PREFACE

This training report is a part of course curriculum of B.Tech degree program. This training is made essential part of us so as to familiarize ourselves to the environment of the industry. This training report is based on the training done at BSNL, Gorakhpur. The report consists of the general study of the various devices and component. I feel proud to present the training report before General Manager (G.M.) of BSNL, Gorakhpur.

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ABOUT BSNL
On October 1, 2000 the Department of Telecom Operations, Government of India became a corporation and was christened Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). Today, BSNL is the largest Public Sector Undertaking of India and its responsibilities include improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom network introduction of new telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. At present the BSNL is the World's Largest Seventh and India's First Telecommunication Company. Responsibilities that BSNL has managed to shoulder remarkably, definitely. BSNL is the largest telecom operator in India and is known to everybody for Basic Telephony Services for over 100 years. Presently the plain old, countrywide telephone service is being provided through 32,000 electronic exchanges, 326 Digital Trunk Automatic Exchanges(TAX), Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) all interlinked by over 2.4 lakhs km of Optical Fiber Cable, with a host of Phone Plus value additions to our valued Customers. BSNL's telephony network expands throughout the vast expanses of the country reaching to the remotest part of the country. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step into tomorrow. Along with its vast customer base, BSNL's financial and asset bases too are vast and strong.  The telephone infrastructure along is worth about Rs. 1, 00,000 crore (US $ 21.2 billion).  Turnover of Rs. 22,000 crore (US $ 4.6 billion).  Now from latest news BSNL records a net profit of Rs. 6,312 crore on revenues of Rs.24, 300 crore for the financial year 2001-02. BSNL is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class telecom services for the people of India.

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OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION

HISTORY:
The use of visible optical carrier waves or light for communication has been common for many years. Simple systems such as signal fires, reflecting mirrors and, more recently signaling lamps have provided successful, if limited, information transfer. Moreover as early as 1880 Alexander Graham Bell reported the transmission of speech using a light beam. The photo phone proposed by Bell just for years after the invention of the telephone modulated sunlight with a diaphragm giving speech transmission over a distance of 200m. However, although some investigation of the optical communication continued in the early part of the 20th century its use was limited to mobile, low capacity communication links. This was due to both the lack of suitable light sources and the problem that light transmission in the atmosphere is restricted to line of sight and severely affected by disturbances such as rain, snow, fog dust and atmospheric turbulence. A renewed interest in optical communication was stimulated in the early 1960s with the invention of the laser. This device provided a coherent light source, together with the possibility of the modulation at high frequency. The proposals for optical communication via optical fibers fabricated from glass to avoid degradation of the optical signal by the atmosphere were made almost simultaneously in 966 by Kao and Hock ham and Wert. Such systems were viewed as a replacement for coaxial cable system; initially the optical fibers exhibited very high attenuation and were therefore not comparable with the coaxial cable they were to replace. There were also problems involved in jointing the fiber cables in a satisfactory manner to achieve low loss and to enable the process to be performed relatively easily and repeatedly in the field. In coaxial system the channel capacity is 300 to 10800 and the disadvantages of the coaxial system are digging, electrical disturbance, in winter cable contracts and breaks mutual induction. The coaxial cable loss is 0.3db per every km.
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 In microwave system if we double the distance the loss will be increased by 6db.  For the shorter distance the loss is higher.  In OFC system Optical wire is small size, light weight, high strength and flexibility. Its transmission benefits include wide band width, low loss and low cost.  They are suitable for both analog and digital transmission.  It is not suffered by digging, electrical interference etc. problems.

THE GENERAL SYSTEM:
An optical fiber communication system is similar in basic concept to any type of communication system. A block diagram of a general communication system in fig. a. The function of which is to convey the signal from the information source over the transmission medium to the destination. In electrical communication, the information source provides an electrical signal, usually derived from a message signal which is not electrical, to a transmitter comprising electrical and electronic components which converts the signal into a suitable form for propagation over the transmission medium. The transmission medium can consists of a pair of wires, a coaxial cable or a radio link through free space down which the signal is transmitted to the receiver where it is transformed into original electrical information signal before being passed to the destination.

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For optical fiber communication system shown in fig b. information source provides an electrical signal to a transmitter comprising an electrical stage which drives an optical source to give modulation of the light wave carrier. The optical source which provides the electrical, optical conversion may be either a semiconductor laser or light emitting diode (LED). The transmission medium consist of an optical fiber and the receiver consist of an optical detector which drives a further electrical stage hence provide demodulation of optical carrier. Photodiodes and in some instances, photransistor and photoconductors are utilized for the detection of the optical signal and the optical electrical conversion. The optical carrier may be modulated either an analog or digital information signal. In the system shown in fig b. analog modulation involves the variation of the light emitted from the optical source in a continuous manner. With digital modulation, however, discrete changes in the light intensity are obtained (on/off pulses). Although often simpler to implement, analog modulation with an optical fiber communication system is less efficient, requiring a far higher s/n ratio at than digital modulation. Also, the linearity needed for analog modulation is not always provided by semiconductor optical sources, especially at high modulation frequencies. For this reasons, analog optical fiber communication links are generally limited to shorter distances and lower bandwidths than digital links.

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the light does not cross the boundary but completely reflects back (Fig. instead of current or voltage. The light does not pass out of the walls of fiber as it travels. as the energy which carries the signal. The solution is to use a hair-thin fiber of glass as a light pipe. any light that enters the fiber stay in that fiber end travels through the fiber to the other end. The problem is to direct the light from the transmitter to the receiver. This is because of a property called total internal reflection. The typical fiber communication system. and it hits the interface between them at certain low angles. and the energy used is light energy. 6 . If a light wave is traveling through a material with a high refractive index compared to an adjacent material. with the light as a carrier that is turned on and off.GENERAL IDEA OF OFC: The idea of fiber optics is use to light.1). If a light source is put at one end. with binary amplitude modulation. At the receiving end of fiber. the communication medium is the fiber. a light detector senses the light. Thus.

3) The fibers may be converted into practical cables which can be handled in a similar manner to conventional electrical transmission cables without problems associated with the degradation of their characteristics or damage. 7 . ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF AN OPTICAL FIBER: 1) Optical fibers may be produced with good stable transmission characteristics in long lengths at a minimum cost and with maximum reproducibility.FEATURES: The fiber optics has become a preferred medium due to its some important features like:  The bandwidth of the fiber and light beam is extremely wide. operating wavelengths.  The signal in the cable is secure from unauthorized listeners. materials etc. be available in order to fulfill many different system applications. gbit =1000 Mbitts). 4) The fibers and fiber cables may be terminated and connected together without excessive [practical difficulties and in ways which limit the effect of this process on the fiber transmission characteristics to keep them within acceptable operating levels. It is relatively hard to tap into the cable without being noticed. It is possible to handle signals which turn on and off at gigabit per second rates (1 gigabit. The thinness means that it is easy to handle. 2) A range of optical fiber types with regard to size. It is important that these jointing techniques may be applied with ease in the field location where cable connection takes place. the electric fields of the noise source cannot affect the light beam in the fiber. Also. No light escapes to the outside where someone else could see it. it can be run in hazardous atmospheres where the danger of explosion from spark may exist. and many fibers can be put in the trenches or narrow conduits. refractive indices and index profiles. and water. chemicals. Even if there are sources of electrical noise directly touching the cable.  Since there is no electricity or electrical energy in the fiber. the fiber itself is immune to many types of poisonous gases.  The fiber itself is very thin and not expensive. and the entire light signal is confined within the fiber.  The light signal is absolutely immune to electrical noise from any sources.

compression. This is especially important for cables including a large number of optical fibers. Bare glass fibers are brittle and have small cross sectional areas which make them very susceptible to damage when employing normal transmission line handling procedures. Increases in optical attenuation due to cabling are quite usual and must be minimized within the cable design. In this respect the unprotected optical fiber has several disadvantages with regard to its strength and durability. torsion. 3) Cable strength. squeezing and vibration. If the fibers are arranged in a suitable geometry it may be possible to use multiple jointing techniques rather than jointing each fiber individually . The cabled fiber must have good stable transmission characteristics which are comparable with the uncabled fiber. 2) Stability of the fiber transmission characteristics. Hence the cable strength may be improved by incorporating a suitable strength member and by giving the cable a properly designed thick outer sheath. bending. Optical cables must have similar mechanical properties to electrical transmission cables in order that they may be handled in the same manner. It is therefore necessary to cover the fibers to improve their tensile strength and to protect them against external influences. 8 .OPTICAL FIBER CABLES: When optical fibers are to be installed in a working environment their mechanical properties are of prime importance. 4) Identification and jointing of the fibers within the cable. The major function of the optical cable is to protect against fiber damage and breakage both during installation and throughout the life of the fiber. These mechanical properties include tension. These are as follows:1) Fiber protection. The functions of the optical cable may be summarized into four main areas.

The above fiber to fiber joints are designed ideally to couple all the light propagating in one fiber into the adjoining fiber.e. 1) Fiber splices: these are semi permanent or permanent joints which find major use in most optical fiber telecommunication system (analogous to electrical soldered joints). manual coupling and uncoupling of fibers (analogous to electrical plugs and sockets). the continuous length of the fiber cable that may be produced by the preparation methods and the length of the fiber cable that may be practically installed as a continuous section on the link. couple a proportion of the light propagating in the main fiber into main fiber. The number of intermediate fiber connections or joints is dependent upon the link length. First of all the protective plastic that covers the glass cladding is stripped from each fiber end. producing a smooth and flat end. Before optical fibers splicing and joining are done certain preparations are made with fiber or fiber cables as case may be to achieve best results at the end surface. and there is no requirement for repeated connection and disconnection. fast. It is therefore apparent that fiber to fiber connection with low loss and minimum distortion (i. alternatively. Fiber splicing is frequently used to establish long haul optical fiber links where smaller fiber lengths need to be joined. have requirement for both jointing and termination of the transmission medium. which is then cleaved with a special tool. Splices may be divided into two 9 . FIBER SPLICES: A permanent joint formed between two individual optical fibers in the field or factory is known as a fiber splice. 2) Demountable fiber connectors or simple connectors: these are removable joints which allow easy. in common with any line communication system. modal noise) remains an important aspect of optical fiber communication system. By contrast fiber couplers are branching devices that split all the light from main fiber into two or more fibers or.JOINT OF FIBER: Optical fiber links.

It has been found that even with careful handling. by a flame or an electric are ) at the interface between two butted. Hence the fiber are usually positioned and clamped with the aid of an inspection microscope. the tensile strength of the fused fiber may be as low as 30 % of that of the uncoated fiber before fusion. Flame heating sources such as micro plasma torches (argon and hydrogen) and oxhydric micro burners (oxygen. A schematic diagram of the basic two fibers is welded together. easily controlled heat with adaptability for use under field conditions. prealigned fiber ends causing them to soften and fuse. However. known as perfusion.g. It is therefore essential that the stripped (of cabling and buffer coating) fiber ends are adequately positioned and aligned in order to achieve good continuity of the transmission medium at the junction point. This technique offers advantages of consistent. These are fusion splicing or welding and mechanical splicing. In general this end preparation may be achieved using a suitable tool which cleaves the fiber as illustrated. This technique. in which the fibers are held in alignment by some mechanical means. the most widely used heating source is an electric arc. Shows a development of the basic are fusion process which involves the rounding of the fiber ends with a low energy discharge before pressing the fibers together and fusing with a stronger arc. A requirement with fibers intended for splicing is that they have smooth and square end faces. Mechanical splicing. Fusion splicing is accomplished by applying localized heating(e.broad categories depending upon the splicing technique utilized. hydrogen and alcohol vapour) have been utilized with some success. removes the requirement for fiber end preparation which has a distinct advantage in the field environment. 10 . may be achieved by various methods including the use of tubes around the fiber ends (groove splices). A possible drawback with fusion splicing is that the heat necessary to fuse the fibers may weaken the fiber in the vicinity of the splice. FUSION SPLICES: The fusion splicing ± of single fibers involves the heating of the two prepared fiber ends to their fusing point with the application of sufficient axial pressure between the two optical fibers.

frequency ± 50/60Hz. 7) Generator /12V Battery 8) Cotton clothes for fiber cleaning. 11 . OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY (OTDR): A measurement technique which is far more sophisticated and which finds wide application in both the laboratory and the field is the of optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). DC input 12v/aA. 3) Chemicals used in OFC joint. OTDR also allows splice and connector losses to be evaluated as well as the rotation of any faults on the link. This technique is often called the backscatter measurement method. 5) Tool Kit 6) Joint kit.EQUIPMENT REQUIRES FOR OFC JOINT: 1) Optical fiber fusion splicer specification (Spicer machine). 4) Sleeve: . y y AC input ± 100 to 240v. y It converts irregular shaped fiber end into smooth & flat end. y y y Joint enclose Buffer Adhesive tape. y y y HAXENE : To remove jelly from the fiber ACETONE : For cleaning the OFC ISO PROPENOT: For smoothness of optical glass. It relies upon the measurement and analysis of the fraction of light which is reflected back within the fiber¶s numerical aperture due to Rayleigh scattering. 2) Fiber cutter.To enclose fiber joint. It provides measurement of the attenuation on an optical link down its entire length giving information on the length dependence of the link loss.

This provides location ± dependent attenuation values which give an overall picture of the optical loss down the link. systems currently operating with modulation bandwidths of 700 MHz). Therefore. the bandwidth available to fiber systems is not fully utilized but modulation at several gigahertz over a hundred kilometers and hundreds of megahertz over three hundred kilometers without intervening electronics (repeaters) is possible. coaxial cable bandwidth up to around 500 MHz) or even millimeter wave radio systems (i. 12 .e.e.The optical carrier frequency in the range 1013 to 1016 Hz (generally in the near infrared around 1014 Hz or 105 GHz) yields a far greater potential transmission bandwidth than metallic cable systems. A light pulse is launched into the fiber in the forward direction from an injection laser using either a directional coupler or a system of external lenses with a beam splitter (usually only in the laboratory). ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION: y Enormous Potential Bandwidth: .A block schematic of the backscatter measurement method. (I. The backscattered light is detected using an avalanche photodiode receiver which drives an integrator in order to improve the received signal to noise ratio by giving an arithmetic average over a number of measurements taken at one point within the fiber. the information ± carrying capacity of optical fiber systems has proved far superior to the best copper cable systems. At present. By comparison the losses in wideband coaxial cable systems restrict the transmission distance to only a few kilometers at bandwidths over one hundred megahertz.

y Electrical Isolation: . each at different centre wavelengths. Hence the operation of an optical fiber communication system is unaffected by transmission through an electrically noisy environment and the fiber cable requires no shielding from EMI. y Immunity To Interference And Crosstalk: . radiofrequency interference (RFI).The light from optical fibers does not radiate significantly and therefore they provide a high degree of signal security. even when many fibers are cabled together. fine frequency spacing). unlike their metallic counterparts. The fiber cable is also not susceptible to lightning strikes if used overhead rather than underground. essentially. it is fairly easy to ensure that there is no optical interference between fibers and hence. Furthermore. Hence. Hence much enhanced bandwidth utilization for an optical fiber can be achieved by transmitting several optical signals. as well as allowing for an expansion of signal transmission within mobiles such as aircraft. Unlike the situation with copper cables. a transmitted optical signal cannot be obtained from a fiber in a noninvasive 13 . or switching transients giving electromagnetic pulses (EMP). y Small Size and Weight: .Optical fibers form a dielectric waveguide and are therefore free from electromagnetic interference (EMI). unlike communication using electrical conductors.Optical fibers have very small diameters which are often no greater than the diameter of a human hair. crosstalk is negligible. satellites and even ships. particularly with dense packing of the optical wavelengths (or. or sometimes a plastic polymer. This is a tremendous boon towards the alleviation of duct congestion in cities. in parallel on the same fiber. are electrical insulators and therefore. even when such fibers are covered with protective coatings they are far smaller and much lighter than corresponding copper cables. This wavelength division multiplexed operation. y Signal Security: . offers the potential for a fiber information carrying capacity which is many orders of magnitude in excess of that obtained using copper cables or a wideband radio system. this property makes optical fiber transmission ideally suited for communication in electrically hazardous environments as the fibers create no arching or spark hazard at abrasions or short circuits. it is clear that this parameter is limited by the use of a signal optical carrier signal.Optical fibers which are fabricated from glass.Although the usable fiber bandwidth will be extended further towards the optical carrier frequency. they do not exhibit earth loop and interface problems. Moreover.

Perhaps surprisingly for a glassy substance. optical fibers may be manufactured with very high tensile strengths. thus reducing both system cost and complexity. optical fibers offer the potential for low cost line communication.Although protective coatings are essential.manner (i.The development of optical fibers over the last twenty years has resulted in the production of optical fiber cables which exhibit very low attenuation or transmission loss in comparison with the best copper conductors.2 dB km-1 (see Section 3. Although 14 . computer network) application. Both these factors also tend to reduce maintenance time and costs.These features primarily stem from the low loss property of optical fiber cables which reduces the requirement for intermediate repeaters or line amplifiers to boost the transmitted signal strength. Fibers have been fabricated with losses as low as 0. handling and installation to corresponding copper cables. Together with the already proven modulation bandwidth capability of fiber cable this property provides a totally compelling case for the adoption of optical fiber communication in the majority of long-haul telecommunication applications.The glass which generally provides the optical fiber transmission medium is made from sand ± not a scarce resource. system furthermore. transportation. whilst exhibiting at least comparable strength and durability. without drawing optical power from the fiber). y Potential Low Cost: .e.2) and this feature has become a major advantage of optical fiber communications. Taking the size and weight advantage into account. So. these optical fiber cables are generally superior in terms of storage.e. y System Reliability and Ease Of Maintenance: . y Ruggedness and Flexibility: . Therefore. the reliability of the optical components is no longer a problem with predicted lifetimes of 20 to 30 years now quite common. banking and general data transmission (i. in comparison with copper conductors. y Low Transmission Loss: . compact and extremely rugged. the fibers may also be bent to quite small radii or twisted without damage. in theory.3. Furthermore cable structures have been developed which have proved flexible. any attempt to acquire a message signal transmitted optically may be detected. This feature is obviously attractive for military. It facilitates the implementation of communication links with extremely wide repeater spacing ( long transmission distances without intermediate electronics). Hence with fewer repeaters.

They are:y y The fragility of the bare fibers.over recent years this potential has largely been realized in the costs of the optical fiber transmission medium which for bulk purchases is now becoming competitive with copper wires (i. The transmission distance for trunk systems can very enormously from under 20 km to over 300 km. the costs of high performance semiconductor lasers and detector photodiodes are still relatively high. Hence to provide a balance picture these disadvantages must be considered. it has not yet been achieved in all the other component areas associated with optical fiber communication. twisted pairs).e.).couplers. Therefore transmission systems which exhibit low attenuation and hence give a maximum distance of unrepeatered operation are the most economically viable. In this context optical fiber systems with their increased bandwidth and repeater spacing offer a distinct advantage. Some doubts in relations to the long term reliability of optical fibers in the presence of moisture. For example. y y y An independent electrical power feed is required for any electronic repeaters. DRAWBACKS OF OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION: The use of fibers for optical communication does have some drawbacks in practice. Hence there is generally a requirement for the use of transmission systems which have a high capacity in order to minimize costs per circuit. as well as some of those concerned with the connection technology (demountable connectors. The small size of fibers and cables which creates some difficulties with splicing and forming connectors. New equipment and field practice are required. APPLICATION OF THE OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION: TRUNK NETWORK: The trunk or toll network is used for carrying telephone traffic between major conurbations. 15 . and occasionally to as much as 1000 km. couplers. Testing procedures tend to be more complex. etc. y y Some problems involved with forming low loss T.

aspect of optical fiber communication also proves invaluable in these applications. The small size and weight of optical fibers provide and attractive solution to space problems in these mobiles which are increasingly equipped with sophisticated electronics.8 kbits-1. A large number of this system has already been installed in military installations in the United Kingdom. possibly overriding. The electrical isolation. However. and therefore safety. weight. deployability. The special attributes of optical fiber communication system therefore often lend themselves to military use. considerations such as size. These operate over distances from several centimeters to a few hundred meters at transmission rates between 50 bauds and 4. In addition a small number of 7 MHz video links operating over distances of up to 10 m are in operation. the immunity of optical transmission to electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the often noisy environment of military mobiles is a tremendous advantage. survivability (in both conventional and nuclear attack and security. Furthermore.JUNCTION NETWORK: The junction or interoffice network usually consists of routes within major conurbations over distances of typically 5 to 20 km. although economics are important. y COMMUNICATION LINKS: The other major area for the application of optical fiber communication in the military sphere includes both short and long distance communication links. Also the wideband nature of optical fiber transmission will allow the multiplexing of a number of signals on to a common bus. ships and tanks. there are usually other. allowing routing through both fuel tanks and magazines. This also applies to the immunity of optical fiber to lighting and electromagnetic pulses (EMP) especially within avionics. y MOBILES: One of the most promising areas of milita5ry application for optical fiber communication is within military mobiles such as aircraft. MILITARY APPLICATION: In these applications. There is also a 16 . Short distance optical fiber systems may be utilized to connect closely spaced items of electronics equipment in such areas as operations rooms and computer installations. the distribution of distances between switching centers (telephone exchanges ) or offices in the junction network of large urban areas varies considerably for various countries.

British Rail has successfully demonstrated a 2 Mbits-1 system suspended between the electrical power line gantries over a 6 km route in Cheshire. This requires all parts of the exchange to work as a unit to ensure the call is properly handled. y CIVIL APPLICATION: The introduction of optical fiber communication systems into the public network has stimulated investigation and application of these transmission techniques by public utility organizations which provide their own communication facilities over moderately long distances. the major electric power companies have shown a great deal of interest with regard to the incorporation of optical fibers within the metallic earth of overhead electric power lines. security and immunity to electrical interference and earth loop problems over conventional copper systems.requirement for long distance communication between military installations which could benefit from the use of optical fibers. TELEPHONE EXCHANGE: INTRODUCTION: The main function of an exchange is to process call from a calling subscriber and make the connection to the called subscriber. In order to process the calls the exchange must perform four basic switching functions. In both these advantages may be gained in terms of bandwidth. although high capacity transmission is not usually required. 17 . For example these transmission techniques may be utilized on the railways and along pipe and electrical power lines. The exchange does this by connecting an incoming line or trunk to another line or trunk. This connection can be direct or via another exchange. optical fibers may provide a relatively low cost solution. However call processing involves much more than simply connecting subscribers. Also. North America and Japan. In these applications. Experimental optical fiber communication systems have been investigated within a number of organizations in Europe. also giving enhanced protection in harsh environment. especially in relation to EMI and EMP. CALL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE: The main function of the exchange is to process subscriber calls. For instance.

The basic call types are:y Intra exchange calls: . y Inter exchange calls: . An outgoing call is a call that goes out of the exchange via a trunk. If the call originated in the same exchange.y y Supervision: Detects and reports service requests. 18 . Notifies a subscriber of incoming calls. These calls are normally line to line calls. Thus a tandem call is both incoming and outgoing. An incoming call is a call that comes into the exchange via a trunk. Within a given exchange there are different types of inter exchange calls. acknowledgements and requests to terminate service. These categories are referred to as call types. BASIC CALL TYPES: Subscriber calls are grouped in to categories that distinguish one call from another.these are calls that involve two or more exchanges. it is called an originating outgoing call.these are calls between two subscribers served by the same exchange. y y Routing: Converts address information to the location of the corresponding call line or to the location of a trunk on the way to that line. y y Signaling: Transmits information about lines and trunks and information about other aspects of call handling to control switching equipment. y y Alerting. A tandem call is a call that comes into the exchange on one trunk and leaves the exchange on another trunk.

19 . progresses through four basic stages: y y y y Idle Digit reception and analysis Ringing talking Inter exchange calls are more complex. and their call processing stages are somewhat different.CALL PROCESSING STAGES:An intra exchange call which is the simplest of the call types mentioned above.

Of termination: trunk and line. and operator trunks. auxiliary service trunks. y Miscellaneous local system services: .Example of this category are individual. y Extended business services: . digit interpretation timing.it like loop-range services. integrated and universal pair gain interface and line signaling. y y Inter exchange services: .Examples of these services are PBX.Various inter exchange signaling types. call waiting.Generalized screening.Toll exchange trunks. call barring and multi line hunting. routing and remote switching modules. Call processing services: . y Toll services: . y Public safety services: . indirect inward dialing and toll diversion. abbreviated dialing.Examples of this category are basic emergency service. and in-progress call trace and in progress call trace. out going call trace. The trunk termination involves selecting an 20 .SERVICE CATEGORY: y Residence and business subscriber services: . 2-party and multiparty lines. 3-way calling all diversion.

Ps. In case of multi storied buildings where the telephone demand is very high. Types of D. the particular selected trunk group.Ps. to the location of the telephone. the distribution cables or some times even the primary cabled are terminated on distribution frames at suitable location. are fitted on posts by means of suitable size of U backs. and are generally available in 10 or 20 pair sizes. are fitted in side buildings on the wall at suitable location. are of utmost importance. 21 . These are called internal D.Ps. External D. suitable for external/internal use.P. Internal D. box is a terminal arrangement where under ground cable pairs are connected to overhead wires or drop wires for providing connections at subscribers premises. the no. The term "pillar" is used with reference to a flexibility point where MDF's cables and DP's cables are interconnected.idle member in the trunk group and out pulsing the received digits. There are two types of D.P. y The line termination involves checking to find whether the line is busy and applying rin2ging to the line.Ps. of members in the trunk group and the digits to be out pulsed and the way the trunk group is selected.Ps. It is a cast iron box with a facility for termination of distribution cable on pins fitted on an insulating plate. The overhead wires are connected by means of screwing nuts provided on the front side of insulating plate. DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS BLOCKS: DP (Distribution Panel) Distribution point box commonly know as D. Individual wire are further provided from the subs D.Ps.Ps.Ps. For a trunk. and external D. The distribution cable pairs can be connected to these pins by soldering at the rear. Location of D. Pillar Pillar is fabricated from steel or cast from casings enclosing a frame-work on which cable terminal boxes are mounted. from where the distribution cables of 20 pairs or 10 pairs sizes are taken to different floors or block and terminated on 10 or 20 pair subs D.

Various DDF's cables combine together and terminated into the OFC module (which is combination of electrical to light converter (Multiplexer and Demultiplexer). therefore. PCM is separately explained in another section. It is. Various cards are utilized for various purposes e.g. Exchange Card is a basic functional unit of the exchange. Hence. the exchange numbering of the external cable pairs is constantly changing. each of which serves a different part of the exchange area. Moreover. which provide connectivity between these two. as subscribers cease to have telephones and new subscribers are connected. the exchange numbers included in any one cable are entirely haphazard. intermediate distributions frames or combined main and intermediate distribution frames. PCM Various subscriber's cables coming out from the subscriber's cards (After processing) are terminated into the DDF (Digital Distribution Frame) located inside PCM in between these two PCM tag block is there. MDF is separately explained in another section. external line plants and the exchange equipment and between different circuits in the exchange itself. necessary that some means must be provided for temporary connection between the two. On the other hand. This conversion from the geographical order of the external pairs to the numerical order within the exchange is carried out on a main distribution frame. These iron frames are called main distribution frames. Subscriber cards are utilized for termination of subscriber's cables coming from MDF. The numbers given to the subscriber's lines do not bear any relationship to the geographical location of the subscriber. all lines within the exchange are in strict numerical order. 22 . certain arrangements is made by the use of iron frames. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME: INTRODUCTION To obtain flexibility in interconnecting.MDF (Main Distribution frame) The Subscriber's lines enter an exchange through a number of large capacity U/G cables. depending upon their functions.

Moreover. the exchange numbering of the external cable pairs is constantly changing.MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME (M. This conversion from the geographical order of the external pairs to the numerical order within the exchange is carried out on a main distribution frame.F. necessary that some means must be provided for temporary connection between the two.:The M. y An interception point for use in connection with fault locating tests. as subscribers cease to have telephones and new subscribers are connected.D.):The subscriber¶s line enter an exchange through a number of large capacity cables. For mounting the protective devices connected to the incoming circuits. therefore.D.D. The numbers given to the subscriber¶s lines do not bear any relationship to the geographical location of the subscriber. all lines within the exchange are in strict numerical order. (1) Vertical Side or Line side (2) LEN side or Exchange side 23 .F. Main distribution frame is mainly divided in two parts. each of which serves a different part of the exchange area. It is. FACILITIES PROVIDED BY M. provides for the following requirements: y y y A means for permanently terminating the external cables. On the other hand.F. Hence the exchange numbers include in any one cable are entirely haphazard. Providing the connection between the exchange side and the line side by the jumpers.

then according to requirements the group of the wires (e. 100 wires etc. LEN SIDE:- 24 . Each tag block has 10 rows and each row has 10 tags. This wires are first terminated in cabinet box. So each tag block has 100 tags.) are terminated in pillar box & from here connections are given to the subscribers via DP box. 1 vertical has 10 tag block. Connection between vertical side & subscribers are provided by jelly filled cables.VERTICAL SIDE:- y y y y y All the part from vertical side to the subscriber are generally called outdoor section. 200 wires.g.

The reason for this difference is that there is always a reserve of spare capacity in the external cables to cover fluctuations in the distribution of the subscriber¶s lines as between the different localities served by the cables. storming air etc. In 1 tag block there are 128 tags. The connection of subscriber from exchange is terminated on this side of MDF. 2 & 3 and in each segments. then this type of fault occurs. DISCONNECT FAULT:This type of fault occurs due to the breaking of wires between the vertical side & LEN side. LOOP FAULT:If two wires are joined together because of improper connection. jelly filled wires are used which are affected by natural causes such as rain. 1. earthquake etc. CABLE FAULT:For outdoor connections. Each tag block is divided in 4 segments. 25 . LOCATION OF FAULTS:This can be determined by putting pack up. y On the vertical side there is 100 tag in one vertical tag block where as on the LEN side there is 128 tags on each LEN block. EARTH FAULT:If two wires get scrape at some places and if this wire comes in contact with tree. That is 0. There are sixteen tags. If pack up is put in one of the tag of LEN side and if dial tone is received only upto the LEN side then fault is in the outdoor side and if tone is received from the subscriber only upto the vertical side then fault is in the indoor side. This fault are also identify by either subscriber line tester or by using the computerized programmed. DIFFERENT TYPES OF FAULTS:The faults are given below which are established in communication of subscriber with exchange. pillar or any metal objects then this type of fault occurs. At such time this fault occurs.y y y All the parts from LEN to the exchange is called indoor section.

the gas is ionized and becomes conducting. A fuse is a small length of thin wire which melts if there is an excess of current and disconnect the equipment before possible damage.D. gas discharge protectors are used as protective device to protect the communication lines and equipments from damages due to high voltages. If the potential difference across the electrodes rises to a certain critical value.D. 26 . Fuses These are the devices used to protect apparatus and wiring from excessive currents. This condition will continue till the potential difference across the electrodes falls to the extinction voltage value. it offers extremely high impedance and thus does not introduce any transmission loss. The gas discharge protector essentially consists of two of three tungsten electrodes sealed in a special glass envelope or ceramic envelope containing a mixture of inert gases . APPLICATIONS:y y y MDF mainly provide connection between outdoor and indoor. It uses Fuse as a protection device which prevents to reach the high current from outside to exchange.PROTECTIVE DEVICE USED ON M. mainly neon.F. y It uses Gas Discharge Tube (GD Tube) which provide protection against high excessive voltage. one electrode is connected to a limb of a line and other electrode is connected to earth. For normal operating voltage on the lines. In case of three pin G. MDF is basically the protection system for exchange. tube. two of the electrodes are for connections to the lines and third is the earth electrode and in case of two pin device. For voltages less than striking value. The types of fuses used for connecting line to equipment are: (1) Glass type (2) Gate type GAS DISCHARGE TUBE (GD TUBE):In case of heavy lighting discharges or induction of high voltages. it will not conduct. The rated current of fuse is the maximum current which it can carry without melting or fusing.

The MAX may be here remote module (RM) and remote line concentrators (RLC) connected to it. It provides both local and centralized operation and maintenance. Thus it is universal switch which can be configured as local. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:It can serve metropolitan. transmit or integrated local and transmit switch. In uses TST (time space switching). The development of C-DOT DSS MAX has taken place in family concept. Its architecture is such that it is possible to upgrade a working C-DOT SBM( single base module) or MBM ( multi base module) exchange to provide ISDN service through RSU ( remote switching unit). And can grow up to 16000 ports without concentration. Single base module configuration comes under the RAX category. C-DOT DSS as RAX:This can be used as rural automatic exchange and is expandable up to 2000 lines capacity. transit and integrated local and transit switch. Some of them are C-DOT DSS as MAX:This can be used as main automatic exchange which is expandable to large capacity of order of 2000 lines or beyond. It is fully integrated switch starting from smaller switches. urban. The C-DOT DSS system can be used in telecommunication network at the various switching nodes for different type of services. It can have minimum capacity of 512 ports. It has digital switching based on basic 64kpbs basic rate and 2mbps primary rate multiplexing structure. RSU can provide switching facility locally even in case of failure of communication path to parent exchange. bigger switches and can be built in a modular fashion by configuring hardware and software modules in variety of ways. rural environments. C-DOT DSS MAX is a universal switch and can be used as local. 27 . Various products proposed to be developed by C-DOT include small RAX exchange of 128 ports for rural network to big C-DOT MAX-XL exchange for metropolitan applications.C-DOT EXCHANGE: INTRODUCTION Center development of telemetric was formed in year 1985 by an act of parliament under ministry of telecommunication with prime objective to develop indigenous state of art electronics switch suitable for Indian network condition.

Subscriber Line Card (SLC). in case of PSU-1card goes faulty. Central Module (CM) 3. Administrative Module (AM) 4.e.g. Input Output Processor (IOP) 5.C. b) PSU-2: Two cards are used each in BPU and TSU. PSU-1besides supplying various D. different DC Voltages are required. Conference Card (CONF). only one BM is used. supplies. In case of 512 ports. Base Module (BM) 2. Trunk Cards (TWT).e. Frames of BM:One BM consists of 6frames inside it. The top four frames are called terminal units (TU).C-DOT DSS MAX exchange can be configured from the following basic modules: 1. -12V and ±9V. a) PSU-1: It caters various supplies to the four terminal units of the BM. the capacity of the ports can be increased up to 2048 ports by using two line modules and adopting concentration mode. generates 75V AC ringing current. 28 . two PSU-1cards are there which work in load sharing mode i. and the other is capable of taking the full load of the terminal unit. Alarm Display Panel (ADP) BASE MODULE (BM):Depending upon the capacity of the exchange either single BM or more BMs are used. +5V. Terminal Test Controller Card (TTC). Power Supply Card (PSU). The sixth frame of the BM is called Time Switch Unit (TSU). They are ±48V. Power Supply:To energize various cards in the BM.The fifth frame of BM is called Base Processor Unit (BPU) which is the heart of the system. In each TU. TU houses various types of cards in them e. +12V. Announcement Card (ANNC).for this purpose two types of power supply cards is employed. In multi module working of BMs will range from 2 to 32. It consists controller and memory cards. However under low traffic condition. PSU-1differs from PSU-2 in one respect i.

The AM is housed along with CM in one cabinet called CM. The alarm gives both audio and visual indication. INPUT OUTPUT PROCESSOR (IOP):The IOP performs following function: 1) Serves as a media for man machine communication. Critical: indicated by red LED. Visual Display Unit: This is used for giving command to establish communication with the system.CENTRAL MODULE (CM):When in the system the number of BMs exceeds one . For this purpose one CM is sufficient up to 32 BMs. 29 . Urgent: indicated by orange LED. 2) Keeps the data concerning system.AM performs administrative and maintenance function. ALARM DISPLAY UNIT (ADP):This is basically used for displaying the alarms raised in the system. ADMINISTRATIVE MOFULE (AM):Like CM. The purpose of CM is to provide setting up of calls between a subscriber of one BM and a subscriber of the other BM. However. the audio alarm can be stopped by pressing acknowledge button on the ADP. AM also used when the number of BMs in the system exceeds one. Printer: For the printed reports. The alarms raised are of three types.the CM is used. 3) Does system initialization. VDU gives the display of the reports as a result of the command execution. IOP is connected to the following peripheral units for the purpose noted against each. Non-urgent: indicated by green LED.

The trunk offer service enables the operator to interrupt a call in progress so that another incoming call could be offered to the concerned subscriber if he agrees to accept the call. y The Coin Collection Box (CCB) allows installation of a special telephone permitting outgoing calls after insertion of adequate coins.e. y When a subscriber is busy. The system provides for automatic selection of a free line from a group of lines serving a subscriber i. y y y System environment Relative Humidity = 45% to 65% The application of C-DOT can be either new exchange or a replacement of the existing exchange. y The system enables the subscriber to make a call to a fixed destination just by lifting his hand set. national and international calls. In non-concentration mode of working. for expanding the capacity of the exchange additional modules is to be installed. PBX hunting. With the queue service system such call are not lost and on the contrary these calls are placed in the queue with appropriate announcement to the caller. The system has a modular growth i. The subscriber can divert his calls.e. y y The C-DOT can be used as a local or transmit exchange.e. SUBSCRIBER FEATURES:y y The subscriber can make local. 30 . y y y The subscriber can lock his outgoing calls.SYSTEM FEATURES:y y The C-DOT is a fully digital system with stored program control. y The C-DOT employs distributed control system. the switch is non-blocking i. there is a possibility of losing incoming calls. However billing for local calls can also be arranged. calling party gets the called party if it is free. y The system provides for detailed billing in case of STD and ISD calls.

The alarm call service may be offered on a manual. 31 . These calls can be made using push button telephone sets employing dual-tone multi-frequency ( DTMF ) signals or dial pulses.y BASIC SERVICES:SUBSCRIBER DIALED CALLS A subscriber can make local. CALL BOOKING SERVICES:Alarm call The possibility for a subscriber to cause an alarm call or calls to be made to his line at a time or times specified in advance by him and to hear APPROPRIATRE announcement when the call answered. PBX facilities: Facilities available on PBX lines include Direct inward dialing (DID) : Calls can be dialed from a telephone line connected to the public network directly to extensions of a PBX using the CDOT exchange Line hunting: The CDOT exchage provides for automatic selection of a free line from a group of line serving a subscriber on receipt of a call to that subscribers general directory number. national and international calls. These includes denying all calls to a line. RAPID CALL SET-SERVICES:Hot line The system provides the possibility for a subscriber to make a call to a fixed destination by just lifting his handset. CALL RESTRICTION SERVICE:A subscriber can have his incoming/outgoing calls barred. While allowing it to originate call denying various category of originations from a line while allowing incoming calls to terminate normally on it. semi-automatic or automatic basis.

who cannot receive a call because he is busy.CALL COMPLETION SERVICES:AUTOMATIC CALL BACK It provides the the subscriber to be rung and get connected to the wanted subscriber if an earlier attempt was not successful on account of called subscriber being busy. When the warning tone is fed to the engaged subscriber. CALL CHARGE SERVICES These facilities can be grouped into two charging information services charging debiting services charging information services Subscriber¶s home meter or check meter Printed record on duration Coin collection boxes non metered lines 32 . in order to allow another incoming call to be offered. overload or route congestion developed in the exchange. CALL WAITING A subscriber engaged on an existing call is given an indication that a caller is that a caller is attempting to obtain connection to his number. PRIORITY LINES It provides the possibility of having some line in the exchange which get preference in being served in case abnormal condition like. to have the call diverted to another subscribers¶ number. TRUNK OFFER It makes it possible for the operator to interrupt a call in progress. Otherwise the calling party is fed busy tone. Automatic call back is possible for An intra exchange call and An inter exchange call DIVERSION ON BUSY It provides the po0ssibility for a subscriber. he must respond either by flashing the hook switch or by terminating the call within t seconds.

To connect any two subscribers.D. In Digital switching the digital signals of several speech signals are multiplexed on common media. For e. The channels are connected to individual gates which are opened one by one in fixed sequence.g. These pulses are decoded at receiving end and combines to reproduce the original signal. At the receiving end also. This type of path is called PCM highway.M is illustrated in fig. it is necessary to interconnect the time slots of the two speech samples which may be same or different PCM highway. Therefore same path is shared by different calls for fraction of time.2 33 . The principle of T.1. Thus the medium is periodically available to each channel. Time Division multiplexer involves sharing of same transmission medium by a number of circuits or channels during a sequence of time periods. PCM samples appearing in TS3 of incoming PCM Highway 1 are transferred to TS6 0f outgoing PCM Highway 2 via a digital switch as shown in fig. This process is repeated periodically at a suitably high rate. Similar gates are opened in unison with the transmitting g end. Before transmitting these samples of individual channel signals are coded in binary form and pulses corresponding to the digits are transmitted.DIGITAL SWICHING:In Digital switching system signals are switched in digital form. These signals can be speech or data. This is called pulse code modulation. For this Time Division multiplexing and pulse code modulation (PCM) techniques are used.

Viz. a time switch is basically a time slot changer. corresponding time slots of I/C and O/G PCM highways are interconnected.2 the time slot TS5 of incoming Highway2 can be connected to a different time slot TS6 of the O/G Highway2. For e. Therefore the switching network usually employs both types of switches.The in connection of time slots i.2 the time slot 5 of incoming highway 2 is switched to time slot 5 of outgoing highway say highway 3. These modes are (1) Space switching (2) Time switching In space switching mode. TSST etc. These networks can have various combinations of the two types of switches and denoted as TS. Since the sample transfer takes place in the same time slot of the PCM frame. A sample in given time slot in an incoming highway is connected (switched) to same time slot of an outgoing highway.e. In other words. in fig. For e.g in fig. In Time switching different time slots on the incoming and outgoing highways are interconnected by re-assigning the channel sequence. In this case there is no delay in switching of the sample from one highway to another highway. TWO DIMENSIONAL SWITCHING:Using one type of switch for large network is uneconomical.g. switching of digital signal is normally achieved using a combination of two different modes of operation. This type of network is known as two dimensional networks. 34 . Hence to build a large network a number of stages are employed using small switches as building blocks. TST. Such a network requires changing both the time slot and highway.space and time switch.

Thus it is possible to connect any time slot in incoming PCM to any time slot in outgoing PCM. The function of time slot changing where as the latter performs highway jumping. Let us assume central processor assigns TS4 on Hwy0 to the calling party and TS6 on Hwy3 to the called party. The central controller establishes the paths in 3 steps. Each of the input and output time stages will have n time switches and the space stage will consist of an nxn cross point matrix.TST Network:As the name suggests . TSX which is also known as internal timeslot.in a TST network there are two time stages separated by a space stage. For example let us take only four I/C and outgoing PCM highways as shown below. There will be four time switches in each T-stages and space switch will consist of 4x4 matrixes. Let us consider a network having 4 input and 4 output highways. To introduce greater flexibility it uses an intermediate time slot. The three switching steps for transfer of speech sample of the calling party to the called party are as under:Step1 Input Time Stage (IT) TS4 Hwy0 to TSx Hwy0 Step2 Space Stage(S) TSx Hwy0 to TSx Hwy3 Step3 Output Time Stage (OT) TSx Hwy3 to TS6 Hwy3 35 . Let us consider connecting two subscribers through this network.

This services is so intelligent in giving instant solutions to the needs of the customers. Viz. time switching and space switching. CONCLUSION: Digital switching has become a synonym for time division multiplex digital switching system. The called number pays full cost of the call. Variously known as "Green Number Services" and "Toll Free Service". 36 . This service becomes all the more powerful when features such as Origin Dependent Routing and Time Dependent Routing are utilized. it is probably the most popular IN service. In a practical digital switch a combination of both is employed to increase the traffic handling capacity of the switch at minimum cost. that it is called "INTELLIGENT NETWORK" (a) Free Phone Service (FPH) (b) India Telecom Card (ITC) (c) Account Card Calling (ACC) (d) Premium Rate Service (PRM) (e) Virtual Private Number (VPN) Free Phone Service (FPH) As the name suggests. This means that the calls can be routed to different numbers depending upon the caller's location.As the message can be conveyed only in one direction through this path another independent path to carry the message in other direction is also established as shown in fig. Among the various possible combinations TST structure is most commonly used. the caller can make toll free calls by dialing and advertised Free phone Number.3. Free phone service is provided to the IN subscriber on existing telephone connection. SERVICES: INTELLIGENT NETWORK (IN) SERVICES What is "IN" Services? Bhavnagar Telecom network includes "Intelligent Network" or "IN" SERVICES for its valued subscribers. calling time. Digital signals are switched in two modes. It is widely used by business enterprises around the world for providing free product information and help lines. The internal time slot for other direction is Tsy.

This service can be used by stock analysts. doctors. NGO's help lines and certain government agencies in Jamnagar Telecom District. Call can be made from any telephone after passing the authentication check. VPN user can originate calls to other members of their own group (On net to on net) and calls to external public numbers (On net to off net). The user invokes the service by dialing Account Number after authentication. Account Card Calling (ACC) The customer. A VPN subscriber can define his own dialling and routing plan between all his destination locations and configure them as if they were on a PABX. this is a "Credit" service. As opposed to the India Telephone Card Calling Service. who may be a normal telephone subscriber. For the same PRM service. 37 . the allows to dial any destination local or national or international. It is like having PABX with Closed Groups (CUG) and class of service restrictions. This number can be accessed from any point in the network. Virtual Private Network (VPN) This service allows the subscriber to have his own private network by utilizing the pubic network resources. The CUG members call each other by short codes which are defined in the VPN's Private Numbering Plan. using the PSTN resources. The cost of these calls is charged to the account specified by ITC number. is given an account number to which all the calls made are credited to a pre determined "credit limit". astrologers. which is a debit: Card: service.India Telephone Card (ITC) The service allows the subscriber to place calls from any DTMF telephone (presently) to any destination number. The VPN locations (PSTN Numbers) can be a part of a CUG or outside it. The caller is warned of the impending expiry of the credit limit. Local / STD / ISD calls be made from a STD barred telephone also. the subscriber can opt for multiple destination numbers. The telephone number from which the call originated is not charge. Premium Rate Service (PRM) Value added professional information or advice can be accessed by any telephone subscriber but the calls are charged according to a pre determined premium rate.

Steps for registering the code. Use Dynamic Lock to Avoid Misuse of Your Telephone e. young. Within those 5 seconds. 38 . Authorization when be required for all the above cases except on net to on net calls.g. Prevent misuse and excess billing by locking the STD / ISD / Local facility in yo8ur phone through a number code of choice. : For an E-10B Exchange at Ahmadabad . Hot Line calls are charged at local call rates only. You can choose to have either a one way or both ways Hot Line between any to numbers. Call a preset number without dialing. Just lifting the handset and waiting for 5 seconds gets you automatically connected to the number. No more unaccounted calls at your expense. PHONE PLUS FACILITIES Phone plus Facilities are the value added conveniences that electronic exchange offers over and above plain vanilla telephone service.They can also make calls into the VPN from external public numbers (Off net to On net) and also use VPN resources from any external public number in the network to call any other external public number (Off net to Off net). The service allows online modification of authorization code by the user. HOT LINE This facility provides instant calling. you can dial any number of choices. or infirm. especially for the aged. opening and closing the STD / ISD local are given below.

dial 110-xx-zzzzz (zzzzz is the new number in place of the old yyyyy). dial 111-xx. Activate and use the facility in the following manner:y To enter a phone number in the short code list. the phone rings and delivers a recorded message of the time on being lifted. dial 110 xx ± yyyy (xx is the 2 digit numeric of choice for phone number yyyyy).g. This facility is activated by dialling 118.Short cut to important Numbers Now. Switching back to the first caller requires you to dial 1. Bring this facility into operation by dialing 114yyyyy (yyyyy: phone number where you wish to divert your calls). Dialing 115 cancels the facility. If there is no reply. and then get connected by dialing just these. Dial 116. up to 16 digit numbers can be dialed using just 2 digits. E. Be away from your phone. a typical pip-pip tone will alert you to it. etc. appointments. Assign 2 digit short codes for frequently called numbers. the phone rings again after 5 minutes. 116-0417 for 4:17 a. Each activation of his facility is charged at the rate of two local calls. or at any other time. y y To call the phone number using your short code. To delete a phone number and enter a new one in the list. not from your calls While away from your phone. or 116-2115 for 9:15 p. at the time entered by you. Handle up to two calls at a time If another call happens to come through while you are already busy with a call. Up to 20 numbers can be called this way. You can then choose to put the first caller on hold by lightly tapping the phone hook switch or pressing flash button. and remember important schedules. This brings on the dial tone. Make sure you don't forget important moments This service helps you wake up at down. the entry gets automatically cancelled. engagements. whereupon you have to dial 2 to connect the second caller. Dialling 117 also cancels the entry. the hours and minutes of the desired time. and subsequently. and deactivated by 119. 39 . and if no one picks it up the second time.m. all incoming calls on it can be directed to another local phone where you can be reached. m.

Provide in four shelves of 16 cords each. subscriber lines and equipment which sends and receives audio frequency signaling samples. Each shelf is divided in two parts. a> Creation of subscriber number and factices. On the distribution frame each part is terminated in a terminal block and hence can accommodate 128 equipments. This unit is able to handle several exchanges. therefore there are 8 parts numbered 0-7. b> Interrogation of the status and facilities. d> Deletion of or suppression of subscriber number and facilities it includes testing subscriber line also. Remote subscriber connection unit (URAD or CSED). These are distributed in 64 line equipment cords (XEJ). These units are following types: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Local subscriber connection unit (URAL or CSEL). Multiplex connection unit (URAM). Frequency sender/receiver unit (FTA).SUBSCRIBER LINE MANAGEMENT:The term subscriber management in E 10B EXCHANGE define four main functions. Each electronic subscriber connection unit (CSE) has a theoretical capacity of 1024 subscriber line equipment. Auxiliary equipment back (BDA). Connection Units: The connection unit comprise basically of equipment directly connected to external interfaces of the system. c> Modification of the status and facilities. 40 . Block 1: connection unit Block 2: Time division switching network Block 3: Control Unit Block 4: Operation & Maintenance Centre (OMC). All the above activities are carried out by means of software operation through T. So it becomes essential to know various commands and parameter used for executing the same.TYS.

The equipment number zero is how ever not used because of difficulty in addressing Zero equipment and as such a maximum of 1023 lines can be connected to this unit.30-channel digital PCM links.3 or 4 PCM links of 20. A general structure of URAL is shown in figure below. It enables connection of dial telephones and P.3 or 4. telephones. Remote subscriber connection unit:  Sit is of identical construction and comprise of same equipment as the URAL except for few PCB¶s.  It is connected to the subscriber exchange by 2. or 120 digital junctions carried by 2. 90. and is located in the same premises as the exchange. 41 .Local subscriber connection unit (URAL):  This unit provides for the connection on up to 1024 subscriber lines.B.18 M bit/sec.    It is linked to the switching network through PCM links. It provides electronic space concentration of 1024 subscriber lines on to 60.

6 equipments are used for these emergency services. Search for free out going routes (physical path within) when the URA between the subscriber line equipment and the time slot allotted to this subscriber. Traffic observation counters. (iii) (iv) Cyclic units of equipment to identify calling subscriber. A general schematic of URAD is shown in the figure. transmission of dialed digits and transmission of battery reversals or remote metering pulses to appropriate units. This dial tone is provided by the URAD (CSED) itself. The main functions of subscriber unit connection unit are: (i) (ii) Connection and power feed on subscriber lines and sending of ringing current. and fire by dialing two digits. in the event of the failure of active PCM links between the URAD and the main exchange. Transmission of loop state change indication to the control units.e.It provides local ³security´ communication i. The CSED subscribers can obtain to access to the emergency service like police. The subscriber line is alerted by a short text recorded announcement followed by a special dial done (400 Hz continuous non-modulated). the E 10B system switches over this unit to security call mode. Out of the 1024 equipments provided in the CSED. 42 . (v) (vi) Analogue to digital conversion. ambulance.

One URM rack catering for up to 32 PCM links may contain one or both types of modules. In the latter case. Each URAM has a total capacity of 32 PCM systems and is housed in one standard rack. VF circuits must be initially digitalized in TNE terminal before connection to the URM. URAD¶s on circuit from other electronic or electro mechanical exchanges. where applicable. PCM links from URAD¶s.(vii) Release of connection at the end of the call.048 M bit/sec. The modules are two types:--------MRS modules which provide for the connection of 2. 43 . Reconstitution of PCM frames resynchronization with parent exchange clock). There era eight modules in each URAM and each module cater for four PCM¶s. The URM unit can process simultaneously 16 different signaling codes. There are two types of PCB¶s for the subscriber equipment.Reception of PCM links (conversion HDB3/Binary Code. The maximum number of the boards in a rack is 64. PCM links carrying circuits. A general structure of URAM and it¶s is shown in figure. These PCB¶s are housed in four shelves.048 M bits/sec.--PCB¶s for the sixteen ordinary subscriber and PCB¶s for eight discriminated subscriber (home metering ± battery reveal). analog to digital conversion and matching of signaling. (2) Extraction and insertion of signaling bytes (8 bites) and conversion into internal codes understood by the control unit. The main functions of URAM unit are:(1) Transmission--. is necessary. Multiplex Connection Unit (URAM): Multiplex Connection Unit (URAM) is connected in incoming PCM links from satellite exchanges. (viii) A subscriber connection unit is housed in a single rack. --------MRM modules which provide for the connection of 2.

push button dialing signals and circuit test frequencies in the frequency receiver (RF). There are up to two conference circuit (CCF) devices per ETA. which after conversion in to Analog in subscriber and TRE terminal. 44 . y Generation of the usual exchange tones. Each device can set up conference connection between three or four subscribers (up to eight conference calls per CCF devices). An ETA has a digital structure which sends to the switching network several different binary codes. become different tones or MF codes used in the telephone network.) and circuit test frequencies from the tone generator (GT). It has the following functions:y Reception of multi-frequency (MF) signaling. y Setting up conference calls connection using the conference circuit (CCF). MF signaling (R2 codes etc.Tone generator ± Frequency Sender/Receiver Unit (ETA): The Frequency Sender/Receiver Unit is a special type of connection unit.

1. space. For one call two samples connecting (4W) in the switching network is shown in figure:- (i) Speech samples (a) from the time slot T of the incoming network line (LRE) associated with the calling subscriber are switched to the time slot µJ¶ of the outgoing network lines (LRS) associated with the called subscriber. Auxiliary equipment rack (BDA): This rack is regarded as a connection unit and is always given UR No. BDA ha the following functions: Marshalling of alarms  Monitoring of recorded announcement machine operation.An automatic exchange (E-10 B) comprises of at least two ETA¶s operating on load sharing basis. and  Management of general visual display (PGV). time). It is not involved in call processing. 45 . the maximum number of ETA¶s being sixteen. It provides a 4W switching between the time slot allocated to the calling party and the time slot allocated to the called party. Switching Network:SThe time division switching network is a three stage system (time.

A complete switching network comprises six identical rack for connecting 384 PCM¶s.(ii) Speech samples (b) from the time slot µJ¶ of the incoming network (LRE) associated with the called subscriber are switched to the time slot µI¶ of the outgoing network line (LRS) associated. Each time switch handles 16 PCM links (LRE+LRS) and four time switches catering 4*16= 64 PCM¶s are contained in one switching network rack. These units can be classified as follows:46 . A diagram showing the structure of a switching network is shown in figure below:- Controls unit: The control unit are partly based on dedicated mini-computers and used to carry out all the switching operations required to set up and release the connection between subscribers and/or circuits.

one in each marker rack. There are two switching network control units.).  Receiving transfer link status indications from each switch module. these units are duplicated and operate on load sharing basis.  Checking marking operations. Marker (MQ)  Switching network control unit (UGCX)  Multi register (MR)  Charging unit (TX) To ensure uninterrupted telephone service. the switching network and the multi registers. Switching network control unit (UGCX): The switching network control unit co-ordinates operations executed by the switching network (path finding. connection marking etc.  Connecting and disconnecting speech channels. 47 . This involves:  Checking the speech path. Each E-10 B exchange is equipped with two markers working on a load-sharing basis. tones recorded announcements and signals when ordered to do so by multi registers or charging units. Management unit:  Standby charge recording unit (DSF)  Monitoring unit (OC) Marker (MQ): The marker is responsible for the routing the switching messages between the connection units.

Ordering the switch network to connect or disconnect the two parties. It has access to all data from subscriber and trunk circuits (E&M wires) and to all units in the exchange. traffic observation. The main function of multi-registers involves:       Servicing new call and on hook conditions on subscribers lines and circuits. Requesting the translator to determine the connection address of the subscriber line or circuit at the exchange. Releasing subscriber lines and circuits.  Sending and receiving messages to/from OMC.Multi-register (MR): The multi-registers is charging of the setting up and releasing of calls. Receiving and sending signals from/to connection units. 48 . i. Receiving and forwarding address information. A call processing register includes 1024 bits (extendable up to 1536 bits) stored in cyclic RAM¶s with a processing cycle time of 8 ms. It is as the heart of the system and is the only control unit which can take initiative and sends orders to other units in real time. detected by connections unit. Each multi-register comprises of 256 registers and can handle the setting up or releasing of 254 calls simultaneously. Ordering the transmission of various tones.e. The two registers (0 & 255) are assigned to routine tasks. depending on the traffic load. In an exchange the number of multi-registers varies from 2 to 6. on the basis of the directory number. The multi-register uses a programmed logic. These multi-registers are working on a traffic sharing basis.

 It orders signal transmission where required. At the start of each telephone call. The total capacity of the translator files is 768K words. y Handling translation operations for chaining and overflow routing functions. detected or modified from the operating requirements. Each E-10B exchange equipped with 2 translators working on load sharing basis. The translator executes the following operations:y Seeking subscriber lines or circuit class of service when a new call or on hook condition is detected. each of 16 bites. Charging unit operations are initiated by multi-registers. Translating called party directory number in to equipment are circuit number. y Managing additional services. 12288M bites.  It receives charge metering pulse from trunk circuits. y Handling all management. Data (categories. maintenance and test operations in conjunction with the OMC. i. on receiving instructions from MR. with data on subscribers and trunks required to set up and release of calls. computers the number of basis metered units chargeable for a given telephone call and outputs detailed billing data for subscriber entitled to this service. Charging units (TX): The charging units handle subscriber line accounts.Translator (TR): The transistor provides the multi-registers on request. 49 . the charging unit seeks and assigns a charging register.e. This data may be written. y y Translating prefixes or the first digits dialed by the calling party. correspondence between directory numbers and subscriber or trunk equipment in the exchange) are held in TR lines.

Each charging unit can be configured as follows: * 1000 charging register of 512 bits. It is not duplicated. the standby charge recording unit can receive this message and record them on the magnetic tape. or 2000 charging register of 256 bit. The DFS does not participate in traffic handling function of the exchange.  It sends subs. At the end of the calls. Each exchange has two charging units operating on load-sharing basis. the subscriber meter is incremented simultaneously in both charging units and these two values (which should be identical) are read periodically by the OMC. The message involves. It has access to all the units and handles the transfer of the entire message between the OMC and the exchange. 50 . Standby charge recording unit (DFS): In normal conditions. It sends detailed billing manages and observation messages to stand by charge recording unit DSF where the OMC is down or unavailable. Monitoring unit (OC): The monitoring unit (one per exchange) is an interface between the OMC and the other units of an E-10B exchange. This unit can also reload the translator memories. Meter readings (periodically demand from OMC). Each charging unit can.  It stores traffic observation data. In the event of failure of the OMC or interruption of the link between the OMC and monitoring unit. Charging registers compute the charge for given telephone call. therefore handle upto 2000 calls simultaneously. the charge based data in the charging unit. the charge rates. detailed billing and traffic observation message are sent from the exchange to the OMC. A single standby charge recording unit is provided at each exchange. detailed billing message and traffic observation message to OMC. or combination of 256 and 512 bit charging registers.

h.  Messages specifying the number of calls in progress for each type of traffic.  A set of two signals (2g. line creation.). Base Time: The time base supplies basic time signals to various exchange units for synchronizing and coordinating operation which are necessary in a time division switching system. It operates independently but can be divided by an external signal.  Unit.  Answer messages. 28.  Fault messages.  Maintenance message.  Routing text messages. The time base generates to sets of signal A set of four signals (2W. ti) distributed to all exchange units except switching network and the switching network control unit. Message from exchange units to OMC:  Detailed billing and traffic observation messages.  Control message addressed to test modules. Sm) sent to switching network control unit. Each exchange has its own time base which is not duplicated and is therefore constructed from components offering high level of operating security.  A basic signal is sent by the time base. A single monitoring unit is provided in each exchange.Message from OMC exchange units:  Operating message (subscriber. The following table gives the characteristics each signal: 51 . circuit creation. positioning message. etc.  Constant or temporary observation messages.

time signal used in time division. 52 . A basic signal sent by the time base must reach other exchange units at the same moment. The time base unit occupies full rack. (iii) Maintenance function: Exchange equipment positioning. The main management functions are: (i) (ii) Operating functions: translation memory management. For his region the time base is located at the centre of the exchange.56 M-bits/S h Synchronizing signal duration (122. charging functions. anomaly and alarm processing.9 ti Each time slot or signal ti contains a binary no. 2.096 M-bits/S Characteristics Twice the frequency of link transmission rate. fault location. it is essential to use game cable length for signal distribution. Switching network only 500 Hz. Since propagation time cannot be ignored.Signal name 2W 4.144M bit/sec. circuit test.ns ± periodicity 125 )/ (32) = 3. Operation and maintenance center (OMC): The E-10B Exchange management functions are carried out at the OMC using a non dedicated computer (Mitra 225). [0-31] indicating the rank of time slot in the frame. Supervision function: Lock out condition processing subscriber line and set tests. 2g Sn 6. load and traffic observation.

With an average of 0. Traffic capacity and facilities available to subscriber: Traffic: The switching network houses up to 384 PCM links. The balance 368 multiply by 30 PCM links (incoming and outgoing) rename for subscriber and trunk units i. A general structure of OMC is shown in figure. That a maximum number of terminals are 64. They can be located near the OMC are remotely by using of modems.7 erlang per channel. of which 16 are generally used by frequency receiver. serial printers and displays. 11040 LF channels. we see that the maximum traffic capacity of the switching 53 .e.The operating and maintenance staff dialogues are the OMC via tele printers. One OMC can handle up to 5 E-10B Exchanges.

54 . automatic alarm calls where not possible in electromechanical exchanges. There are:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) (xvi) Hot line Detailed billing Absent service PBX Barred access Malicious call tracing Free phone line Subscriber with home meter Push button telephone Priority line Outgoing only subscriber Incoming only subscriber Abbreviated dialing Temporary transfer Recorded call Conference call (xvii) Ring back facility (xviii) Automatic alarm call Creation facilities like P. percentage of incomplete dialing etc. percentage of successful call. The traffic capacity of the control units. telephone short code dialing call transfer conference calls. Average duration for mixed call: Average busy time of register for a mixed call is > 4 (very roughly) if the control units in the normal conditions handle the maximum traffic handled by the switching network. particularly the multi register.B. types of subscriber dialing. depends upon several parameters like type of signaling.network is around 3800 erlang. Subscriber facilities: The E-10B system offers number of facilities to its subscriber. on circuits.

Power: E-10B Exchange: An E-10B Exchange needs two power supplies: y 48v DC Supply: This current is obtained from rectifiers and batteries. The relative humidity must be between 30°  room. in the OMC beneath the tales floor. The available power can supply part of the operating terminals. It supplies to the subscriber lines and DC/DC converters (: or 5V. cool and is blown in for the ambient condition. For a 7 suites exchange a room of 12. the second for the operating terminals. The temperature regulation point is 22° with a relative humidity. One or two 1KVA inverters are used. y OMC: The OMC needs 220V AC inverter supply and consumes some 4KVA in stabilized state. A fully equipment exchanges contain between 4 and 7 suites. 12V and 24V) housed in each racks. Air-Condition: In the exchange room.5 m. the power consumption is about 500A/18V. cool air (17°  ) is blown up into the racks from .E-10B Environment: Switch ROOM: E-10B racks are installed in suites of 11 racks (maximum). Each of them requires an area of some 40m×m. × 11 m. Two 6KVA inverters are generally used. A 20A/48V DC supply is required for the Message 220V AC Inverter supply: This current supplies the standby charge recording unit. the first for OMC equipment. OMC ROOM: Two rooms are required. 55 . is required. Transmission Equipment Rack (ETM). For a 10000 local subscriber line exchange.