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Class Vocabulary branch circuit busbar busway center tap copper loss core delta delta/delta delta/wye distribution substation distribution system enclosure feeder generating station grounded conductor grounding conductor interconnected system kilovolt-amp laminated line voltage load center The part of a distribution system consisting of circuit conductors, between the final overcurrent protection and the outlet or load attached. Thick, rigid strips or bars of copper that serve as a common connection between several circuits. Busbars are usually used near the switchboard and can be enclosed in busways. The part of a distribution system consisting of metal enclosed busbars. Busways come in premade sections that can be fitted to any shape needed. The point where all three windings are connected to each other in a wye connection. For delta connections, one of the lines must be tapped to produce a neutral. A power loss due to current flowing through wire. Copper loss is proportional to the resistance of the wire and the square of the current. A component of a transformer. The iron or steel core provides a controlled path for the magnetic flux generated in the transformer by the current flowing through the windings. A connection of three components where a triangular series circuit is formed. Delta connections are used in three phase power systems. A transformer with both the primary and the secondary connected as a delta. A transformer with the primary connected as a delta and the secondary connected as a wye. A bank of step-down transformers near the end users. The distribution substation converts voltage closer to the required usable levels. A circuit of users linked to a generating station and substations that is typically arranged in either a radial or interconnected manner. Local distribution systems transport power within a building. A physical barrier designed to provide mechanical or electrical protection for components used in a system. A circuit conductor between the power supply source and a final branch circuit overcurrent device. A building where a utility company houses large linked AC generators to create the massive power for widespread use. A system conductor that is intentionally grounded. A conductor used to connect equipment in a wiring system to ground. A distribution system with multiple available power sources that can loop throughout the network. If one source goes down, a different source can be activated to maintain service. A unit used to rate transformer and generator strength. A kilovolt is a thousand volts. Sealed together in multiple layers of thin sheets to construct the core for a transformer. Lamination helps reduce resistance losses. The voltage present between any two of the conductors in a three-phase system. It is 1.732 times higher than phase voltage in a wye connection. A device found in residential locations that performs the same functions as a panelboard does in commercial settings. Load centers are not required to have many panelboard safety features because homes do not draw the same amount of current as industry. The part of a distribution system located within a building. Local distribution systems are the responsibility of shop electricians and maintenance workers and fall under NEC rules. A heavy, spring-loaded switch on a factory switchboard that can cut off power to the entire building. Switchboards with more than six switches or breakers are required by the NEC to have a main disconnect. A modular assembly specifically designed to plug in motor control units. Motor control centers are supplied by a common bus, usually straight from the switchboard. The ability of one coil to induce a voltage into another coil. This principle is used in transformers to step up or step down voltage. The standard for minimum safe electrical installations. The National Electrical Code is adopted in some form as law in all 50 states. A distribution system where multiple power sources are connected to each user to guarantee uninterrupted power. A network system is expensive, so it is used only when constant power is vital. A transformer connection that does not complete the triangle, using only two of the three sides. An open delta is used when full power is not needed. Excess current that may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault. Devices like fuses and circuit breakers protect against overcurrent. A single panel distribution cabinet or wall cutout box that holds automatic overcurrent protection devices for lighting, heat, or power circuits. ( ) The Greek letter Phi, used to represent phases, such as in a 3 4W system. The voltage between any one conductor and ground. A type of feeder busway with electrical control that allows loads to be added along the bus structure. Turns of wire on a transformer core, used to transfer voltage from the input to the core. A distribution system with only one power source. If that source goes out, power is lost to the entire circuit. A generator setup where an electromagnetic field is rotated between the conductor wound armature. Most AC generators are of this design.

local power distribution system main disconnect switch motor control center mutual induction NEC network system open delta overcurrent panelboard phase symbol phase voltage plug-in busway primary winding radial system revolving field generator

Class Vocabulary secondary winding service-entrance single-phase step up substation switchboard switchgear tap terminal three-phase three-phase power transformer transmission substation turns ratio wye wye/delta wye/wye Turns of wire on a transformer core, used to transfer voltage from the core to the outside load. The point where electricity enters a buidling. A service-entrance switchboard has metering equipment and devices for overcurrent protection and electrical control. A continuous single alternating current cycle. In electricity, a phrase used to describe voltage adjustment. To step up voltage means to increase voltage. Any grouping of switchgear and transformers located near a source or user. Substations are used to alter voltage levels and provide a service point of electrical control. A freestanding assembly of panels with metering equipment, overcurrent and other protection devices. Switchboards take a large block of power from a substation and break it down into smaller blocks for use within a building. A combination of disconnect switches and breakers used to isolate equipment in substations. A wire connected to the midpoint of a transformer secondary winding. This allows the transformer to use different turns ratios. A connecting point in a circuit where a wire is attached to create an electrical connection. A continuous series of three overlapping AC cycles offset by 120 degrees. Three-phase power is used for all large scale distribution systems. The most common form of AC power for distribution. Three-phase power has three overlapping AC cycles offset by 120 degrees. A device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another, without changing the frequency, using electromagnetic induction. A transformer is most often used to change the line voltage. A bank of step up transformers near the generating station. Transmission substations increase voltage as high as 800kV for widespread distribution. A comparison of the number of turns in the primary versus the number of turns in the secondary of a transformer. A connection of three components where one end of each component is connected at a common point. Wye connections are used in three phase power systems. A transformer with the primary connected as a wye and the secondary connected as a delta. A transformer with both the primary and the secondary connected as a wye

air flow switch alternating current armature bimetal strip bumper arm circuit breaker coil compound motor constant speed motor contact contactor control transformer diaphragm-operated switch direct current electric motor electromagnetic starter float switch flow switch fuse ladder diagram limit switch line diagram

A type of flow switch that detects the movement of air. The air flow switch symbol has a flag shape that represents a sail. Current that regularly reverses the direction of its flow in a repeating, cyclical pattern. The part of a motor in which a current is induced by a magnetic field. The armature usually consists of a series of coils or groups of insulated conductors surrounding a core of iron. A strip made by bonding together two unlike metals that expand at different rates when heated. A physical device on a limit switch that makes contact with an object causing the contact of the switch to change position. A safety device that detects too much current in a circuit. A circuit breaker often contains a bimetallic strip that bends and trips a switch that opens a circuit. A wound spiral of two or more turns of wire used to conduct current. A DC motor that uses both series and shunt field windings. Compound motors combine the advantages of the shunt and series motors. A type of motor that maintains a steady rate of rpm from no load to full load. DC shunt motors are often referred to as constant speed motors because they have this characteristic. A conductive part in an electrical circuit attached to a switch that opens or closes a circuit by coming in contact with or separating from the main conductor. A device that uses a small control current to energize or de-energize a load. A type of transformer used to decrease the voltage to the value required by the motor control system. A type of pressure switch that senses small pressure changes at low pressures. Current that flows in one direction. Direct current does not reverse the direction of flow. A machine that converts electricity into mechanical energy or motion. An electric motor is a common power source for a mechanical system. A device that has a magnetic coil that sends enough voltage to start a motor. A type of switch that controls the action of a pump as it relates to the level of liquid in a tank. The float switch symbol has a circle connected to a line that represents a ball float. A type of switch that detects the movement of air or liquid in a duct or pipe. The flow switch symbol has a flag or paddle shape that represents either an air flow switch or a liquid flow switch. A safety device that detects excess current in a circuit. Fuses often have a component that melts and opens the circuit. Another name for a line diagram, due to its resemblance to a ladder. In this sense, each circuit line is a "rung" of the ladder. A type of switch that detects the presence or absence of an object. The limit switch symbol has a wedge that represents the bumper arm. A diagram that shows the logic of an electrical circuit or system using standard symbols. Also known as a ladder diagram.

Circuit logic comprises all the principles required to understand electrical circuitry. Three-phase power is used for all large AC motors and is the standard power supply that enters homes and factories. A type of switch that is connected normally closed but the contacts are held open when the circuit is de-energized. A method of connecting field windings in parallel with the armature. A wiring diagram shows the physical relationship of all the components. A coil of wire that converts electrical energy into linear motion. A force that produces rotation. as well as the information needed to wire the circuit. A device that protects a motor from overheating due to an overload condition in the machinery. A winding of small wire and many turns designed to be connected in parallel with the armature of a DC motor or generator. A pictorial diagram is much like a photograph of the circuit. A type of three-phase AC motor whose rotor is constructed by connecting metal bars together at each end. The shunt DC motor is commonly used because of its excellent speed regulation. A type of switch that senses the pressure in a pneumatic or hydraulic system. A device that performs a mechanical action after receiving the electrical signal to do so. A type of pushbutton that is shaped like a mushroom. A type of timer in which the contacts delay changing position when the coil is energized. Something that is used to signify something else. A schematic symbol represents an electrical component in a diagram. but not the physical relationship of the components. Schematic diagrams show the electrical relationship of all components. The temperature switch symbol represents a bimetal strip. An electrical contact that regularly allows electricity to flow. . A type of device in which the switch or button physically keeps the circuit in the actuated position. An NO contact symbol has parallel lines showing an open connection. A type of overload relay that connects a heater with a motor. A set of moveable contacts that belong to a single circuit. The pressure switch symbol has a semi-circle connected to a line that represents the diaphragm. A type of indicator light found on machines. A type of relay that delays changing position when the coil is energized or de-energized. process. A method of connecting field windings in series with the armature. A type of AC motor that operates on either 120 or 240 volts and is used for most simple residential applications like furnaces. A sine wave consists of 360 electrical degrees and is produced by rotating machines. A type of switch that can be turned to different positions to make a connection with the contacts in that particular position. An electrical contact that rarely allows electricity to flow. It is the most common AC motor type. performance. A type of switch that detects the expansion of a metal. or procedure with reference to safety. Pushbuttons can be normally open or normally closed. The device in a power transmission system that introduces energy into the system and converts the energy into the appropriate form. The reasoning behind the functioning of something. The most detailed of electrical prints. A type of electrical print that shows the external appearance of each component in the circuit. but delay returning to their normal position when the coil is de-energized. A type of device in which the switch or button closes or opens the circuit only when it is actuated. A type of switch that is connected normally open but the contacts are held closed when the circuit is de-energized. The number of stationary contacts that match the moveable contacts. The most common type of AC waveform. A type of overload relay that senses the strength of the magnetic field that the current flow produces. Magnetic relays are often used in areas that experience extreme changes in temperature.Class Vocabulary liquid flow switch logic magnetic relay maintained contact device momentary contact device mushroom head National Electrical Manufacturers Association normally closed contact normally closed held open normally open contact normally open held closed off-delay timer on-delay timer output device overload relay pictorial diagram pilot light pole pressure switch prime mover pushbutton relay schematic diagram selector switch series motor shunt field shunt motor sine wave single-phase motor solenoid squirrel cage rotor switch symbol temperature switch thermal relay three-phase motor throw timing relay torque wiring diagram A type of flow switch that detects the movement of liquid. NEMA provides commonly used electrical symbol standards. The liquid flow switch symbol has a flag shape that represents a paddle. An example of a maintained contact device is a light switch. A device that opens and closes a circuit. and air conditioners. An electrical print in which all electrical components are represented with a symbol. An organization that defines a product. washing machines. An NC contact has parallel lines with a diagonal line crossing them showing a closed connection. A type of timer in which the contacts change position immediately when the coil is energized. and testing. A motor with a continuous series of three overlapping AC cycles offset by 120 degrees. A manual control device that opens or closes a circuit when pressed. An electrically controlled mechanical device that controls one circuit by opening and closing the contacts in another circuit. but change back to their normal position immediately when the coil is de-energized. A DC series motor provides very high start-up torque but must never be run without a load.

A device that controls one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit. A type of circuit logic where only one normally closed control device must be opened to de-energize the load. A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a machine. Decisions are based on the signals received and the logical functions designed in the circuit. The sequential numbers running down the left side of a line diagram. This motor type permits control of rotor current by connecting external resistance in series with the rotor windings. A multimeter is the most versatile and common meter used today. Control devices are connected in series in AND logic. Any input device that controls the flow of current in a circuit. predictable pattern. maintaining a closed circuit. The second step of a control circuit. A switch can be either manual. Counters also usually display the counted value. A normally closed contact placed in series between a load and the neutral line of a circuit. A gear contacting a limit switch is an example of a mechanical signal. Two separate buttons that must be pressed simultaneously in order to power stamping presses. due to its resemblance to a ladder. Control devices determine when loads are energized or deenergized. A method of cross-referencing mechanically connected contacts that operate together but on different lines of the diagram. or temperature. Any device that converts electrical energy to motion. A manual control device that opens or closes a circuit when pressed. The third step of a control circuit. The first step of a control circuit. A device that can measure voltage. A type of circuit logic where both normally closed control devices must be opened to de-energize the load. Overload contacts open only when an overload condition is present. The sequence of operations performed by a circuit. or sound. Having physical connections that are designed to act the same way over and over. Also known as a ladder diagram because the diagram appears as individual lines or "rungs" connected between two vertical lines. The numbers on the right side of a line diagram that reference contacts in other circuit lines that electrically connect the load in the referenced line. A type of circuit logic where both normally open control devices must be closed to energize the load.Class Vocabulary wobble stick wound rotor action AND automatic signal auxiliary contact control device counter cross-reference number dashed line method decision digital multimeter dual palm buttons hard-wired ladder diagram limit switch line diagram line number load logic function manual signal mechanical signal memory momentary contact motor starter NAND A type of lever used to actuate contacts on a pushbutton or switch unit. Logic functions such as AND and OR follow a set. mechanical. A type of signal that is sent through the mechanical motion of a machine. current. A control device that can make or break a circuit by closing or opening. A type of signal that is sent when an input device detects a change in conditions such as flow. Control devices are connected in parallel in NAND logic. pressure. Each line. Control devices are connected in parallel in OR logic. This is an example of AND logic. or rung. NOR normally closed normally closed contact normally open NOT numerical cross-reference method OR overload contact pushbutton relay signal specification switch . light. The ability of a circuit to store a charge and keep the load energized even after the signal is removed. each circuit line is a "rung" of the ladder. Actions are the physical work performed as loads are energized. Signals are inputs that change the condition of a circuit. The numerical cross-reference method is used on complex diagrams when the connected contacts are several lines apart. A type of signal that you send to a circuit through physical action. Numbers that cross-reference normally closed contacts are underlined. The dashed line method is used on simple diagrams when the contacts are close together. A diagram that shows the logic of an electrical circuit or system using standard symbols. Control devices are connected in series in NOR logic. A method of cross-referencing mechanically connected contacts that operate together but on different lines of the diagram. An electrical contact that regularly allows electricity to flow until it is signaled to open. of the line diagram has its own number. A type of circuit logic that uses normally closed contacts. heat. A mechanical input that requires physical contact of the object with the switch actuator. or resistance. A motor starter coil and a pilot light are both examples of loads. A type of circuit logic where only one normally open control device must be closed to energize the load. A three-phase motor containing a rotor with windings and slip rings. An electrical contact that regularly allows electricity to flow. A device that keeps track of the number of entering inputs and provides an output when a preset count is reached. the motor starter closes the auxiliary contact. Specs are the principle indicator of machine capability. In this sense. An additional motor starter contact used to provide memory to control circuits. A contact that returns to its original position immediately after sending a signal. Flipping a light switch or pressing a pushbutton are manual signals. An electrical contact that rarely allows electricity to flow. An electrically operated switch that uses magnetic induction to provide the startup current for a motor. Another name for a line diagram. When energized. Pushbuttons can be normally open or normally closed. or automatic.

The use of magnets to cause voltage in a conductor. armature base speed brushes chattering commutator compound motor constant speed counter emf DMM electric motor field windings frogleg wound armature grounded circuit horsepower inrush current lap wound armature lockout/tagout lubricate magnetic induction permanent magnet motor polarity pole piece rheostat right-hand motor rule self-excited shunt field separately excited shunt field series motor series-parallel short circuit shunt motor speed speed control speed regulation The part of a motor in which a current is induced by a magnetic field. circuit. The rotating switch that contacts the brushes of a DC motor. One horsepower equals 33. A reference point on a line diagram used to keep track of the different wires that connect the components in the circuit. A DC series motor provides very high start-up torque but must never be run without a load. A method of connecting field windings in series with the armature.000 ft-lbs of work per minute. speed reflects rotational movement and is measured in revolutions per minute. The amount of distance an object travels in a given period of time. low voltage loads. Polarity determines the direction in which current tends to flow. Having two oppositely charged poles. The occasional unwanted vibration between components. A compound connection that uses both series and parallel connections. Grounded circuits are caused when conductor insultation breaks down or is damaged. DC shunt motors are often referred to as constant speed because they run at constant speed. but brushes cannot be lubricated.Class Vocabulary terminal number tie-down method timer troubleshooting wire number A number assigned by a manufacturer to a device's contact points. A circuit where current strays from its intended path and flows through the frame of the motor. The relationship between the factors involved in determining the movement of a conductor in a magnetic field. Devices mounted on the inside of a motor housing. In motors. Lap connections are used for high current. Wire numbers are circled and start with 1 from the top left of the diagram. A type of motor that uses permanent magnets instead of field windings as a way to create torque. A method of protecting employees from accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines that are undergoing maintenance. or resistance. The speed (in rpm) at which the motor runs with full-line voltage applied to the armature and the field. To use a fluid to reduce the friction between components. Magnetic induction occurs whenever a conductor passes through magnetic lines of flux. or 746 watts. A type of motor that maintains a steady rate of rpm from no load to full load. current. Froglegs are the most commonly used winding. one positive and one negative. A digital multimeter is the most versatile and common meter used today for electrical maintenance. Electric motors use magnetic induction to produce torque. The conducting wire connected to the armature that energize the pole pieces. or process to locate a malfunctioning part. heat. A continuously variable electrical resistor used to regulate current. Term used to describe a series-parallel combination armature winding. and wear. A device that delays the signal sent by a control device to a load for a preset amount of time. A DC motor that uses both series and shunt field windings. The armature consists of a series of coils mounted on a shaft and rotates through the magnetic field. A machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical motion. The initial surge of current into the windings. Term used to describe a parallel armature winding. unintended path between two conductors. The systematic elimination of the various parts of a system. the pole pieces form the electromagnets that create lines of flux. A unit of power used to describe machine strength. A device that can measure voltage. The shunt DC motor is commonly used because of its excellent speed regulation. . A method of connecting field windings in parallel with the armature. Sliding electrical contacts used to provide a connection between the armature and the external circuit. The external means of varying the speed of a motor under any type of load. Field windings are connected in series or parallel. Compound motors provide most of the positives of both types. The brushes are stationary and are contacted by the rotating commutator. The ability of a motor to maintain its speed when a load is applied. A motor's speed regulation is fixed based on its design. Typically a lubricant reduces resistance. When connected to field windings. Short circuits are caused when the insultation of two conductors is worn or damaged. Inrush current can be up to ten times higher than the continuously needed current because there is low initial resistance. Terminal numbers help identify the connection points in a circuit. The current flow is opposite in generators. The commutator maintains DC when the rotation of the armature switches the polarity of the conductor. A circuit where current takes a shorter. A separately excited field helps maintain constant speed. Field windings connected in parallel with the armature that are supplied with current by the same power supply as the armature. Connecting one probe of a DMM to the neutral side of a circuit and moving the other probe systematically along the sections of a circuit to find the malfunctioning part. A permanent magnet is one that retains its magnetism after the magnetizing force has been removed. The voltage induced in the armature of a DC motor that opposes the applied voltage and limits armature current. Field windings connected in parallel with the armature that are supplied with current from a source other than the armature. Chatter decreases productivity and can cause wear.

or obstruct one or more openings or passageways. Solenoid air gap armature bell-crank solenoid chattering clapper solenoid coil cycle DMM duty cycle eddy current loss efficiency loss generator horizontal action hydraulic system inductive reactance inrush current left-hand flux rule linear motion magnetic flux magnetic induction plunger solenoid pneumatic system polarity position solenoid specifications tolerance transient valve vertical action A small space left between the solenoid core and the armature to break up the magnetic field. A type of solenoid that uses a lever attached to the armature to soften the impact of the linear force. The number of physical settings on a directional control valve. Magnetic induction occurs whenever a conductor passes through magnetic lines of flux. A power transmission system that uses the force of flowing gases to transmit power. . A mechanical device by which the flow of liquid. A measure of the strength of the field formed around a magnet. A type of simple solenoid in which the armature makes a direct up and down movement. During inductive reactance. Without an air gap. Wave windings are used for high voltage. While efficiency losses can be minimized with good design. A digital multimeter is the most versatile and common meter used today for electrical maintenance. The magnetic opposition to current flow in a coil. Flux rotates around the conductor as shown by the left hand. A device that can measure voltage. no system is 100% efficient. often occurring before steady-state conditions have become established. A friction-reducing device that allows one moving part to glide past or rotate within another moving part. Torque is measured in pounds-feet in the English system and Newton meters in the metric system. leading to efficiency loss. A type of solenoid that uses a spring-loaded iron rod. one positive and one negative. Motion that takes place in a straight line rather than rotating in place around an axis. A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by magnetic induction. The moveable part of a solenoid that performs work. The rod tries to align with the magnetized coil when energized. The relative motion causes a circulating flow of electrons or current within the conductor. or other objects may be regulated by moveable parts that open. Flux is expressed in webers (Wb). A three-position valve can be placed in three different physical settings with a control such as a lever. A power transmission system that uses the force of flowing liquids to transmit power. An electrical device that stores energy and releases it when needed. A capacitor gives a single-phase motor more torque but has a limited life. A phenomenon caused by the rate of change in an induced magnetic field. Multiple loops of conducting wire used to create a magnetic field when current is passed through it. The armature usually consists of a series of coils or groups of insulated conductors surrounding a core of iron. Specifications or "specs" often include voltage and stroke ratings. current. A device found inside a generator that is used only in pairs to transfer power from a rotating object. A method used to determine the relationship of the motion of the conductor in a magnetic field to the direction of the induced current. changes in a magnetic field produce a voltage that is counter to the normal direction of current flow. Brushes rest on the commutator of a DC motor. A rating of solenoid life expectancy based on the number of operations per minute. cyclical pattern. Ac motor AC motor alternating current armature bearing brush capacitor A type of electric motor that runs on alternating current. creating linear motion. The occasional unwanted vibration between components. Natural effects that cause energy output to be less than energy input. An output device that converts electrical energy into linear mechanical force. A type of simple solenoid in which the armature makes a direct side-to-side movement. gas. Current that regularly reverses the direction of its flow in a repeating. Term used to describe a series armature winding. The part of a motor or generator in which a current is induced by a magnetic field. One complete motion of a solenoid from its resting position to full extension and back. close. A type of solenoid that hinges the armature on a pivot point to produce a more gradual force. The initial surge of current into a solenoid. Having two oppositely charged poles. A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a machine or device. or resistance. low current loads. The acceptable variation from a specified dimension. The use of magnets to cause voltage in a conductor. A short surge of current or voltage. Inrush current can be up to ten times higher than the continuously needed current because there is low initial resistance. Polarity determines the direction in which current tends to flow. AC motors are more commonly used in industry than DC motors but do not operate well at low speeds.torque wave wound armature A force that produces rotation. Chatter decreases productivity and can cause wear. the armature could remain stuck in the closed position even when the solenoid is de-energized.

The separation of the three phases in a three-phase motor. A plate attached to a motor that displays all of the motor's information. one for starting the motor. . The reactance difference in the windings creates separate phases. The second winding that current passes through in a transformer. A type of three-phase AC rotor that is constructed by connecting metal bars together at each end. and centrifugal switch. a phrase used to describe voltage adjustment. Field windings are connected in series or parallel. starting winding. Fine. A single-phase motor with a capacitor. The conducting wire connected to the armature that energizes the pole pieces.capacitor motor capacitor start-and-run motor capacitor-run motor capacitor-start motor centrifugal switch direct current dual voltage motor efficiency losses electric motor electromagnetic induction endbell field winding generator grounded induction motor magnet magnetic flux motor nameplate output shaft phase displacement reactance resistance rotor running winding secondary winding shaded-pole motor sine wave single voltage motor single-phase motor slip slip ring split-phase motor squirrel cage rotor starting winding stator stepped down stepped up synchronous motor thermal switch three-phase motor torque transform wound rotor A single-phase motor with a running winding. The opposition to current flow. a phrase used to describe voltage adjustment. A type of switch often found in split-phase motors that signals that the motor may overheat. A type of three-phase motor that operates on only one voltage level. starting winding. insulated copper wire in a single-phase motor that receives the current for running the motor. Safely connected to a neutral body. A type of AC motor that uses electrical current to induce rotation in the coils. It is the most common AC rotor type. A type of three-phase motor that operates on two voltage levels. The cap at the end of the motor that houses the rotor bearing. The resistance to the flow of alternating current due to inductance. Dual voltage motors allow the same motor to be used with two different power line voltages. which produce the rotating magnetic field that starts the rotor. A current formed when electrons flow in one continuous direction. like the earth. Slips rings are also used in AC wound rotor motors. A motor with a continuous series of three overlapping AC cycles offset by 120 degrees. insulated copper wire in a single-phase motor that receives current in the motor at startup. Three-phase power is used for all large AC motors and is the standard power supply that enters homes and factories. A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by magnetic induction. Percent slip is a way to measure the speed performance of an induction motor. To step down voltage means to decrease voltage. The rotating part on the the AC motor that holds the rotor and allows it to turn. Single voltage motors are limited to having the same voltage as the power source. The secondary winding contains fewer. Capacitor motors have more torque than other singlephase motors. The windings are spaced 120° apart. A type of motor with low horsepower that operates on 120 or 240 volts. The capacitor gives the motor more starting torque. The output energy is typically less than the input energy. To increase or decrease the voltage in a circuit. The area in and around a magnet that exhibits the powers of attraction and repulsion. A conductive device attached to the end of a generator rotor that conducts current to the brushes. A force that produces rotation. The rotating part of a motor. A device or object that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field. An AC generator produces a current through electromagnetic induction. To step up voltage means to increase voltage. A type of capacitor motor that has a capacitor and starting winding connected in series at all times. A type of three phase rotor that contains windings and slip rings. This motor type permits control of rotor current by connecting external resistance in series with the rotor windings. A machine that converts electricity into mechanical energy or motion. A synchronous motor needs DC excitation to operate. The running winding remains connected when the starting winding is disconnected. A single-phase motor that consists of a running winding. A measure of the energy output versus the amount of input energy. A single-phase motor that is 1/20 HP or less and is used in devices requiring low torque. Rotating an armature through lines of magnetic flux induces AC. which can absorb a stray electrical charge. A constant-speed AC motor that does not use induction to operate. and a capacitor. Electricity flows in the path of least resistance. In electricity. In electricity. Heavy. The most common type of AC waveform. the starting winding is disconnected and the running winding remains in the circuit. A type of switch that operates using the centrifugal force created from the rotating shaft. A type of capacitor motor that uses two capacitors. A sine wave consists of 360 electrical degrees and is produced by rotating machines. but thicker wires that are wrapped into a coil. and one that remains in the circuit while the motor is running. The difference between a motor's synchronous speed and its speed at full load. Single-phase motors are often used in residential appliances like washing machines and air conditioners. The centrifugal switch activates and deactivates depending on the speed of the motor. The stationary part of a motor. An electric motor is a common power source for a mechanical system. When the motor reaches 60-80% of th full load. The process in which current is induced in a magnetic field using a current-carrying coil.

A measurement that indicates the amount of current flowing in a circuit. Removing ions from a fluid or air and consequently prohibiting electrical conductivity. A strip made by bonding together two unlike metals that expand at different rates when heated. An electrical switch that opens and closes a circuit. and other electric or mechanical devices. A type of reduced voltage motor starter that is electronically controlled with no moving parts. A commonly used industrial motor in which power is connected only to the stator. A point where two contacts connect with each other and allow current to flow. An unwanted effect that occurs when contacts close via high amounts of pressure and then rebound from each other due to the force. Magnetic motor starters can be operated remotely. Ions are atoms that are electrically charged due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. Electronic reduced voltage starters regulate voltage to the motor in a series of small bursts of power until the motor reaches full power. A string-like spark of electricity that connects across the gap between two contacts. A device that uses a small control current to energize or de-energize a load. . The initial surge of a current into a motor. which governs electrical equipment standards in Europe and all other international countries. A method of arc suppression that extinguishes arcs by channeling them into chambers above the contacts. The length of time the surface of a contact will remain in good working condition. Any device that controls circuits. A connection of three components where a triangular series circuit is formed. Arcing can produce visible flashes and flames. Fuses often have a component that melts and opens the circuit. allowing full voltage when the motor starts. creating a circuit. Delta connections are used in wye delta reduced voltage starters. A set of 2 moveable contacts that can break a circuit in 1 place each. Arc columns occur when electricity flows via ionized air molecules or vaporized metal and results in damage to the contacts. Alternating current in the stator induces current in the rotor and creates an electromagnetic field that produces rotation in the armature. The flow of electricity through the air from one conductor to another. A type of thermal overload mechanism that uses a strip composed of two different metals. A safety device that detects overcurrent in a circuit. A set of 2 moveable contacts that can break a circuit in 2 places each. A circuit breaker often contains a bimetallic strip that bends and trips a switch that opens a circuit. A safety device that detects excess current in a circuit. A method of arc suppression that uses magnetic coils to create a magnetic field that pushes an arc upward until it breaks. motors. Arc suppression is necessary to ensure worker safety and prolong contact life. When heated. Oil that maintains viscosity over a wide range of temperatures. Inrush current can be 12 times higher than current required for normal motor operation. The different rates of expansion cause the bimetallic strip to curl. Exhibiting a negative or positive charge after gaining or losing one or more electrons. A category of starters in which the motor is directly connected to the supply lines. Dashpot oil is used in dashpot overload relays. The part of a motor in which a current is induced by a magnetic field. Contact bounce is undesirable because it can create secondary arcs and reduce contact life. A conductive metal part in an electrical circuit that opens or closes the circuit by either separating from or touching a matching part. The term for the number of places in which a circuit can be made or broken.Contactors and starters AC magnetic motor starter across-the-line starter amperage arc chute arc column arc suppression arcing armature auto-transformer bimetallic strip bimetallic thermal overload relay blowout coil break circuit breaker closed contact contact contact bounce contact life contactor control component control relay dashpot oil dashpot overload relay de-ionizing delta double-pole double-throw double-pole single-throw electronic overload relay electronic reduced voltage starter eutectic overload fuse heat sensitivity IEC induction motor inrush current ionized A type of starter for AC induction motors that combines a magnetic contactor and an overload relay. Amperage is measured in amperes. The armature usually consists of a series of coils or groups of insulated conductors surrounding a core of iron. Relays can open or close one or many sets of contacts. A type of reduced voltage motor starter that uses a single-coil transformer to step voltage up or down. The ability of a device to detect heat. A type of overload relay in which a piston moves within a cylinder containing dashpot oil that is used to dampen and control motion. causing the strip to warp and create an opening in the circuit. A type of overload relay with a heaterless design that detects overload by monitoring motor current. Contactors can handle high amounts of current and are also combined with overload relays to create motor starters. Any method used for extinguishing electrical arcs between contacts. the two metals expand at different rates. The International Electrotechnical Commission. A type of thermal overload relay that uses a melting alloy to activate mechanical devices to open a circuit in the case of overload.

An electrically operated switch that uses magnetic induction to provide the startup current for a motor. Overload relays protect the motor from overload by disconnecting the power to the motor and stopping its operation. A contact that remains in a fixed position during operation. A type of overload relay that is operated remotely through solenoid action. gear. or form. limits. or opposes the flow of electrical current. The time it takes for a device to open a circuit in the event of an overload. A type of contactor that is operated remotely through solenoid action. Relays can open or close one or many sets of contacts. A type of reduced voltage starter that uses resistors to create an initial 30% drop in voltage before allowing full current to the motor. A type of three phase AC rotor that is constructed by connecting metal bars together at each end. A toothed wheel that uses a bar called a pawl to keep it from turning in one direction. A mechanical part in a magnetic overload relay that tilts during overload and releases the support to a set of closed contacts. Any device or system that functions by means of electronic components without the use of moving parts. or bar. An arc caused by contact bounce. An electrically continuous length of insulated wire wound on a bobbin. An electrical switch that opens and closes a circuit. The first arc is extinguished when contacts close. A relay with heavy-duty contacts that is usually rated 15 amperes or higher. To bend something that was formerly straight. A miniature electronic circuit also known as an integrated circuit or microchip. then a triangle shape called a delta.knife blade switch magnetic contactor magnetic overload relay magnetic relay manual contactor manual controller manual starter melting alloy overload relay motor overload protection motor starter movable contact NEMA normally closed open contact output device overcurrent overload overload relay part-winding starter pawl piston pole power relay primary resistor ratchet wheel reduced voltage starter relay resistor secondary arc shaft silicon chip solder pot overload solenoid principle solid state squirrel cage stationary contact switch tap thermal relay throw tip bar trip time viscosity warp winding wye delta A lever-type switch that is used to control contactors. Viscosity is used to describe friction of fluids. It is the most common AC rotor type. A contact on an armature that moves and connects to a matching stationary contact. A device that performs a mechanical action after receiving the electrical signal to do so. wheel. A contact that is separated with space between another matching contact. A thermal relay protects a motor by shutting it down if the relay detects excessive heat. Magnetic relays are often used in areas that experience extreme changes in temperature. A ratchet and pawl work together. allowing no current to flow. An input device that requires a manual switch to control the flow of current in a circuit. A type of thermal overload relay that uses a melting alloy to activate mechanical devices to open a circuit in the case of overload. A type of thermal overload relay that uses a melting alloy to activate mechanical devices to open a circuit in the case of overload. then a second arc is created when contacts bounce open again. A switch can be either manual. The term for a set of moveable contacts that belong to a single circuit. A fluid's resistance to flow. The configuration of motor windings in which windings form the shape of the letter Y. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. A category of motor starters that reduce the power coming into the motor when it is initially started. A rod inside a cylinder that is moved by hydraulic pressure. The term for the number of contacts that match the moveable contacts. Power relays are also known as contactors. causing them to open and break the circuit. or automatic. The use of a coil that enables voltage to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy via magnetic fields. . A type of reduced voltage starter that applies power to only one set of windings. A type of starter that is operated by a person who activates a switch on the starter. An intermediate connection point on an electrical transformer. Am electronic component that regulates. A type of overload relay that senses the strength of the magnetic field that the current flow produces. Contacts that keep the circuit connected during normal operation and disconnect to open the circuit when the relay is activated. The use of devices such as overload relays to open the circuit in the event of an overload to prevent the motor from overheating. which sets standards for equipment used in the United States. then to the other set as the motor comes up to speed. Devices like fuses and circuit breakers protect against overcurrent. Excess current. Resistors tend to convert electrical energy into heat. Excessive heating due to motor overcurrent and failure of motor to start. A type of contactor that is operated by a person who activates a switch on the contactor. A hinged or pivoted device that fits into the notch of a ratchet. A long cylindrical device such as a rod or pole. A control device that can make or break a circuit by closing or opening. A type of overload relay that connects a heater with a motor. spool. either to produce forward motion or to prevent backward motion. mechanical. A relay that is attached to a contactor in order to create a motor starter.

A type of circuit that uses control devices to determine when loads are energized or de-energized by controlling current flow. one of the lines must be tapped to produce a neutral. Field windings are connected in series or parallel. To slow and eventually stop motion. Limit switches have a variety of actuators that come into contact with an object. NEMA provides ratings for various types of motor designs. Busways come in premade sections that can be fitted to any shape needed. An electrically operated switch that uses magnetic induction to provide the startup current for a motor. A manual switch with overload protection used to provide control to a motor. Copper loss is proportional to the resistance of the wire and the square of the current. A drum switch mounts moving contacts on a rotating shaft. Starting windings are constructed from fine.Reversing motor circuits armature windings auxiliary contact interlock brake contactor control circuit control device control transformer drum switch electrical interlock field windings inrush current limit switches magnetic starter manual reversing starter manual starter mechanical interlock motor control circuit motor starter NEMA overload relay power circuit programmable logic controller running winding solenoid principle starting winding The coiled. insulated conductors surrounding the armature through which current is run to create a magnetic field. A component of a transformer. Also called electrical interlock. Overload relays protect the motor from overload by disconnecting the power to the motor and stopping its operation. Arranging forward and reverse contacts so that it is physically impossible for both sets of contacts to close at the same time. insulated copper wire. Any input device that controls the flow of current in a circuit. The point where all three windings are connected to each other in a wye connection. A type of switch that detects the presence or absence of an object by physically touching it. Power circuits often carry high voltages and consist of incoming main power. Delta connections are used in three phase power . Control transformers also provide electrical isolation. Thick. A processor driven device that uses logic based software to provide electrical control to machines. Using a coil that utilizes voltage to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy via magnetic fields. A type of circuit that carries power to electrical loads. Distribution system branch circuit busbar busway center tap copper loss core delta The part of a distribution system consisting of circuit conductors. rigid strips or bars of copper that serve as a common connection between several circuits. Control devices determine when loads are energized or de-energized. Reversing the current flow through the armature windings in DC motors reverses motor rotation. For delta connections. The part of a distribution system consisting of metal enclosed busbars. Contactors can handle high amounts of current and are also combined with overload relays to create motor starters. The type of electrical isolation provided by auxiliary contacts in magnetic motor starters. A backup system used in magnetic motor starters to provide electrical isolation. A device that uses a small control current to energize or de-energize a load. A electromagnetic device that steps down voltage to levels useable by loads in a control circuit. The initial surge of current into the windings. The conducting wire connected to the armature that energize the pole pieces. National Electrical Manufacturers Association. The auxiliary stator winding of a single-phase AC motor. A device that combines two manual motor starters to add forward and reverse pushbuttons to the regular start and stop buttons. Reversing current flow in a motor can be used as a frictionless method of braking. A relay that is attached to a contactor in order to create a motor starter. Control circuits usually carry lower voltages than power circuits. A power loss due to current flowing through wire. The primary stator winding of a single-phase AC motor. The iron or steel core provides a controlled path for the magnetic flux generated in the transformer by the current flowing through the windings. a motor starter. A switch used to manually reverse a motor circuit. Busbars are usually used near the switchboard and can be enclosed in busways. A circuit designed to provide power and control to electric motors. and the motor. A connection of three components where a triangular series circuit is formed. insulated copper wire. Inrush current can be up to ten times higher than the continuously needed current because there is low initial resistance. Running windings are constructed from heavy. A magnetic switch with overload protection that uses a solenoid to open and close contacts to a motor circuit. Reversing starters need only one overload device and must provide mechanical interlock. between the final overcurrent protection and the outlet or load attached.

Motor control centers are supplied by a common bus. or ground fault. such as in a 3 4W system. Most AC generators are of this design. A heavy. Switchboards take a large block of power from a substation and break it down into smaller blocks for use within a building. A transformer connection that does not complete the triangle. a different source can be activated to maintain service. Lamination helps reduce resistance losses. Local distribution systems transport power within a building. without changing the frequency. The National Electrical Code is adopted in some form as law in all 50 states. usually straight from the switchboard. The standard for minimum safe electrical installations. Switchboards with more than six switches or breakers are required by the NEC to have a main disconnect. It is 1. ( ) The Greek letter Phi.732 times higher than phase voltage in a wye connection. Three-phase power has three overlapping AC cycles offset by 120 degrees. A distribution system with only one power source. Substations are used to alter voltage levels and provide a service point of electrical control. A building where a utility company houses large linked AC generators to create the massive power for widespread use. power is lost to the entire circuit. Local distribution systems are the responsibility of shop electricians and maintenance workers and fall under NEC rules. a phrase used to describe voltage adjustment. A continuous single alternating current cycle. using electromagnetic induction. Any grouping of switchgear and transformers located near a source or user. A unit used to rate transformer and generator strength. A kilovolt is a thousand volts. delta/delta delta/wye distribution substation distribution system enclosure feeder generating station grounded conductor grounding conductor interconnected system kilovolt-amp laminated line voltage load center local power distribution system main disconnect switch motor control center mutual induction NEC network system open delta overcurrent panelboard phase symbol phase voltage plug-in busway primary winding radial system revolving field generator secondary winding service-entrance single-phase step up substation switchboard switchgear tap terminal three-phase three-phase power transformer A transformer with both the primary and the secondary connected as a delta.systems. In electricity. A network system is expensive. The point where electricity enters a buidling. A circuit of users linked to a generating station and substations that is typically arranged in either a radial or interconnected manner. The most common form of AC power for distribution. A distribution system with multiple available power sources that can loop throughout the network. If one source goes down. Sealed together in multiple layers of thin sheets to construct the core for a transformer. This allows the transformer to use different turns ratios. An open delta is used when full power is not needed. A wire connected to the midpoint of a transformer secondary winding. short circuit. . overcurrent and other protection devices. A conductor used to connect equipment in a wiring system to ground. A modular assembly specifically designed to plug in motor control units. A circuit conductor between the power supply source and a final branch circuit overcurrent device. A bank of step-down transformers near the end users. Turns of wire on a transformer core. A type of feeder busway with electrical control that allows loads to be added along the bus structure. The distribution substation converts voltage closer to the required usable levels. Excess current that may result from overload. A transformer is most often used to change the line voltage. A physical barrier designed to provide mechanical or electrical protection for components used in a system. so it is used only when constant power is vital. A continuous series of three overlapping AC cycles offset by 120 degrees. using only two of the three sides. or power circuits. A single panel distribution cabinet or wall cutout box that holds automatic overcurrent protection devices for lighting. heat. used to represent phases. This principle is used in transformers to step up or step down voltage. If that source goes out. used to transfer voltage from the core to the outside load. A freestanding assembly of panels with metering equipment. The voltage present between any two of the conductors in a three-phase system. The ability of one coil to induce a voltage into another coil. spring-loaded switch on a factory switchboard that can cut off power to the entire building. A service-entrance switchboard has metering equipment and devices for overcurrent protection and electrical control. A device found in residential locations that performs the same functions as a panelboard does in commercial settings. Turns of wire on a transformer core. The part of a distribution system located within a building. A device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another. The voltage between any one conductor and ground. Three-phase power is used for all large scale distribution systems. used to transfer voltage from the input to the core. A transformer with the primary connected as a delta and the secondary connected as a wye. A distribution system where multiple power sources are connected to each user to guarantee uninterrupted power. Devices like fuses and circuit breakers protect against overcurrent. Load centers are not required to have many panelboard safety features because homes do not draw the same amount of current as industry. A system conductor that is intentionally grounded. A generator setup where an electromagnetic field is rotated between the conductor wound armature. A combination of disconnect switches and breakers used to isolate equipment in substations. A connecting point in a circuit where a wire is attached to create an electrical connection. To step up voltage means to increase voltage.

The maximum amount of current that can be applied without overheating the motor. Continuous torque is one of the specifications used for sizing AC servomotors. A single increment of something that occurs repeatedly. resulting in step loss. DC motors have better speed control and higher torque than AC motors. A measuring device for motion control that is divided into a fixed number of increments called counts. A servomotor based on the design of a conventional DC motor. Sliding electrical contacts used to provide a connection between the armature and the external circuit. A tiny central processing unit. AC motors are more commonly used in industry than DC motors. As the encoder disk spins. light pulses from an LED are converted to electrical pulses. . A comparison of the number of turns in the primary versus the number of turns in the secondary of a transformer. A servomotor based on the design of conventional AC motors. speed. The part of a motor in which a current is induced by a magnetic field. The amount of torque that can be provided by the motor under normal running conditions. but do not operate well at low speeds. A servomotor based on the design of a conventional brushless DC motor. The actual value detected by a sensor as a process is taking place. Feedback that is controlled by an electronic or electromechanical mechanism rather than a person. A transformer with the primary connected as a wye and the secondary connected as a delta. Digital servos use a microprocessor to process input signals. A complex algorithm is used to control and stablize the outputs in a closed-loop control system. Servo motor AC motor AC servomotor AC synchronous servomotor algorithm amplifier analog servo armature automatic feedback back-driving brushes brushless DC motor brushless DC servomotor closed-loop control commutator continuous current continuous power output continuous torque control system count cycle DC motor DC servomotor digital servo electrical degree encoder feedback signal frequency holding torque induction motor LED microprocessor A type of electric motor that runs on alternating current. Servomotors can be used on closed-loop control systems. A connection of three components where one end of each component is connected at a common point. Light emitting diode." often resulting in binary strings of 0s and 1s.transmission substation turns ratio wye wye/delta wye/wye A bank of step up transformers near the generating station. with the addition of an amplifier and a feedback device. Servomotors use amplifiers as part of the motor control system. A servo that outputs a series of pulses or signals that represent "on" or "off. A DC motor that uses a permanent magnet instead of brushes to run the motor. Automatic feedback is used in closedloop control systems. A type of control system that automatically changes the output based on the difference between the feedback signal to the input signal. with the addition of an amplifier and a feedback device. A type of motor that runs on direct current. A transformer with both the primary and the secondary connected as a wye. Transmission substations increase voltage as high as 800kV for widespread distribution. Continuous current is one of the specifications used for sizing AC servomotors. A servomotor based on the design of conventional AC synchronous motors. A manual or automatic mechanism used to manage dynamic processes by adjusting or maintaining physical variables such as temperature. An increment on an encoder that measures the distance a robotic arm has traveled. A condition that occurs in stepper motors in which there is an unwanted reversal of the motor shaft. A type of AC motor that uses electrical current to induce rotation in the coils. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz). The brushes are stationary and are contacted by the rotating commutator. A measurement of the number of complete AC cycles that occur in one second. The armature consists of a series of coils mounted on a shaft and rotates through the magnetic field. Wye connections are used in three phase power systems. or flow rate. A unit of measurement for expressing the amount of rotation in a generator and the position in an AC sine wave. The rotating switch that contacts the brushes of a DC motor. with the addition of an amplifier and a feedback device. Analog signals differ from digital signals in that small fluctuations in the analog signal are meaningful. A device that increases the size or strength of a signal. with the addition of an amplifier and a feedback device. A mathematical process designed to systematically solve a problem. AC flows in cycles of 360 electrical degrees. Continuous power output is one of the specifications used for sizing AC servomotors. The feedback signal is part of a closed-loop control system. A semiconductor device that emits a narrow spectrum of light in a forward direction. The amount of torque required for a motor to remain in a fixed position. The ability of a motor to output its full power for a sustained period of time. The commutator maintains DC when the rotation of the armature switches the polarity of the conductor. A servo that outputs a continuously variable signal.

The level of voltage on the sine wave correlates to the position of the rotor within one revolution. A type of mechanical timer that uses cams arranged along a shaft to alternately press down and release switches that control different timing elements of a system. but they cannot move large loads. An analog motor control device that controls feedback through a sine wave. precise increments in response to an electronic pulse. A counter that counts in series a collection of objects or data that is treated as a single entity. The stationary windings of a motor. To fall short of or below a set value. A type of motor used in applications that require precise positioning. Unlike digital signals. speed. Air bellows are used to sound a pipe organ. The peak negative voltage indicates the maximum negative voltage of the wave. The rotating part of a motor. Shaft speed is measured in feet per minute (fpm) or in meters per minute (mpm). A timer that tracks physical quantities or changes using a varying frequency. and division. usually inside an AC motor. The conducting wire connected to the armature that energize the pole pieces of a motor. A type of thermal timer that uses a strip formed by joining two different metals with different expansion rates into one strip that bends when the strip is exposed to heat and temperature changes. A type of control system designed for moving objects or machines to a known position. A type of counter that performs arithmetic operations such as addition. increase draft to a fire. Stop-start tests are used to diagnose the causes of step loss. A motor starting method that reduces stress on a motor by allowing it to accelerate gradually for a programmed period of time. The lowest negative point on a wave. A rating given to motors to indicate what applications they can be used for. A system of adjusting the servomotor's outputs by adjusting values in the algorithm controlling the closed-loop system. A device that uses a small control current to energize or de-energize a load. A rotating shaft attached to a wheel or gear. A type of motor that rotates in small. An apparatus consisting of a flexible. The type of preset value for servomotors is position. An application in which objects are transferred from one place to another. A synchronous motor needs DC excitation to operate. A circular or cylindrical machine component that converts rotational movement into linear movement. The rate at which the motor shaft turns. valved air chamber that is contracted and expanded by pumping action to force air through a nozzle. The part of a motor that transmits torque. A type of three-phase AC rotor that is constructed by connecting metal bars together at each end. To exceed a set value. AC voltage that has three sine waves. A constant-speed AC motor that does not use induction to operate. The collection of devices or systems that consume energy from the timing system·s primary energy source. Servomotors are used for position control. There is no automatic feedback to adjust the process. A phenomenon in which the stepper motor does not take a step after receiving an input pulse. subtraction. Stepper motors can rotate forward or reverse. A sine wave consists of 360 electrical degrees and is produced by rotating machines. analog signals easily handle input that is highly variable in quality and quantity. A troubleshooting method in which the stepper motor is connected to a load and a fixed frequency is applied to the driver. A program that counteracts the normal operation of a device or process. AC voltage that has only one sine wave.open-loop system output shaft overshoot peak negative voltage peak positive voltage pick and place position control resolver rotor service factor servo drive servo system servomotor shaft speed sine wave single-phase soft start squirrel cage rotor start-stop test stator step loss stepper motor synchronous motor target value three-phase tuning undershoot windings A type of control system that uses only an input signal to actuate an output. A coupling found inside a motorized device that engages or disengages parts to drive a mechanism. The most common type of AC waveform. multiplication. Servomotors provide a high amount of holding torque to maintain their position accurately. A motor control device that outputs electrical signals to a servomotor to induce motion. The peak positive voltage indicates the maximum positive voltage of the wave. It is the most common AC rotor type. A preset value such as a specific temperature. Timers 555 integrated circuit air bellows analog timer arithmetic counter automatic overriding program axle batch counter bimetal strip timer cam cam timer clutch composite load contactor A type of integrated circuit that is often used to regulate the timing functions of electronic timers. or operate a pneumatic timer. The servo drive can be built in as part of the motor or it can be a separate device. . A closed-loop control system that utilizes a servomotor. so adjustments must be made manually by the operator. or flow rate that the control system is supposed to reach. The highest positive point on a wave.

Motor-driven timers are also referred to as cam timers. Needle valves require many turns to open them completely. A microchip is an example of an integrated circuit. Hysteresis also refers to the tendency of a component's position to be dependent on the previous position of the component when reacting to a physical stimulus.control device control screw count range count speed counter dashpot timer delay timer delayed make dial digital digital timer DIP switches down-count dual-bimetal-strip timer electromechanical counter electromechanical timer electronic counter electronic timer event counter frequency counter gear gear train hydraulic timer hysteresis idle state integrated circuit interval timer LED display load control element manual override mechanical counter mechanical timer mercury mercury displacement timer motor-driven cycle timer motor-driven delay timer motor-driven interval timer motor-driven reset cycle timer motor-driven timer multivibrator NC needle valve orifice NO off-delay timer Any input device that controls the flow of current in a circuit. A category of timers that operate through electricity only and have no moving mechanical parts. An NO electrical contact does not allow electricity to flow until it is signaled to close. A category of counters that operate through a combination of electricity and mechanical motion. A category of counters that operate through electricity only. The delay between the action and reaction of a measuring instrument. This cyclical event is the interval. A luminous panel on which digital readouts are displayed. DIP switches use binary settings. A set of gears arranged to transfer mechanical energy from one part of a mechanical system to another. Normally closed. a frequency counter combines the functions of a timer and counter. The maximum value the counter can count and register. A timer that begins the timing period when the control coil is turned on and starts an operational cycle. A timer that is operated by a motor. Consisting of information that is input or output electronically as a series of pulses or signals either "on" or "off. A category of counters not powered by electricity. Count speed is measured at counts per minute and varies depending on the type of counter. A metallic element that is liquid at room temperature. A type of thermal timer that uses two bimetal strips. Mercury displacement timers are used in environments that may get very hot. A circular toothed component that engages. or plungers. to configure various options on a device. providing input or output as a series of pulses in binary strings of 0s and 1s." often resulting in binary strings of 0s and 1s. and they are typically used for heavy-duty equipment. 2. but a device is not energized or in motion. The control coil remains on and the contacts turn on for a time. A category of timers not powered by electricity. rotates. A miniaturized electrical network used to transmit electric power. A counter that counts how many times a specified condition occurs. then off for a time. The state in which current is flowing. or reset the counter to zero. pistons. The opening to a valve used to provide very fine adjustment. stop a count. Control devices determine when loads are energized or de-energized. Normally open. A motor-operated timer that begins the timing period when the control coil is turned on and starts an operational cycle. Electromechnical timers are gradually being replaced by solid state technology. A motor-operated timer that cycles on and off continuously. A timer that delays turning on a device until a preset time period has passed. A device that counts. Electronic counters execute counting functions through digital signals and can handle fast counting rates. An electronic circuit used to control signal pulses. A category of mechanical action timers that operate by displacing air or viscous fluid. A flat disk containing numbers or markings around it that rotates to display a specific setting or an output value. or that require the timer to be completely sealed. or goes through one cycle only. Dashpot timers are the oldest type of industrial timer. and so on is a down-count. Mercury is used in mercury displacement timers and acts as the contactor in the device. Electromechanical counters receive an electrical input signal and convert it to mechanical action to output a count. This cyclical event is the interval. A screw that is tightened or loosened to refine the performance of a device. An elapsed span of time before two electrodes connect to form a circuit. 1. A bimetal strip joins two different metals with different expansion rates into one strip that bends when the strip is exposed to heat. The part of a timing system that controls the load when it receives a signal from the triggering element and switches the load. Counting in a downward or decreasing direction. on-off / yes-no. A category of timers that operate through a combination of electricity and mechanical motion. A timer that operates electronically. The count range of the counter is determined by the number of digits the counter is able to display. but by mechanical means such as pushing a button or turning a knob. A timer that operates by displacing a pool of mercury in a container. then waits for a predetermined amount of time to . A counter that counts the number of times something happens within a specific time or count limit. An NC electrical contact regularly allows electricity to flow until it is signaled to open. or keeps a record of the number of times something happens. and transmits power to another circular toothed component when rotated. A motor-operated timer that creates a delay after the coil is energized. A delay timer that immediately closes contacts when the control coil is energized. A Dual In-line Package Switch. then off for a time. In essence. Counting 3. calculates. A delay timer in a car automatically shuts off the headlights after the car has been turned off. A motor-operated timer that returns to its original starting position after a preset time interval has passed. A type of timer that creates a time delay by controlling the rate at which liquid passes into or out of a container. A procedure in which an automatic system is put under manual control. The control coil remains on and the contacts turn on for a time. but by mechanical means using air bellows. The value indicating how fast a counter can count.

which closes a set of normally open contacts. A control device that automatically starts or stops machines and other devices when a preset time period has been exceeded. Pushbuttons can be normally open or normally closed. The smallest value that can be counted. The maximum height or depth of a sine wave. on-delay timer operating lifetime oscillator PLC pneumatic timer predetermining counter preset counter pushbutton counter pushbutton switch recycle timer relay repeat cycle timer reset timer resolution revolution counter rotary counter rotary ratchet counter safety interlock single revolution cycle slow break solenoid solid state solid state timer stroke counter thermal expansion timer thermal timer thumbwheel timer timing element timing system totalizing counter triggering element up-count viscosity A delay timer that waits for a predetermined amount of time before closing a set of contacts and energizing a load. Allowing for a delay before the connection is broken. An electronic device used to generate a vibrating signal at a constant rate. and so on is an up-count. The length of time that a device will work before it becomes unreliable or stops functioning. Viscosity is used to describe friction of fluid. Electronic semiconductor device 555 timer amplification amplifier gain amplify amplitude AND anode antimony A semiconductor device that controls various modes of on/off states in electrical systems. A timer that functions by means of electronic components without the use of moving parts. A type of mechanical counter used for manual counting. Usually this involves amplifying the signal enough to trigger the load control switch. 2. The positive terminal of an electric current flow. A timer that operates by heating an upright piece of metal. One turn of a mechanical device. The operator actuates a pushbutton and records one count for each actuation. A type of recycle timer that uses a clutch mechanism to actuate a motor-driven gear assembly and start a cycle. A preset counter is also called a predetermining counter. The 555 timer is one of the most widely used types of integrated circuits. An element used to dope silicon to create an N-type semiconductor. Programmable Logic Controller. Stroke counters record one count for each stroke. . An electronic system that uses a timer to energize or de-energize a load. A counter set in advance to stop or produce output once a specific count has been reached. A counter set in advance to stop or produce output once a specific count has been reached. A device that controls one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit. A counter that records one count for each stroke. This value can be as small as 1/1000th. A type of stroke counter. A timer that performs continuously until it is stopped. Most totalizing counters are non-resettable. A type of analog timer that uses heat generated from an electric current to bend a bimetal strip. A timer that creates a time delay by controlling the rate at which air passes into or out of an air bellows. Amplifier gain measures the degree to which a signal has been strengthened. A processor driven device that uses logic based software to provide electrical control to machines. The part of an electronic timer that detects changes in the timing element and processes the signal for the load control element. A rotary device that allows an operator to input numerical information into a counter. A logic function where both A and B must be true to trigger C. Counting 1. 3. The mechanism in a timing system that produces the time delay.open them after power is removed from the coil. causing it to expand and close a set of contacts. A counter that records one count for each revolution of the shaft. Functioning by means of electronic components without the use of moving parts. A counter that sums up the total times something has occurred since the last time the counter was used. Soleniods can be used to activate switches and valves. typically in a linear direction. and will simply roll over to zero once they have exceeded their count range. AND employs a logic that works similar to a series circuit. Revolution counters are used in odometers to keep track of the miles that tires run by counting axle revolutions. A stroke is a reciprocating back and forth motion. To increase the size or strength of a signal. The time it takes to heat the bimetal strip produces the timing delay. The process of increasing the size or strength of a signal. The ratio of an output signal's amplitude divided by the input signal's amplitude. A timer that performs continuously until it is stopped. A safety device that disables or prevents a machine startup if a guard or door remains open. Counting in an upward or increasing direction. A predetermining counter is also called a preset counter. A fluid's resistance to flow. A manual control device that opens or closes a circuit when pressed. A type of output device coil that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy via magnetic fields to exert a force. A counter that records a specified number of counts per rotation.

A transistor amplifier in which the circuit shares the collector terminal for both inputs and outputs. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. A semiconductor device that outputs current in proportion to its input voltage. A semiconductor device that can conduct current in either direction. A condition in which a PN junction allows current to flow in one direction only. A popular type of integrated circuit packaging that has two rows of external connecting terminals. An element used to dope silicon to create a P-type semiconductor. Also called a collector. . The terminal in a semiconductor device that is connected to the source supply of voltage. Diode alternating current switch. FETs use a small amount of control current to regulate a larger output current. and microcomputers. Static electricity that can damage integrated circuits. An extra opening in the outer orbital shell of an atom into which an electron can move. Static electricity that can damage integrated circuits. The part of a PN junction in which there are no electrons or holes. DIP. DIAC. Electrostatic discharge. The most popular type of digital IC because of its low power usage and high immunity to noise. both positive and negative. Diodes are combined into arrays for greater efficiency and reliability. To change the amplitude or frequency of an analog signal. A circuit that changes from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1 when current is applied. A quad flat pack or QFP has leads projecting from four sides. The minimum current which must pass through a semiconductor device in order for it to remain in the ON state. to produce a DC output with a single polarity. A condition that occurs when maximum reverse voltage in a diode is exceeded. The negative terminal of an electric current flow. The input control terminal of a semiconductor device. A filament made of thin. Digital ICs process only on/off signals. The ability to store an electrical charge. Dual-inline package. memory chips. The depleted region prevents current from flowing. Field effect transistor. Optical fibers are bundled into groups to form fiber optic cable. Also called a gate. A transistor amplifier in which the circuit shares the base terminal for both inputs and outputs. flexible glass or plastic through which light is transmitted. Also called the base. The input control terminal of a semiconductor device. The output terminal of a semiconductor device. A FET is a semiconductor device that outputs current in proportion to its input voltage. A DIAC can conduct current in either direction. A specialized diode that acts as a relief valve for excess voltage. A type of integrated circuit packaging that is extremely thin and flat. These devices can be found in microprocessors. colliding with other electrons and knocking them out of their orbits. A three-layer semiconductor device that can conduct current in either direction. A term used to describe the level of AC or DC voltage that results in the failure of a semiconductor device. Avalanche diodes are sometimes used in combination with Zener diodes. Also called a drain. but not until breakdown voltage has been exceeded. CMOS. A popular type of integrated circuit packaging that has two rows of external connecting terminals. A group of diodes arranged in a highly organized manner. Breakdown will cause a diode to fail and pass a large amount of current in the reverse direction. The process of changing the conductive properties of silicon by adding trace amounts of other elements. A semiconductor device that acts as a one-way valve for electrical current. Bipolar transistors provide current gain and voltage amplification in a circuit. A small amount of forward-biased current in the middle PN junction of an SCR that controls a larger amount current flowing through the SCR. A mode in which a 555 timer changes from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1 when current is applied. A type of current conversion that uses only one half of an AC waveform to convert into intermittent DC. but not until breakdown voltage has been exceeded. A process that occurs in a diode when high voltage causes free electrons to travel at high speeds. The timer will remain in the transitioned state until it receives a new input. The result is a rapidly increasing amount of free electrons. A transistor amplifier in which the circuit shares the emitter terminal for both inputs and outputs. A type of current conversion that uses both parts of the AC sine wave. The CMOS IC is the most popular type of digital IC because of its low power usage and high immunity to noise. Also called the source. This can be the positive half or negative half of an AC wave. The output terminal of a semiconductor device. depending on how the diode is connected to the circuit.astable avalanche breakdown avalanche diode base bipolar transistor bistable boron breakdown breakdown voltage capacitance cathode CMOS collector common base common collector common emitter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor demodulate depleted region DIAC digital IC diode diode alternating current switch diode array DIP doping drain dual-inline package electrostatic discharge emitter ESD FET fiber optic field effect transistor flat pack flip-flop circuit forward bias full-wave rectification gate gate current half-wave rectification holding current hole A mode in which a 555 timer produces a continuous string of on/off pulses at a preset frequency. FETs use a small amount of control current to regulate a larger output current.

A programming function that processes true and false signals. A solid state device that is less conductive than a conductor. The amount of current required to keep a device active when it is not operating. PCB.IC IEC impedance integrated circuit intrinsic semiconductor JFET leakage current LED logic gate low current drop monostable MOSFET multivibrator NAND NOR NOT n-type semiconductor one-shot OR oscillator PCB PIN diode PN junction polarity printed circuit board p-type semiconductor pulsating DC QFP quad flat pack rectifier rectify reverse bias reverse breakdown voltage reverse firing sandwich Schottky diode SCR semiconductor signaling silicon silicon controlled rectifier Integrated circuit. and related technologies. To convert into direct current. A type of DC current in which half of the original AC signal wave is blocked. A series of timer instructions that creates a delay for only one scan. so that the resulting DC signal rises from zero to a maximum. A type of integrated circuit packaging that is extremely thin and flat. resistors. The most common semiconductor material is silicon. A solid state device that can be used as an electronically controlled switch. A type of semiconductor that has a low level of electron movement at any temperature above 0°C (32°F). A logic function where the output will not be triggered if a specified input is present. The International Electrotechnical Commission. A specialized diode that has a layer of intrinsic semiconductor material between the P and N materials. Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. OR works similar to a parallel circuit. Silicon is an intrinsic semiconductor. The area in a semiconductor where P-type and N-type materials are located next to each other. and then returns to zero. A multivibrator behaves like a pendulum moving back and forth. Also known as load current and residual current. Having a positive or negative charge. the output will not be turned on. A quad flat pack or QFP has leads projecting from four sides. A type of integrated circuit packaging that is extremely thin and flat. A three-layer NPN or PNP arrangement of semiconductor material. An international organization that prepares and publishes all standards for electrical. A mode in which a 555 timer produces a single pulse for a preset amount of time in response to an input. capacitors. A device that produces a continuous string of on/off pulses at a preset frequency. A condition in which a PN junction does not allow current to flow. Reverse firing requires a high amount of gate current. A logic function where the output will be triggered if neither A nor B are present. A logic function where the output is triggered if either A or B are true. A PN junction allows current to flow in one direction only. An element from which almost all semiconductors are made. The amount of reverse bias that will cause a diode to break down and conduct in reverse. A type of semiconductor that moves current by creating holes for the movement of valence electrons. A solid state switching device that turns current on and off. Quad flat pack. Junction field effect transistor. capacitors. A QFP has leads projecting from four sides. A type of transistor that is controlled by voltage rather than current. Resistance to current flow in an AC circuit. resistors. but more conductive than an insulator. A method of turning off an SCR by applying negative voltage to the gate. electronic. and diodes all into one incredibly small piece. Printed circuit board. The transmission of electrical signals. PIN diodes are also used as photodetectors. A miniaturized electronic circuit that combines a variety of components like transistors. and diodes all into one incredibly small piece. If one input is present. Light emitting diode. A device that converts AC into DC. A condition that occurs when the current falls below the minimum value required to operate a semiconductor device. Semiconductor devices are often mounted on PCBs because the electrical paths on a PCB are perfect for the needs of most semiconductors. . A solid state switching device that turns current on and off. SCRs use a small amount of current to switch hundreds of amps without being damaged. A semiconductor device that emits a narrow spectrum of light in a forward direction. A specialized diode used in the electronics industry and in radio frequency applications because of its fast switching speed and high frequency capability. Semiconductor devices are often mounted on PCBs because the electrical paths on a PCB are perfect for the needs of most semiconductors. SCRs use a small amount of current to switch hundreds of amps without being damaged. A logic function where both A and B must be false to trigger the output. or a ball bouncing up and down. A miniaturized electronic circuit that combines a variety of components like transistors. A type of semiconductor that moves current by creating extra electrons that are easily excited into movement. A device that controls various modes of on/off states in electrical systems.

A type of semiconductor packaging with two rows of external connecting terminals. and reduces loss of light from the core." often resulting in binary strings of 0s and 1s. An AC power line disturbance caused by sudden changes in the load. A type of rectifier that uses a three-phase AC electric power source to produce a relatively smooth DC. A negative electrode. A gated switching device that will conduct current in either direction. The two main types of thyristors are SCRs and TRIACs. Also known as a varactor diode. Fiber optic cables have low attenuation compared to copper cables. A semiconductor device that converts single-phase AC into DC. A specialized diode that is used as a voltage regulator. Electric power cables made from twisted pair copper wire. Electrical noise is problematic to solid state devices because they . Also called the emitter. An electron found in the outermost orbit of an atom. Analog signals differ from digital signals in that small fluctuations in the analog signal are meaningful. A highly light-sensitive type of photodiode. A solid state device that can be used either as an amplifier or as a switch. A solid material with atoms arranged in a highly organized and repeating structure. The process of making or breaking an electric circuit. A signal that has two states: ON and OFF. The center part of an optical fiber through which light is transmitted. A type of integrated circuit packaging that is cylindrical in shape and looks like a little can. absorbed absorption analog anode attenuation avalanche photodiode bandwidth bandwidth bending cathode cladding copper cable core crystal dark current dielectric diffused light digital diode discrete dual inline package electrical noise Taken in by a substance. Three-phase rectifiers provide much smoother DC output voltage than single-phase rectifiers. UJT. Triode alternating current switch. The act or process of suppressing light rays. The surface or medium that serves as a base for other materials or components. TRIAC. the sine waves produced by the AC power supply reach their peak at 90° simultaneously. A three-terminal semiconductor switching device. Bandwidth determines how fast data flows through a cable. A voltage-controlled switch that controls current. A continuously variable signal. Consisting of information that is input or output electronically as a series of pulses or signals either "on" or "off. The small amount of current that flows through a photonic semiconductor device when it is not operating. Silicon dioxide is used as the gate insulating material in a MOSFET. A specialized diode that changes its level of capacitance depending on the level of reverse bias applied to the diode. Light is absorbed into a dark surface with little or no reflection. Dielectric materials conduct no electricity. Bending can cause signal loss in an optical fiber. The amount of information or data that can be sent over a communications channel in a given period of time. Absorption can cause signal loss in an optical fiber. A voltage-controlled switch that controls current. A type of AC power that is generated with three waveforms that are not in phase with each other. A specialized diode that changes its level of capacitance depending on the level of reverse bias applied to the diode. The stored electrical charge of an object. A type of integrated circuit packaging that is cylindrical in shape and looks like a little can. A gated switching device that will conduct current in either direction. The terminal in a semiconductor device that is connected to the source supply of voltage. The act or process of changing the direction of light as it passes from one medium to another. The loss or decrease of signal power. predefined value when they are subjected to reverse voltage. A light ray that is reflected from a surface and broken up and scattered into different directions. The protective layer surrounding the core of an optical fiber. Zener diodes maintain voltage at a constant. A semiconductor device that acts as a one-way valve for electrical current. Purely electronic with no moving parts. The carrying capacity of a channel. Also known as a varicap diode. supports the optical fiber. Unijunction transistor. or selecting between multiple circuits. The cladding protects the core from contaminants. Transistor-outline package. A connecting point in a circuit to which a wire can be attached to connect a component. There are two basic types of transistors: bipolar and field effect. Also known as leakage current. the more information it can carry. The higher a channel's bandwidth. A commonly used TO package. A positive electrode. In a single-phase rectifier.silicon dioxide single-phase rectifier solid state source substrate switching terminal three-phase electric power three-phase rectifier thyristor TO package TO-5 can transistor transistor-outline TRIAC triode alternating current switch UJT unijunction transistor valence electron varactor diode varicap diode zener diode Photonic semioconductor device: A glass-like material that is naturally an excellent insulator. Also known as a DIP.

Its name resulted from the integration of previously separate transistors. Also known as photoresistor. A semiconductor device that emits a narrow spectrum of light in a forward direction. Fiber optic cables have higher bandwidth than standard copper cable. This barrier insulates circuits by allowing light to pass through. A solid state component that uses a light-emitting diode to transmit light through an optically transparent barrier between two isolated circuits. Also known as a photoresistor and a light-dependent resistor. A semiconductor device that uses light to allow small control voltages and currents to switch very high voltages. A photonic device that converts electrical signals into light signals. The protective outer layer surrounding the cladding of an optical fiber. Air and water are examples of media because they can carry an electrical charge. A light-driven display device made from nematic liquid sealed between two pieces of polarized glass. A light-driven semiconductor device that prevents current flow in either direction until it receives a signal. A type of resistor that decreases in resistance when it is exposed to light. Nematic liquid is used in LCDs. electroluminescence electromagnetic energy electromagnetic interference electron fiber optic cable fiber optic receiver fiber optic transmitter fiber optics forward-biased high impedance amplifier hole infrared emitting diode integrated circuit interface circuit jacket LASCR laser diode LCD leakage current LED light emitting diode light-activated SCR light-dependent resistor liquid crystal display medium millisecond nanosecond near-infrared light nematic liquid optical amplifier optical fiber optical isolator optical source optocoupler package photocell photoconductor photodetector photodiode photon photonic semiconductor photoresistor phototransistor phototriac A process in which excited electrons emit light. A circuit that converts the line voltages between the transmitter and the receiver. Infrared light is not visible to the human eye. Optical fibers are bundled into groups to form fiber optic cable. all on a single chip. A device that increases the power of an optical signal without any conversion of the light into an electrical signal. A carrier.cannot differentiate between an intended electrical pulse and an unintended electrical spike. and they can conduct current in either direction. A filament made of thin. A negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. A technology that transmits light rather than electricity through a fiber made of thin. Laser diodes have less attenuation than LEDs and use less power. Holes play an integral role in conducting current. A type of resistor that decreases in resistance when it is exposed to light. Electrons play an integral role in conducting current. Fiber optic cables are replacing older copper cables for most telecommunications applications. The source of light. A type of resistor that decreases in resistance when it is exposed to light. A device that amplifies the signal from a transmitter and converts it back into an electrical signal. Also known as a light activated SCR. resistors and capacitors. but not current. Bias causes an electrical device to operate in a predetermined manner. Fiber optic cables are resistant to electromagnetic interference. The jacket protects the optical fiber from physical damage. An amplifier that increases the sensitivity of the receiver. . A device that senses light. A light-driven semiconductor device that prevents current flow in either direction until it receives a signal. and photoconductor. Light emitting diode. Also known as a light-dependent resistor and a photoconductor. LEDs work through electroluminescence. Electrical noise in a circuit that can interrupt or degrade the performance of the circuit. A complete electronic circuit. An extra opening in P-type semiconductor material that is available for permitting movement of valence electrons. Also known as a photoresistor and a photoconductor. A wavelength below red but above infrared in the color spectrum. Liquid crystal display. Also known as LED. Energy from a magnetic field that is produced by the motion of electric charges such as electric current. A semiconductor device that uses light in order to create energy. A substance that is composed of crystals that have the characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. One thousandth of a second. flexible glass or plastic through which light is transmitted. The transmitter sends a pulse of light through an optical fiber to the receiver. A bias that causes electrons to flow in one direction only. flexible glass or plastic. Also known as dark current. light-dependent resistor. Photonic semiconductors are an integral part of communications and networking technology. One billionth of a second. The optical source in a fiber optic transmitter is usually an LED or a laser diode. A semiconductor device that emits a narrow spectrum of light in a forward direction. Also known as an LASCR. A light-activated semiconductor device that allows current to flow in only one direction. The small amount of current that flows through a photonic semiconductor device when it is not operating. A group of individual optical fibers bundled together. where it is converted back into an electrical signal. but not current. a photodetector is usually a PIN photodiode or an avalanche diode. Photonic transistors are used in switching and amplifying applications. This barrier insulates circuits by allowing light to pass through. In fiber optic receivers. A light-driven display device made from nematic liquid sealed between two pieces of polarized glass. A type of resistor that decreases in resistance when it is exposed to light. A semiconductor device that is highly sensitive to light. A semiconductor device that converts energy into light. A protective cover designed to contain or support a semiconductor device. A particle of light energy. An LED that emits a wavelength of light below red in the color spectrum. Near infrared light can be seen by the human eye. A solid state component that uses a light-emitting diode to transmit light through an optically transparent barrier between two isolated circuits.

Amplitude measures the intensity of a signal. breaking them up and dispersing the rays into different directions. A device that sends signals. Ultraviolet light is not visible to the human eye. A device that detects and converts signals. The act or process of reflecting light rays from an object. The energy that comes from light. fork. The maximum height or maximum depth of a wave. as in a lightening controller. Optical fibers should only be spliced by a technician who possesses the required skills and interconnection technology. The creation of additional photons from a single photon. Cross talk can cause poor sensor performance or false outputs. Capacitive proximity sensors are typically used in bulk handling machines. . Hall effect sensor actuation may be active or passive as required by the sensing application. A transistor/capacitor hybrid that controls color pixels on an LCD grid. flexible loop. A type of semiconductor packaging. and spring rod. A circuit that improves power conversion efficiency. PV arrays are used in solar-electric energy systems such as the electrical systems of satellites. An amplifer that increases the bandwidth of a signal. The part of a semiconductor device where P-type and N-type materials are located next to each other. PIN photodiodes have a fast response time. Limit switch actuators come in different styles: rotary lever. An amplifer in a fiber optic receiver that prepares electronic signals for processing by the postamplifier. Wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that can be seen with the human eye. Contact bounce is undesirable because it can create secondary arcs and reduce contact life. Bias causes an electrical device to operate in a predetermined manner. A bias that causes a photodiode to conduct current. The part of a limit switch that contains electrical contacts. A type of glass that filters out certain types of light waves. but more conductive than an insulator. and package detection. The action that occurs when electrical contacts close with such force that they slam against each other and bounce away again. A tiny block of color. enclosed unit that protects the circuitry and allows the wiring to stay in place if the head of the switch is replaced A type of proximity sensor that senses the stored electrical charge of a target by detecting changes in an electrostatic field. The part of a limit switch that comes into contact with an object and triggers the switch. Optical fibers are used with transmitters to form fiber optic transmitters. An electrical or electronic part that stores electrical charges. A device that controls current by opposing the passage of current. A limit switch body is a separate. A solid state device. Light is made up of rays and waves. An abbreviation for Picture Element. A light ray that bounces off a reflective surface at the exact angle at which it contacted the surface. A particle of light. Conductive metal parts in an electrical circuit that open or close the circuit by coming in contact with or separating from each other. that is less conductive than a conductor. An electronic switch that allows small control voltages and currents to switch very high voltages. Limit switches: active actuation actuator amplitude body capacitive proximity sensor capacitor contact bounce contacts cross-talk A type of Hall effect sensor actuation in which the sensor is stationary and the magnet is movable. The wavelength of light determines whether or not it is visible to the human eye. level detectors. Polarized glass is used on LCD screens. A wavelength that is above violet in the color spectrum.Two metal plates form the capacitor of a capacitive proximity sensor. A bias in which heightened resistance prevents current from flowing. A group of photovoltaic cells. typically made of silicon. Optical amplifiers use stimulated emission to increase the power of an optical signal. Optical fibers are used with receivers to form fiber optic receivers. Scattering can cause signal loss in an optical fiber. An amplifer in a fiber optic receiver that increases the detector's electrical signal to the level required for further signal processing. Interference between two sensors when the signal from one sensor is unintentionally picked up by another sensor nearby.photovoltaic cell PIN photodiode pixel PN junction polarized glass postamplifier preamplifier PV array ray receiver reflected light refracted light resistor reverse bias scattering semiconductor source drive circuit splicing stimulated emission telecommunications thin film transistor transimpedance amplifier transistor outline transmitter triac ultraviolet light visible light wave wavelength zero bias A small conductive device that can produce an electric current when light shines on the cell. The PN junction controls resistance. The process of transmitting information to a receiver by means of electric current or pulses of light. The distance between separate peaks of a sine wave. Bias causes an electrical device to operate in a predetermined manner. Light is made up of rays and waves. A light-sensitive diode that conducts current in one direction only. The act or process of creating a physical connection betweeen two separate pieces of optical fiber. plunger. Transistor outline packages are usually shaped like a can and are often called TO cans. A light ray that is bent into a different direction when it changes speed passing from one medium into another.

A class of limit switches used in environments where they may be exposed to corrosive chemicals or possible explosions. dirt. A type of proximity sensor that uses an electromagnetic field to detect metal targets. Common sensor applications include parts detection. Momentary actuators are spring loaded so that the contacts return to their normal position once the force is removed. A class of limit switches used in harsh industrial environments where they may be exposed to oil. Inductive proximity sensors are often shielded to improve sensor output. while others can detect objects from hundreds of feet away. The distance beyond the operating position that a limit switch actuator can move without resetting the contacts. A magnetic current created by sensor vibration that flows out and around the sensor head. A limit switch actuator in the shape of a depressible button or pin. then bounces back to its original position. The starting position of a limit switch actuator before it comes into contact with an object. The distance from the release position back to the free position of a limit switch actuator. A type of limit switch actuation that keeps the actuator at operating position until it is forcibly moved in the opposite direction. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. When the lever is moved in a clockwise direction. The position that a limit switch actuator reaches before triggering a set of contacts to open or close. feed. shock. counting. depending on the direction of actuation. and provides feedback. The distance of the sensor from the target while operating. The IEC governs electrical equipment standards in Europe and all other international countries. A type of limit switch actuator that resembles a loop. vibration. Safety guard switches are used for operating dangerous machines. and parts diverting. A type of limit switch that requires the operator to insert a key into a slot in the switch before the switch will work. or certain properties of that object. For example. heavy materials and use contacts that are encapsulated to avoid electrical energy being exposed to the elements. The distance between the operating position and release position of a limit switch actuator. motion. narrow bar that bends on contact. A type of crystal that creates a constant periodic pulse. A type of limit switch that allows two different signals and responses. A type of mechanical sensor that requires physical contact to detect the presence or absence of an object. or high-pressure washes. Oscillators are often used in solid state and electronic devices. A type of limit switch actuation that rotates the actuator from the free position through all the other positions. NEMA sets standards for equipment used in the United States. Safety cable pull switches are used in conveyor-type operations where moving parts and machinery may be dangerous to the operator. until it finally returns to the free position. A class of limit switches used for applications that require repeatable accuracy within a small range. A solid state device that uses an electronic sensing field to detect the presence of an object. Hall effect sensors are used for detecting metal objects that are among or within other metal objects. Shunts in metal devices expose Hall effect sensors to magnetic fields. Some sensors have ranges as small as a few millimeters. Hazardous location switches are constructed with thick. A device that functions by means of electronic components without the use of moving parts. a precision limit switch would be used to return an electronic scale to its original start position (zero) after an object has been weighed. and jam control. A type of limit switch that has no spring return mechanism and requires the weight of the lever arm to reset the contacts. A type of proximity sensor that generates voltage in response to the proximity of a magnetic field. A type of limit switch actuator with a two-pronged lever that resembles a "V. Made of or containing iron. The lever can be long or short to suit the application. The speed at which a limit switch opens or closes a set of contacts after initial actuation. Limit switch heads are removable for easy replacement. head IEC inductive proximity sensor limit switch maintained actuation momentary actuation NEMA neutral position switches operating distance operating position oscillator overtravel position passive actuation plunger type actuator precision limit switches pretravel position proximity sensor radiated field release position release travel rotary lever actuator safety cable pull switch safety guard switch sensing field sensor shunt solid state device spring rod actuator standard industrial limit switches switching rate two step switch . The top part of a limit switch that holds the actuator. speed. A device that detects the presence or absence of an object. A field that flows out and around the sensor head in a circular or semicircular pattern. A type of limit switch that allows the operator to pull on it and stop the machinery in the event of an emergency. A type of limit switch set to activate one set of contacts when the lever rotates 10°. A type of Hall effect sensor actuation in which the sensor is movable and the magnet is stationary. A type of limit switch actuator with a long. Gravity return switches are used on conveyors with small or lightweight objects that require very low forces of operation. A second set of contacts is actuated when the lever moves in a counterclockwise direction. The International Electrotechnical Commission. Proximity sensors do not have physical contact with the target. Limit switches are the first type of sensor to be used. grease. The distance a limit switch actuator moves between the free position and the operation position. a set of contacts is actuated. The position that a limit switch actuator reaches midway between the free position and pretravel position. An opening that allows passage. The area of the electronic or magnetic field that forms around the head of a sensor. Hall effect sensor actuation may be passive or active as required by the sensing application. Fork style actuators are used for this type of actuation. A type of limit switch actuator that uses a lever with a roller at the end.dielectric constant differential travel eddy current ferrous metal flexible loop actuator fork style actuator free position gravity return switches Hall effect sensor hazardous location switches The stored electrical charge of an object. and a second set when the lever rotates 20°. and positioning." with a roller at the top of each end.

A semiconductor device that emits a narrow spectrum of light in a forward direction. Most photoelectric sensors cannot handle more than . Mutual interference can cause poor sensor performance or false outputs. A photoelectric scanning mode in which a target is detected when light from the transmitter reaches the receiver. Drawing operating current through a load. and they allow a secondary operation. while printed newspaper that absorbs light has a reflectivity value of 60%. A photoelectric scanning mode in which a target is detected when light is blocked from the receiver. Silicon that has been given a positive charge through the addition of other substances. Diffuse mode is the standard mode of operation for ultrasonic sensors. The phototransmitter may be in a separate unit. or enclosed in the same unit as the phototransmitter. flexible glass or plastic optical fibers that transmit light instead of electricity. The part of a photoelectric sensor that detects a beam of light. or enclosed in the same unit as the photoreceiver. Also known as LED. position. The amount of current required to keep a sensor active when it is not detecting a target. A photoelectric scanning technique in which light from the transmitter bounces off a reflector placed outside of the housing and travels back to the receiver. Solvents that are organic compounds and contain carbon atoms. Also known as off-state leakage current and residual current. The current drawn by a sensor when it is energized. Radiating outward in all directions from a common center. A device mounted on a photoreceiver that determines the distance of a target by measuring the angle of light as it bounces off a target. Photoelectric sensors have an extremely broad sensing range. The window or lens of a photoelectric sensor. Also known as a retroreflective scan. An area outside of the visible part of the color spectrum. like TV remote controllers. An object is detected when it passes between transmitter and receiver and blocks the beam of light. An ultrasonic sensing mode in which the emitter bounces a sound wave off a target. Alkalis can form corrosive salts.Two step switches are used to detect height. Ultrasonic:: alkali blind zone convergent beam scan dark operate mode diffuse mode diffuse scan direct scan electromagnetic interference emitter excess gain eye fiber optic cable hydraulic fluid infrared light light emitting diode light operate mode load current load-powered minimum holding current mutual interference N-doped NPN transistor off-state leakage current operating current organic solvent P-doped photoelectric sensor photoreceiver phototransmitter PNP transistor polarized scan position sensor detector radial receiver reflective scan reflectivity value A non-acidic substance that dissolves in water and increases the pH of a solution. A viscous liquid. The phototreceiver may be in a separate unit. A photoelectric scanning technique in which a position sensor detector mounted on the receiver measures the angle of light as it bounces off the target and uses this information to suppress backgrounds beyond a specified distance. A photoelectric scanning technique in which a small amount of light is transmitted toward a target and the scattered reflected light is used to detect presence. . A white test card has a reflectivity value of 100%. Infrared is often used for an invisible wireless connection between devices. The additional amount of light required by a sensor in a contaminated environment to achieve the same level of detection as in a clean environment. The amount of current required for a photoelectric sensor to operate. typically oil. An area directly in front of the sensor face in which objects cannot be detected because they are too close. A transistor with one layer of positively charged semiconductor material between two negatively charged layers. Silicon that has been given a negative charge through the addition of other substances. Polarized scans filter out all unwanted light sources and detect only depolarized light. beyond red. and orientation of an object. A numeric value signifying the amount of light reflected from an object. Most photoelectric sensors need a minimum current of 3 mA to 20 mA in order to function properly. A transistor with one layer of negatively charged semiconductor material between two positively charged layers. Interference between two sensors when the signal from one sensor is unintentionally picked up by another sensor nearby. The amount of current required to keep a sensor active when it is not detecting a target. The most common organic solvent is water. A fiber optic cable that transmits a beam of light.5 amps of current. A fiber optic cable that receives a beam of light. A photoelectric scanning technique that uses special filters to absorb glare and reduce or eliminate reflections. A photoelectric scanning technique in which a beam of light shines directly from the transmitter to the receiver. A cable packed with thin. Also known as load current and residual current. The part of a photoelectric sensor that emits a beam of light. used in industrial applications. A type of sensor that detects the presence of an object through the use of a beam of light. from a few millimeters to 100 feet away. The disruption of transmission or reception of a signal caused by electrical and magnetic fields.

then the other half as the motor comes up to speed. Also commonly called a compensator. An electronic switch that allows small control voltages and currents to switch very large voltages.reflex mode residual current retroreflective scan scanning semiconductor silicon solid state relay solid state relay specular scan switching zone target thru-beam mode thru-beam scan thyristor transistor triac ultrasonic sensor viscosity white light An ultrasonic mode of operation in which sound waves are transmitted toward a reflector and bounce back to a receiver. A cathode is common to both the input and output terminals in an SCR. An electrical terminal that usually carries a positive electrical charge. Solid state relays are rapidly replacing electromechanical relays. The initial surge of current into the windings. A method of reduced voltage starting that uses a tapped autotransfomer to reduce voltage levels to either 80. The voltage induced in the armature of a DC motor that opposes the applied voltage and limits armature current. 65. An ultrasonic sensing mode in which the transmitter sends a sound wave toward the receiver. The amount of current required to keep a sensor active when it is not detecting a target. The switching zone is determined by the diameter of light emitted from the transmitter. or irregularly shaped objects. A method of reduced voltage starting that applies power to only one set of windings. the motor is connected directly to the power source. A term commonly used for an autotransformer starter. A type of reduced voltage starter that applies power to only one set of windings. clear objects. An electronic switch that contains no moving parts. 65. Light containing equal amounts of the primary colors. The area the target must enter in order to be detected. This makes a silicon an insulator. such as copper. Ultrasonic sensors are the best type of sensor for detecting liquids. The standard for minimum safe electrical installations. The process of detecting changes in the intensity of a beam of light in order to sense an object. Also known as a reflective scan. A type of reduced voltage starter that uses resistors to create an initial 30% drop in voltage before allowing full current to the motor. and 50% of full line voltage. An electronic relay with no moving parts. Sunlight is white light. A photoelectric scanning technique in which a beam of light shines directly from the transmitter to the receiver. . A method of motor starting that applies full line voltage to the motor. Part winding motors first energize only half of the windings. An object is detected when it passes between the sensor and reflector and blocks the sound waves. Inrush current can be up to ten times higher than the continuously needed current because there is low initial resistance. Semiconductors are not as conductive as other materials. In this start. A fluid's resistance to flow. A device used to amplify a signal or open and close a circuit. A photoelectric scanning technique in which light from the transmitter bounces off a shiny object and travels up to the receiver at exactly the same angle. A circuit that travels from generating stations to end users to provide electrical power. A natural element that forms crystals easily and does not conduct electric current. A type of motor that has two separate sets of primary windings. The National Electrical Code is adopted in some form as law in all 50 states. Viscosity is used to describe friction of fluid. A type of sensor that uses sound waves to detect a target. An anode serves as the output terminal in an SCR. then to the other set as the motor comes up to speed. An object is detected when it passes between transmitter and receiver and blocks the beam of light. An electrical terminal that usually carries a negative charge. The gate is the input switch that opens or closes the circuit. or 50% of full line voltage. A compensator raises current levels to compensate for the reduced voltage. Open transition circuits are cheaper to use but can cause a current surge when reconnected. Triacs conduct in either direction. Types of motor starting:: across the line across-the-line starting anode autotransformer starter autotransformer starting cathode compensator counter emf gate generating station inrush current National Electrical Code open transition overload protection part winding motor part winding starter part winding starting power distribution system primary resistor starter Connected directly to the power lines. The human eye sees this light as colorless. Silicon crystal that is transformed from an insulator into a conductor. The control terminal in a silicon controlled rectifier. The building where the utility company houses large linked AC generators to create the massive power for widespread use. Scanning technique is determined by the distance and physical properties of a target. A photoelectric scanning technique in which light from the transmitter bounces off a reflector placed outside of the housing and travels back to the receiver. The use of devices such as overload relays to open the circuit in the event of an overload to prevent the motor from overheating. An object is detected when it passes between the transmitter and receiver and blocks the sound waves. Also known as off-state leakage current and load current. A type of reduced voltage starter that uses an autotransformer to allow voltage levels to be reduced to 80. allowing full voltage when the motor starts. A solid-state switching device for semiconductors to convert AC current in one of two directions controlled by an electrode. The object or property being detected by a sensor. then to the other set as the motor comes up to speed. A type of motor circuit that needs to momentarily open the circuit before applying full voltage to the motor.

Electrostatic discharge can destroy small electronic devices. A type of solid state relay in which voltage is ramped up in stages after it is applied to the line. This helps to reduce starting torque. It is the most common AC motor type. Conduits should be used to minimize electrical noise in wires by keeping them separate. Solid state starters have no moving parts. then reconnects the motor in a delta to provide full line voltage. Electric arcs can cause a great deal of damage to electronic equipment. and they are dangerous to people as well. The minimum voltage required to gate or activate the control circuit of a solid state relay. A type of reduced voltage starter that makes use of the characteristics of wye and delta connections to reduce voltage without lowering current. A wire that carries 240 VAC or 460 VAC. on-off / yes-no. or operates erratically. A solid state motor starting method that limits the starting current to a programmed value ranging from 50 percent to 600 percent of the motor's full load current. A type of solid state relay in which the load is turned on immediately when control voltage is applied to the line. Heat sinks help protect solid state devices from damage caused by thermal stress. The negatively charged terminal of an electronic switch. A troubleshooting method used when a relay fails to turn the load on or off.primary resistor starting reduced voltage starter rheostat silicon controlled rectifier solid state starter solid state starting squirrel cage induction motor Table 430. An AC power line disturbance caused by sudden changes in the load. Also known as a power wire. The reduction in voltage level from the source to the load caused by conductor resistance. A solid state device that allows electricity to flow in only one direction. The positively charged terminal of an electronic switch.7(B) tap turns ratio two-point acceleration voltage drop wye-delta starter wye-delta starting A method of reduced voltage starting that connects resistors in series with the motor to produce an initial 30% voltage drop before allowing full current to the motor. A type of variable resistor that is used to resist electric current. allowing for a faster stop. Cathodes are used in solid state components like SCRs to control current. which appears as static electricity. Dual In-line Package switch. A tubular enclosure for holding wires or cables. but offers variable voltage and torque. A method of reduced voltage starting that first connects a motor in a wye to reduce voltage. A digital switch used to quickly control heavy currents. SCRs are used in solid state reduced voltage starters. A method of reduced voltage starting that uses an SCR to control current levels at startup. so they are very durable. Instant-on relays control inductive loads. Electrical noise is problematic to solid state devices because they cannot differentiate between an intended electrical pulse and an unintended electrical spike. the temperature of the air inside the equipment enclosure as well as the air outside the enclosure. The control terminal of an electronic switch. A rheostat is used in DC motor reduced voltage starters. Adding additional resistors adds additional points of acceleration for an even smoother start. to configure various options on a device. which in turn reduces stress on the power distribution system. creating a faulty electronic connection. A wire connected to a specific point on a transformer's secondary winding. A type of reduced voltage starter that uses an SCR to control current levels at startup. An application in which the amount of output is directly proportional to the amount of input signal. A comparison of the number of turns in the primary versus the number of turns in the secondary. The act of producing an electric arc. . Anodes are used in solid state components like SCRs to control current. DIP switches use binary settings. Analog switching relays can output any level of voltage that the relay is rated to handle. A solid state motor stopping mode that allows the amount of braking to be programmed according to the application. Also known as pickup voltage. This allows the autotransformer to use different turns ratios to vary voltage. The part of a solid state relay that determines when the output component is energized or de-energized. This also affects braking time. The unintended joining of two or more adjacent pads on a PCB. Solid state devices ambient temperature analog switching relay anode arcing brake stop bridging cathode circuit analysis closed loop application conduit control circuit control conductor control voltage current limit start diode dip switches electrical noise electrostatic discharge gate heat sink input circuit instant-on switching relay For solid state devices. The input circuit performs the same function in solid state relays as coils do for electromechanical relays. This method is expensive. Circuit analysis is used when the relay is not suspected as the primary cause of malfunction. The control circuit performs the same functions in solid state relays as the coupling between the input and output circuits does for electromechanical relays. A type of three phase AC motor whose rotor is constructed by connecting metal bars together at each end. The part of a solid state relay to which a control component is connected. Gates are used in solid state components like SCRs to control current. A category of motor starters that reduce the power coming into the motor when it is initially started. Current produced by two objects having a static charge when they are brought close enough together to produce an arc or discharge. Condensed moisture can create bridging between conductors on a PCB. A conductive metal sheet with large fins that dissipate heat. Autotransformers step voltage up or down based on the turns ratio. The National Electrical Code table that shows kilovolt amps per horsepower with lock rotor for motors. Having one resistor in series with the motor to provide a smooth start.

or power transitions in large equipment on the same power line. A solid state motor stopping mode used specifically for centrifugal pumps. The load switched by the solid state relay. A solid state motor starting method used for loads that are hard to start in regular soft start mode. A control device that protects a motor from overload by using solid state components instead of contacts to start and stop current flow. A determination made by the manufacturer as to the highest amount of load current a device can reliably carry. Silicon controlled rectifier. A numeric rating that correlates to the amount of time it takes to break the circuit when an overload condition occurs. Photo-sensitive detectors are used in optical isolators. A diode with an extra junction that forms a gate preventing current flow in either direction until it receives a voltage signal. The amount of energy used by a device with resistance in the circuit. Also known as control voltage. Wiring trays should be used to minimize electrical noise in wires by keeping them separate. Also known as a thyristor. The output circuit performs the same function in solid state relays as mechanical contacts do for an electromechanical relay. a class 20 relay breaks the circuit within 20 seconds of overload. A semiconductor device that emits a narrow-spectrum of light in a forward direction. Also known as a silicon controlled rectifier or SCR. Also known as an SCR or a thyristor. Soft stop is used on friction loads that tend to stop suddenly when voltage is removed from the motor. and decreases as resistance decreases. A diode with an extra junction that forms a gate preventing current flow in either direction until it receives a voltage signal. etc. Voltage spikes can be caused by lightning. short surge in voltage. A device that protects equipment from damaging electrical surges by regulating the voltage on the line. A method of controlling solid state relays by using two circuits that are insulated from each other by an optocoupler that converts electric current to light and then back into electric current. A sine wave consists of 360 electrical degrees and is produced by rotating machines. or starting and stopping mode. An electronic switch that allows small control voltages and currents to switch very large voltages. The minimum voltage required to gate or activate the control circuit of a solid state relay. An electronic switch that contains no moving parts. This barrier insulates circuits by allowing light to pass through. A solid state motor starting method that reduces stress on a motor by allowing it to accelerate gradually for a programmed period of time. The load switched by the solid state relay. A type of solid state relay in which control voltage is applied to the line and the load is turned on when the AC sine wave reaches its peak. A diode with an extra junction that forms a gate preventing current flow in either direction until it receives a voltage signal. The amount of current required to keep a device active when it is not operating. A varistor's rating should be a minimum of 10% higher than the line voltage of the output circuit. . Solid state motor starters work more safely and efficiently than mechanical motor starters because they reduce large electrical spikes. Triacs can conduct current in either direction. Peak switching is used when voltage and current are out of phase with each other by 90 degrees. The output circuit performs the same function in solid state relays as mechanical contacts do for an electromechanical relay. Light-emitting diode. In a series circuit. voltage drop increases as resistance increases. A paste often applied between metal surfaces to increase the conduction of heat between them.isolation transformer LED light-emitting diode load switching circuit maximum load current rating off-state leakage current optical isolation optical isolator optocoupler output circuit parameter peak switching relay photo-sensitive detector pickup voltage pump control SCR signal wire silicon controlled rectifier sine wave soft start soft start with start boost soft stop solid state device solid state motor starter solid state relay surge suppressor thermal grease thyristor triac trip class twisted pair varistor voltage drop voltage spike wiring tray zero switching relay A transformer used to reduce or eliminate electrical noise by modifying the amount of voltage or current on the line. Soft start with start boost sends a pulse to the motor during startup that provides additional starting torque. A device that protects the relay against overvoltage by diverting high voltages away from sensitive components. inductive. parameters may include the trip class. A set of rules. Solid state devices are generally faster. but not current. or capacitive loads. The element of an optical isolator that detects and responds to the light emitted by the LED. A solid state component that uses a light-emitting diode to transmit light through an optically transparent barrier between two isolated circuits. This stopping method provides smooth acceleration and deceleration by reducing surges that occur during starting and stopping. A low voltage (usually 10 volts DC or 1-20 mA or less) non-control device used on transducers. A solid state component that uses a light-emitting diode to transmit light through an optically transparent barrier between two isolated circuits. Also known as an LED. or physical properties that determine the characteristics or behavior of something. Thermal grease should always be applied between a solid state device and a heat sink. A device that is purely electronic with no moving parts. A semiconductor device that emits a narrow-spectrum of light in a forward direction. Two insulated copper wires that are twisted around each other to reduce electromagnetic induction from one wire to the other. The most common type of AC waveform. A class 10 relay breaks the circuit within 10 seconds of overload. short circuits. Zero switching relays are used for resistive. In solid state motor starters. but not current. A sudden. A device for organizing and managing multiple electrical wires. This barrier insulates circuits by allowing light to pass through. Also known as load current and residual current. power outages. Signal wires are for devices that use shielded wires. A type of solid state relay in which the load is turned on when the AC sine wave crosses zero. and less expensive than their electromechanical counterparts. Solid state relays are rapidly replacing electromechanical relays. A solid state motor stopping mode in which deceleration is controlled by the starter instead of the load. more reliable. limits.

A friction brake that stops motion when a stationary element is pressed against a rotating disk. The anti-friction material that lines plates and calipers used in disk brakes. Electric brakes are widely used in automated machinery and provide a high cycling rate. A component in disk brakes that holds brake pads and straddles the rotor. If the load needs to move faster. The resistance to motion between the contact surfaces of two objects. It is called accelerating torque because this is the moment at which speed transitions from starting speed to full speed. . A service factor of 1. Arranging forward and reverse contacts so that it is physically impossible for both sets of contacts to close at the same time. When disk brakes are applied. Friction generates heat and increases the wear between components but is the key to providing mechanical braking force. A measure of the amount of overload a motor can reasonably handle. The driven. A motor deceleration method that uses DC to create a constant magnetic field. Friction brakes are the most common type available. then waits for a predetermined amount of time to open them after power is removed from the coil. Coasting is the simplest deceleration method.35. A stationary disk used in disk brakes to apply pressure to the rotor and slow and stop motion. Hydraulic fluid used in some brake designs. The rate at which speed increases. The speed (in rpm) at which the motor runs with full-line voltage applied to the armature and the field. A mechanical switch that opens and closes contacts when a motor reaches a set speed. This converts the mechanical motion into electrical energy. the hydraulic fluid is sent through the brake lines to the pressure plate or caliper to apply pressure to the rotor and slow or stop motion. A load that requires a constant torque throughout acceleration. rotating disk in a disk brake that is stopped when pressure is applied by a stationary friction plate or by a caliper. The natural rate of deceleration of a motor when the power is removed. This converts the mechanical motion into electrical energy. A reduction in braking effectiveness caused by excessive heat and wearing of components.Deaccleration methods accelerate brake fade brake fluid brake pad brake shoe braking bridge rectifier brushes caliper coasting contaminant counter emf counter torque DC injection braking decelerate disk brake dynamic brake dynamic braking electric brake electric braking friction friction brake friction plate inertia mechanical interlock off delay timer piston plugging plugging switch rotor service factor To increase the rate of speed. Plugging and dynamic braking apply counter torque to a rotor. especially in older machines. To decrease the rate of speed. Plugging switches keep the load from reversing once the counter torque has stopped the load. The voltage induced in the armature of a DC motor that opposes the applied voltage and limits armature current. Pistons may be used to transfer motion to brake components. A brake that engages when two surfaces press together and transfer energy through friction. A type of full-wave rectifier with four diodes that converts both the positive and negative cycles of AC voltage to DC. Disk brakes are commonly used in automobiles and in some industrial machinery. Anti-friction material that lines metal plates in brakes. A motor deceleration method that reconnects a motor as a generator. A load that requires high torque at low speeds and low torque at high speeds. is required for a motor to be plugged for regular braking. Brake pads help to reduce heat and increase the life span of braking elements. The maximum torque a motor can produce without abruptly losing motor speed. Torque and braking must overcome inertia to accelerate or decelerate a motor. The tendency of an object to stay in its state of rest or motion until acted on by an external force. A rotational force that opposes the directional force of torque. Acceleration methods:: accelerating torque acceleration base speed breakdown torque constant horsepower/variable torque constant torque/variable horsepower Another name for pull up torque. or 35% over the rated horsepower without overheating. Horsepower remains constant as speed and torque are inversely proportional. Damaging foreign material such as dirt or shop debris that causes wear to machine components. A motor deceleration method that reverses the motor connections so that the motor develops a strong counter torque. Another name for electric braking. A piece of metal that moves up and down inside a hollow cylinder in response to a pressure change in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. the horsepower is increased. Sliding electrical contacts used to provide a connection between the armature and the external circuit. pressing against it when the brake is applied to slow and stop motion. Direct current is injected into the system to create constant pole magnetic fields. A delay timer that immediately closes contacts when the control coil is energized. A non-contact brake design actuated when an electric current charges a coil that acts as an electromagnet. Disk brakes with calipers do not create as much heat as brakes with a friction plate. A type of brake that reconnects a motor as a generator. Shoes help to reduce heat and increase the life span of braking elements. Applying some force to cause deceleration.

A force that produces rotation. Another name for locked rotor torque. The most common pushbutton contact block has one NO and one NC contact. . The ability of a motor to maintain its speed when a load is applied.copper loss counter emf frequency friction full load torque horsepower inertia inrush current locked rotor torque NEMA percent slip pull up torque rheostat speed control speed regulation starting torque synchronous speed torque variable frequency drive variable torque/variable horsepower watt A power loss due to current flowing through wire. Torque and braking must overcome inertia to accelerate or decelerate a motor. The torque needed to produce the rated power at the full speed of the motor. and temperature switches are types of automatic inputs. The part of a pushbutton that holds the contacts and is activated when the pushbutton is pressed. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. The external means of varying the speed of a motor under any type of load. Control devices determine when loads are energized or de-energized. Deadband pressure is also referred to as differential pressure. The tendency of an object to stay in its state of rest or motion until acted on by an external force. A component that pressurizes ambient air and directs it into a pneumatic system. A measurement of the number of complete AC cycles that occurs in one second. A unit used to measure power. The occasional unwanted vibration between components. A sensor that changes internal pressure when temperature changes. A continuously variable electrical resistor used to regulate current. It can be called starting torque because it is the torque applied by the motor at startup. A motor's speed regulation is fixed based on its design. Motor nameplates carry NEMA letter designations that indicate the design characteristics of the motor. Diaphragms are usually used at low pressure. Percent slip is a way to measure the speed performance of an induction motor. Inrush current can be up to ten times higher than the continuously needed current because there is low initial resistance. A load in which both torque and horsepower requirements can change depending on the needed speed. Electrical devices include proximity switches and photoelectric switches. Relays can open or close one or many sets of contacts. flow switches. An electrical switch that opens and closes a circuit. Any input device that controls the flow of current in a circuit. A type of pushbutton operator that extends beyond the guard ring. Torque is measured in pounds-feet in the English system and Newton meters in the metric system. A deflecting mechanism that moves when reacting to pressure. The torque needed to cause a load to reach its full rated speed. or 746 watts. A device that converts incoming 60Hz AC power into other desired frequencies to allow for AC motor speed control. A conductive part in an electrical circuit attached to a switch that opens or closes a circuit by coming in contact with or separating from the main conductor. A device that uses a small control current to energize or de-energize a load. A sensor with two unlike metals bonded together. The voltage induced in the armature of a DC motor that opposes the applied voltage and limits armature current. A magnetic current created by sensor vibration that flows out and around the sensor head. Pressure switches. The end of a thermocouple that provides a reference point. Friction generates heat and increases the wear between components. The resistance to motion between the contact surfaces of two objects. 746 watts equals one horsepower. Switches that are triggered when they detect either conductive or nonconductive substances. providing a physical signal that the sensor converts into an electrical signal. An extended button operator is used when accidental startup is not hazardous. A type of control device that is set to automatically control each step in a process. The cold junction is held at a constant temperature. The initial surge of current into the windings. Capillary tube sensors use temperature sensitive liquid. A unit of power used to describe machine strength. The metals expand at different rates when heated. A cylindrical device with several deep folds that expand or contract in response to pressure. A type of control device that senses the presence of an object without touching it. The amount of pressure that must be removed before pressure switch contacts reset after the actuation level has been reached.000 ft-lbs of work per minute. The lost power is converted into heat. One horsepower equals 33. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz). The torque that a motor produces when full power is supplied to the motor and the rotor is not yet moving. actuator air compressor automatic input bellows bimetallic sensor capacitive proximity switches capillary tube sensor chatter cold junction contact contact block contactor control device control relay deadband pressure diaphragm eddy current electrical devices extended button operator The part of a limit switch that transfers the mechanical force of the moving part to the electrical contacts. Bellows are usually used at medium pressure. Chatter decreases productivity and can cause wear. The difference between a motor's synchronous speed and its speed at full load. The speed of the rotating magnetic field of an AC induction motor.

Limit switches have a variety of actuators that come into contact with an object. Thermocouples output voltage that is proportional to the measured temperature. A hinged actuator used in many types of flow switches. A type of actuator that moves directly forward into the limit switch. Mechanical devices include limit switches." or "off. As temperature changes. A device around a pushbutton operator that prevents an individual from accidentally pressing the button. the resistance of a thermistor changes. A device that detects a change in a physical stimulus and turns it into a signal that can be measured or recorded. Power created by the motion and pressure of fluids. Switches that use a light beam to detect the presence of an object without touching it. A metal guard plate connected to a limit switch that prevents damage to the switch. Flow switches are commonly used in fluid pumps and air compressors.float flow switches fluid pump flush button operator fork lever actuator guard ring hot junction hydraulic inductive proximity switches legend plate level switches lever actuator light source limit switches main control station manual input mechanical devices mechanical input mechanical level switch motor starter mushroom button operator operator paddle photoelectric switches photosensor piston pneumatic pressure pressure switches proximity switches push roller actuator pushbutton relay resistance resistor selector switches sensor solenoid stop plate switch temperature switches thermistor thermocouple A device used in switches that floats on liquid. Photoelectric switches can detect light objects. The flow of fluid deflects the paddle. Switches that can be turned to different positions to make a connection with the contacts in that particular position. Relays can open or close one or many sets of contacts. A temperature sensor that measures heat at a hot junction and outputs voltage at a cold junction. The most common type of level switch is the mechanical level switch. flow switches. The end of a thermocouple the measures temperature. or air in a system. A legend plate often includes the words "start. A manual control device that opens or closes a circuit when pressed. heavy objects. Pushbuttons can be normally open or normally closed. Pistons are used at high pressure. A device used in circuits to limit current flow. An electrically operated switch that uses magnetic induction to provide the startup current for a motor. Proximity switches can detect the presence of almost any liquid or solid." Switches that detect the height of a liquid or solid in a tank or another type of vessel. A type of actuator that is moved by one of its two roller arms. The hot junction is exposed to the elements. The part of a switch that is pressed. A type of level switch that uses a float that triggers electrical contacts when the liquid reaches a set height. Pushbuttons and selector switches are types of manual inputs." "on. A resistor that is temperature sensitive. pulled. Stop plates keep limit switches from being forced beyond their travel limit. A type of sensor that detects the presence of an object through the use of a beam of light. Switches that detect the presence or absence of an object by physically touching it. The part of a switch that has the written function of the switch's operation. or objects that are too hot. Electricity flows in the path of least resistance. A beam of light received by a photosensor used to trigger photoelectric switches. but not all control devices are sensors. Power created by the motion and control of gas. Pressure is typically expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). A mechanical device used to move liquids in a hydraulic system." "jog. Switches that detect the movement of any fluid. Temperature switches are often used in heating and cooling systems. A type of pushbutton operator that hangs over the guard in a mushroom shape. A type of actuator that works through a lever connected to the shaft of a limit switch. Pressure switches have different sensing devices that detect pressure changes. All sensors are control devices. An electrical switch that opens and closes a circuit. A type of operator that has a guard ring around it to prevent accidental startup. gas. Fork lever actuators can detect movement in two directions. actuating the flow switch contacts. . such as liquid. Switches that are triggered when they detect a conductive substance. Switches that detect a certain amount of force and activate electrical contacts when the force is reached. A control panel on a machine that consists of the main pushbuttons and switches that turn the machine on and off and control various other functions. under pressure. The amount of force exerted on a surface divided by the area of the surface. A type of control device that requires an individual to manually press a button or turn a switch. A limit switch is a type of mechanical input. A rod inside a cylinder that is moved by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure. Operators come in a variety of styles and sizes. Switches that use an electronic sensing field to sense the presence of an object without touching it. A type of control device that physically contacts an object. A type of control device that must touch an object in order to detect it." "stop. or turned by an individual operating the circuit. The opposition to current flow. Switches that react to different heat intensities and activate electrical contacts when the temperature rises or drops below a set level. A device that opens and closes a circuit. A mushroom button operator is easy to press and is used for emergency stops. often air. and level switches. An output device that converts electrical energy into linear mechanical force. The float raises or lowers based on the level of the liquid.

. Common two-position selector switches are on/off and forward/reverse. as in forward/reverse/off. A type of actuator that works through any movement into the switch except a direct pull. A selector switch that allows you to select one of two circuit conditions.three-position selector two-position selector wobble stick actuator A selector switch that allows you to select one of three circuit conditions. The third position is usually OFF.