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Unit I
Communication Fundamentals
What is Communication?
We live in a world of communication: a world in which people react violently or
peacefully to a statement, an action, or a concept. Pick up the newspaper, snap
on the radio, or flip on the TV for proof. A world leader directs a statement of
hostility to another (communication), and tanks begin to roll! A president or p
rime minister steps down (communication), and peace settles over a torn and batt
ered nation. A representative speaks in the United Nations (communication), and
fifteen minutes later, rioting and bloodshed take place six thousand miles away.
Nations, companies, families, and individuals in today’s world constantly act and
react as a result of communication.
Sigband and Bateman 1981
Relevant Questions about Communication
Can we ever agree on the true nature of communication? Here are some description
s of human behavior. Does communication take place in all of them? (A) _______Yo
u yawn, but no one sees it. (B) _______You yawn, and your friend later realizes
that you were tired even though she didn’t pay any attention to it at the time. (C
) _______You yawn, and your friend says, “Am I that boring?” (D) _______You wave at
a friend, but he doesn’t see you. (E) _______Your friend later says, “I’m sorry I didn’t
wave back, but I was thinking about something else and didn’t realize you had wav
ed to me until after I turned the corner.”
What is communication?
(F) _______You wave to a friend, and she waves back. (G) _______You send a lette
r to a friend, but it gets lost in the mail. (H) _______Your dad lectures you fo
r having a messy room, and although you know he is talking to you, you really ar
en’t paying much attention. (I) _______You give a speech to a group that is eager
to hear what you have to say. Adapted from Littlejohn 2002: p. 8
What is communication?
• Communication is the transferring and understanding meanings • The best idea, or s
uggestions, or plans cannot take form without communications • Communication can t
ake many forms:
– Oral vs. written – Verbal vs.non-verbal – Interpersonal vs. organizational
Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages. Communication is
complete when feedback is received, message is understood, the receiver assigne
d the same meaning to the message as you intended, and action taken.
Achieving success in today’s workplace depends on
effective communication among employees and their managers as well as with peopl
e outside the organisation such as customers, suppliers, government, NGO(nongove
rnmental organizations),and stakeholders (various groups you interact with)
Communication challenges in today’s workplace
• Advances in technology: Use of new technological
tools (internet, e-mail, voice mail, faxes, intranet, extranet, e-commerce) incr
ease the speed, frequency,and reach of communication. • Market Globalization: Incr
easing tendency of the world to act as one market driven by technological advanc
es in telecommunication • Workforce Diversity: Workforce is made up of people with
diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. • Team-based Organizations:Organizations
use teams and collaborative work groups to make fast decisions required to succ
eed in a global and competitive market place.
Communication: The Role of ICT
In business, communication can be: • between individuals • between individuals and o
rganisations • within a business • between a business and an external organisation
Communication takes place within networks. These are some of the types of networ
k: chain circle wheel all-channel
• • • •
• A chain network e.g formal contact
• A circle network e.g. between people at the same level
• A wheel network e.g. sales teams report to head office
• An all-channel network e.g. brainstorming
Communication in the business world is very different today compared to twenty y
ears ago, because of: • Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Examples of ICT Use
• • • • • Mobile telephones Video and tele-conferencing Lap-top computers E-mail Multi-med
ia communications
Communication Failure
No matter what medium of communication is used, it can fail if: jargon is used i
nappropriately badly written messages are transmitted the message goes to the wr
ong receiver information overload takes place the communication channel breaks d
• • • • •
Communication Failure
In the UK until recently, firms wanting to move into e-commerce have been: • preve
nted due to slow connection speeds • affected by lack of broadband services Go to
the Activity for more on this.
Communication in Business
• Transferring information from one part of the business to another that leads to
some outcome, changed behaviour or changed practice • Formal Communication – establi
shed and agreed procedures • Informal Communication – channels not formally recognis
ed – ‘the grapevine’
Finance Dept
Change in payment systems
Sender or Instigator
Medium Feedback
• Methods:
– – – – – – – – Verbal – face to face Written Electronic Visual Audio Group meetings Notice
• Medium: – Letters – Memo – Report – Notice board – Faxes – Telephone – E-mail – Face to f
y language – Video/video conferencing – Internet
• Choice of Medium affected by:
– – – – – Need for record Direction of the information flow Number of people to be reached
Confidentiality Nature of the information – length, complexity, speed of transfer
– Cost of the medium
The Communication Process
The six steps of communication process: 1) The sender has an idea 2) The sender
encodes the idea 3) The sender transmits the message 4) The receiver gets the me
ssage 5) The receiver decodes the message 6) The receiver sends feedback
(Comm.Process cont.)
1.The sender has an idea
You have an idea/information and want to share it. Express the idea.
(Comm.Process cont.)
2.The sender encodes the idea
When you put your idea into a message form that your receiver will understand, y
ou are encoding it. You decide on the message’s form (words, facial expression, ge
sture), length, organization, tone, and style- all of which depends on your idea
, your audience, and your personal style or mood.
(Comm. Process cont.)
3.The sender transmits the message To physically transmit your message to your r
eceiver, you select a communication channel (spoken or written) and a medium (te
lephone, letter, memo, e-mail, fax, report, face-to-face exchange). This choice
depends on your message, your audience’s location, your need for speed, formality
required, and the media available to you.
(Comm. Process cont.)
4.The receiver gets the message
For communication to occur your receiver must first get the message. If you send
a letter, your receiver has to read it before understanding it. If you are givi
ng a speech, your receiver has to hear you and has to pay attention.
(Comm. Process cont.)
5.The receiver decodes the message
Your receiver must decode (absorb and understand) your message. The decoded mess
age must then be stored in the receiver’s mind.
(Comm. Process cont.)
6.The receiver sends feedback
After decoding the message, the receiver may respond in some way and signal that
response to you. This response (feedback) enables you to evaluate the effective
ness of your message.
Write out the steps of communication process and use these steps to communicate
to Mr. Akshay that his application for the position of Project Manager has been
accepted by the company.
Communication Channels
Written Communication Verbal Communication The Grapevine Nonverbal Cues Electron
ic Media
Identifying barriers
Communication is about overcoming barriers.
State all the barriers that you can think of that impact on your day-to-day comm
Common barriers to communication:
Apparent ‘cause’ Physiological Psychological Cultural Political Economic Technologic
al Physical Practical Example Message in an internal report not received due to
blindness. Message from external stakeholder ignored due to ‘groupthink’ Message fro
m organisation misinterpreted by members of a particular group Message from inte
rnal stakeholder not sent because individual is marginalised Message not availab
le to a public sector organisation due to lack of resources Message not delivere
d due to technical failure Message cannot be heard and visual aids cannot be see
n by some members of the audience Common barriers to communication: probing for ‘c
Communication Barriers
Filtering Selective Perception
Language Emotions
Information Overload
Communication Barriers
1)Perceptual and Language Differences 2)Restrictive Environments 3)Deceptive Com
munication Tactics 4)Distractions
Comm. Barriers
1) Perceptual and LanguageDifferences:
Perception is people’s individual interpretation of the sensory world around them.
Selective perception: As a sender you choose the details that seem important to
you. As a receiver, you try to fit new details into your existing pattern, if a
detail doesn’t quite fit, you’re inclined to distort the information rather than re
arrange your pattern- a process known as selective perception.
Comm. Barriers cont.
1)Perceptual and Language Differences: Language: is an arbitrary (random) code t
hat depends on shared definition
Comm. Barriers cont.
2)Restrictive Environments Restrictive environment is when information flow is l
imited, blocked by an authoritarian style of management.
Comm. Barriers cont.
3)Deceptive Communication Tactics Deceptive comm. (exaggerating benefits,quoting
inaccurate statistics, hiding negative or positive information, displaying grap
hic data unfairly, leaving out crucial info.) manipulates receivers, blocks comm
. and leads to failure.
Comm. Barriers cont.
• Physical Distractions: Background noise, bad connection on phone, poor accoustic
s, illegible copy, uncomfortable chair, poor lighting, health problems, poor air
Comm. Barriers cont.
• Emotional Distraction: When you are upset, hostile, or fearful, you have hard ti
me shaping your message objectively.
Comm. Barriers cont.
4)Distractions cont.
• Information Overload: Too much information make it difficult to discriminate, so
rt out what is useful/not useful information. • Round the clock accessibility: To
be accessible immediately wherever whenever. Technology demands instant answers.
Professionals are constantly tied to work by cell phones, voice mail, e-mail.
Physiological Barriers
• Physiological barriers to communication are those that result from the performan
ce characteristics and limitations of the human body and the human mind.
Perception – object recognition
Perception – object recognition
What’s your perception?
Optical illusion (1)
Optical illusion (2)
Port 1010 building in the Docklands region of Melbourne, Australia. 1010 LaTrobe
Street, Docklands, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 3008
Human memory processes
Human memory processes: a three-stage model
Human Memory
• The sensory memory acts as a kind of temporary collectionpoint for incoming stim
uli of all kinds; this limit is often identified as 6–7 separate pieces of informa
tion. • Consider the three out of ten best slogans of all time according to Inc. m
Social, cultural and ethical barriers
• Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of
conformity; a process in which the norms, values and behaviours of an individual
begin to follow those of the wider group. Cultural barriers to communication, w
hich often arise where individuals in one social group have developed different
norms, values, or behaviours to individuals associated with another group. Ethic
al barriers to communication; these occur when individuals working in an organis
ation find it difficult to voice dissent, even though their organisation is acti
ng in ways they consider to be unethical.

Cultural barriers
• Cultures shape the way we think and behave. • They can be seen as both shaping and
being shaped by our established patterns of communication. • Nations, occupations
, organisations, teams and other social groupings, all share a tendency to devel
op distinctive cultures.
The iceberg metaphor for culture
Figure 2.5 The iceberg metaphor for culture Source:
Culture and environment
Robert Laws, a Scottish missionary working in Malawi, Africa, in the late 1800s:
“The influence of culture and environment can have an effect on our visual percep
tion. What you see will largely depend on where you live in the world.”
Where are they? What is above the woman s head?
• •
Barriers to ethical behaviour
Three communication-related barriers to ethical behaviour in business organisati
ons are: • ‘moral silence’, failing to speak up about issues that are known to be wron
g; • ‘moral deafness’, failure to hear or attend to moral concerns raised by others; • ‘mo
ral blindness’, failure to recognise the moral implications of actions. (Bird 2002
Ethical choice (1)
Your company has been a major employer in the local community for years, but shi
fts in the global marketplace have forced some changes in the company. In fact,
the company plans to reduce staffing by as much as 50% over the next 3 to 5 year
s. The size and timing of future layoffs have not been decided, but a small layo
ff will certainly start next month. You are in charge of writing a letter on thi
s issue. Your first draft is as follows: “this first layoff is part of a continuin
g series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.”
Ethical choice (2)
Your first draft is as follows: “this first layoff is part of a continuing series
of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.” Your boss is concern
ed about the negative tone of the language and suggests the following sentence: “t
his layoff is a part of the company’s ongoing efforts to continually align its res
ources with global market conditions.” Do you think this suggested wording is ethi
Ethical choice (3)
• “This first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated
over the next several years.” (Too Negative) “This layoff is a part of the company’s o
ngoing efforts to continually align its resources with global market conditions.”
(Unethical) The company should be as specific as possible without causing itself
unnecessary damage. “Unless business conditions change, we anticipate further red
uctions in the future, but we are currently unable to identify the timing or ext
ent of such reductions.”

Overcoming Bias in Language
Example Unacceptable Preferable Salesperson; Sales representative Workforce; Wor
kers Artificial; Manufactured Gender bias Salesman Manpower Man-made Ethnic bias
Jim Wong is an Jim Wong is very tall unusually tall Asian Workers with physical
disabilities face many barriers on the job
Disability bias Crippled workers face many barriers on the job
Overcoming the barriers

Taking the receiver more seriously Thinking more clearly about the message Deliv
ering messages skilfully Focusing on the receiver Using multiple channels and en
coding Securing appropriate feedback
Guidelines for overcoming communication barriers:
1)Adopt an audience-centered approach 2)Foster open-communication climate 3)Comm
it to ethical communication 4)Create efficient messages
Overcoming communication barriers
1)Adopt an audience-centered approach:Make your message meaningful for those who
will receive it. 2)Foster Open-Communication Climate:Get everyone participate s
hare their ideas and feelings freely with everyone else.
Overcoming communication barriers cont. 3)Commit to ethical communication Ethics
are principles of conduct that govern a person or a group. Ethical communicatio
n includes true accurate information. Ethical people are trustworthy, fair, not
deceptive, respecting the rights of others.
Overcoming communication barriers cont. 4)Create efficient messages: Minimize ph
ysical distractions Minimize emotional distractions
Overcoming Communication Barriers
• Constrain emotions • Watch nonverbal cues • Use feedback • Simplify language • Listen ac
Unit I
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
1. Personal communication and Business communication 2. Internal communication a
nd External communication 3. Upward communication and Downward communication 4.
Formal communication and Informal communication 5. Lateral communication 6. Inte
ractive communication 7. Mass communication 8. Grapevine
Communication in organizational settings
• Formal communication network • Informal communication network
• Formal communication network • Informal communication network
Internal Communication The exchange of information and ideas within an organisat
Internal Communication cont.
Formal Communication Network:
Information may travel down, up, and across an organisation’s formal hierarchy.
Internal Communication cont.
Informal Communication Network: People have casual conversations with friends in
the office about anything (personal and business matters)
External Communication External communication carries information into and out o
f the organization.
External Communication cont.
Formal Communication Network: (letter, website, phone, fax, internet, videotape)
Marketing or public relations team’s job is to create and manage the flow of form
al messages to outsiders.
External Communication cont.
Informal Communication Network:
Informal contacts with outsiders are important for learning about customer needs
Effective Business Communication
• • • • • Provide practical information Give facts rather than impressions Clarify and con
dense information State precise responsibilities Persuade others and offer recom
Forms of Communication
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Oral communication Written communication Non-Verbal communicat
ion Visual communication Audio-Visual communication Silence
Unit I
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
Defining Verbal & Non-Verbal
Before we turn our attention to a detailed explanation of non-verbal communicati
on (NVC), we need to be very clear about our understanding of the term ‘verbal’ Quic
k discussion – what do you think ‘verbal’ means?
Verbal Communication
• We often use the term ‘verbal’ to mean ‘spoken’ eg. “I gave her a verbal warning” • In Co
cation & Culture, we use the word ‘verbal’ in a slightly different and more technica
l way
Definition of Verbal
Verbal = communicating with words and language (as opposed to images, actions or
behaviour) Verbal communication is restricted to language
‘Design Features’ of Language
• Language enables us to communicate about events beyond our immediate sensory exp
erience • The capacity of language is infinite
Introduction to non-verbal communication
– in communication with others only 30 % of the communication is verbal, 70 % is n
on-verbal – non-verbal communication involves gestures, facial expressions, eye co
ntact … – our non-verbal behaviour is mostly subconscious
Definition of NVC
“All communication other than that involving words and language” • This is fine but co
uld include everything from animal communication to films to gardening. For our
purposes we will use a more restricted definition: “Bodily communication, other th
an words and language”
Comparing verbal and non-verbal communication
• both are symbolic, communicate meaning and are patterned • all societies have diff
erent non-verbal languages • the non-verbal communication is more than just body l
anguage; the use of time and personal space, our voice etc.
1. Different categories (or types) of NVC 2. The functions (or uses) of NVC Befo
re we do this, we need to establish some general points about NVC and its relati
onship to language and culture
Relationship between NVC, Language & Culture
• When travelling, we do not, on the whole, make the assumption that everyone will
understand our first and preferred language • Most of us accept we must either le
arn a new language or rely entirely on verbal signals for communication • We assum
e we will have no difficulty in decoding nonverbal clues • We need to be aware of
the enormous range and diversity of non-verbal behaviour
What emotions do these facial expressions portray?
NVC, Language & Culture
• Even in the secure territory of your own familiar culture, care is needed in the
interpretation of non-verbal clues • Jumping to conclusions about meanings of non
-verbal clues can be dangerous
Your Approach to NVC
• You should suggest possible meanings and interpretations when analysing NVC, whi
lst paying due regard to the influence of context and culture and context • Your o
wn culture and context has an impact on the deciphering of NVC • Interpretations a
re both relative and subjective
Categorisation of NVC – Paralanguage
DES: The way we speak (also known as prosodic features) Volume, pitch, intonatio
n, speed of delivery, articulation, rhythm The sounds we make other than languag
e Laughter, crying, yawning, sighing, screeching, coughing Filled pauses such as
‘Mmmm’, ‘Ahhh’, ‘Ummm’ Unfilled pauses
Categorisation of NVC Paralanguage
There are clear variations both within and between cultures in the use of parali
nguistic features. David Crystal points out some cultural differences: A ‘creaky’ or
‘gravely’ tone of voice is often used in English to convey unimportance or disparag
ement; but in Finnish, it is a normal feature of many voice qualities. And there
is no equivalent in English to the use of strongly nasalised speech to convey a
range of emotional nuances in Portuguese” (Crystal, 1987)
Accent & Paralanguage
Elocution lessons were once very popular amongst the middle classes, especially
for those young people who were sent to ‘finishing school’ as a preparation for ‘polit
e society.
Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance
• Clothing, hairstyle, make-up, body adornment, jewellery, tattoos, piercing, glas
ses, facial hair, accessories such as bags • You only have to think of the huge in
dustries associated with the above examples to recognise the cultural significan
ce of physical appearance
Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance
• Includes the things with which we cover or adorn our bodies, but also the shape
and size of our bodies • It is the body’s capacity to communicate aspects of an indi
vidual’s identity which makes us so aware of our physical appearance
Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance
• Self expression is a fairly recent development in historical terms • Many societie
s had (and some still do have) highly regulated codes of dress, often linked to
rank and status
Tudor monarchs, such as Elizabeth I, used Sumptuary Laws and Statutes of Apparel
to control what people could wear eg. only royalty were permitted to wear ermin
e trims while fox and otter trims were restricted to members of the nobility.
Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance
• Self expression in contemporary culture is also limited by requirements to wear
uniforms or to observe dress codes • Not necessarily restricted to schools and pub
lic services • Many corporations and organisations expect employees to communicate
a corporate rather than an individual identity
Further Categories of NVC Activity
Body movement (kinesics) Closeness (proxemics) Touching (haptics) Eye movement (
occulesics) Smells (olfactics)
Body Movement - Kinesics
• Gesture, facial expression, posture, head nodding, orientation • Emblems – gestures
with specific cultural meanings attached • Illustrators reinforce words of speaker
s • Adapters are unconscious gestures to relieve stress or boredom • Posture is heav
ily laden with value judgements
Closeness - Proxemics
• Study of how we use space and distance • Includes seating arrangements, queuing an
d territoriality • Ideas of ‘personal space’, ‘invasion of personal space’ and ‘comfort zon
s’ • Use of objects as ‘markers’ to indicate ownership of space
Touching - Haptics
• Physical contact such as holding, hitting, kissing, stroking, shaking hands, gui
ding • Linked to proxemics • Touch is very important in our early development • Many r
ules and taboos regulating physical contact
Eye Movement - Occulesics
• Eye movement, length and direction of gaze, changes in pupil size • We are hyperse
nsitive to information imparted by eyes • Can be argued eyes reveal the truthfulne
ss of what is being said
Smell - Olfactics
• Humans do not have a particularly welldeveloped sense of smell compared with oth
er species • Perfumes and deodorants send powerful messages, as can the natural bo
dy odours we try to suppress • A rapidly growing industry has developed around the
use of smells
Complex Messages
• Rare for these non-verbal codes to operate in isolation from one another, or sep
arately from language • We create and perceive messages using signs from a range o
f verbal and non-verbal codes • To make this even more complex, these signs and co
des to not always pull in the same direction
Communicative Competence
This idea refers to our ability to use language not just accurately but appropri
ately. A competent communicator will: - Recognise and use different verbal and n
on-verbal styles as they are suited to different social situations - Recognise t
he subtle interplay of verbal and non-verbal elements in communication - Compens
ate for possible misinterpretations in communication with others
The Functions of NVC
• Communicating feelings, emotions and attitudes • Replacing and regulating language
• Other Functions
Communicating Feelings, Emotions and Attitudes
• NVC has a particularly important role in establishing and maintaining relationsh
ips, otherwise known as an affective function • We rely more heavily on NVC in thi
s area of personal communication • Looks, glances, changes in orientation allow ot
hers to know what sort of relationship we want to have • We use NVC to establish a
mutually acceptable level of intimacy
• Non-verbal leakage – messages ‘slipping out’ in spite of our attempts to control them –
ensures that high credibility is given to non-verbal cues in the area of feeling
, emotion and attitude • Puts a lot of power in the hands of a skilled communicato
r • Interpersonal attitudes can also be indicated by body closeness and orientatio
Communicating Power & Status
• Within organisations such as the army, positions within the hierarchy are clearl
y signalled by uniforms, badges and behavioural codes such as saluting • In other
organisations the non-verbal rules of the pecking order may not be so overt, but
they are just as carefully observed
Peter Collett’s Handshake Theory
• • • • • • • • The Bonecrusher The Limp Handshake The Firm Handshake The Limpet Handshake
lammy Handshake The Reinforced Handshake The Relocated Handshake The Upper Hands
The Limp Handshake may seem the most likely to offer evidence of submissiveness,
but this is not necessarily so, as Collett’s more detailed explanation reveals:
“A limp handshake occurs when someone offers a hand that is totally relaxed. It do
esn’t exert any pressure on the other person’s hand and it doesn’t contribute to the m
utual production of the handshake. A person who offers a limp handshake is someo
ne who, in more senses than one, doesn’t connect with the other person. Like their
hand, they remain passive and detached – they’re simply not focused on the person t
hey’re greeting. This often happens with people who are selfimportant or who have
to shake hands with a lot of people…Women who want to cultivate an impression of l
anguid femininity often present a rather limp hand to the person they’re greeting.
Strong people often do the same, but in their case it’s to emphasise their streng
th. It’s said that Mike Tyson offers a relaxed, almost tender hand when he greets
people outside the boxing ring – the complete opposite to what happens inside the
ring.” (Collett, 2003)
Replacing & Regulating Language
• The role of NVC in inflecting the meaning of a sentence can be explored by ‘perfor
ming’ the following sentence in different ways Well, I really enjoyed the party la
st night.
Replacing & Regulating Language
• Paralinguistic features, such as pitch, tone and emphasis • Throw in other non-ver
bal cues such as eyebrow lifting or illustrators such as the use of the index an
d first finger of both hands to indicate inverted commas around a word • Number of
potential meanings rapidly increases
Replacing & Regulating Language
• Non-verbal cues also make a significant contribution of conversation management •
Rules of turn taking allow us to have coherent discussions without constantly ta
lking over the top of each other • Paralanguage, gaze, eye contact and head moveme
nt all play a part • It’s a set of rules that takes some time to grasp • Women typical
ly have a more cooperative conversational style whereas men tend to provide less
non-verbal feedback
Other Functions
• Many other uses to which we put our nonverbal codes including: - self expression
- group membership - persuasion and rhetoric - indicating role
Activity 1
Write and stage a brief scenario to show NVC at work in one of the following are
as: - Power/status - Emotion/feeling - Attitude/Identity
Activity 2
Watch a scene from a television drama with the sound turned down, paying particu
lar attention to non-verbal clues. Watch again with sound. How much of a contrib
ution has the performance of non-verbal codes made to the meaning of the scene a
nd the identity of the characters?
Activity 3
Look at the following situations. In each case try to identify a verbal form, a
verbal function, a non-verbal form and a non-verbal function that could be assoc
iated with the situation. A JUDGE addressing a member of the jury who is not pay
ing attention An upset and lost child approaches YOU in a busy supermarket YOU w
ant to get past the doorman and into a crowded pub A MOTHER wants her teenage da
ughter to come home before 9 p.m.
Comparing verbal and non-verbal communication
• non-verbal communication is learnt through relations with others • non-verbal beha
viours can reinforce, substitute for or contradict verbal behaviour • we often tru
st our non-verbal behaviour to reveal our true feelings
The universal use of non-verbal communication
• there is some universality in non-verbal communication, especially in facial exp
ressions • six basic emotions are communicated by facial expressions in much the s
ame way in most societies:
– happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger and surprise
• but what causes the non-verbal behaviours can vary • there are also variations in
the rules for non-verbal behaviour
Non-verbal codes
• PROXEMICS how people use personal space; to keep someone at the right distance
– contact cultures and non-contact cultures
• KINESIC BEHAVIOUR body posture, hand gestures, facial expressions and eye contac
t • CHRONEMICS the use of time
– M-time (Monochronic) and P-time (Polychronic)
Non-verbal codes
• SILENCE the use of silence in conversations • HAPTICS the use of touching – high-tou
ch cultures and low-touch cultures • VOCAL CUES rate, pitch, loudness, articulatio
n, tone, accent, pronunciation etc. • ARTEFACTS things, objects, decorations etc.
Unit II
Oral Communication
• In most of the cases where immediate action is to be taken, it is advisable to t
ransmit a message orally to save time. • Oral communication also saves money. • Spee
ch is a powerful means of persuasion and control and the executives often prefer
to transmit messages orally. • The speaker can get an effective and immediate fee
dback if the speech or oral statement given makes a favorable impressing on the
receiver or antagonizing him, whether the receiver will acquiesce or protest, or
whether the receiver has clearly under stood his meaning or is feeling perplexe
d or baffled, and he can mould and adjust his message accordingly.
• Face to Face to communication may seem to be similar to Oral communication howev
er; there are certain situations which distinguishes the two. • A conversation in
a telephone is oral but it cannot be called a face to face communication. • In som
e cases face to face communication is not a oral communication
• An important prerequisite of effective oral communication is that words should b
e pronounced clearly and correctly. • When people take pleasure in talking then te
nd to over communicate. • Precision makes oral communication very effective. Sayin
g “Can you come to office early tomorrow?” is not as good as “Can you come to office h
alf an hour early than the usual time?” • Lack of Conviction causes lack of confiden
ce. Conviction comes from careful planning and thinking. • Jumbled ideas create co
nfusion, so an effective statement is made only if the message delivered is arra
nged in a logical sequence.
• The major problem with communication is the assumption that it has been accompli
shed. To avoid this it is important to carefully select the words to be used. In
a oral communication it is advisable to choose words familiar to the listener r
ather than words the speaker is familiar about. • Speaker should avoid hackneyed p
hrases and clichés like “What I mean is?”, “Basically...”, “Do you follow?”. These words in
rupt the flow of speech. These phrases are used unconsciously & conscious effort
is to be taken to avoid it. • Some speakers create a style to impress the audienc
e which will make it even worse. The most effective speech is that which is corr
ect and at the same time natural an unaffected. The speakers should cutivate a p
leasing tone and speak clearly and distinctly.
• There may be lot cases where it is required to give a oral instruction to other
employees. It needs to be handled carefully.
• Do not assume that the listener would have prior knowledge about the subject. St
art giving the instruction from the basic details or an overview of the subject.
• Select the appropriate time to deliver the statement in such a way that neither
you nor the listeners are in a hurry and you have plenty of time to explain it
in detail if demanded. • Organize the instruction that is to be given which would
make sense to the listeners. • Use simple and clear language along with a pleasing
tone. • Do not provide any irrelevant or distracting details. Do not over talk or
over load with a lot of information confusing the listeners. • Watch for the expr
essions and gestures of the listeners which is a immediate feedback and alter th
e style accordingly. • Allow the listeners to clarify themselves if not clear. • Rep
eat if there are any complicated instructions or make it interactive so it reach
es well. • If necessary practice you oral statement in writing.
eak with conviction Maintain eye contact Pause Humor Audio-visual aids Handouts
STOP Written Copy
• • • • • • • • • • • • Adjudicators look for knowledge of the subject matter, sincerity in
of material, skilful development of the theme, and effective use of Plain Engli
sh. Your speech should be prepared, and varied if necessary, for the particular
audience and setting in which it is to be delivered. Length of Speech Topic Spee
ch Writing and Preparation Writing DELIVERING THE SPEECH Make Contact! Voice Acc
ent Pronunciation Gesture and Movement Notes and Prompt Cards
1. As soon as you are invited to an interview, confirm with the company that you
can attend, or if you are unable to keep the appointment, arrange with them a m
utually convenient time and date. 2. Find out as much as you can about the compa
ny, its products and it services. If it is a local company this may be quite eas
y. If not you may have to do your research in the library / internet. 3. Read th
rough a copy of your application to the company to refresh your memory. 4. List
questions you may wish to ask about the company/job but never ask about money di
rectly. Ask only 1 or 2 or 3 maximum 5. Prepare your interview techniques. Rehea
rse positive language and think of any awkward questions that may be asked. Prep
are your response and get someone to give his or her opinion on how it comes acr
The nature of oral presentations
• Why some speakers perform badly?
– Misconception of the nature of oral communication – Not connected to linguistic pr
• Oral communication is different from written communication
– Receiver has no control on information flow [silence] – No feedback monitoring suc
cessful comprehension – Real danger of loosing contact with the audience
• Oral communication is a complement to written communication
Focusing on a 15 min. contributed talk in a conference.
Before the beginning
• Do your paperwork well before... • In doubt: prepare, prepare, prepare • Check your
colours carefully if you don’t want bad surprises • Check carefully that your presen
tation works correctly in the conference computer (use pack & go/package for CD)
• Keep a backup • Check that figures display correctly at the projector resolution •
– Always dress a little better than the audience
The beginning
• It’s normal to be a somewhat nervous/tense, but so is the audience… • The talk is for
the audience
– Stand out in front of the audience without any physical barrier – Face the audienc
e, look relaxed, unworried and friendly
• even if you are close to panic (body communication & pointers)
– Look to the audience in silence, building eye contact, then talk to them – The aud
ience is curious and friendly towards you – Can they hear you?
• 1. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison • Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed,
pauses, body movements, facial expressions • Writing/Printing: punctuation, capita
lization, spacing, margins, fonts
• 2. Pronunciation of Words: (a) vowel and consonant sounds • (comparison of sounds
with letters a-z); The letter “a” in : fat /æ/, father /a:/, fate /eɪ/, about /ə/ Or the l
etters “th” in “thin” /ɵ/ & “then” /ð/. Also notice (b) word-stress: ‘language, communi’cat
3. Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm INTONATION: rising / (yes /
) falling \ (yes \) combination \/ (yes \/)
Attributes of good oral communication
• • • • • • • 1.Sounds and sound combinations 2. Stress 3. Rhythm 4. Intonation 5. Speed: p
ing 6. Clarity of articulation 7. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (av
oiding “monotonous speech)
Unit II
Listening and Speaking Skills
Principles for Designing Listening and Speaking Techniques
(Brown, 1994)
• Techniques should cover the spectrum of learner needs from language based focus
on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning and fluency
Listening Strategies
• Looking for key words • looking for nonverbal cues to meaning • predicting a speaker’s
purpose by the context of the spoken discourse • associating information with one’s
existing cognitive
Speaking Strategies
• Asking for clarification • Asking someone to repeat something • Using fillers and co
nversation maintenance cues • Getting someone’s attention
• Using paraphrases for structures one can’t produce • Appealing for assistance • Using
formulaic expressions • Using mime and one-verbal expression
• Monologue (planned and unplanned)
– storytelling – news broadcast – readings (short stories, poems, etc.)
• Dialogue (Interpersonal and Transactional)
Types of Dialogues
• Scripted Dialogue • Semi-Scripted • Using Picture Cues to present scenario for dialo
g • Discourse Chain
Using Picture Cues
Discourse Chain
Mother send your son to the store Store Keeper Greet the store keeper. Tell her/
him what you want to buy, ask how much. Tell what you have and how much Pay her
and say goodbye. Son Tell mother you will go buy what she needs
Unit II
Written Communication: Report Writing and Presentation
• • • • • • Types of Reports How to Write Reports Computer Reports Anatomy of a Report Sale
Proposals Future of Reports
How We Communicate
• CVs, Resumes • Email, Web site, FAQs • Letters, Newsletters, Brochures, Articles, Ca
talogs • Advertisements, Notice Board, Pamphlets, Signs, Press Release • Presentatio
ns, multimedia, talks • Reports, Manuals, Proposals, Books
Which Reports?
Sales Reports Inspection Reports Annual Reports Audit Reports Feasibility Report
s Progress Reports White Papers
Technical Writing Reports
• • • • Proposals User Manuals Technical Manuals White Papers
Classification of Reports
• • • • Formal Reports and Informal Reports Information Reports Analytical Reports Recom
mendation Reports
5 Steps to Report Writing
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define the problem Gather the necessary information Analyze the i
nformation Organize the information Write the report
Organizing Reports
• • • • • • • Comparison/contrast Problem-solution Elimination of alternatives General to p
icular Geographic or spatial Functional Chronological
Words, Words, Words
• UK English and US English
– International English and Indian English
• Denotation and Connotation – Let me know when you’re free next week for a meeting. – C
ould you let me know what times you have free? • Tone – Terry is hung up on trivial
details. – Terry is meticulous and takes care of details that others sometimes ign
Writing Style
• Brief writing style
– – – – Omit needless words Combine sentences Rewrite Campus Jewelers’ main objective is t
o increase sales. Specifically, the objective is to double sales in the next fiv
e years by becoming a more successful business. – Campus Jewelers’ objective is to d
ouble sales in the next five years.
Anatomy of a Report
• • • • • • • Cover Page Title Page Letter of Transmittal Table of Contents List of Illustr
ons Executive Summary Report Body
Report Components
• Title Page
– Name of report (all caps) – Name, title, organization of receiver – Author’s name, tit
le, organization – Date submitted
Report Components
• Letter of Transmittal -Background
-Summarize conclusions and recommendations -Minor problems. Thank those who help
ed. -Additional research necessary -Thank the reader. Offer to answer questions.
Report Components
• Table of Contents
– Show beginning page number where each report heading appears – Connect page number
s with leaders (spaced dots)
Report Components
• Executive Summary
– One of most important parts of report – Synopsis (overview) of report – Concentrate
on what management needs to know – Summarizes
• • • • • • Purpose Scope Methodology Findings Conclusions Recommendations
Report Components
• Executive Summary
– Organized same as report – Style and tone same as report – Avoid unexplained jargon/
abbreviations – Do not refer to figures/tables presented later – Should not contain
exhibits or footnotes – Include headings/make skimmable – Use transitional words – Len
gth should be generally 1/10 of whole report
Executive summaries should be the last pieces of reports to be written since the
y are the most important sections of the reports!
Report Components
• Introduction
– Explain problem motivating report – Describe its background and significance – Clari
fy scope and limitations of report – Describe data sources, methods, key terms – Clo
se by previewing report’s organization
Report Components
• Body
– Discuss, analyze, interpret research findings – Arrange findings in logical segmen
ts following outline – Use clear, descriptive headings/skimmable
Report Components
• Report Body
- Introduction
– Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods
-Background/History of the Problem -Body
– Presents and interprets data
-Conclusions and Recommendations -References or Works Cited -Appendixes
– Interview transcripts, questionnaires, question tallies, printouts, and previous
Report Components
• Conclusions
– Explain findings in relation to original problem
Report Components
• Recommendations
– Make recommendations on suggested action to be taken
Report Components
• Appendix
– All items must be referred to in the text and listed on the table of contents – It
ems of interest to some, but not all, readers
• For example, data questionnaires or computer printouts
Report Components
• References
– List all references in section called “Works Cited” or “References” – Include all text, o
line, and live sources – Follow style manual for citing sources
Other Specifics on Report Writing
• Single- or double-spaced • About 2500 words (not counting appendix) • Tables of Cont
ents will help you organize and write report—write early! • Headings of same level m
ust be consistent
– First, second, third levels
Same-level headings must be written consistently! (For example)
Level 1: CENTERED UPPER-CASE Level 2: Centered Upper-case and Lower-case Level 3
: Centered, Underlined, Upper-case and Lower-case Level 4: Flush left, Underline
d, Upper-case and Lower-case Level 5: Indented, underlined, lower-case paragraph
heading ending with a period.
Visual Aids
1. Introduce 2. Label/Number/Informative Title 3. Discuss
Sales Proposal
• • • • • • Budget Objectives Strategy and Tactics Schedule Results Closing
Document Design
• • • • • • • Use no more than 5 fonts. Use no more than 5 colors. Use glossy paper. Use wh
space. Use templates. Use parallelism. Avoid double emphasis.
Future Reports
Proposals • 250-page reports • 90-minute oral presentation • 50-page summary Reports • M
ulti-media • Web
Unit III
Business Letters
• Effective business letters • Effective business memos
We write business letters to • • • • Solicit business Respond to customer questions Nego
tiate purchases Deal with suppliers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Key all formal correspondence. Spell names correc
tly and have the correct address. Always date your business correspondence. Use
names and titles appropriately. Be direct and positive. Be persuasive and specif
ic. Avoid using fancy language. Be polite. Use an appropriate closing. Proofread
for spelling and grammatical errors.
• • • • • • • To: From: Subject: Cc. Bcc: Attached: Signature:
BLOCK STYLE → study “blocks of information” on the following slide or in the book, p.3
8 1) sender’s address 2) date 3) reference 4) recipient 5) Dear… 6) subject 7) body
8) closing phrase (Yours…) 9) writer’s signature
3 4
2 3
5 6
8 9
TRUE OR FALSE? 1. The name and the address of the recipient (addressee) are at t
he top on the left. 2. The date is on the left. 3. You have to write th, nd, rd
or st after the day in the date. 4. There is no punctuation (.) after the year.
5. The paragraphs start at the margin. 6. Between each paragraph there is a dott
ed line.
7. Under the signature, there is the name and the title of the writer. 8. There
is a coma in the address or after “Dear…” or after “Yours faithfully/sincerely”. 9. Subjec
t heading draws attention to what the letter is about. It usually starts with th
e abbreviation Re:_____ .
• The date: 12 June 2007 • Dear…/Yours… Dear Sir or Madam a company Dear Sir unknown man
Dear Madam unknown woman Dear Mr Smith man you know Dear Ms Smith woman you kno
w Dear Mrs Smith married woman Dear Miss Smith unmarried woman
• beginning (opening) • main message (more paragraphs possible) • ending (close)
Dear Sir or Madam . . . . Yours faithfully Dear Mr/Ms/Miss/ Mrs Smith . . . . Yo
urs sincerely
• We are writing in connection with... • We are writing to enquire about ... • We are
interested in…and we would like to know… • I was happy to see you last week at the fai
r. • Thank you for your letter of February 20 concerning … • Further to our telephone
discussion …, we would like to inform you that ... • With reference to your enquiry
• • • • • • I look forward to receiving your reply/order. I look forward to hearing from yo
soon. We look forward to seeing you soon. Please feel free to contact us if nec
essary. I hope that this information will help you. Please contact me if you nee
d any further information. • Please feel free to contact me if you have any furthe
r questions. + CLOSE
REFERRING I am writing in connection with… With reference to… Further to… With regard
GIVING GOOD/BAD NEWS I am pleased to tell you that… I am happy to inform you that… I
regret to tell you that… I am sorry to inform you that… SAYING WHAT YOU CAN/CANNOT
DO We are able to… We are unable to…
GIVING REASONS This is owing to… This is due to… This is as a result of… This is becau
se of strikes… This is because of the fact that workers were on strike This is bec
ause workers were on strike.
APOLOGISING We must apologise for -ing/noun We are extremely sorry for –ing/noun W
e are sorry that … (REASON) Please accept our apologies once again. We hope that t
his has not caused you any inconvenience. With apologies once again.
REQUESTING INFORMATION / ACTION Please could you… We would be grateful if you coul
d… We would appreciate it if you could… Please could you give us some details about… W
e would like to know about /if… In particular, we are interested in…
MAKING A COMPLAINT • Unfortunately, we have not yet received • We must insist that y
ou pay … • Unless we hear from you, we will take legal action… REPLYING TO COMPLAINTS
ACCEPT:apologize,explain,propose action, apologize again REFUSE:say you’re sorry,
say why you refuse, offer a solution (optional)
MAKING A POINT I would like to draw your attention to (the fact that)… I should li
ke to point out that… STYLE Polite tone → better response
Principles of business letter writing 1 ) The first principle is clearness In orde
r to achieve that you should not convey more than one idea in a sentence. You sh
ould not introduce more than one topic in a paragraph. You should not deal with
more than one matter in a letter.
Principles of business letter writing 2 ) The second principle is conciseness Try
to make your message brief and to the point. Avoid using long words and sentence
s. Use daily expressions to replace jargons. Express yourself in an orderly and
logical way. A good business letter should be natural, human and easy to read. H
ere are some examples:
Instead of saying: We should be obliged if you could contact Mr Smith at an earl
y date. You say: Please contact Mr Smith soon. Instead of saying: With reference
to your Order 319, the goods were dispatched on the 13 of this month. You say:
We sent your Order 319 on 13 April.
Principles of business letter writing 3) The third principle is correctness You
have to make sure that both the language and facts are correct. In terms of lang
uage, you should make sure that you make no grammatical mistakes. Pay attention
to punctuation for it will affect the meaning of the sentence
Our shop, in Canada, was destroyed by fire. From this sentence, we know that the
writer has only one shop. Our shop in Canada was destroyed by fire. Here we kno
w that the writer has more than one shop. You should also make sure that there a
re no typing mistakes. Pay special attention to numbers, such as quantity, price
and so on.
Principles of business letter writing 4)The last principle is courtesy: This is
more than politeness. A good business letter should be positive, friendly and si
ncere. Instead of saying: I am in receipt of your order for 1,000 tons of Black
Tea. You say: Thank you for your order for 1,000 tons of Black Tea.
The “You approach”
Adopt “you approach” when you convey a good news. Instead of saying: We shall be abl
e to offer you free customer service for your newly purchased refrigerator for 3
years. You say: You will be pleased to hear that you will soon be able to have
a free customer service for your newly purchased refrigerator for 3 years.
The “You approach”
Avoid using “you approach” when conveying bad news. In this situation, you have to h
andle it tactfully. Instead of saying: ‘Your letter is not clear at all. I cannot
understand it.’ You say: ‘If I understand your letter correctly….’
How to learn this course
• First, you need to have a good command of English. Then, pay attention to the sp
ecial terms in this • course. The best way to learn it is to read more and • write m
ore. In this way you will have a better understanding • of what you have learned a
nd be able to use them. It is a good idea to recite some letters. It will help y
ou a lot when you write business letters yourself.
Layout of the business letter
• Full-blocked layout style, • Blocked layout style and, • Semi-blocked layout style a
re commonly used.
Full-blocked layout style
The full-blocked layout style has no indentation. Everything is ranged left. The
re is no punctuation in the address and after the salutation and the complimenta
ry close. Use single space within the paragraph. Use double spaces between parag
raphs. If you have quotations or a list of something, you should start a new par
agraph, with 5-space indentations on the left. Mark this part out by leaving one
line space between this paragraph and the rest of the letter. This style is wid
ely used today because it is easy to type and therefore efficient.
This is similar to the Full-blocked layout style but the date is placed on the r
ight. The Subject is centered. The complimentary close and the signature start f
rom the middle.
• • • • • • • • • 1) Letterhead 2) Date 3) Inside name and address 4) The salutation 5) Sub
ading or caption 6) The body of the letter 7) Complimentary close 8) Signature 9
) Miscellaneous matters
The letterhead Companies usually have paper with printed letterhead, which inclu
des the company’s name, address, postcode, telephone number, telex number, fax num
ber, email address etc. The printed letterhead is usually centered. Here I’d like
to remind you that the address in the letterhead is the address of the sender no
t the recipient. This is important when you have to write the letterhead yoursel
2)The date A. The date should be placed two lines below the letterhead. For the
full-blocked style, you put it on the left. For the blocked or semi-blocked you
put it on the right. B. The date should be typed in full and not abbreviated Sep
tember , not Sept. October, not Oct.
C. Do not give the dates in figures for they may cause confusion. For the date,
use 1, 2, 3, 4. D. Here are the recommended forms. Stick to one form once you ha
ve chosen it. There is no comma between the month and the year in British Englis
h. 3 April 2000 (British English.) April 3, 2000 (American English
3) The inside name and address.
This is the name and address of the recipient. It is typed at the left-hand marg
in two lines below the date. Courtesy titles are used in business correspondence
, such as Mr., Mrs. and Miss. If you do not know whether a lady is married or no
t, use Ms. All these are followed by family names. If you do not know whether th
e recipient is a man or a woman, use Dear Madam or Sir. They are not followed by
family names.
If you know the appropriate departmental head, you’d better address the letter to
him or her, by his official title not by his or her name. Thus a letter concerni
ng purchasing should be addressed to: The Sales Manager, the recipient’s address.
Dear Sir,
When the recipient holds a special title, such as Doctor, Professor, address him
/her by this title: Prof. Smith. Dr. James White / James White, MD But not Dr. J
ames White, MD
4). The salutation The salutation is the polite greeting with which a letter beg
ins. The expression you use depends on your relationship with the recipient. You
may use formal salutation if you write to a company and do not know who to addr
ess to. In this case you use Dear Sirs, and in America people like to use Gentle
men. If you know the person you are writing to, you may use informal salutation.
Dear Mr. Green,
Formal: Dear Sir Dear Madam Dear Sirs Gentlemen Informal: Dear Mr Green Dear Mrs
Green Dear Miss Green Dear Ms Green
If you do not know whether a man or a woman will read your letter, you may write
Dear Madam or Sir/Dear Sir or Madam: Dear Madam or Sir Dear Sir or Madam You ca
nnot use Sir/Sirs alone. You have to use dear to go with Sir/Sirs but Gentlemen
is used alone and cannot be used in the singular. The salutation is two lines be
low the inside address without any indentation.
5). The subject heading or caption The subject heading is often placed one line
below the salutation. It can be put on the left or in the middle depending on wh
ether the letter is full-blocked, blocked or semi-blocked. This is used to call
reader’s attention to the topic of the letter, therefore it is a good idea to unde
rline it or make it in boldface letters. You can write the subject in the follow
ing ways:
A: Underline your subject like this: Dear Dr. Jones, Re: Applying for a position
Subject: Applying for a position
B: Make your subject in boldface letters Dear Dr. Jones, Re: Applying for a posi
tion Subject: Applying for a position
C: Omit the words Re and Subject: Dear Dr. Jones, Applying for a position
6) The body of the letter You may use the first person singular: I have received
your application and shall be bringing it before the Board for consideration th
is week. You may also use the first person plural: We have received your applica
tion and shall be considering it at a board meeting this week. You can even use
the impersonal passive: Your application has been received and will be considere
d by the Board this week.
You should plan you letter carefully. If you are replying a letter, begin your l
etter by referring to the previous correspondence. If this is the first time to
contact, you may begin by introducing yourself and then state the purpose of you
r writing. If you have several matters to talk about, especially if such matters
are not dealt with in the same department of the company, do not talk about the
m in one letter.
Important Questions What is the purpose of the letter? What is your expectation?
What language should you use to achieve your purpose? Is this the first time yo
u discuss the matter or you have talked about it before? Do you have all the inf
ormation you need? What is your company’s policy concerning the matter you are dea
ling with?
If a second page is necessary, do not write only the signature on the second pag
e. You should try to remove part of the letter from the first page to the second
by leaving more room between the letter head and the date ; between the date an
d the inside address; and leave more room for the hand written signature. Write “t
o be continued” on the bottom right hand side of the first page .
The second page should be written on a blank paper with the same kind of texture
and the color as the first page. Write the page number, name of the recipient a
nd the date and, like this: Page 2 The Universal Trading Co., February 10, 2000
or Mr. James Smith Page 2 March 2, 2000 When writing a letter, leave enough spac
e for both the left and the right margins, each having 30---34 mm.
7). The complimentary close The complimentary close is merely a polite way of en
ding a letter. The expression used must suit the occasion and match the salutati
on. Formal: Dear Sir(s) Yours faithfully Gentlemen Truly yours Less formal: Dear
Mr. Jones Yours sincerely
8). The signature A letter should be signed by hand in ink. As many hand-written
signatures are illegible, the name of the signer is usually typed below the sig
nature and followed by his job title or position. Leave 3 lines for a handwritte
n signature. Letters predominantly in the first person singular are signed by th
e name of the writer.
Letters in the first person plural or impersonal passive are usually signed with
the name of the firm. Below the name of the firm is the writer’s name. Only the p
erson who can represent the company is able to sign on behalf of the company. If
that person is not available, then the person who is given the authority to sig
n can sign for the company. In this case you use pp or per pro, or you may use ‘fo
For a person who has been given the authority to sign. Yours faithfully for/pp T
he Overseas Co. Ltd (Signature) W. Black Marketing director
b. For a person who has the authority to represent the company to sign. Yours si
ncerely, (Signature) B Davis Managing Director The Overseas Co. Ltd
c. The letter is signed by a person in his official capacity to indicate the exa
ct degree of authority. Yours sincerely, The Overseas Co. Ltd (Signature) Philip
Wang The Assistant Sales Manager
9). Miscellaneous matters 1 ) Carbon copy In this case you write cc below the sign
ature at the left margin. CC is the abbreviation of carbon copy. Yours faithfull
y for The Overseas Co. Ltd (Signature) W. Black Marketing director c.c. Mr. J. C
2)Enclosure If you have enclosure, it is placed below the carbon copy. Enclosure
can be abbreviated as Enc. cc Mr. J. Cooper 2 Invoices enclosed or 3 Enc./Enclo
sures 3 or Enclosure: 1 B/Lading
3)Postscript Do not use postscript unless you want to add a personal touch to yo
ur letter. It is placed one line below the enclosure. In most cases, postscript
is regarded as a sign of poor planning. If it is necessary write in ink like thi
s: P.S. See you at the Exhibition at the Hillside Plaza on January 10.
4)Reference number A firm or company usually assigns a reference to corresponden
ce, and this is intended for quotation in the reply. This ensures that the reply
goes to the right man, or in a large organization may be the key to a complicat
ed filing system. Companies have different ways to form their reference numbers.
These numbers should be quoted in the letters of reply. They are usually placed
on the top left-hand side opposite the date.
How to write envelops:
Mr. Johnson Green Public Commerce Information Service Bldg.14, Part 3Fangxingyua
n, Fangzhuang, Beijing, China Mr. Bill White B. Wallace &. Co. Registered 236 St
. Louis Street New York 10202, N.Y. USA
The Category of Business Letters • • • • • • Confidential Registered Private Express Sample
Post Parcel Post
Sometimes you may see an envelope with c/o, which means ‘care of’. Mr. Charles Wood
c/o The Sales Manager Percy Astins & Co Ltd 12 King’s Avenue RICHMOND Surrey TW6 I
SJ Britain
A memorandum is a short written form of business communication that has a set fo
rmat. • • • • Who it’s for Who it’s from Date Subject
From one person in a company to another. They can be… • • • • Hand-delivered E-mailed Sent
via interoffice mail Faxed
• • • • • What is it? Intro What is its purpose? Gatekeeper Target it to your job objectiv
e Generally one page How and where you place information indicates its relative
Resume writing
• Write it yourself • Make it error-free: Proofread, Proofread!!! • Make it look good •
Simple is best • Be brief, be relevant • Be honest • Be positive • Be specific • Update it
as needed
Do not include:
• • • • • Personal info Salary history Hobbies Names of references High school IF you are
in college or have a college degree • Philosophy statement [of life, work, etc.]
Styles of Resumes:
• Chronological • Functional • Combination
• Information organized in reverse order of occurrence
• Pros:
– most employers prefer this format – showcases steady work record, steady growth &
• Cons:
– bad news for those who have gaps in their work history or for new grads who don’t
have much experience – doesn’t help employer visualize the future
• Information is organized by functions or skills related to the job being sought –
for example: Marketing, Organizational skills, Supervisory skills,
Functional Resume, con’t
• Pros: – ideal for presenting transferable skills [skills that can move from one oc
cupation to another] – downplays irrelevant jobs, spotty work history, career reve
rsals – helpful when your most impressive skills came from volunteer work – makes fo
r interesting presentation • Cons: – most employers don’t like this format – unless hand
led well, can be confusing to read – difficult to write well
Combination Resume
• Takes the best from both chronological & functional • Sells what you can do & show
s your work history to prove it
Resume Structure:
• Name, Address, day time Phone number, Email • Objective [simple job title - not yo
ur goals] • Skills summary • Education & training • Employment history • Portfolio / Ref
• Extra copies of your RESUME • List of PROFESSIONAL REFERENCES • Complete WORK HISTOR
Y • Examples of your BEST WORK • PAD & PEN
• Be specific as to how your training or skills
learned in any p/t or volunteer job will help you do a good job for your prospec
tive employer • Take credit for the duties and responsibilities you performed on y
our past jobs • References - ask their permission before using their names
Electronic & Scannable Resumes
Now you need to know how to plan & write your resume both for the computer and f
or the human eye •Need to focus on nouns and key words •Scanners differ in their cap
Rules for Scanned resumes:
• Sans serif typefaces that scan well: Helvetica, Futura, Univers, Optima, ITC Ava
nte Garde Gothic • Serif fonts that scan well: Times, New Century Schoolbook, ITC
Bookman, Palatino, Courier
Scannable resumes
• * Between 11 - 14 point size type • Boldface is usually okay; when in doubt, check
with prospective employer • Asterisks are okay • Avoid italic, script, * underlinin
g • Avoid graphics & shading • * Keep horizontal & vertical lines away from text
Scannable resumes
• Omit parentheses & brackets, especially around phone numbers • * Lots of white spa
ce • Laser printer • * Always send originals • * Minimize abbreviations; when in doubt
, spell it out • * Use traditional resume structure
Scannable resumes
• * White, 8 1/2” by 11” paper printed on one side only • Your name should always be the
first text on the resume • * No staples • Do not fold resume; if it must be folded,
make sure fold is not along a line of text
Additional tips for resumes:
• Update as often as necessary • Join a professional society & put that membership o
n your resume • Keep the most important data & keywords at the top of your resume
90 second self-marketing ad
• Intro: who you are & what you want from your target • Your training & skills • Your “h
ook” • How you will follow up • The closing • PRACTICE!!
Types of Correspondence for JOBS
• Letter of Application – written in response
to a specific job within an organization which may have been advertised or ident
ified through networking
• Letter of Inquiry – written to explore
employment opportunities with an organization that interests you
• Thank you letter – used to thank the
interviewer for his/her time and the opportunity to interview; should be sent wi
thin 48 hours of the interview
• Letter of Acceptance – written to express
your enthusiasm about joining the organization and to confirm specific terms and
conditions of your employment (start date, salary, benefits, bonus, negotiated
• Letter of Refusal – used to decline a job
offer; be appreciative and polite and thank the employer for the offer
Letter of Application
• Paragraph 1
Hook the reader with creativity. State the reason for the letter. Identify the s
pecific position you are applying for and how you heard of the position. Mention
information about the company or the industry. Try to make the connection as pe
rsonable as possible.
• Paragraph 2
Discuss your strongest qualifications that match the position requirements. Prov
ide evidence of related experiences and accomplishments. Explain why you are int
erested in working for the employer. Refer to your enclosed resume.
• Paragraph 3 (Optional) Convince the employer that you have
the personal qualities and motivation to succeed. Sell yourself.
• Paragraph 4
Request an interview and indicate how and when you can be contacted. You can als
o state that you will call on a specific date to arrange a convenient interview
time. Thank the reader for his/her consideration. Be sure to provide your phone
number and email address.
Letter of Inquiry
• Paragraph 1
Hook the reader with creativity. State the reason for the letter. Identify the s
pecific position or the type of work you are applying for. Mention information a
bout the company or the industry. Try to make the connection as personable as po
ssible. Mention past conversations or mutual acquaintances.
• Paragraph 2
Highlight your strongest qualifications. Provide evidence of related experiences
and accomplishments. Explain why you are interested in working for the employer
. Target the employers needs. Refer to specific aspects of the organization’s work
that interest you.
• Paragraph 3
(Optional) Convince the employer that you have the personal qualities and motiva
tion to succeed. Sell yourself.
• Paragraph 4
Request an interview and indicate how and when you can be contacted. You can als
o state that you will call on a specific date to arrange a convenient interview
time. Thank the reader for his/her consideration. Be sure to provide your phone
Thank You Letter
• Paragraph 1
Thank the interviewer for his/her time. Express your enthusiasm in the employer
and the position.
• Paragraph 2
Re-emphasize your strongest qualifications. Recall aspects of the interview that
were helpful or enlightening. Draw attention to the good match between your qua
lifications and the job requirements. Restate what you can contribute if offered
the position.
• Paragraph 3
Reiterate your interest in the position. Give a phone number where you can be re
Job Offer Acceptance Letter
• Express your pleasure at receiving the offer and your enthusiasm about joining t
he organization • Confirm terms and conditions of your employment – salary, starting
date, benefits, etc. • Request a written confirmation of the offer
Job Offer Decline Letter
• Thanks the employer for the offer and the opportunity to interview • State that yo
ur decision is based on careful consideration of your current interests and goal
s • Be cordial, appreciative and polite • Be brief and direct • Goal is to maintain go
Email Correspondence
• Must be in a different tone – a professional, businesslike tone • Necessary to use a
n appropriate subject header • Address recipient as Mr., Ms., or Mrs. and spell re
cipient’s name correctly • Be brief • Never use slang or symbols - :) , LOL, etc. • Avoi
d wallpapers, multicolored backgrounds, and strange fonts • End with your full nam
e • Proofread and check for spelling errors • Cut and paste application letter and r
esume in message; never send attachments unless asked to do so
Successful Correspondence Tips
• Address letters to an individual; include correct title • Again be brief – one page •
Discuss your qualifications and meeting the needs of the employer – work-centered
and employer-centered, not self-centered • Customize each letter; no form letters •
Keep the reader in mind • Use quality paper and envelopes for hard copies • Include
work experiences where appropriate • Thank the reader for their consideration • Proo
fread, checking for spelling and grammar errors
Cover Letter
• Every sent resume must have cover letter • Purpose? • Address letter to a person • Kno
w your target’s needs
Cover letter structure
• 1st para - purpose of letter; identify job title; mention specific info about co
mpany • 2nd para - describe professional & academic qualifications • 3rd- continue;
why you should be considered; expand on resume • 4th - ask for interview • closing
Cover letters, con’t
• • • • • Do not discuss salary, unless required No negatives Action/key words Cite work-r
elated accomplishments Highlight personal attributes
Business Proposal Letters
Why is it important?
If you plan to be a consultant or run your own business, written proposals may be
one of your most important tools for bringing in business. And, if you work for
a government agency, nonprofit organization, or a large corporation, the propos
al can be a valuable tool for initiating projects that benefit the organization
or you the employee-proposer (and usually both).
What is a Proposal?
A proposal is a document that request support-usually money- for work a proposer
wants to do. what makes a proposal a proposal is that it asks the audience to a
pprove, fund, or grant permission to do the proposed project.
Types of proposals
• Internal proposal: If you write a proposal to someone within your organization,
it is an internal proposal. With internal proposals, you may not have to include
certain sections (such as qualifications), or you may not have to include as mu
ch information in them. • External proposal: is one written from one separate, ind
ependent organization or individual to another such entity. • Solicited proposal:
If a proposal is solicited, the recipient of the proposal in some way requested
the proposal. Typically, a company will send out requests for proposals (public
announcements requesting proposals for a specific project ) through the mail or
publish them in some news source. • Unsolicited proposals: are those in which the
recipient has not requested proposals. With unsolicited proposals, you sometimes
must convince the recipient that a problem or need exists before you can begin
the main part of the proposal.
Things to remember when writing a proposal:
• The proposer has a particular interests and goals, and that s why he/she writes
the proposal. • The recipient of the proposal, be it an organization, a person, or
a group, has its own interests and goals which may or may not coincide with tho
se of the proposer. • So, the proposal should be convincing to the potential funde
r, and it should show that the proposed activity will be a good investment. • This
is especially important when there is a competition between you and other propo
sers. • Always make sure that your proposal meets the expectations of the funder.
Common Sections in Proposals
• The general outline of the proposal should be adapted and modified according to
the needs of the readers and the demand of the topic proposed. For example, long
complicated proposals might contain all the following sections. In contrast, sh
orter or simpler proposals might contain only some of the sections or the main o
Title page
Specific formats for title pages vary from one proposal to another but most incl
ude the following:
The title of the proposal ( as short as informative as possible) A reference numbe
r for the proposal The name of the potential funder ( the recipient of the propos
al) The proposal s date of submission The signature of the project director and re
sponsible administrator(s ) in the proposer s institution or company
• The Abstract is a very important part of the proposal because it provides a shor
t overview and summary of the entire proposal. • The Abstract of the proposal is s
hort, often 200 words or less. • In a short proposal addressed to someone within t
he writer s institution, the Abstract may be located on the title page. • In a lon
g proposal, the Abstract will usually occupy a page by itself following the Titl
e page. • The Abstract should briefly define the problem and its importance, the o
bjectives of the project, the method of evaluation, and the potential impact of
the project.
Table of contents
• The table of contents lists the sections and subsections of the proposal and the
ir page numbers.
Plan the introduction to your proposal carefully. Make sure it does all of the f
ollowing things (but not necessarily in this order) that apply to your particula
r proposal:
– Indicate that the document to follow is a proposal. – Refer to some previous conta
ct with the recipient of the proposal or to your source of information about the
project. – Find one brief motivating statement that will encourage the recipient
to read on and to consider doing the project. – Give an overview of the contents o
f the proposal.
Often occurring just after the introduction. The background section discusses wh
at has brought about the need for the project—what problem, what opportunity there
is for improving things, what the basic situation is. It s true that the audien
ce of the proposal may know the problem very well, in which case this section mi
ght not be needed. Writing the background section still might be useful, however
, in demonstrating your particular view of the problem. And, if the proposal is
unsolicited, a background section is almost a requirement—you will probably need t
o convince the audience that the problem or opportunity exists and that it shoul
d be addressed.
Benefits and feasibility of the proposed project
Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits of doing the proposed project.
This acts as an argument in favor of approving the project. Also, some proposal
s discuss the likelihood of the project s success. In the unsolicited proposal,
this section is particularly important.
Description of the proposed work (results of the project):
Most proposals must describe the finished product of the proposed project. In th
is course, that means describing the written document you propose to write, its
audience and purpose; providing an outline; and discussing such things as its le
ngth, graphics, and so on.
Method, procedure, theory
• In most proposals, you ll want to explain how you ll go about doing the proposed
work, if approved to do it. This acts as an additional persuasive element; it s
hows the audience you have a sound, well-thoughtout approach to the project. Als
o, it serves as the other form of background some proposals need. Remember that
the background section (the one discussed above) focused on the problem or need
that brings about the proposal. However, in this section, you discuss the techni
cal background relating to the procedures or technology you plan to use in the p
roposed work.
• Most proposals contain a section that shows not only the projected completion da
te but also key milestones for the project. If you are doing a large project spr
eading over many months, the timeline would also show dates on which you would d
eliver progress reports. And if you can t cite specific dates, cite amounts of t
ime or time spans for each phase of the project.
• Most proposals contain a summary of the proposing individual s or organization s
qualifications to do the proposed work. It s like a mini-resume contained in th
e proposal. The proposal audience uses it to decide whether you are suited for t
he project. Therefore, this section lists work experience, similar projects, ref
erences, training, and education that shows familiarity with the project.
Costs, resources required
• Most proposals also contain a section detailing the costs of the project, whethe
r internal or external. With external projects, you may need to list your hourly
rates, projected hours, costs of equipment and supplies, and so forth, and then
calculate the total cost of the complete project. With internal projects, there
probably won t be a fee, but you should still list the project costs: for examp
le, hours you will need to complete the project, equipment and supplies you ll b
e using, assistance from other people in the organization, and so on.
• The final paragraph or section of the proposal should bring readers back to a fo
cus on the positive aspects of the project (you ve just showed them the costs).
In the final section, you can end by urging them to get in touch to work out the
details of the project, to remind them of the benefits of doing the project, an
d maybe to put in one last plug for you or your organization as the right choice
for the project.
• Appendices (supplementary material that is collected and appended at the end of
a proposal)should be devoted to those aspects of your project that are of second
ary interest to the reader. Begin by assuming that the reader will only have a s
hort time to read your proposal and it will only be the main body of your propos
al (not the Appendices). Then, assume that you have gotten the attention of the
reader who would now like some additional information. This is the purpose of th
e Appendices.
Organization of Proposals
• • • • • • • • • • • As for the organization of the content of a proposal, remember that i
ially a sales, or promotional kind of thing. Here are the basic steps it goes th
rough: You introduce the proposal, telling the readers its purpose and contents.
You present the background—the problem, opportunity, or situation that brings abo
ut the proposed project. Get the reader concerned about the problem, excited abo
ut the opportunity, or interested in the situation in some way. State what you p
ropose to do about the problem, how you plan to help the readers take advantage
of the opportunity, how you intend to help them with the situation. Discuss the
benefits of doing the proposed project, the advantages that come from approving
it. Describe exactly what the completed project would consist of, what it would
look like, how it would work—describe the results of the project. Discuss the meth
od and theory or approach behind that method—enable readers to understand how you
ll go about the proposed work. Provide a schedule, including major milestones or
checkpoints in the project. Briefly list your qualifications for the project; p
rovide a mini-resume of the background you have that makes you right for the pro
ject. Now (and only now), list the costs of the project, the resources you ll ne
ed to do the project. Conclude with a review of the benefits of doing the projec
t (in case the shock from the costs section was too much), and urge the audience
to get in touch or to accept the proposal.
Format of Proposals
• You have the following options for the format and packaging of your proposal. It
does not matter which you use as long as you use the memorandum format for inte
rnal proposals and the business-letter format for external proposals
1. Cover letter with separate proposal: In this format, you write a brief "cover
" letter and attach the proposal proper after it. The cover letter briefly annou
nces that a proposal follows and outlines the contents of it. In fact, the conte
nts of the cover letter are pretty much the same as the introduction.
2. Cover memo with separate proposal: In this format, you write a brief "cover"
memo and attach the proposal proper after it. The cover memo briefly announces t
hat a proposal follows and outlines the contents of it. In fact, the contents of
the cover memo are pretty much the same as the introduction. The proposal prope
r that repeats much of what s in the cover memo. This is because the memo may ge
t detached from the proposal or the reader may not even bother to look at the me
mo and just dive right into the proposal itself.
3. Business-letter proposal: In this format, you put the entire proposal within
a standard business letter. You include headings and other special formatting el
ements as if it were a report. (This format
is illustrated in the left portion of the illustration below)
4. Memo proposal: In this format, you put the entire proposal within a standard
office memorandum. You include headings and other special formatting elements as
if it were a report. This format is illustrated in the
right portion of the illustration below)
Check List for your Proposal
• As you reread and revise your proposal, watch out for problems such as the follo
wing: Make sure you use the right format. Remember, the memo format is for inter
nal proposals; the business-letter format is for proposals written from one exte
rnal organization to another. (Whether you use a cover memo or cover letter is y
our choice.) Write a good introduction—in it, state that this is a proposal, and p
rovide an overview of the contents of the proposal. Make sure to identify exactl
y what you are proposing to do. Make sure that a report—a written document—is someho
w involved in the project you are proposing to do. Remember that in this course
we are trying to do two things: write a proposal and plan a term-report project.
Make sure the sections are in a logical, natural order. For example, don t hit
the audience with schedules and costs before you ve gotten them interested in th
e project. Break out the costs section into specifics; include hourly rates and
other such details. Don t just hit them with a whopping big final cost. For inte
rnal projects, don t omit the section on costs and qualifications: there will be
costs, just not direct ones. For example, how much time will you need, will the
re be printing, binding costs? Include your qualifications— imagine your proposal
will go to somebody in the organization who doesn t know you.
• • • • • •
Key Points for a Business Proposal
• Provide an overview of the business proposals, including specific recommendation
s and the total expense to the reader. • Provide a detailed cost analysis when pos
sible or appropriate. This will allow the reader to evaluate each cost factor as
a part of the total package. • To add authority and credence to your proposal pro
vide the reader with supporting facts and figures. These can include examples, s
urvey results, and case studies.
Sample Proposal Letter 1
Dear Mr. Frank: How would you like to cut your printing costs by more than 40 pe
rcent per month? Give us a few minutes of your time and we’ll show you how. We’ll re
view every facet of your current system and analyze its strengths and weaknesses
. We’ll look at a comparison of costs for other businesses of your size and provid
e a comprehensive report of short and long-term actions that will generate subst
antial savings for your company. The enclosed proposal outlines the details of w
hat we’ll do and how successful we’ve been at doing this for other businesses. In fa
ct, we guarantee you’ll save no less than 10 percent per year savings as a result
of our efforts. I’ll call after you’ve had a chance to review our proposal. Sincerel
Sample Proposal Letter 2
Dear Mr Bruno: I enjoyed speaking with you the other day. Enclosed please find a
preliminary proposal for Debt Collection for Mafia Services. I believe this inc
ludes all specifications, options and terms we discussed. If not, please let me
know as soon as possible so we may revise the proposal to meet your needs. If al
l is in order, let us know how and when you wish to proceed. As noted previously
, we can arrange a lease with low monthly payments designed to stay within your
operating budget. As always the system is available for purchase. While I unders
tand this is a major undertaking for Mafia Services, I would advise you time is
of the essence. Several of our suppliers have announced price increases for the
fall. Unfortunately, as their prices increase, so do ours. The prices included w
ith this proposal are valid for 90 days from the time of receipt. Please call me
if you have any questions or require additional information. Sincerely, Enclosu
Sample Proposal
Month Date, Year PROPOSAL We will prepare N books for publication by you, combin
ing materials from X, Y, and Z into a new series targeting the RR market. The co
st to produce this new series of books will be: $$$ (also written as text) Payme
nts will be made on the following schedule: $$$ upon acceptance on this proposal
. (Comment: This amount equals one-third to one-half the total fee.) $$$ upon de
livery of each book. $$$ upon delivery of the final book. Checks will be made pa
yable to (Contractor). We are able to start work on this project immediately upo
n acceptance of this proposal and will deliver the materials on the following sc
hedule. All dates are approximate and are contingent upon prompt approval from y
ou on our submission of chapter and book outlines. Book 1 Title Date to be deliv
ered Book 2 etc. In order to meet your deadlines and the above delivery schedule
, this proposal must be accepted on or before Month Date, Year. A signed faxed c
opy will be sufficient authority to begin the work with a signed hard copy to fo
llow. Contractor:.........................Client s Name __________________......
_________________ of person Tax ID
#:............................Title: Address:.............................Addres
s: Date:...................................Date: (Date:)........................
Unit IV
Interpersonal and Group Communication : Decision making and Problem solving
Decision Making and Problem Solving
• Problem solving is concerned with overcoming obstacles in the path toward an obj
ective. • Problem solving may or may not require action. • A decision is an act requ
iring judgment that is translated into action.
Decision Making and Problem Solving (cont’d)
• Decision making is much more comprehensive than problem solving. • The terms are i
nterrelated, but not interchangeable.
The Significance of Decision Making
• Decision making is the one truly distinctive characteristic of managers. • Decisio
ns made by top managers commit the total organization toward particular courses
of action. • Decisions made by lower levels of management implement the strategic
decisions of top managers in the operating areas of the organization. • Decisions
invariably involve organizational change and the commitment of scarce resources.
The Scope of Decision Making
• Individual decision making • Group decision making • Organizational decision making •
Metaorganizational decision making
The Scope of Decision Making
Decisional Inputs
(Objectives, information, resources, energy)
Metaorganization Organization Group Individual
Interactional Levels
Permeable Boundaries External Environment
Copyright © 1999 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Decisional Outputs
(Actions transactions, outcomes)
1 - 328
Decision Making and Control
• Decision Making • How to Make Good Decisions • Problem Solving • Building Decision Mak
ing Skills • Controlling
Elements in Managerial Decisions
• Decision: A conscious choice among alternative courses of action. • Therefore the
3 elements are:
– A conscious choice among alternatives – A specific purpose – A course of action
Approaches to Decision Making
• Rational (Logical Approach) • Intuitive Approach • Unable to decide (Indecisive Appr
oach) • Impulsive Approach
A Simple Version of Decision Making (The Logical Approach)
• Define the problem (conditions and limitations) and the set of objectives • Analyz
e the problem: fact finding • Develop alternative solutions: brainstorming • Decide
on the best solution • Convert the decision into action • Follow up
Pattern of Problem Solving
• Describe the problem • Search out the cause, get the facts • Define the real problem
and set objectives • Develop alternative solutions • Decide on the best solution • Im
plement the decision • Follow up
Participative Problem Solving
• Argument for Group Decision Making :
– You get more info. And expertise relevant to the decision – You get more good idea
s and can generate more and better alternatives – People thinking together can arr
ive at better decisions because of the stimulation and interplay of different po
ints of view – Participants are more committed to carrying out – Coordination and co
mmunication are simpler and better because everyone understands
Participative Problem Solving
• Criticism of group decision making:
– It takes longer in a group – There is usually a dominator in a group – Group partici
pants get involved in winning arguments and showing off – If consensus is required
people may conform to get the meeting over – Consensus leads to mediocre decision
Group Decision Making Works Best When:
• Members are accustom to working together as a team and having differing expertis
e and point of view but common goals • The leader is skillful at keeping the meeti
ng on target • The group is rewarded for making good decisions
Solving Peoples Problems
• Personal problems are not yours to resolve but LISTENING can help. • Keep your own
emotions out of it. • Try to identify the real problem. • If possible eliminate fri
Win-Win Problem Solving
• Win-Lose: You win, worker loses • Lose-Win: You lose, worker wins (retreat and app
easement, no stand) • Lose-Lose: The compromise • Win-Win problem solving means you
find a decision that satisfies both of you.
– Include worker from the beginning: From defining the problem to carrying out an
Guidelines for Building Decision Making Skills
• Be sure of your authority for making decisions • Accept responsibility fully • Disti
nguish what s important • Make the decision at the time it is needed • Be alert to s
igns of problems needing solutions • Keep an open mind
Guidelines for Building Decision Making Skills
• Don’t solicit advise but do consult your supervisor when a problem is beyond your
ability to solve • Make sure that you are not part of the problem • Learn from your
mistakes • Evaluate your decisions when carried out
Unit IV
Interpersonal and Group Communication : Handling Interpersonal Conflict
Primary Levels of Conflict Within Organizations
Intrapersonal (within an individual) Interpersonal (between individuals) Intragroup
(within a group) Intergroup (between groups)
Conflict: “A process in which one party perceives
that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.”
Functional conflict serves the
organization’s interests while
Dysfunctional conflict threatens
the organization’s interests.
Antecedents of Conflict
• • • • • • • Incompatible personalities or value systems. Overlapping or unclear job bound
es. Competition for limited resources. Interdepartment/intergroup competition. I
nadequate communication. Interdependent tasks. Organizational complexity.
Antecedents of Conflict (continued)
• Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules. • Unreasonable deadlines or
extreme time pressure. • Collective decision making. • Decision making by consensus
. • Unmet expectations. • Unresolved or suppressed conflict.
Sources of Interpersonal Conflict
• • • • • • Competition for Limited Resources Role Conflict Competing Work and Family Deman
s Building Stone Walls Personality Clashes Aggressive Personalities Including Bu
Marketing – Manufacturing Areas of Potential Goal Conflict
Goal Conflict MARKETING Operative goal is customer satisfaction VS. MANUFACTURIN
G Operative goal is production efficiency
Conflict Area
Typical Comment
Typical Comment
Breadth of product line:
“Our customers “ demand variety.” “New products are our lifeblood.” “We need faster respons
. Lead times are too long.” “Why don’t we ever have the right merchandise in inventory
?” “Why can’t we have reasonable quality at low cost?”
“The product line is too broad, all we get are short, uneconomical runs.” “Unnecessary
design changes are prohibitively expensive.” “We need realistic customer commitment
s that don’t change like the wind direction “We can’t afford to keep huge inventories.” “W
hy must we always offer options that are too expensive and offer little customer
New product introduction: Production scheduling:
Physical distribution:
Desired Outcomes of Conflict
Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair
agreements that last.
Stronger relationships: Build bridges of
goodwill and trust for the future.
Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative
problem solving.
1. Follow company policies for diversity, antidiscrimination. 2. Investigate and
document conflict. 3. If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback or
B Mod). 4. If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution. 5. Refer difficul
t conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolut
ion attempts and other interventions.
Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict
How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships and minimize Conflict
2 3
Be a good listener 1 Be sensitive to the needs of others 2 Be cooperative, rathe
r than overly competitive Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership Compromi
se rather than dominate 4 Build rapport through conversations 5 Be compassionate
and understanding 6 Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7 Nurture others (dev
elop and mentor) 8
Five Conflict-Handling Styles
Concern for Others
Sharing/ Compromising Accommodative
High Low Concern for Self
Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles
Avoiding Style
Unassertive and uncooperative
Forcing Style
Assertive and uncooperative
Accommodating Style
Unassertive and cooperative
Collaborating Style
Assertive and cooperative
Compromising Style
Intermediate level of assertive and cooperative behaviors
When Should the Avoiding Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts?
The issue is of minor or passing importance Insufficient information to effectiv
ely deal with the conflict Low power relative to the other party Others can more
effectively resolve the conflict
When Should the Forcing Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts?
Emergencies requiring quick action Unpopular actions must be taken for long-term
organizational effectiveness and survival Self-protective action is needed
When Should the Accommodating Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts?
Need to defuse a potentially explosive emotional conflict situation Short-run need
to keep harmony and avoid disruption Conflict is primarily based on personality
and cannot be easily resolved
When Should the Collaborating Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts?
High level of cooperation is needed Sufficient parity exists in power of conflicti
ng parties Potential for mutual benefits, especially over long run Sufficient orga
nizational support to take the time and energy for collaboration
When Should the Compromising Style Be Used to Handle Interpersonal Conflicts?
Agreement enables each party to be better off, or at least not worse off, than w
ithout an agreement Achieving a total win–win agreement is not possible Conflictin
g goals block agreement on one person’s proposal
Conflict Resolution
• • • • • Confrontation and Problem-Solving Constructive Handling of Criticism Image Excha
nging (creating empathy) Cognitive Restructuring Negotiating and Bargaining
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques
Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal
directly and constructively with each other. Conciliation: Neutral third party a
cts as communication link between disputants. Peer review: Impartial co-workers
hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding. Ombudsman: R
espected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.
Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution. Arb
itration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and rende
rs a binding decision.
Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making
process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.”
Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotia
tion: More than one issue; win-win.
An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation
Clarify interests. Identify options. Design alternative deal packages. Select a
deal. Perfect the deal.
Basic Types of Negotiation
Distributive negotiations
Involve win–lose, fixed-amount situations wherein one party’s gain is another party’s l
Integrative negotiations
Involve joint problem solving to achieve results benefiting both parties
Basic Types of Negotiation
Attitudinal structuring
The process by which conflicting parties seek to establish desired attitudes and
Intraorganizational negotiations
Involve sets of negotiators representing different groups, and each set of negoti
ators tries to build consensus for agreement to resolve intragroup conflict befo
re dealing with the other group’s negotiators
Matrix of Negotiated Outcomes
STRATEGY OF PERSON A Integrative Distributive
Great for Person A Terrible for Person B
Mediocre for Person A Mediocre for Person B
Good for Person A Good for Person B
Terrible for Person A Great for Person B
Source: Adapted from Anderson, T. Step into my parlor: A survey of strategies an
d techniques for effective negotiation. Business Horizons, May-June 1992, 75.
Handling Interpersonal Conflict in Groups
• • • • • • Develop skills Agree on basics Search for interests in common Experiment Doubt
our infallibility Treat conflict as a group responsibility
Unit V
Customer care : Effective Customer Care
Who Are Customers?
• Everyone at work with whom you interact are your customers • Everyone who purchase
s or uses your activities, events, products and services are your customers • Your
supervisor, your manager, and all of your employees are your customers, too
You help achieve extraordinary customer service when you make each interaction o
ne that is positive, effective, efficient, courteous, competent, thorough, and p
rofessional. This is your job!
Definition of Customer Care…
•Feeling concern and interest in someone who has entered a business to buy a produ
ct or obtain a service. This brings out the fact that a person can be a customer
without having to spend money.
Basic rule of customer care…
• Put yourself in the customers shoes; see the situation as they do.
What is Customer Service?
Customer Service is all about: Providing customers with what they want • Offering
consistent levels of service • Exceeding and not just meeting expectations • Fulfill
ing all customer needs • Going out of your way to delight customers
Customer Service
Companies who provide excellent service:
• • • • • Exceed the expectations of their customers Treat customers with respect Do not j
ust aim to satisfy – they aim to delight Provide solutions to problems Consistentl
y deliver outstanding service to their customers
Make customers feel that they are the most important part of their business …… which
they are
Why is Service important?
• Intense competition • Customers have a choice • It is the only thing that can make u
s different from our competitors • Satisfied and delighted customers will come bac
k • Dissatisfied customers will not come back
Your “Service” Role – Why Care?
• Serving every customer well helps you, your program, and your organization stand
out • Providing good customer service is essential to:
– your job security – future job/career opportunities – how you feel about what you do
Being The Best -- Everyday!
HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CUSTOMER SERVICE PEOPLE: • • • • • • • • • • Exceed customer expectations
how customers want to be treated Know the customer s needs are a priority Listen
effectively to ensure they understand the customer Don’t take complaints personal
ly Look and act like a professional Keep learning Keep teaching Smile genuinely
Respect the customer
“Moments of Truth”
"Essentially, Moments of Truth are those contacts between companies and customer
s where a firm s reputation are at stake.“
(Stewart, 1992)
Moments of Truth
• Each time you meet with a customer, or potential customer, is a chance to make a
positive impression on that person. These encounters can be described as "Momen
ts of Truth".
Moments of Truth
• It is important to identify when these Moments of Truth occur and to manage them
to ensure you make the best possible impression on the customer
Benefits of excellent Customer Care?
Benefits of excellent Customer Care
Feel good Improved factor is reputation high/enjoy going to work Less stress for
mgt and staff Greater job security Return/ repeat business Fewer complaints
Happy boss
Improved team spirit, staff morale and motivation
More enjoyable work atmosphere
Greater staff Improved Greater loyalty and communicatio chance of retention n wi
thin the word of business mouth advertising
Why does poor Customer Care happen?
• • • • • Lack of incentive Complacency Lack of support No real training Staff under press
ure • Poor knowledge • No team spirit or motivation • Lack of awareness
Not all that long ago there were four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody
and Nobody.
There was an important job to be done and Everybody was asked to do it. Everybod
y was sure that Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did
Somebody got very angry about that, because it was Everybody’s job. Everybody thou
ght Anybody could do it but Nobody realised that Everybody would not do it.
It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could ha
ve done.
What skills do we need to use?
Attitude Appearance Communication-listening, talking, reading, writing Observati
on of standards and body language Assertiveness
Customer Care Skills
There are 8 main customer care skills that need to be displayed when serving the
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Appearance Observation Listening Body Language and Facial Expression Talking Ass
ertiveness Attitude Behaviour
• The appearance of yourself and the other members of staff in your team will say
a lot about the standards within your operation. • Remember: You are only as stron
g as the weakest link in your staff chain.
• It’s easy to miss shortfalls in standards because of familiarity. • Keep your eyes o
pen. • Try to stand back and look at your workplace in an objective way.
Listening: The Four Basic Communication skills
ListeningSpeakin Reading Writing g Learned 1st Most (45%) 2nd Next Most (30%) Ne
xt Least 3rd Next Least (16%) Next Most 4th Least (9%)
• If we fail to listen to the customer they will feel that we do not really care a
bout them and therefore not return. • The 2 main ways of listening attentively are
: 1. Physical attending 2. Psychological attending
Physical Attending:
• Face the speaker • Maintain eye contact • Maintain an open posture • Lean towards the
speaker • Stay relatively relaxed
Psychological attending:
Listen to what is being said: • Listen for the central theme rather than the facts
• Keep an open mind • Think ahead • Analyse and evaluate • Do not interrupt • Interpret a
tone of voice • Evaluate the non-verbal signs
Body Language & Facial Expression
• Reading and understanding body language is an essential part of listening. If ou
r body language does not reflect the words that we are using then the customer w
ill not believe us. ie. Non-verbal behaviour
Understanding a message…
60 50 40 30 Message 20 10 0 Words Nonverbal
• Words: 10% • Tone, pitch, volume: 35% • Non-verbal behaviour: 55%
Identify expressions…
• Eyes up avoiding contact • Looking down • Arms folded • Arms outstretched • Upright/good
posture • Face set
• Golden Rule! -Acknowledge the customer as soon as possible!
• When talking to the customer we must not… • Discuss politics, religion, gossip • Compl
ain about the company • Moan, moan and moan again! • Talk over the customers head!
When dealing with customers there are 3 types of behaviour we can employ: 1.Aggr
essiveness, 2.Assertiveness 3.Submissiveness.
• We should try to apply an assertive manner at all times. • By being assertive you
remain in control, have greater self confidence and earn the respect of others.
Attitude & Behaviour
• The way we behave with customers is all important. • We must display a positive ap
proach and be courteous at all times.
• Each customer is an individual. • Be enthusiastic-it’s infectious! • Courtesy costs no
thing • Treat people as individuals. Use their name.
Key Test of Good Customer Care: Keep your The 5 second Documentatio Five minute
service promise Positive employee attitudes telephone response
n response maximum within 2 days waiting time Proactive Honesty and Systems Comm
unicatio openness reliability n
Being in the Little Extras Attention to Immaculate know detail Appearance
Set Standards
• By putting procedures in place all customers will be dealt with in a professiona
l and efficient manner • Thus ensuring you have a satisfied customer network
• You should have answers to common queries at hand • Promises to customers must be
realistic and acted upon within the agreed time frame • Customer must be notified
of delays
When dealing with a complaint…
Do... • Show empathy/concern • Use their name if you can • Listen • Take notes • Let them
make their case • Ask questions to clarify detail • Confirm with them that you have
got it right
• Gather your version of events before replying • Tell them what you propose to do • E
nsure they are happy • See it as an opportunity to cement the relationship and enc
ourage more business
When dealing with a complaint…
Do Not…
•Say “it’s not my fault” •Say “you’re the fifth today to complain about that” •Interrupt •J
Do not…
• Accept responsibility until you are sure it’s your fault • Be patronising • Argue • Lose
your temper • Blame others
The Listen Technique
• Lend an ear to the customer’s problem-do not interrupt • Identify the important poin
ts • Sympathise- “I’m sorry” acknowledges something went wrong-not taking the blame • Than
k the customer for taking the time to tell you what happened • Explain what can be
done • Now act quickly-don’t give further cause for complaint!
• Sometimes the words that are used in communication cause the message to be misin
terpreted. This can happen if imprecise words are used e.g. “sort of” or “things” also t
echnical jargon can be confusing if it is unfamiliar to the other person.
Customer Service Language
– – – – – – - Possibly-maybe-perhaps - We might be able to do this - I hope that will be ok
- I am sure that will be sufficient - I know we can get that for you - I am cert
ain you will be pleased with this
Avoid certain words
• TRY – This implies that you are unsure of whether you can do something – use the wor
d ensure instead, it is positive and commits you to action which your customer w
ill believe.
• Use the word ‘Please’ at the start of a sentence rather than at the end of it as it
becomes an order at the end of a sentence
• ‘OK’ sounds bland, automatic and disengaged • Use ‘Certainly’, this conveys warmth and in
erest in delighting your customer
• Avoid the word ‘busy’, your customer should never feel that you are too busy to look
after his/her needs. • Try saying ‘I will look into this and come back to you’
Unit V
Customer care : Managing Customer Complaints and Negotiating with the customer
Handling Complaints
What are they?
An opportunity to:
• • • • Make things right Turn dissatisfied customers into delighted customers Show you
care Turn complainers into ambassadors
Calming Customers
Actively show you are listening
Show that you do care and are concerned
Agreeing on Common Ground
Find something to agree with
Handling Complaints
Listen Apologise Solve Thank
Make the most of your LAST chance!
A good complaint policy:
Helps create a good ‘Complaint Culture’ in the organization – the culture of total emp
loyee involvement towards total customer satisfaction Encourages and makes it ea
sy for customers to complain – be it through personal visit, telephone, letter or
email Empowers the employees to deal with complaints Helps develop an attitude: “i
t is more important to keep customers than to win the argument” amongst employees
particularly front-end employees
Ensures all front-end staff is trained to cope with ctiticism and process compla
ints effectively Has a well planned system for monitoring complaint data to know
: No of complaints – all complaints to be documented Nature of complaints No of ju
stified complaints Analysis of complaints as to product-centred, precess-centred
and person-centred Proposed remedical actions including modifications of produc
ts / procedures/ systems and identification of training needs etc
encourages prompt and competent handling of complaints helps to ensure constant
supervision of customer satisfaction recognizes and rewards employees who proces
s complaints rapidly and satisfactorily is able to recover a lost customer / reg
ain the confidence of a dissatisfied customer customers include internal custome
Best Practices Across the Globe
• Customer Complaints as opportunities for improvements: Best Practice Companies:
Link complaint Management visions to the Corporate Mission Clearly understand th
e link between complaint resolution and customer loyalty Strongly believe that c
omplaints are primary measure of customer dissatisfaction understand that compla
ints & their rapid resolution are critical to customer retention & business grow
Proactive feed back encourage employees to bring complaints to the fore front in
a variety of formal and informal ways are eager to know their shortcomings as w
ell as what they do well Seek out customer communication, no matter how negative
permit and encourage upward communication of the issues through meetings, confe
rences, emails etc. have ‘Associate Response Centre’ concept in place to encourage e
mployees to call with ideas, complaints and process improvements
Complaint Management Process
realize the importance of sharing information across the organization to ensure
total involvement of employees. are dedicated to integrate complaint data to ini
tiate improvements benchmark their services in relation to its competitors & cust
omers satisfaction industry leaders.
use total customer data to make enhancements in process & automation designs to
its services
in a decentralized environment which have total Customer Satisfaction Center and
examines total complaint data in a consolidated manner, helps perform root caus
e analysis and identify where the majority of problems begin
Out sourced Environment - Use technology and process, implementing effective sur
rogates for ‘being there’ with the customers
-Ensure that the ‘voce of customer’ will continue to be heard in the company - Ensur
e out sourcer s service reps. properly represent the organization to the custome
Complaint Management Measures Link to Customer Satisfaction Measure Customer Sat
isfaction measures integral to management process All Supervisors, team leaders
& Customer service representatives are accountable Continuous watch on no. of com
- Incorporate complaint management measures as part of their overall customer sa
tisfaction measures - Types of data measured cause wise analysis of all complain
ts Duration wise complaint resolution
Rewards & Recognition Individual & team – based rewards to illustrate high quality
customer contact and complaint resolution Have profit sharing schemes in place b
ased on Customer Satisfaction index Recognize employees in the complaint managem
ent process with: • Wall of fame noting exceptional work • Gift certificates to empl
oyees who are positive role models in the complaint process By and large do not
prefer to link reward to compensation because of their apprehensive of manipulat
ion of data
Customer – centric organizations: Grow into learning organizations are innovative
in their overall approach develop effective customer care programs develop effec
tive complaint management systems should develop the culture of total employee i
nvolvement towards total customer satisfaction
Negotiation: “A give-and-take decisionmaking process involving interdependent part
ies with different preferences.”
Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotia
tion: More than one issue; win-win.
An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation
Clarify interests. Identify options. Design alternative deal packages. Select a
deal. Perfect the deal.
Basic Types of Negotiation
Distributive negotiations
Involve win–lose, fixed-amount situations wherein one party’s gain is another party’s l
Integrative negotiations
Involve joint problem solving to achieve results benefiting both parties
Basic Types of Negotiation
Attitudinal structuring
The process by which conflicting parties seek to establish desired attitudes and
Intraorganizational negotiations
Involve sets of negotiators representing different groups, and each set of negoti
ators tries to build consensus for agreement to resolve intragroup conflict befo
re dealing with the other group’s negotiators
Matrix of Negotiated Outcomes
STRATEGY OF PERSON A Integrative Distributive
Great for Person A Terrible for Person B
Mediocre for Person A Mediocre for Person B
Good for Person A Good for Person B
Terrible for Person A Great for Person B
Source: Adapted from Anderson, T. Step into my parlor: A survey of strategies an
d techniques for effective negotiation. Business Horizons, May-June 1992, 75.
Key Tasks for a Mediator
Ensuring mutual motivation Achieving a balance in situational power Coordinating
confrontation efforts Promoting openness in dialogue Maintaining an optimum lev
el of tension
Unit V
Counselling Skills
What is Counseling
• Direct face-to-face conversation between a supervisor and a direct report • Used t
o help the employee identify the reason for poor performance to improve, not emb
arrass or humiliate him or her • Generally more formal than feedback and coaching
and is required of a small percentage of employees
Purpose of Counseling
• Communicate concerns to the employee • Determine the cause of the employee’s activit
ies • Identify avenues for improvement and/or development • Improve employee perform
When to Counsel
• When more action is required by the supervisor following feedback and coaching • R
e-establish Expectations • Not all unacceptable behavior warrants discipline: Usua
lly minor infractions, or case of first offense by a long term employee require
The Counseling Process: Before the Session
• • • • • • Define your objectives. Have all documentation available Review all facts Creat
an outline Arrange for privacy Verbally inform the employee in person and in pr
ivate what the meeting is about, and where and when it is to take place
The Counseling Process: Session Guidelines
How you behave and what you say during the session can affect the outcome •Set a p
ositive tone •Describe the problem •Ask, then listen •Correct the situation •Listen •Concl
ude the session
The Counseling Process: Minimizing Conflict
• Counsel in a timely manner • Counsel in private • Look for the root cause of the pro
blem • Listen. Do not interrupt • Show sincere interest in the employee • If you can h
elp, offer it, do it
Skills to Work with Listening Client’s Feelings Clarifying Help Express feelings ques
tions Identify & Discriminate bet.feelings Use of Openended questions Help to Alter
/Accept feelings Assessing Ability- Attend to Verbal/Nonverbal Cues potential decid
ing Convey Support :Verbal response & Nonverbal methods