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____________ A Research Paper Presented to the Department of Philosophy College of Arts and Sciences University of San Carlos Cebu City, Philippines _____________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree MASTER OF ARTS IN PHILOSOPHY ____________ By Ruben O. Balotol Jr March 2010

ie/booksid=1PIhzc6ZBlIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Cambridge+Companion+to+Husserl . 2009. but no with Edmund Husserl. 3 2 . provoking theories of various kinds to help make sense of it. origin.. living individual condition of existence. W. 1962). Smith Barry and David Smith. some individual are likely to cease their effort at some point and to content themselves with whatever understanding they achieved. empirical and relative to arrive at ³apodictic certainty´. Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. The paper aims to come up a clear and striking epistemological assessment of Edmund Husserl's ³phenomenological epoché´ which lay genius integration of traditional ideas from Aristotle. Assessing epistemologically its method of epoché as it attempts to study the nature. scope and validity of knowledge as the basis of erecting philosophy as 1 Louis Pojman. available from http://books. accessed November 19. Descartes and Hume with new ideas.What can we really know? How can we be certain that? we have the truth? How can we be certain that we know? anything at all? What is knowledge and how it is we know that we know it? 1 Louis Pojman Introduction Almost every individual desire to comprehend the world. ³The Cambridge Companion to Husserl´ [on-line]. Internet. suspension of all natural belief in the objects of experience where every method is taken by itself and investigated by the method that would modify the old established science. because many aspects of the world defy easy explanation.2 which gives way to a new horizon of understanding man not merely as thinking subject but the acting. 41.R. 1. Edmund Husserl.3 bracketing everything contingent. at the essence which form the a priori conditions upon which empirical phenomenology is premised. The author solely concern's phenomenological epoché. to a more sophisticated of mind and consciousness derived from Brentano. However. The Theory of Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Readings (California Publishing. Boyce Gibson (New York: Collier. 1999). trans.

accessed November 22. taking philosophy beyond time alternatives of psychologism and formalism. 4 Donne Melton.6 The quest for the certitude has dominated most of philosophers thought. Philippines: Divine Word University. and (6) Whether the primary task of epistemology is to 1973). scope and validity of knowledge. observer thinks both dogs are practicing for future battles. 6 Leonardo Mercado. A third observer thinks both dogs are working and playing. origin and scope of knowledge addressing issue such as ³(1) Whether knowledge of any kind is possible. realism and ental+Phenomenology. . available from http://books. Hence. Internet.4 Husserl's leaping evolution from traditional philosophy to the philosophical concerns of the late 20th century. Hence. 63.rigorous science. Another observer thinks both dogs are having fun in the mock fight. objectivism and subjectivism. the paper will include remarkable thinkers that had influence the shaping of Edmund Husserl's concept of the phenomenological epoché. contributing to such yearning of certainty constructing historical issues in the field of epistemology (Theory of Knowledge). and if so what kind. 27. philosophical inquiry in to the nature. Edmund Husserl: Philosopher of Infinite Task (Evanston: Northwestern University. (4) Whether certainty is a form of knowledge. play. 2009. 5 Maurice Natanson. ³The Essential Husserl: Basic writing in Transcendental Phenomenology´ [on-line]. Elements of Filipino Philosophy (Tacloban. (2) Whether human knowledge is a priori or whether instead all significant knowledge is acquired through experience (a posteriori). (3) Whether knowledge is inherently a mental state (behaviorism). One. 1974).google. Epistemological Literature Two young dogs in a mock growl fight wrestle and slightly bite each other.5 Considering the historical development made in the search of method as a tool to solve the disagreement and speculations regarding abstruse question over the nature. work.

sense perception which is only concerned with fleeting objects which appears differently at varied period of time. second reason which look into the highest form of knowledge. In the coming of new age. The Theory of Knowledge. convinced Plato concluded that things appreciated by the senses are mere copy from the world of forms (ideas) recognized by innate ideas and that the reason for such ignorance is due to soul's attachment to the body. 71-74. Philosophy Through Ages (Arizona: Wadsworth. Internet.8 Thus. In his book De Anima (On the Soul). prominent among rationalist was chiefly concerned with the problem of intellectual certainty and thus able to come up a method that would harness the abilities of the mind with specific set of rules. accessed December 10. Ibid. Rene Descartes (1596-1650). 2000). 2009.10 Descartes's departure from the established realization give a new start where every idea must be subjected to doubt in order to ³Epistemology´ [on-line].com/EBchecked/topic/190219/epistemology.9 Plato and Aristotle's realization shove dichotomy in the latter development particularly in the field of epistemology. Aristotle concludes that senses aid man to attain certainty in harmony with the laws of nature.. available from http://www. experience are verified. Aristotle consider that matter and form is not separate as previously held by his teacher. but works as one and that anything exists in the consciousness are not acquired without passing from the senses.7 Plato's remarkable inquiry into the nature of knowledge lead him to formulate the notion that there are two types of knowledge. 63-68.provide justification for broad categories of knowledge´.britannica. new concerns come to light aiming for certitude of knowledge. 8 9 7 Louis Pojman. Joan Price. Motivated and interested into the nature of knowledge. One. inquiring further beyond what the senses can achieved. Aristotle embarks a new course taking refuge into the role of nature in attaining certitude. 10 . yielding not merely to fallible opinions. mind at birth is empty (Tabularasa) and that knowledge can be attained through experience which senses collects the data and by science. 78-82.

Handbook in the History of Philosophy (New York: Barnes & Noble. 191. 2008). Empiricist alters the course.grasp certainty as a starting point for building up knowledge. 1961). a remarkable German philosopher sets a ³Copernican revolution´ over the scope. 142.14 Rationalist and Empiricist thinkers made great contributions to philosophy. nature and validity of knowledge where Kant argued that knowledge is limited only on its scope which takes in two forms. Philosophic Classics: Bacon to Kant (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A history of Philosophy (New York: McGraw-Hill. Empiricist claims that knowledge is derived from experience that the mind is a blank slate prior to experience and sensations are atomic and simple. Indeed. John Locke (16321708) gives the grounding for empiricism. (2) knowledge is limited by the manner of Samuel Enoch Stumpf and James Fieser. their influence is such that we refer to both schools of thought as rationalism and empiricism strands of thought. dissatisfied with the claims made by the key continental rationalist. 12 13 14 11 Albert Avey. . Convinced by Descartes's notion Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) had also consider that rational faculties are capable of constructing ideas that reflects the true nature of things.13 that the axiomatic principles of logic such as the principle of identity and contradiction could not proved as innate ideas for there are no clear deductive argument into the existence of such entities and that empirical way of knowing is far more reasonable. 1961). Walter Kaufman.12 George Berkeley (1685-1753) and David Hume (1711-1766) in their separate ways further support Locke's position that nothing comes to mind that doesn't pass through the senses. 206.11 believing that by mathematics could discover the underlying structure of everything. rejecting rationalist notion and that experience (senses and reflection) is the axiom that guarantee certainty. Due to its continuing contradictions and arguments between these two philosophical movements. (1) limited to the world of experience. 5. 2005). particularly in the field of epistemology by its scope and influence. Continental Philosophy: A Critical Approach (Oxford:Blackwell. Immanuel Kant (17241804). William Schroeder.

15 Kant bridge the chasm between rationalism and empiricism resolving contradictions that are inherent to the two philosophical movement.faculties of perception and organization of the raw data of experience. Phenomenology: The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl and its Interpretation (New York: Doubleday and Company. Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A history of Philosophy. a body of knowledge that is based on any presuppositions refining the study of consciousness and establish the discipline of phenomenology which need a new starting point far from those established natural sciences where in his words: Pure phenomenology. 277-280. 1984). ³Augustine and Husserl on time: An Analaytico-Comparative Study´ (Ph. where the mind is the ultimate reality in the world. maintaining that the nature of things-in-themselves is hidden and that the mind is structured in such a way it prevents of going beyond the realm of experience (phenomena). Hegel sets a technical definition attached to it. Agustin Sollano. 16-22.17 Best understood as a radical. Joseph Kockelman.18 Edmund Husserl (1859²1938). Samuel Enoch Stumpf and James Fieser.D diss University of San Carlos. at the turn of the century set himself the goal of establishing a rigorous science. to which we are here seeking the way. 18 . basic type of experience and various kinds of objects that are correlated with them. defining phenomenology as it appears to consciousness but Hegel consider it as grounding towards the absolute knowledge of the ³Absolute´. 24-25. in the broadest sense as it appears as it manifests itself to consciousness. Continental Philosophy: A Critical Approach. Exhibiting the path to anyone who yields knowledge of the ultimate reality. 1967). It tends to clarify differences and connections among diverse structures objects of consciousness. The term phenomenology could be traced back to Hegel and Kant who frequently employ the terminology.16 Husserl and Phenomenological Epoché Phenomenology is the disciplined investigation of fundamental structures and features of experience. anti-traditionalist style of philosophizing which emphasizes that attempt to described phenomena. whose 15 16 17 William Schroeder. 5.

43. objects to the foundations of mathematics and logic. striving instead to establish anti-psychologistic.20 In one of his work. breaking those habits which lay hold to those philosophical problems in need of new ways of looking such problem without reverting to old view points. is an essentially new science. Assessment Husserl's philosophy by the usual account evolved through three stages. intersubjectively verifiable results that would reform philosophical knowledge by setting aside habits of thought. bracketing everything contingent. Ibid. and to seth forth as the most fundamental region of philosophy.´ 61. The task of describing the given is complicated by the fact that man has its own inherited dogmas or principles in life which is obscure to clear intuition or experience where it must be purify by means of phenomenological epoché (reduction). 41. that is the suspension of any beliefs other than those can be justified from experience.. he moved from 19 20 21 Edmund Husserl. Ideas: General Introduction to the Phenomenology.19 Husserl intends to create an independent discipline that would solidify foundations of all other field intellectually by giving a clear standard of evidence. 1936 he discuss the urgency of providing best possible answers to human concerns.´21 epoché. directing his criticisms towards the assumption and method of natural sciences. Second. a Greek word to which Husserl gives his own peculiar meaning rather than coin a word in his own language. empirical and relative.unique position in regard to all other sciences we wish to make clear. the world itself must not be assumed for such prejudices must be suspended. General concepts. First. ³Augustine and Husserl on time: An Analytico-Comparative Study. which in virtue of its own governing peculiarity thinking and has not until out own day therefore show an impulse to develop. physical objects. ³To bracket means to put certain belief out of action or consideration so that they may not interfere with the pure and unadulterated apprehension of an event or experience. Crisis of European Sciences. Agustin Sollano. . he overthrew a purportedly psychologistic position to the foundations of arithmetic.

the purpose of which is to open us up to the world of phenomena. everything that posits independent existence of the world or worldly entities must be suspended. embracing the social worlds of culture and history.´ In the Ideas of Phenomenology. 1936). how it is that the world and the entities within it are given. Crisis of European Science. and all judgment presuppose such judgment are to be bracketed and no use is to be made in the course of engaging in phenomenological analysis. The reduction. Husserl to this positing of the world and entities as ³natural attitude. into a phenomenology of intersubjectivity and into the ontology of life world (especially in his.´ according to which presuppositions and other inherited concepts must be put out of action for they belong to the essence of the natural attitude. This epoché is the most important part of the phenomenological reduction. he transformed his phenomenology which initially amounted to a form of methodological solipsism. is that which reveals to us the primary subject matter of phenomenology²the world as given and the givenness of the world. both objects and acts of consciousness. then.´ In Ides I this becomes the ³phenomenological epoché. Third. In ordinary experience most people often take for granted that the world around exist independently both of us and our consciousness of it.the concept of philosophy as rooted in the Brentanian descriptive psychology to the development of a new discipline called 'phenomenology' and a metaphysical position dubbed as ³transcendental idealism´.´ according to which we are asked to supply this positing of a transcendental world with ³an index of indifference. Husserl introduces what refer as ³epistemological reduction. . This might be put by saying that we share an implicit belief in the independent existence of the world and that this belief permeates and informs our everyday experience.

_____________. Phenomenology: Its Genesis and Prospect.. trans. New York: Harper & Row. Albany: State University of New York Press. Reginald. Lauer.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Primary Sources Husserl. Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: From Structuralism to Post-Humanism. 2008. New York: Collier Book. John. and Impact of Husserl's Thought. 1987. Louis. Epistemology.... 1968. Matti. O'Neill.. Byrne. New York: Routledge. M. Regis.. Samuel and Fieser. New York: Harper & Row Publishers Inc. Secondary Sources Cottingham. New York: McGraw-Hill. James. 2000. Pojman. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. trans.. Quentin. 1967. 1966. . ed. Philosophy through Ages. Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A History of Philosophy. Western Philosophy: A Critical Approach.. Lechte. California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Arizona: Wadsworth Co. 2008. 1959. Quentin. Seppo and Kampinnen. 1999. 1959.. Price. The Foundation of Phenomenology: Edmund Husserl and the Quest for a Rigorous Science of Philosophy. Stumpf. Marvin. New Jersey: PrenticeHall Inc. The Theory of Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Readings. Edmund. trans. W. 2008. Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. A Historical Introduction to Phenomenology. Methods. 1965. New York: Doubleday & Company Inc. ____________. Imelda Choquette. John.. New York: Harper & Row.. The Aims of Phenomenology: The Motives. New York: Croom Helm. Phenomenology and The Crisis of Philosophy. Boyce Gibson. New York: The Macmillan Company. Kockelman. Sajama. Lauer. ed. Farber. L. Joseph. R. 1965. Joan. Phenomenology: The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl and Its Interpretation. Theories of Knowledge: Classical and Readings. 1962.

ie/booksid=26FkjziPVfAC&printssec+front over&dq= meditation+on+emptiness. 1999. Book online. Lee Hardy. New York: Routledge. 1995. New York: Cambridge University Press. Christian. Available from.. Dermot. trans. Theories of Knowledge: Classical and Readings. Book onlin Available from. Fumerton. 23 December 1984. Richard. ³Edmund Husserl´. Book online. Unpublished Material Sollano. http://books. ³Agustine and Husserl on Time: An Anlytico-Comparative Study´. Hopkins. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2000. 1959. Available logy. Ph. & Cambridge+Husserl's &printseccover&resource. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. O'Neill. . Electronic Sources Husserl. diss. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishing. Reginald. Edmund. Available from. Barry and The Idea of Phenomenology. 2005. Introduction to Phenomenology. http://books. 20 November Agustin. Continental Philosophy: A Critical Approach. 20 November 2009.Schroeder. Epistemology. New Jersey: PrenticeHall Inc.. 2006. Book online. David Woodruff. 8 December 2009.. Massachusetts: Wisdom Publications. Book online. Moran. Jeffrey. http://books. 19 November 2009. Encyclopedia online. Meditation on The Cambridge Companion to Husserl's. William. 20 Novermber 2009.stanford. Available from. http://books. Available from. ed. http :// BucC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Idea+of+Phenomenology.http://plato. University of San Carlos.