come to office h alf an hour early than the usual time?” • Lack of Conviction causes lack of confiden ce.

These words in rupt the flow of speech. The most effective speech is that which is corr ect and at the same time natural an unaffected. These phrases are used unconsciously & conscious effort is to be taken to avoid it. In a oral communication it is advisable to choose words familiar to the listener r ather than words the speaker is familiar about. “Basically.• The major problem with communication is the assumption that it has been accompli shed. . “Do you follow?”. • Some speakers create a style to impress the audienc e which will make it even worse. The speakers should cutivate a p leasing tone and speak clearly and distinctly..”. To avoid this it is important to carefully select the words to be used.. • Speaker should avoid hackneyed p hrases and clichés like “What I mean is?”.

DELIVERING A ORAL STATEMENT • There may be lot cases where it is required to give a oral instruction to other employees. . It needs to be handled carefully.

• Use simple and clear language along with a pleasing tone. St art giving the instruction from the basic details or an overview of the subject. • Do not provide any irrelevant or distracting details. • Watch for the expr essions and gestures of the listeners which is a immediate feedback and alter th e style accordingly. Do not over talk or over load with a lot of information confusing the listeners.• Do not assume that the listener would have prior knowledge about the subject. • Allow the listeners to clarify themselves if not clear. • If necessary practice you oral statement in writing. • Select the appropriate time to deliver the statement in such a way that neither you nor the listeners are in a hurry and you have plenty of time to explain it in detail if demanded. • Organize the instruction that is to be given which would make sense to the listeners. . • Rep eat if there are any complicated instructions or make it interactive so it reach es well.

PUBLIC SPEAKING • • • • • • • • • • • ESSETIALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Body eak with conviction Maintain eye contact Pause Humor Audio-visual aids Handouts STOP Written Copy .

sincerity in of material. and effective use of Plain Engli sh. skilful development of the theme.PREPARED AND EXTEMPORE SPEECH • • • • • • • • • • • • Adjudicators look for knowledge of the subject matter. and varied if necessary. Length of Speech Topic Spee ch Writing and Preparation Writing DELIVERING THE SPEECH Make Contact! Voice Acc ent Pronunciation Gesture and Movement Notes and Prompt Cards . Your speech should be prepared. for the particular audience and setting in which it is to be delivered.

its products and it services. If it is a local company this may be quite eas y. Find out as much as you can about the compa ny. Read th rough a copy of your application to the company to refresh your memory. or if you are unable to keep the appointment.PREPARING FOR INTERVIEW 1. 4. 3. 2. Prepare your interview techniques. As soon as you are invited to an interview. Rehea rse positive language and think of any awkward questions that may be asked. Prep are your response and get someone to give his or her opinion on how it comes acr oss. If not you may have to do your research in the library / internet. arrange with them a m utually convenient time and date. Ask only 1 or 2 or 3 maximum 5. confirm with the company that you can attend. . List questions you may wish to ask about the company/job but never ask about money di rectly.

The nature of oral presentations • Why some speakers perform badly? – Misconception of the nature of oral communication – Not connected to linguistic pr oblems • Oral communication is different from written communication – Receiver has no control on information flow [silence] – No feedback monitoring suc cessful comprehension – Real danger of loosing contact with the audience • Oral communication is a complement to written communication .

contributed talk in a conference. .Focusing on a 15 min.

prepare colours carefully if you don’t want bad surprises • Check carefully that tation works correctly in the conference computer (use pack & go/package • Keep a backup • Check that figures display correctly at the projector Dressing – Always dress a little better than the audience • Check your your presen for CD) resolution • . • In doubt: prepare.Before the beginning • Do your paperwork well before.. prepare..

look relaxed. then talk to them – The aud ience is curious and friendly towards you – Can they hear you? .The beginning • It’s normal to be a somewhat nervous/tense. building eye contact. unworried and friendly • even if you are close to panic (body communication & pointers) – Look to the audience in silence. but so is the audience… • The talk is for the audience – Stand out in front of the audience without any physical barrier – Face the audienc e.

Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison • Speech : pitch.DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS • 1. spacing. capita lization. facial expressions • Writing/Printing: punctuation. fonts . body movements. pauses. speed. tone. margins. volume.

communi’cat . Also notice (b) word-stress: ‘language. Pronunciation of Words: (a) vowel and consonant sounds • (comparison of sounds with letters a-z). about /ə/ Or the l etters “th” in “thin” /ɵ/ & “then” /ð/. fate /eɪ/. father /a:/.DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 2. The letter “a” in : fat /æ/.

Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm INTONATION: rising / (yes / ) falling \ (yes \) combination \/ (yes \/) .DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) 3.

Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (av oiding “monotonous speech) . Stress 3. Clarity of articulation 7. Speed: p ing 6. Intonation 5. Rhythm 4.Sounds and sound combinations 2.Attributes of good oral communication • • • • • • • 1.

Unit II Listening and Speaking Skills .

meaning and fluency .Principles for Designing Listening and Speaking Techniques (Brown. 1994) • Techniques should cover the spectrum of learner needs from language based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction.



Listening Strategies • Looking for key words • looking for nonverbal cues to meaning • predicting a speaker’s purpose by the context of the spoken discourse • associating information with one’s existing cognitive .

Speaking Strategies • Asking for clarification • Asking someone to repeat something • Using fillers and co nversation maintenance cues • Getting someone’s attention .

• Using paraphrases for structures one can’t produce • Appealing for assistance • Using formulaic expressions • Using mime and one-verbal expression .

TYPES OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE (Nunan. 1991) • Monologue (planned and unplanned) – storytelling – news broadcast – readings (short stories. poems.) • Dialogue (Interpersonal and Transactional) . etc.

Types of Dialogues • Scripted Dialogue • Semi-Scripted • Using Picture Cues to present scenario for dialo g • Discourse Chain .

Using Picture Cues .

Son Tell mother you will go buy what she needs .Discourse Chain Mother send your son to the store Store Keeper Greet the store keeper. ask how much. Tell her/ him what you want to buy. Tell what you have and how much Pay her and say goodbye.

Unit II Written Communication: Report Writing and Presentation .

Agenda • • • • • • Types of Reports How to Write Reports Computer Reports Anatomy of a Report Sale Proposals Future of Reports .

Brochures. Manuals. Books . Articles. multimedia. Press Release • Presentatio ns. Notice Board. FAQs • Letters. Proposals. Resumes • Email. talks • Reports.How We Communicate • CVs. Signs. Web site. Newsletters. Pamphlets. Ca talogs • Advertisements.

Which Reports? Sales Reports Inspection Reports Annual Reports Audit Reports Feasibility Report s Progress Reports White Papers .

Technical Writing Reports • • • • Proposals User Manuals Technical Manuals White Papers .

Classification of Reports • • • • Formal Reports and Informal Reports Information Reports Analytical Reports Recom mendation Reports .

2. 5.5 Steps to Report Writing 1. 3. Define the problem Gather the necessary information Analyze the i nformation Organize the information Write the report . 4.

Organizing Reports • • • • • • • Comparison/contrast Problem-solution Elimination of alternatives General to p icular Geographic or spatial Functional Chronological .

Words • UK English and US English – International English and Indian English • Denotation and Connotation – Let me know when you’re free next week for a meeting.Words. – Terry is meticulous and takes care of details that others sometimes ign ore. Words. – C ould you let me know what times you have free? • Tone – Terry is hung up on trivial details. .

Writing Style • Brief writing style – – – – Omit needless words Combine sentences Rewrite Campus Jewelers’ main objective is t o increase sales. the objective is to double sales in the next fiv e years by becoming a more successful business. . – Campus Jewelers’ objective is to d ouble sales in the next five years. Specifically.

Anatomy of a Report • • • • • • • Cover Page Title Page Letter of Transmittal Table of Contents List of Illustr ons Executive Summary Report Body .

tit le. title. organization – Date submitted . organization of receiver – Author’s name.Report Components • Title Page – Name of report (all caps) – Name.

. Offer to answer questions. Thank those who help ed. -Additional research necessary -Thank the reader.Report Components • Letter of Transmittal -Background -Summarize conclusions and recommendations -Minor problems.

Report Components • Table of Contents – Show beginning page number where each report heading appears – Connect page number s with leaders (spaced dots) .

Report Components • Executive Summary – One of most important parts of report – Synopsis (overview) of report – Concentrate on what management needs to know – Summarizes • • • • • • Purpose Scope Methodology Findings Conclusions Recommendations .

Report Components • Executive Summary – Organized same as report – Style and tone same as report – Avoid unexplained jargon/ abbreviations – Do not refer to figures/tables presented later – Should not contain exhibits or footnotes – Include headings/make skimmable – Use transitional words – Len gth should be generally 1/10 of whole report .

Executive summaries should be the last pieces of reports to be written since the y are the most important sections of the reports! .

Report Components • Introduction – Explain problem motivating report – Describe its background and significance – Clari fy scope and limitations of report – Describe data sources. key terms – Clo se by previewing report’s organization . methods.

descriptive headings/skimmable . analyze.Report Components • Body – Discuss. interpret research findings – Arrange findings in logical segmen ts following outline – Use clear.

Limitations.Introduction – Purpose and Scope. questionnaires. Assumptions.Report Components • Report Body . printouts. and Methods -Background/History of the Problem -Body – Presents and interprets data -Conclusions and Recommendations -References or Works Cited -Appendixes – Interview transcripts. and previous reports . question tallies.

Report Components • Conclusions – Explain findings in relation to original problem .

Report Components • Recommendations – Make recommendations on suggested action to be taken .

readers • For example. but not all.Report Components • Appendix – All items must be referred to in the text and listed on the table of contents – It ems of interest to some. data questionnaires or computer printouts .

Report Components • References – List all references in section called “Works Cited” or “References” – Include all text. o line. and live sources – Follow style manual for citing sources .

second. third levels .or double-spaced • About 2500 words (not counting appendix) • Tables of Cont ents will help you organize and write report—write early! • Headings of same level m ust be consistent – First.Other Specifics on Report Writing • Single.

. Upper-case and Lower-case Level 5: Indented. Underline d.Headings Same-level headings must be written consistently! (For example) Level 1: CENTERED UPPER-CASE Level 2: Centered Upper-case and Lower-case Level 3 : Centered. lower-case paragraph heading ending with a period. Underlined. underlined. Upper-case and Lower-case Level 4: Flush left.

Label/Number/Informative Title 3. Discuss . Introduce 2.Visual Aids 1.

Sales Proposal • • • • • • Budget Objectives Strategy and Tactics Schedule Results Closing .

Avoid double emphasis. Use parallelism. Use glossy paper. Use wh space.Document Design • • • • • • • Use no more than 5 fonts. . Use templates. Use no more than 5 colors.

Future Reports Proposals • 250-page reports • 90-minute oral presentation • 50-page summary Reports • M ulti-media • Web .

Unit III Business Letters .

WRITING SKILLS • Effective business letters • Effective business memos .

REASONS FOR WRITING BUSINESS LETTERS We write business letters to • • • • Solicit business Respond to customer questions Nego tiate purchases Deal with suppliers .

8. 4.RULES FOR WRITING BUSINESS LETTERS 1. Use an appropriate closing. 2. 9. Proofread for spelling and grammatical errors. Spell names correc tly and have the correct address. Be direct and positive. 5. Always date your business correspondence. Be polite. Key all formal correspondence. 3. Avoid using fancy language. 7. . 10. Use names and titles appropriately. 6. Be persuasive and specif ic.


E-MAIL: THE BASICS • • • • • • • To: From: Subject: Cc. Bcc: Attached: Signature:

LAYOUT BLOCK STYLE → study “blocks of information” on the following slide or in the book, p.3 8 1) sender’s address 2) date 3) reference 4) recipient 5) Dear… 6) subject 7) body 8) closing phrase (Yours…) 9) writer’s signature

1 M A R G I N 3 4 EITHER OR 2 3 5 6 7 8 9

TRUE OR FALSE? 1. The name he top on the left. 2. The or st after the day in the 5. The paragraphs start at ed line.

and the address of the recipient (addressee) are at t date is on the left. 3. You have to write th, nd, rd date. 4. There is no punctuation (.) after the year. the margin. 6. Between each paragraph there is a dott

7. Under the signature, there is the name and the title of the writer. 8. There is a coma in the address or after “Dear…” or after “Yours faithfully/sincerely”. 9. Subjec t heading draws attention to what the letter is about. It usually starts with th e abbreviation Re:_____ .

• The date: 12 June 2007 • Dear…/Yours… Dear Sir or Madam a company Dear Sir unknown man Dear Madam unknown woman Dear Mr Smith man you know Dear Ms Smith woman you kno w Dear Mrs Smith married woman Dear Miss Smith unmarried woman

PARTS OF A LETTER • beginning (opening) • main message (more paragraphs possible) • ending (close)

Yo urs sincerely . Yours faithfully Dear Mr/Ms/Miss/ Mrs Smith . . . . .PARTS OF LETTER OR E-MAIL Dear…. . – OPENING – MAIN MESSAGE – CLOSING Yours … Dear Sir or Madam . .

..Beginning • We are writing in connection with. • We are interested in…and we would like to know… • I was happy to see you last week at the fai r. • We are writing to enquire about . we would like to inform you that . • With reference to your enquiry about… .. • Thank you for your letter of February 20 concerning … • Further to our telephone discussion …....

I hope that this information will help you. I look forward to hearing from yo soon. • Please feel free to contact me if you have any furthe r questions. Please feel free to contact us if nec essary. + CLOSE . We look forward to seeing you soon.Ending • • • • • • I look forward to receiving your reply/order. Please contact me if you nee d any further information.

..LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS REFERRING I am writing in connection with… With reference to… Further to… With regard to.

GIVING GOOD/BAD NEWS I am pleased to tell you that… I am happy to inform you that… I regret to tell you that… I am sorry to inform you that… SAYING WHAT YOU CAN/CANNOT DO We are able to… We are unable to… .

GIVING REASONS This is owing to… This is due to… This is as a result of… This is becau se of strikes… This is because of the fact that workers were on strike This is bec ause workers were on strike. .

. With apologies once again.APOLOGISING We must apologise for -ing/noun We are extremely sorry for –ing/noun W e are sorry that … (REASON) Please accept our apologies once again. We hope that t his has not caused you any inconvenience.

we are interested in… .REQUESTING INFORMATION / ACTION Please could you… We would be grateful if you coul d… We would appreciate it if you could… Please could you give us some details about… W e would like to know about /if… In particular.

propose action. apologize again REFUSE:say you’re sorry.explain. offer a solution (optional) . we will take legal action… REPLYING TO COMPLAINTS ACCEPT:apologize.MAKING A COMPLAINT • Unfortunately. say why you refuse. we have not yet received • We must insist that y ou pay … • Unless we hear from you.

MAKING A POINT I would like to draw your attention to (the fact that)… I should li ke to point out that… STYLE Polite tone → better response .

Principles of business letter writing 1 ) The first principle is clearness In orde r to achieve that you should not convey more than one idea in a sentence. You should not deal with more than one matter in a letter. You sh ould not introduce more than one topic in a paragraph. .

Express yourself in an orderly and logical way. Use daily expressions to replace jargons. A good business letter should be natural.Principles of business letter writing 2 ) The second principle is conciseness Try to make your message brief and to the point. H ere are some examples: . Avoid using long words and sentence s. human and easy to read.

You say: Please contact Mr Smith soon. the goods were dispatched on the 13 of this month. You say: We sent your Order 319 on 13 April.Instead of saying: We should be obliged if you could contact Mr Smith at an earl y date. . Instead of saying: With reference to your Order 319.

In terms of lang uage.Principles of business letter writing 3) The third principle is correctness You have to make sure that both the language and facts are correct. Pay attention to punctuation for it will affect the meaning of the sentence . you should make sure that you make no grammatical mistakes.

price and so on. You should also make sure that there a re no typing mistakes. Pay special attention to numbers. Our shop in Canada was destroyed by fire. we know that the writer has only one shop.Our shop. in Canada. From this sentence. . Here we kno w that the writer has more than one shop. such as quantity. was destroyed by fire.

friendly and si ncere.000 tons of Black Tea.Principles of business letter writing 4)The last principle is courtesy: This is more than politeness. A good business letter should be positive.000 tons of Black Tea. You say: Thank you for your order for 1. Instead of saying: I am in receipt of your order for 1. .

The “You approach” Adopt “you approach” when you convey a good news. You say: You will be pleased to hear that you will soon be able to have a free customer service for your newly purchased refrigerator for 3 years. . Instead of saying: We shall be abl e to offer you free customer service for your newly purchased refrigerator for 3 years.

’ . Instead of saying: ‘Your letter is not clear at all. you have to h andle it tactfully.The “You approach” Avoid using “you approach” when conveying bad news. I cannot understand it. In this situation.’ You say: ‘If I understand your letter correctly….

It will help y ou a lot when you write business letters yourself. The best way to learn it is to read more and • write m ore. In this way you will have a better understanding • of what you have learned a nd be able to use them.How to learn this course • First. you need to have a good command of English. . pay attention to the sp ecial terms in this • course. It is a good idea to recite some letters. Then.

• Blocked layout style and.Layout of the business letter • Full-blocked layout style. • Semi-blocked layout style a re commonly used. .

Everything is ranged left. If you have quotations or a list of something. . Mark this part out by leaving one line space between this paragraph and the rest of the letter. Use single space within the paragraph. The re is no punctuation in the address and after the salutation and the complimenta ry close. with 5-space indentations on the left. you should start a new par agraph. Use double spaces between parag raphs.Full-blocked layout style The full-blocked layout style has no indentation. This style is wid ely used today because it is easy to type and therefore efficient.

The complimentary close and the signature start f rom the middle. The Subject is centered.This is similar to the Full-blocked layout style but the date is placed on the r ight. .

Structure • • • • • • • • • 1) Letterhead 2) Date 3) Inside name and address 4) The salutation 5) Sub ading or caption 6) The body of the letter 7) Complimentary close 8) Signature 9 ) Miscellaneous matters .

telex number. This is important when you have to write the letterhead yoursel f. . which inclu des the company’s name. fax num ber. The printed letterhead is usually centered.1) The letterhead Companies usually have paper with printed letterhead. Here I’d like to remind you that the address in the letterhead is the address of the sender no t the recipient. email address etc. postcode. telephone number. address.

The date should be placed two lines below the letterhead. B. For the full-blocked style. you put it on the left.2)The date A. not Sept. not Oct. The date should be typed in full and not abbreviated Sep tember . October. . For the blocked or semi-blocked you put it on the right.

Do not give the dates in figures for they may cause confusion. Here are the recommended forms. 4. use 1. For the date. There is no comma between the month and the year in British Englis h.C.) April 3. 3 April 2000 (British English. 2000 (American English . 2. D. Stick to one form once you ha ve chosen it. 3.

If you do not know whether a lady is married or no t. use Dear Madam or Sir.. This is the name and address of the recipient. such as Mr. Mrs. All these are followed by family names. and Miss. It is typed at the left-hand marg in two lines below the date.3) The inside name and address. use Ms. They are not followed by family names. Courtesy titles are used in business correspondence . . If you do not know whether th e recipient is a man or a woman.

Thus a letter concerni ng purchasing should be addressed to: The Sales Manager.If you know the appropriate departmental head. you’d better address the letter to him or her. by his official title not by his or her name. the recipient’s address. . Dear Sir.

Smith.When the recipient holds a special title. James White / James White. such as Doctor. J ames White. MD . Professor. MD But not Dr. Dr. address him /her by this title: Prof.

You may use formal salutation if you write to a company and do not know who to addr ess to. In this case you use Dear Sirs.4). Dear Mr. and in America people like to use Gentle men. The salutation The salutation is the polite greeting with which a letter beg ins. If you know the person you are writing to. Green. you may use informal salutation. The expression you use depends on your relationship with the recipient. .

Formal: Dear Sir Dear Madam Dear Sirs Gentlemen Informal: Dear Mr Green Dear Mrs Green Dear Miss Green Dear Ms Green .

You have to use dear to go with Sir/Sirs but Gentlemen is used alone and cannot be used in the singular. . you may write Dear Madam or Sir/Dear Sir or Madam: Dear Madam or Sir Dear Sir or Madam You ca nnot use Sir/Sirs alone. The salutation is two lines be low the inside address without any indentation.If you do not know whether a man or a woman will read your letter.

blocked or semi-blocked. You can write the subject in the follow ing ways: . It can be put on the left or in the middle depending on wh ether the letter is full-blocked. This is used to call reader’s attention to the topic of the letter.5). therefore it is a good idea to unde rline it or make it in boldface letters. The subject heading or caption The subject heading is often placed one line below the salutation.

Jones.A: Underline your subject like this: Dear Dr. Re: Applying for a position Subject: Applying for a position .

B: Make your subject in boldface letters Dear Dr. Re: Applying for a posi tion Subject: Applying for a position . Jones.

C: Omit the words Re and Subject: Dear Dr. Applying for a position . Jones.

6) The body of the letter You may use the first person singular: I have received your application and shall be bringing it before the Board for consideration th is week. . You may also use the first person plural: We have received your applica tion and shall be considering it at a board meeting this week. You can even use the impersonal passive: Your application has been received and will be considere d by the Board this week.

especially if such matters are not dealt with in the same department of the company. If you are replying a letter. you may begin by introducing yourself and then state the purpose of you r writing. If you have several matters to talk about. If this is the first time to contact. . do not talk about the m in one letter. begin your l etter by referring to the previous correspondence.You should plan you letter carefully.

Important Questions What is the purpose of the letter? What is your expectation? What language should you use to achieve your purpose? Is this the first time yo u discuss the matter or you have talked about it before? Do you have all the inf ormation you need? What is your company’s policy concerning the matter you are dea ling with? .

You should try to remove part of the letter from the first page to the second by leaving more room between the letter head and the date . and leave more room for the hand written signature. Write “t o be continued” on the bottom right hand side of the first page . do not write only the signature on the second pag e. between the date an d the inside address. .If a second page is necessary.

Write the page number. name of the recipient a nd the date and.The second page should be written on a blank paper with the same kind of texture and the color as the first page. each having 30---34 mm. James Smith Page 2 March 2.. 2000 When writing a letter. like this: Page 2 The Universal Trading Co. 2000 or Mr. February 10. . leave enough spac e for both the left and the right margins.

The complimentary close The complimentary close is merely a polite way of en ding a letter. The expression used must suit the occasion and match the salutati on. Formal: Dear Sir(s) Yours faithfully Gentlemen Truly yours Less formal: Dear Mr. Jones Yours sincerely .7).

The signature A letter should be signed by hand in ink. As many hand-written signatures are illegible. the name of the signer is usually typed below the sig nature and followed by his job title or position. Letters predominantly in the first person singular are signed by th e name of the writer.8). Leave 3 lines for a handwritte n signature. .

Only the p erson who can represent the company is able to sign on behalf of the company. If that person is not available. . or you may use ‘fo r’. then the person who is given the authority to sig n can sign for the company.Letters in the first person plural or impersonal passive are usually signed with the name of the firm. Below the name of the firm is the writer’s name. In this case you use pp or per pro.

Yours faithfully for/pp T he Overseas Co.For a person who has been given the authority to sign. Ltd (Signature) W. Black Marketing director .

For a person who has the authority to represent the company to sign. (Signature) B Davis Managing Director The Overseas Co. Ltd . Yours si ncerely.b.

The Overseas Co. The letter is signed by a person in his official capacity to indicate the exa ct degree of authority. Yours sincerely.c. Ltd (Signature) Philip Wang The Assistant Sales Manager .

Miscellaneous matters 1 ) Carbon copy In this case you write cc below the sign ature at the left margin. C ooper . Yours faithfull y for The Overseas Co. Black Marketing director c.9). Mr.c. CC is the abbreviation of carbon copy. J. Ltd (Signature) W.

cc Mr. it is placed below the carbon copy./Enclo sures 3 or Enclosure: 1 B/Lading . J.2)Enclosure If you have enclosure. Cooper 2 Invoices enclosed or 3 Enc. Enclosure can be abbreviated as Enc.

If it is necessary write in ink like thi s: P.3)Postscript Do not use postscript unless you want to add a personal touch to yo ur letter. . It is placed one line below the enclosure. See you at the Exhibition at the Hillside Plaza on January 10. postscript is regarded as a sign of poor planning.S. In most cases.

. Companies have different ways to form their reference numbers. These numbers should be quoted in the letters of reply. or in a large organization may be the key to a complicat ed filing system. and this is intended for quotation in the reply. This ensures that the reply goes to the right man.4)Reference number A firm or company usually assigns a reference to corresponden ce. They are usually placed on the top left-hand side opposite the date.

Beijing. Wallace &. Registered 236 St . N. Fangzhuang. Johnson Green Public Commerce Information Service Bldg.14. USA .Y. Co. Louis Street New York 10202. Bill White B.How to write envelops: Mr. Part 3Fangxingyua n. China Mr.

The Category of Business Letters • • • • • • Confidential Registered Private Express Sample Post Parcel Post .

Charles Wood c/o The Sales Manager Percy Astins & Co Ltd 12 King’s Avenue RICHMOND Surrey TW6 I SJ Britain . which means ‘care of’.Sometimes you may see an envelope with c/o. Mr.

MEMORANDA A memorandum is a short written form of business communication that has a set fo rmat. • • • • Who it’s for Who it’s from Date Subject .

They can be… • • • • Hand-delivered E-mailed Sent via interoffice mail Faxed .INTEROFFICE MEMO From one person in a company to another.

Resume • • • • • What is it? Intro What is its purpose? Gatekeeper Target it to your job objectiv e Generally one page How and where you place information indicates its relative importance .

be relevant • Be honest • Be positive • Be specific • Update it as needed .Resume writing • Write it yourself • Make it error-free: Proofread. Proofread!!! • Make it look good • Simple is best • Be brief.

Do not include: • • • • • Personal info Salary history Hobbies Names of references High school IF you are in college or have a college degree • Philosophy statement [of life. work.] . etc.

Styles of Resumes: • Chronological • Functional • Combination .

steady growth & promotion • Cons: – bad news for those who have gaps in their work history or for new grads who don’t have much experience – doesn’t help employer visualize the future .Chronological • Information organized in reverse order of occurrence • Pros: – most employers prefer this format – showcases steady work record.

Organizational skills. Supervisory skills. Problem-solving .Functional • Information is organized by functions or skills related to the job being sought – for example: Marketing.

career reve rsals – helpful when your most impressive skills came from volunteer work – makes fo r interesting presentation • Cons: – most employers don’t like this format – unless hand led well. can be confusing to read – difficult to write well .Functional Resume. spotty work history. con’t • Pros: – ideal for presenting transferable skills [skills that can move from one oc cupation to another] – downplays irrelevant jobs.

Combination Resume • Takes the best from both chronological & functional • Sells what you can do & show s your work history to prove it .

Address. day time Phone number. Email • Objective [simple job title .not yo ur goals] • Skills summary • Education & training • Employment history • Portfolio / Ref erences .Resume Structure: • Name.

• Extra copies of your RESUME • List of PROFESSIONAL REFERENCES • Complete WORK HISTOR Y • Examples of your BEST WORK • PAD & PEN .

• Be specific as to how your training or skills learned in any p/t or volunteer job will help you do a good job for your prospec tive employer • Take credit for the duties and responsibilities you performed on y our past jobs • References - ask their permission before using their names

Electronic & Scannable Resumes Now you need to know how to plan & write your resume both for the computer and f or the human eye •Need to focus on nouns and key words •Scanners differ in their cap abilities

Rules for Scanned resumes: • Sans serif typefaces that scan well: Helvetica, Futura, Univers, Optima, ITC Ava nte Garde Gothic • Serif fonts that scan well: Times, New Century Schoolbook, ITC Bookman, Palatino, Courier

Scannable resumes con’t • * Between 11 - 14 point size type • Boldface is usually okay; when in doubt, check with prospective employer • Asterisks are okay • Avoid italic, script, * underlinin g • Avoid graphics & shading • * Keep horizontal & vertical lines away from text

Scannable resumes con’t • Omit parentheses & brackets, especially around phone numbers • * Lots of white spa ce • Laser printer • * Always send originals • * Minimize abbreviations; when in doubt , spell it out • * Use traditional resume structure

Scannable resumes con’t • * White, 8 1/2” by 11” paper printed on one side only • Your name should always be the first text on the resume • * No staples • Do not fold resume; if it must be folded, make sure fold is not along a line of text

Additional tips for resumes: • Update as often as necessary • Join a professional society & put that membership o n your resume • Keep the most important data & keywords at the top of your resume

90 second self-marketing ad • Intro: who you are & what you want from your target • Your training & skills • Your “h ook” • How you will follow up • The closing • PRACTICE!!

should be sent wi thin 48 hours of the interview .Types of Correspondence for JOBS • Letter of Application – written in response to a specific job within an organization which may have been advertised or ident ified through networking • Letter of Inquiry – written to explore employment opportunities with an organization that interests you • Thank you letter – used to thank the interviewer for his/her time and the opportunity to interview.

bonus. be appreciative and polite and thank the employer for the offer .• Letter of Acceptance – written to express your enthusiasm about joining the organization and to confirm specific terms and conditions of your employment (start date. negotiated benefits) • Letter of Refusal – used to decline a job offer. salary. benefits.

Letter of Application • Paragraph 1 Hook the reader with creativity. . Explain why you are int erested in working for the employer. Try to make the connection as pe rsonable as possible. • Paragraph 2 Discuss your strongest qualifications that match the position requirements. Identify the s pecific position you are applying for and how you heard of the position. Refer to your enclosed resume. Prov ide evidence of related experiences and accomplishments. Mention information about the company or the industry. State the reason for the letter.

Sell yourself. . Be sure to provide your phone number and email address. Thank the reader for his/her consideration. • Paragraph 4 Request an interview and indicate how and when you can be contacted.• Paragraph 3 (Optional) Convince the employer that you have the personal qualities and motivation to succeed. You can als o state that you will call on a specific date to arrange a convenient interview time.

Target the employers needs. State the reason for the letter. Provide evidence of related experiences and accomplishments.Letter of Inquiry • Paragraph 1 Hook the reader with creativity. Mention past conversations or mutual acquaintances. Identify the s pecific position or the type of work you are applying for. Try to make the connection as personable as po ssible. • Paragraph 2 Highlight your strongest qualifications. Explain why you are interested in working for the employer . Refer to specific aspects of the organization’s work that interest you. . Mention information a bout the company or the industry.

. Be sure to provide your phone number. • Paragraph 4 Request an interview and indicate how and when you can be contacted. Sell yourself. You can als o state that you will call on a specific date to arrange a convenient interview time.• Paragraph 3 (Optional) Convince the employer that you have the personal qualities and motiva tion to succeed. Thank the reader for his/her consideration.

Recall aspects of the interview that were helpful or enlightening. . Draw attention to the good match between your qua lifications and the job requirements. Express your enthusiasm in the employer and the position. • Paragraph 2 Re-emphasize your strongest qualifications.Thank You Letter • Paragraph 1 Thank the interviewer for his/her time. Give a phone number where you can be re ached. Restate what you can contribute if offered the position. • Paragraph 3 Reiterate your interest in the position.

starting date. • Request a written confirmation of the offer . etc.Job Offer Acceptance Letter • Express your pleasure at receiving the offer and your enthusiasm about joining t he organization • Confirm terms and conditions of your employment – salary. benefits.

appreciative and polite • Be brief and direct • Goal is to maintain go odwill .Job Offer Decline Letter • Thanks the employer for the offer and the opportunity to interview • State that yo ur decision is based on careful consideration of your current interests and goal s • Be cordial.

and strange fonts • End with your full nam e • Proofread and check for spelling errors • Cut and paste application letter and r esume in message. businesslike tone • Necessary to use a n appropriate subject header • Address recipient as Mr. etc. never send attachments unless asked to do so . or Mrs. LOL. multicolored backgrounds.. and spell re cipient’s name correctly • Be brief • Never use slang or symbols ..:) .Email Correspondence • Must be in a different tone – a professional. Ms. • Avoi d wallpapers.

include correct title • Again be brief – one page • Discuss your qualifications and meeting the needs of the employer – work-centered and employer-centered. not self-centered • Customize each letter. no form letters • Keep the reader in mind • Use quality paper and envelopes for hard copies • Include work experiences where appropriate • Thank the reader for their consideration • Proo fread.Successful Correspondence Tips • Address letters to an individual. checking for spelling and grammar errors .

Cover Letter • Every sent resume must have cover letter • Purpose? • Address letter to a person • Kno w your target’s needs .

identify job title.purpose of letter.Cover letter structure • 1st para .describe professional & academic qualifications • 3rd.continue. expand on resume • 4th . why you should be considered.ask for interview • closing . mention specific info about co mpany • 2nd para .

Cover letters. con’t • • • • • Do not discuss salary. unless required No negatives Action/key words Cite work-r elated accomplishments Highlight personal attributes .

Business Proposal Letters .

And. or a large corporation. nonprofit organization. if you work for a government agency.Why is it important? If you plan to be a consultant or run your own business. the propos al can be a valuable tool for initiating projects that benefit the organization or you the employee-proposer (and usually both). . written proposals may be one of your most important tools for bringing in business.

or grant permission to do the proposed project. fund.What is a Proposal? A proposal is a document that request support-usually money.for work a proposer wants to do. what makes a proposal a proposal is that it asks the audience to a pprove. .

• External proposal: is one written from one separate. it is an internal proposal. • Solicited proposal: If a proposal is solicited. you may not have to include certain sections (such as qualifications). With unsolicited proposals.Types of proposals • Internal proposal: If you write a proposal to someone within your organization. With internal proposals. you sometimes must convince the recipient that a problem or need exists before you can begin the main part of the proposal. the recipient of the proposal in some way requested the proposal. Typically. ind ependent organization or individual to another such entity. • Unsolicited proposals: are those in which the recipient has not requested proposals. or you may not have to include as mu ch information in them. . a company will send out requests for proposals (public announcements requesting proposals for a specific project ) through the mail or publish them in some news source.

and it should show that the proposed activity will be a good investment. • This is especially important when there is a competition between you and other propo sers. • Always make sure that your proposal meets the expectations of the funder.Things to remember when writing a proposal: • The proposer has a particular interests and goals. or a group. • So. and that s why he/she writes the proposal. a person. be it an organization. has its own interests and goals which may or may not coincide with tho se of the proposer. • The recipient of the proposal.   . the proposal should be convincing to the potential funde r.

Common Sections in Proposals • The general outline of the proposal should be adapted and modified according to the needs of the readers and the demand of the topic proposed. In contrast. sh orter or simpler proposals might contain only some of the sections or the main o nes. long complicated proposals might contain all the following sections. . For example.

Title page Specific formats for title pages vary from one proposal to another ude the following: The title of the proposal ( as short as informative as possible) A r for the proposal The name of the potential funder ( the recipient al) The proposal s date of submission The signature of the project sponsible administrator(s ) in the proposer s institution or company but most incl reference numbe of the propos director and re ¡   .

often 200 words or less. the Abstract may be located on the title page. the method of evaluation. • In a lon g proposal. • The Abstract of the proposal is s hort. the o bjectives of the project. the Abstract will usually occupy a page by itself following the Titl e page.   . and the potential impact of the project. • In a short proposal addressed to someone within t he writer s institution. • The Abstract should briefly define the problem and its importance.Abstract • The Abstract is a very important part of the proposal because it provides a shor t overview and summary of the entire proposal.

Table of contents • The table of contents lists the sections and subsections of the proposal and the ir page numbers. .

Introduction Plan the introduction to your proposal carefully. Make sure it does all of the f ollowing things (but not necessarily in this order) that apply to your particula r proposal: – Indicate that the document to follow is a proposal. – Give an overview of the contents o f the proposal. . – Refer to some previous conta ct with the recipient of the proposal or to your source of information about the project. – Find one brief motivating statement that will encourage the recipient to read on and to consider doing the project.

Writing the background section still might be useful. And. a background section is almost a requirement—you will probably need t o convince the audience that the problem or opportunity exists and that it shoul d be addressed. what the basic situation is. in which case this section mi ght not be needed. The background section discusses wh at has brought about the need for the project—what problem. however . if the proposal is unsolicited.Background Often occurring just after the introduction. in demonstrating your particular view of the problem. It s true that the audien ce of the proposal may know the problem very well. what opportunity there is for improving things.   .

Benefits and feasibility of the proposed project Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits of doing the proposed project. Also. In the unsolicited proposal. This acts as an argument in favor of approving the project.   . some proposal s discuss the likelihood of the project s success. this section is particularly important.

and discussing such things as its le ngth.Description of the proposed work (results of the project): Most proposals must describe the finished product of the proposed project. In th is course. graphics. its audience and purpose. that means describing the written document you propose to write. providing an outline. . and so on.

procedure. in this section. Remember that the background section (the one discussed above) focused on the problem or need that brings about the proposal. you ll want to explain how you ll go about doing the proposed work. it s hows the audience you have a sound. However.     . it serves as the other form of background some proposals need. well-thoughtout approach to the project. you discuss the techni cal background relating to the procedures or technology you plan to use in the p roposed work. Als o. This acts as an additional persuasive element.Method. if approved to do it. theory • In most proposals.

Schedule • Most proposals contain a section that shows not only the projected completion da te but also key milestones for the project. cite amounts of t ime or time spans for each phase of the project. the timeline would also show dates on which you would d eliver progress reports.   . If you are doing a large project spr eading over many months. And if you can t cite specific dates.

similar projects. this section lists work experience.Qualifications • Most proposals contain a summary of the proposing individual s or organization s qualifications to do the proposed work. Therefore. It s like a mini-resume contained in th e proposal. and education that shows familiarity with the project. training. ref erences.       . The proposal audience uses it to decide whether you are suited for t he project.

and so on. projected hours. With internal projects. equipment and supplies you ll b e using.     . resources required • Most proposals also contain a section detailing the costs of the project. there probably won t be a fee. but you should still list the project costs: for examp le. With external projects. whethe r internal or external. you may need to list your hourly rates. and so forth. hours you will need to complete the project. and then calculate the total cost of the complete project. assistance from other people in the organization.Costs. costs of equipment and supplies.

In the final section. you can end by urging them to get in touch to work out the details of the project. an d maybe to put in one last plug for you or your organization as the right choice for the project.Conclusions • The final paragraph or section of the proposal should bring readers back to a fo cus on the positive aspects of the project (you ve just showed them the costs). to remind them of the benefits of doing the project.   .

assume that you have gotten the attention of the reader who would now like some additional information. This is the purpose of th e Appendices.Appendices • Appendices (supplementary material that is collected and appended at the end of a proposal)should be devoted to those aspects of your project that are of second ary interest to the reader. Then. . Begin by assuming that the reader will only have a s hort time to read your proposal and it will only be the main body of your propos al (not the Appendices).

excited abo ut the opportunity. the advantages that come from approving it. and urge the audience to get in touch or to accept the proposal. State what you p ropose to do about the problem. or promotional kind of thing. You present the background—the problem. list the costs of the project. Briefly list your qualifications for the project. Get the reader concerned about the problem. Discuss the benefits of doing the proposed project. Describe exactly what the completed project would consist of. Now (and only now). or interested in the situation in some way. how you intend to help them with the situation. opportunity. how it would work—describe the results of the project. Conclude with a review of the benefits of doing the projec t (in case the shock from the costs section was too much).     . or situation that brings abo ut the proposed project. Provide a schedule. telling the readers its purpose and contents. what it would look like. remember that i ially a sales. Here are the basic steps it goes th rough: You introduce the proposal.Organization of Proposals • • • • • • • • • • • As for the organization of the content of a proposal. including major milestones or checkpoints in the project. Discuss the meth od and theory or approach behind that method—enable readers to understand how you ll go about the proposed work. how you plan to help the readers take advantage of the opportunity. p rovide a mini-resume of the background you have that makes you right for the pro ject. the resources you ll ne ed to do the project.

Format of Proposals • You have the following options for the format and packaging of your proposal. It does not matter which you use as long as you use the memorandum format for inte rnal proposals and the business-letter format for external proposals .

In fact. you write a brief "cover " letter and attach the proposal proper after it. Cover letter with separate proposal: In this format. The cover letter briefly annou nces that a proposal follows and outlines the contents of it. the conte nts of the cover letter are pretty much the same as the introduction. .1.


  . This is because the memo may ge t detached from the proposal or the reader may not even bother to look at the me mo and just dive right into the proposal itself. The cover memo briefly announces t hat a proposal follows and outlines the contents of it. The proposal prope r that repeats much of what s in the cover memo. the contents of the cover memo are pretty much the same as the introduction. you write a brief "cover" memo and attach the proposal proper after it. Cover memo with separate proposal: In this format.2. In fact.

you put the entire proposal within a standard business letter.3. This format is illustrated in the right portion of the illustration below) . Business-letter proposal: In this format. You include headings and other special formatting el ements as if it were a report. Memo proposal: In this format. You include headings and other special formatting elements as if it were a report. (This format is illustrated in the left portion of the illustration below) 4. you put the entire proposal within a standard office memorandum.


Break out the costs section into specifics. the business-letter format is for proposals written from one exte rnal organization to another. natural order. how much time will you need. binding costs? Include your qualifications— imagine your proposal will go to somebody in the organization who doesn t know you.) Write a good introduction—in it.Check List for your Proposal • As you reread and revise your proposal. Make sure that a report—a written document—is someho w involved in the project you are proposing to do. Remember. For example. • • • • • •           . don t hit the audience with schedules and costs before you ve gotten them interested in th e project. watch out for problems such as the follo wing: Make sure you use the right format. (Whether you use a cover memo or cover letter is y our choice. Don t just hit them with a whopping big final cost. For example. include hourly rates and other such details. For inte rnal projects. and p rovide an overview of the contents of the proposal. Make sure to identify exactl y what you are proposing to do. will the re be printing. don t omit the section on costs and qualifications: there will be costs. just not direct ones. Remember that in this course we are trying to do two things: write a proposal and plan a term-report project. Make sure the sections are in a logical. the memo format is for inter nal proposals. state that this is a proposal.

and case studies. • To add authority and credence to your proposal pro vide the reader with supporting facts and figures. • Provide a detailed cost analysis when pos sible or appropriate. These can include examples. including specific recommendation s and the total expense to the reader.Key Points for a Business Proposal • Provide an overview of the business proposals. This will allow the reader to evaluate each cost factor as a part of the total package. s urvey results. .

Frank: How would you like to cut your printing costs by more than 40 pe rcent per month? Give us a few minutes of your time and we’ll show you how. In fa ct. we guarantee you’ll save no less than 10 percent per year savings as a result of our efforts. We’ll look at a comparison of costs for other businesses of your size and provid e a comprehensive report of short and long-term actions that will generate subst antial savings for your company. I’ll call after you’ve had a chance to review our proposal.Sample Proposal Letter 1 Dear Mr. The enclosed proposal outlines the details of w hat we’ll do and how successful we’ve been at doing this for other businesses. Sincerel y. . We’ll re view every facet of your current system and analyze its strengths and weaknesses .

we can arrange a lease with low monthly payments designed to stay within your operating budget. Enclosu res . As noted previously . as their prices increase. please let me know as soon as possible so we may revise the proposal to meet your needs. let us know how and when you wish to proceed. Enclosed please find a preliminary proposal for Debt Collection for Mafia Services. options and terms we discussed. The prices included w ith this proposal are valid for 90 days from the time of receipt. I would advise you time is of the essence. Please call me if you have any questions or require additional information. If not. Several of our suppliers have announced price increases for the fall. Sincerely. If al l is in order. so do ours.Sample Proposal Letter 2 Dear Mr Bruno: I enjoyed speaking with you the other day. Unfortunately. As always the system is available for purchase. I believe this inc ludes all specifications. While I unders tand this is a major undertaking for Mafia Services.

..... All dates are approximate and are contingent upon prompt approval from y ou on our submission of chapter and book outlines......... Year......... In order to meet your deadlines and the above delivery schedule ........) $$$ upon de livery of each book......... _________________ name. Contractor:.... A signed faxed c opy will be sufficient authority to begin the work with a signed hard copy to fo llow....Date: (Date:)..(Date:)   ..............Title: Address:.. We are able to start work on this project immediately upo n acceptance of this proposal and will deliver the materials on the following sc hedule. combin ing materials from X................. Y.......... ... and Z into a new series targeting the RR market.... $$$ upon delivery of the final book.......Addres s: of person Tax ID #:...... Book 1 Title Date to be deliv ered Book 2 etc....................... Year PROPOSAL We will prepare N books for publication by you......... Checks will be made pa yable to (Contractor)... The co st to produce this new series of books will be: $$$ (also written as text) Payme nts will be made on the following schedule: $$$ upon acceptance on this proposal ....Sample Proposal Month Date. this proposal must be accepted on or before Month Date......Client s Name __________________........................... (Comment: This amount equals one-third to one-half the total fee.............

Unit IV Interpersonal and Group Communication : Decision making and Problem solving .

Decision Making and Problem Solving • Problem solving is concerned with overcoming obstacles in the path toward an obj ective. . • Problem solving may or may not require action. • A decision is an act requ iring judgment that is translated into action.

but not interchangeable. • The terms are i nterrelated.Decision Making and Problem Solving (cont’d) • Decision making is much more comprehensive than problem solving. .

• Decisio ns made by top managers commit the total organization toward particular courses of action. • Decisions made by lower levels of management implement the strategic decisions of top managers in the operating areas of the organization. . • Decisions invariably involve organizational change and the commitment of scarce resources.The Significance of Decision Making • Decision making is the one truly distinctive characteristic of managers.

The Scope of Decision Making • Individual decision making • Group decision making • Organizational decision making • Metaorganizational decision making .

The Scope of Decision Making Decisional Inputs (Objectives. information. All rights reserved.328 . energy) Metaorganization Organization Group Individual Interactional Levels Permeable Boundaries External Environment Copyright © 1999 Houghton Mifflin Company. outcomes) 1 . resources. Decisional Outputs (Actions transactions.

Decision Making and Control • Decision Making • How to Make Good Decisions • Problem Solving • Building Decision Mak ing Skills • Controlling .

Elements in Managerial Decisions • Decision: A conscious choice among alternative courses of action. • Therefore the 3 elements are: – A conscious choice among alternatives – A specific purpose – A course of action .

Approaches to Decision Making • Rational (Logical Approach) • Intuitive Approach • Unable to decide (Indecisive Appr oach) • Impulsive Approach .

A Simple Version of Decision Making (The Logical Approach) • Define the problem (conditions and limitations) and the set of objectives • Analyz e the problem: fact finding • Develop alternative solutions: brainstorming • Decide on the best solution • Convert the decision into action • Follow up .

get the facts • Define the real problem and set objectives • Develop alternative solutions • Decide on the best solution • Im plement the decision • Follow up .Pattern of Problem Solving • Describe the problem • Search out the cause.

And expertise relevant to the decision – You get more good idea s and can generate more and better alternatives – People thinking together can arr ive at better decisions because of the stimulation and interplay of different po ints of view – Participants are more committed to carrying out – Coordination and co mmunication are simpler and better because everyone understands .Participative Problem Solving • Argument for Group Decision Making : – You get more info.

Participative Problem Solving • Criticism of group decision making: – It takes longer in a group – There is usually a dominator in a group – Group partici pants get involved in winning arguments and showing off – If consensus is required people may conform to get the meeting over – Consensus leads to mediocre decision s .

Group Decision Making Works Best When: • Members are accustom to working together as a team and having differing expertis e and point of view but common goals • The leader is skillful at keeping the meeti ng on target • The group is rewarded for making good decisions .

• If possible eliminate fri ction. • Keep your own emotions out of it.Solving Peoples Problems • Personal problems are not yours to resolve but LISTENING can help. . • Try to identify the real problem.

– Include worker from the beginning: From defining the problem to carrying out an agreement .Win-Win Problem Solving • Win-Lose: You win. worker wins (retreat and app easement. no stand) • Lose-Lose: The compromise • Win-Win problem solving means you find a decision that satisfies both of you. worker loses • Lose-Win: You lose.

Guidelines for Building Decision Making Skills • Be sure of your authority for making decisions • Accept responsibility fully • Disti nguish what s important • Make the decision at the time it is needed • Be alert to s igns of problems needing solutions • Keep an open mind   .

Guidelines for Building Decision Making Skills • Don’t solicit advise but do consult your supervisor when a problem is beyond your ability to solve • Make sure that you are not part of the problem • Learn from your mistakes • Evaluate your decisions when carried out .

Unit IV Interpersonal and Group Communication : Handling Interpersonal Conflict .

Primary Levels of Conflict Within Organizations Intrapersonal (within an individual) Interpersonal (between individuals) (within a group) Intergroup (between groups) Intragroup .

” Functional conflict serves the organization’s interests while Dysfunctional conflict threatens the organization’s interests. .Conflict Conflict: “A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.

Interdepartment/intergroup competition. . Organizational complexity.Antecedents of Conflict • • • • • • • Incompatible personalities or value systems. Competition for limited resources. I nadequate communication. Overlapping or unclear job bound es. Interdependent tasks.

• Decision making by consensus . standards. or rules. • Unresolved or suppressed conflict.Antecedents of Conflict (continued) • Unreasonable or unclear policies. • Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure. . • Unmet expectations. • Collective decision making.

Sources of Interpersonal Conflict • • • • • • Competition for Limited Resources Role Conflict Competing Work and Family Deman s Building Stone Walls Personality Clashes Aggressive Personalities Including Bu llies .

Marketing – Manufacturing Areas of Potential Goal Conflict Goal Conflict MARKETING Operative goal is customer satisfaction VS.” “We need faster respons . Lead times are too long. MANUFACTURIN G Operative goal is production efficiency Conflict Area Typical Comment Typical Comment Breadth of product line: “Our customers “ demand variety. all we get are short.” “Unnecessary design changes are prohibitively expensive.” “New products are our lifeblood.” “Why don’t we ever have the right merchandise in inventory ?” “Why can’t we have reasonable quality at low cost?” “The product line is too broad.” “We need realistic customer commitment s that don’t change like the wind direction “We can’t afford to keep huge inventories. uneconomical runs.” “W hy must we always offer options that are too expensive and offer little customer utility?” New product introduction: Production scheduling: Physical distribution: Quality: .

.Desired Outcomes of Conflict Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last. Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving. Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future.

If necessary. take corrective action (e. Refer difficul t conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolut ion attempts and other interventions. antidiscrimination. 2. 5. 3. If appropriate.1.g. 4. Follow company policies for diversity.. attempt informal dispute resolution. Investigate and document conflict. Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict . feedback or B Mod).

Behavior How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships and minimize Conflict Rank 2 3 Be a good listener 1 Be sensitive to the needs of others 2 Be cooperative. rathe r than overly competitive Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership Compromi se rather than dominate 4 Build rapport through conversations 5 Be compassionate and understanding 6 Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7 Nurture others (dev elop and mentor) 8 Tie .

Five Conflict-Handling Styles Concern for Others High Sharing/ Compromising Accommodative Collaborative Low Forcing Avoiding High Low Concern for Self .

Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Avoiding Style Unassertive and uncooperative Forcing Style Assertive and uncooperative Accommodating Style Unassertive and cooperative Collaborating Style Assertive and cooperative Compromising Style Intermediate level of assertive and cooperative behaviors .

When Should the Avoiding Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts? The issue is of minor or passing importance Insufficient information to effectiv ely deal with the conflict Low power relative to the other party Others can more effectively resolve the conflict .

When Should the Forcing Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts? Emergencies requiring quick action Unpopular actions must be taken for long-term organizational effectiveness and survival Self-protective action is needed .

When Should the Accommodating Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts? Need to defuse a potentially explosive emotional conflict situation Short-run need to keep harmony and avoid disruption Conflict is primarily based on personality and cannot be easily resolved .

When Should the Collaborating Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts? High level of cooperation is needed Sufficient parity exists in power of conflicti ng parties Potential for mutual benefits. especially over long run Sufficient orga nizational support to take the time and energy for collaboration .

When Should the Compromising Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts? Agreement enables each party to be better off. than w ithout an agreement Achieving a total win–win agreement is not possible Conflictin g goals block agreement on one person’s proposal . or at least not worse off.

Conflict Resolution • • • • • Confrontation and Problem-Solving Constructive Handling of Criticism Image Excha nging (creating empathy) Cognitive Restructuring Negotiating and Bargaining .

. Conciliation: Neutral third party a cts as communication link between disputants. Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution. Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding. Ombudsman: R espected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other. Arb itration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and rende rs a binding decision.

” Distributive negotiation: Single issue. win-lose.Negotiating Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences. . Integrative negotia tion: More than one issue. fixed-pie. win-win.

Perfect the deal.An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation Clarify interests. Identify options. Select a . Design alternative deal packages. deal.

fixed-amount situations wherein one party’s gain is another party’s l oss Integrative negotiations Involve joint problem solving to achieve results benefiting both parties .Basic Types of Negotiation Distributive negotiations Involve win–lose.

and each set of negoti ators tries to build consensus for agreement to resolve intragroup conflict befo re dealing with the other group’s negotiators .Basic Types of Negotiation Attitudinal structuring The process by which conflicting parties seek to establish desired attitudes and relationships Intraorganizational negotiations Involve sets of negotiators representing different groups.

Business Horizons. 75. Step into my parlor: A survey of strategies an d techniques for effective negotiation. .Matrix of Negotiated Outcomes STRATEGY OF PERSON A Integrative Distributive Outcome: Great for Person A Terrible for Person B Outcome: Mediocre for Person A Mediocre for Person B Outcome: Good for Person A Good for Person B Integrative Outcome: Terrible for Person A Great for Person B Distributive STRATEGY OF PERSON B Source: Adapted from Anderson. May-June 1992. T.

Handling Interpersonal Conflict in Groups • • • • • • Develop skills Agree on basics Search for interests in common Experiment Doubt our infallibility Treat conflict as a group responsibility .

Unit V Customer care : Effective Customer Care .

efficient. too You help achieve extraordinary customer service when you make each interaction o ne that is positive. thorough. and p rofessional. products and services are your customers • Your supervisor. your manager. effective.Who Are Customers? • Everyone at work with whom you interact are your customers • Everyone who purchase s or uses your activities. This is your job! . events. courteous. competent. and all of your employees are your customers.

.Definition of Customer Care… •Feeling concern and interest in someone who has entered a business to buy a produ ct or obtain a service. This brings out the fact that a person can be a customer without having to spend money.

.Basic rule of customer care… • Put yourself in the customers shoes. see the situation as they do.

What is Customer Service? Customer Service is all about: Providing customers with what they want • Offering consistent levels of service • Exceeding and not just meeting expectations • Fulfill ing all customer needs • Going out of your way to delight customers .

Customer Service Companies who provide excellent service: • • • • • Exceed the expectations of their customers Treat customers with respect Do not j ust aim to satisfy – they aim to delight Provide solutions to problems Consistentl y deliver outstanding service to their customers Make customers feel that they are the most important part of their business …… which they are .

Why is Service important? • Intense competition • Customers have a choice • It is the only thing that can make u s different from our competitors • Satisfied and delighted customers will come bac k • Dissatisfied customers will not come back .

your program. and your organization stand out • Providing good customer service is essential to: – your job security – future job/career opportunities – how you feel about what you do .Your “Service” Role – Why Care? • Serving every customer well helps you.

Being The Best -.Everyday! HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CUSTOMER SERVICE PEOPLE: • • • • • • • • • • Exceed customer expectations how customers want to be treated Know the customer s needs are a priority Listen effectively to ensure they understand the customer Don’t take complaints personal ly Look and act like a professional Keep learning Keep teaching Smile genuinely Respect the customer   .

1992)   . Moments of Truth are those contacts between companies and customer s where a firm s reputation are at stake.“ (Stewart.“Moments of Truth” "Essentially.

Moments of Truth • Each time you meet with a customer. or potential customer. These encounters can be described as "Momen ts of Truth". is a chance to make a positive impression on that person. .

Moments of Truth • It is important to identify when these Moments of Truth occur and to manage them to ensure you make the best possible impression on the customer .

Benefits of excellent Customer Care? .

Benefits of excellent Customer Care Feel good Improved factor is reputation high/enjoy going to work Less stress for mgt and staff Greater job security Return/ repeat business Fewer complaints Happy boss Improved team spirit. staff morale and motivation More enjoyable work atmosphere Greater staff Improved Greater loyalty and communicatio chance of retention n wi thin the word of business mouth advertising .

Why does poor Customer Care happen? • • • • • Lack of incentive Complacency Lack of support No real training Staff under press ure • Poor knowledge • No team spirit or motivation • Lack of awareness .

.Not all that long ago there were four people named Everybody. Somebody. Anybody and Nobody.

There was an important job to be done and Everybody was asked to do it. but Nobody did it. . Everybod y was sure that Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it.

because it was Everybody’s job. Everybody thou ght Anybody could do it but Nobody realised that Everybody would not do it. .Somebody got very angry about that.

.It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could ha ve done.

talking. reading. writing Observati on of standards and body language Assertiveness .What skills do we need to use? Attitude Appearance Communication-listening.

Customer Care Skills There are 8 main customer care skills that need to be displayed when serving the customer… .

1. 8. 6. Appearance Observation Listening Body Language and Facial Expression Talking Ass ertiveness Attitude Behaviour . 5. 2. 7. 3. 4.

• Remember: You are only as stron g as the weakest link in your staff chain. .Appearance… • The appearance of yourself and the other members of staff in your team will say a lot about the standards within your operation.

. • Keep your eyes o pen. • Try to stand back and look at your workplace in an objective way.Observation • It’s easy to miss shortfalls in standards because of familiarity.

Listening: The Four Basic Communication skills ListeningSpeakin Reading Writing g Learned 1st Most (45%) 2nd Next Most (30%) Ne xt Least 3rd Next Least (16%) Next Most 4th Least (9%) Used Taught Least Most .

Listening • If we fail to listen to the customer they will feel that we do not really care a bout them and therefore not return. Physical attending 2. Psychological attending . • The 2 main ways of listening attentively are : 1.

Physical Attending: • Face the speaker • Maintain eye contact • Maintain an open posture • Lean towards the speaker • Stay relatively relaxed .

Psychological attending: Listen to what is being said: • Listen for the central theme rather than the facts • Keep an open mind • Think ahead • Analyse and evaluate • Do not interrupt • Interpret a tone of voice • Evaluate the non-verbal signs .

Non-verbal behaviour . If ou r body language does not reflect the words that we are using then the customer w ill not believe us.Body Language & Facial Expression • Reading and understanding body language is an essential part of listening. ie.

pitch. volume: 35% • Non-verbal behaviour: 55% .Understanding a message… 60 50 40 30 Message 20 10 0 Words Nonverbal • Words: 10% • Tone.

Identify expressions… • Eyes up avoiding contact • Looking down • Arms folded • Arms outstretched • Upright/good posture • Face set .

Talking • Golden Rule! -Acknowledge the customer as soon as possible! .

moan and moan again! • Talk over the customers head! .Talking • When talking to the customer we must not… • Discuss politics. religion. gossip • Compl ain about the company • Moan.

Aggr essiveness.Submissiveness. 2.Assertiveness 3.Assertiveness When dealing with customers there are 3 types of behaviour we can employ: 1. .

. have greater self confidence and earn the respect of others.• We should try to apply an assertive manner at all times. • By being assertive you remain in control.

Attitude & Behaviour • The way we behave with customers is all important. • We must display a positive ap proach and be courteous at all times. .

Use their name. .Remember… • Each customer is an individual. • Be enthusiastic-it’s infectious! • Courtesy costs no thing • Treat people as individuals.

Key Test of Good Customer Care: Keep your The 5 second Documentatio Five minute service promise Positive employee attitudes telephone response n response maximum within 2 days waiting time Proactive Honesty and Systems Comm unicatio openness reliability n Being in the Little Extras Attention to Immaculate know detail Appearance .

Set Standards • By putting procedures in place all customers will be dealt with in a professiona l and efficient manner • Thus ensuring you have a satisfied customer network .

Examples • You should have answers to common queries at hand • Promises to customers must be realistic and acted upon within the agreed time frame • Customer must be notified of delays .

.. • Show empathy/concern • Use their name if you can • Listen • Take notes • Let them make their case • Ask questions to clarify detail • Confirm with them that you have got it right .When dealing with a complaint… Do.

Do… • Gather your version of events before replying • Tell them what you propose to do • E nsure they are happy • See it as an opportunity to cement the relationship and enc ourage more business

When dealing with a complaint… Do Not… •Say “it’s not my fault” •Say “you’re the fifth today to complain about that” •Interrupt •J nclusions

Do not… • Accept responsibility until you are sure it’s your fault • Be patronising • Argue • Lose your temper • Blame others

The Listen Technique • Lend an ear to the customer’s problem-do not interrupt • Identify the important poin ts • Sympathise- “I’m sorry” acknowledges something went wrong-not taking the blame • Than k the customer for taking the time to tell you what happened • Explain what can be done • Now act quickly-don’t give further cause for complaint!

Language • Sometimes the words that are used in communication cause the message to be misin terpreted. This can happen if imprecise words are used e.g. “sort of” or “things” also t echnical jargon can be confusing if it is unfamiliar to the other person.

Customer Service Language • AVOID NEGATIVE LANGUAGE – – – – – – - Possibly-maybe-perhaps - We might be able to do this - I hope that will be ok - I am sure that will be sufficient - I know we can get that for you - I am cert ain you will be pleased with this • USE POSITIVE LANGUAGE

Avoid certain words • TRY – This implies that you are unsure of whether you can do something – use the wor d ensure instead, it is positive and commits you to action which your customer w ill believe.

• Use the word ‘Please’ at the start of a sentence rather than at the end of it as it becomes an order at the end of a sentence

this conveys warmth and in erest in delighting your customer . automatic and disengaged • Use ‘Certainly’.• ‘OK’ sounds bland.

• Try saying ‘I will look into this and come back to you’ .• Avoid the word ‘busy’. your customer should never feel that you are too busy to look after his/her needs.

Unit V Customer care : Managing Customer Complaints and Negotiating with the customer .

Handling Complaints What are they? An opportunity to: • • • • Make things right Turn dissatisfied customers into delighted customers Show you care Turn complainers into ambassadors .

Calming Customers Listening Actively show you are listening Empathy Show that you do care and are concerned Agreeing on Common Ground Find something to agree with .

Handling Complaints Listen Apologise Solve Thank Make the most of your LAST chance! .

Complaint Handling Policy .

letter or email Empowers the employees to deal with complaints Helps develop an attitude: “i t is more important to keep customers than to win the argument” amongst employees particularly front-end employees .A good complaint policy: Helps create a good ‘Complaint Culture’ in the organization – the culture of total emp loyee involvement towards total customer satisfaction Encourages and makes it ea sy for customers to complain – be it through personal visit. telephone.

precess-centred and person-centred Proposed remedical actions including modifications of produc ts / procedures/ systems and identification of training needs etc .Ensures all front-end staff is trained to cope with ctiticism and process compla ints effectively Has a well planned system for monitoring complaint data to know : No of complaints – all complaints to be documented Nature of complaints No of ju stified complaints Analysis of complaints as to product-centred.

encourages prompt and competent handling of complaints helps to ensure constant supervision of customer satisfaction recognizes and rewards employees who proces s complaints rapidly and satisfactorily is able to recover a lost customer / reg ain the confidence of a dissatisfied customer customers include internal custome rs .

Best Practices Across the Globe .

• Customer Complaints as opportunities for improvements: Best Practice Companies: Link complaint Management visions to the Corporate Mission Clearly understand th e link between complaint resolution and customer loyalty Strongly believe that c omplaints are primary measure of customer dissatisfaction understand that compla ints & their rapid resolution are critical to customer retention & business grow th Cont. .

complaints and process improvements . confe rences. have ‘Associate Response Centre’ concept in place to encourage e mployees to call with ideas. emails etc. no matter how negative permit and encourage upward communication of the issues through meetings.Proactive feed back encourage employees to bring complaints to the fore front in a variety of formal and informal ways are eager to know their shortcomings as w ell as what they do well Seek out customer communication.

.. are dedicated to integrate complaint data to ini tiate improvements benchmark their services in relation to its competitors & cust omers satisfaction industry leaders.Complaint Management Process realize the importance of sharing information across the organization to ensure total involvement of employees. Contd.

use total customer data to make enhancements in process & automation designs to its services in a decentralized environment which have total Customer Satisfaction Center and examines total complaint data in a consolidated manner. helps perform root caus e analysis and identify where the majority of problems begin Contd .

Out sourced Environment . implementing effective sur rogates for ‘being there’ with the customers -Ensure that the ‘voce of customer’ will continue to be heard in the company .Use technology and process.Ensur e out sourcer s service reps. properly represent the organization to the custome rs   .

Complaint Management Measures Link to Customer Satisfaction Measure Customer Sat isfaction measures integral to management process All Supervisors. team leaders & Customer service representatives are accountable Continuous watch on no. of com plaints .

Incorporate complaint management measures as part of their overall customer sa tisfaction measures ..Types of data measured cause wise analysis of all complain ts Duration wise complaint resolution .

Rewards & Recognition Individual & team – based rewards to illustrate high quality customer contact and complaint resolution Have profit sharing schemes in place b ased on Customer Satisfaction index Recognize employees in the complaint managem ent process with: • Wall of fame noting exceptional work • Gift certificates to empl oyees who are positive role models in the complaint process By and large do not prefer to link reward to compensation because of their apprehensive of manipulat ion of data .

Customer – centric organizations: Grow into learning organizations are innovative in their overall approach develop effective customer care programs develop effec tive complaint management systems should develop the culture of total employee i nvolvement towards total customer satisfaction .

Integrative negotia tion: More than one issue.” Distributive negotiation: Single issue. fixed-pie. . win-win. win-lose.Negotiating Negotiation: “A give-and-take decisionmaking process involving interdependent part ies with different preferences.

Select a .An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation Clarify interests. deal. Identify options. Design alternative deal packages. Perfect the deal.

fixed-amount situations wherein one party’s gain is another party’s l oss Integrative negotiations Involve joint problem solving to achieve results benefiting both parties .Basic Types of Negotiation Distributive negotiations Involve win–lose.

Basic Types of Negotiation Attitudinal structuring The process by which conflicting parties seek to establish desired attitudes and relationships Intraorganizational negotiations Involve sets of negotiators representing different groups. and each set of negoti ators tries to build consensus for agreement to resolve intragroup conflict befo re dealing with the other group’s negotiators .

75.Matrix of Negotiated Outcomes STRATEGY OF PERSON A Integrative Distributive Outcome: Great for Person A Terrible for Person B Outcome: Mediocre for Person A Mediocre for Person B Outcome: Good for Person A Good for Person B Integrative Outcome: Terrible for Person A Great for Person B Distributive STRATEGY OF PERSON B Source: Adapted from Anderson. T. Business Horizons. May-June 1992. . Step into my parlor: A survey of strategies an d techniques for effective negotiation.

Key Tasks for a Mediator Ensuring mutual motivation Achieving a balance in situational power Coordinating confrontation efforts Promoting openness in dialogue Maintaining an optimum lev el of tension .

Unit V Counselling Skills .

not emb arrass or humiliate him or her • Generally more formal than feedback and coaching and is required of a small percentage of employees .What is Counseling • Direct face-to-face conversation between a supervisor and a direct report • Used t o help the employee identify the reason for poor performance to improve.

Purpose of Counseling • Communicate concerns to the employee • Determine the cause of the employee’s activit ies • Identify avenues for improvement and/or development • Improve employee perform ance .

When to Counsel • When more action is required by the supervisor following feedback and coaching • R e-establish Expectations • Not all unacceptable behavior warrants discipline: Usua lly minor infractions. or case of first offense by a long term employee require counseling .

and where and when it is to take place .The Counseling Process: Before the Session • • • • • • Define your objectives. Have all documentation available Review all facts Creat an outline Arrange for privacy Verbally inform the employee in person and in pr ivate what the meeting is about.

The Counseling Process: Session Guidelines How you behave and what you say during the session can affect the outcome •Set a p ositive tone •Describe the problem •Ask. then listen •Correct the situation •Listen •Concl ude the session .

The Counseling • Counsel in a blem • Listen. Process: Minimizing Conflict timely manner • Counsel in private • Look for the root cause of the pro Do not interrupt • Show sincere interest in the employee • If you can h do it . elp. offer it.

Attend to Verbal/Nonverbal Cues potential decid ing Convey Support :Verbal response & Nonverbal methods .SKILLS FOR COUNSELLING Skills to Work with Listening Client’s Feelings Clarifying Help Express feelings ques tions Identify & Discriminate bet.feelings Use of Openended questions Help to Alter /Accept feelings Assessing Ability.